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1

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

2

Karst and artificial recharge: Theoretical and practical problems. A preliminary approach to artificial recharge assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryManaged Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is an emerging sustainable technique that has already generated successful results and is expected to solve many water resource problems, especially in semi-arid and arid zones. It is of great interest for karst aquifers that currently supply 20-25% of the world's potable water, particularly in Mediterranean countries. However, the high heterogeneity in karst aquifers is too complex to be able to locate and describe them simply via field observations. Hence, as compared to projects in porous media, MAR is still marginal in karst aquifers. Accordingly, the present work presents a conceptual methodology for Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst - referred to as ARAK. The methodology was developed noting that artificial recharge in karst aquifers is considered an improbable challenge to solve since karst conduits may drain off recharge water without any significant storage, or recharge water may not be able to infiltrate. The aim of the ARAK method is to determine the ability of a given karst aquifer to be artificially recharged and managed, and the best sites for implementing artificial recharge from the surface. ARAK is based on multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods. ARAK depends on four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst. After dividing the karst domain into grids, these criteria are indexed using geological and topographic maps refined by field observations. ARAK applies a linear formula that computes the intrinsic rechargeability index based on the indexed map for every criterion, coupled with its attributed weighting rate. This index indicates the aptitude for recharging a given karst aquifer, as determined by studying its probability first on a regional scale for the whole karst aquifer, and then by characterizing the most favorable sites. Subsequently, for the selected sites, a technical and economic feasibility factor is applied, weighted by the difficulties that could occur when trying to undertake a recharge operation at a selected site from the surface. Each site is finally rated by its rechargeability index - the product of two factors, the intrinsic rechargeability and the feasibility index. ARAK was applied to the region of Damour, Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast where uncontrolled exploitation of public and private wells led to its partial salinization by seawater. A MAR system in Damour region represents an interesting solution to cope with salinization and the insufficiency of the resource.

Daher, Walid; Pistre, Séverin; Kneppers, Angeline; Bakalowicz, Michel; Najem, Wajdi

2011-10-01

3

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

4

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

5

Ambient temperature rechargeable lithium cells: state of the art; problems and opportunities. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in rechargeable lithium cells is reviewed. Striking advances were made in the 1970's. Systems based on Li\\/2Methyl tetrahydrofuran, LiAsFâ\\/TiSâ are the most advanced. They show greater than 200 cycles in small (less than 1 Ah) cells and approx. 100 cycles in larger (approx 5-20 Ah) cells. Limiting problems and future directions for research and development

Brummer

1982-01-01

6

Ambient temperature rechargeable lithium cells: State of the art; Problems and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in rechargeable lithium cells is reviewed. Striking advances were made in the 1970's. Systems based on Li\\/2Methyl tetrahydrofuran, LiAsF6\\/TiS2 are the most advanced. They show greater than 200 cycles in small (less than 1 Ah) cells and approx. 100 cycles in larger (approx. 5-20 Ah) cells. Limiting problems and future directions for research and development

S. B. Brummer

1982-01-01

7

Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.

1987-01-01

8

Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Cells: State of the Art; Problems and Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the art in rechargeable lithium cells is reviewed. Striking advances were made in the 1970's. Systems based on Li/2Methyl tetrahydrofuran, LiAsF6/TiS2 are the most advanced. They show greater than 200 cycles in small (less than 1 Ah) cells an...

S. B. Brummer

1982-01-01

9

Safeguards for spent fuels: Verification problems  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of large quantities of spent nuclear fuels world-wide is a serious problem for international safeguards. A number of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member states, including the US, consider spent fuel to be a material form for which safeguards cannot be terminated, even after permanent disposal in a geologic repository. Because safeguards requirements for spent fuels are different from those of conventional bulk-handling and item-accounting facilities, there is room for innovation to design a unique safeguards regime for spent fuels that satisfies the goals of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty at a reasonable cost to both the facility and the IAEA. Various strategies being pursued for long-term management of spent fuels are examined with a realistic example to illustrate the problems of verifying safeguards under the present regime. Verification of a safeguards regime for spent fuels requires a mix of standard safeguards approaches, such as quantitative verification and use of seals, with other measures that are unique to spent fuels. 17 refs.

Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

1991-01-01

10

Summary of the metal--air fuel cell research program. [Mechanically rechargeable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to determine whether a full-performance, economical electric vehicle can be developed using a mechanically rechargeable metal--air battery as a power source. State-of-the-art and projected performance, energy conversion efficiency, estimates of cost of ownership and operation, considerations of market entry, and current research areas are discussed. Li, Al, and Ca seem to hold the greatest

1977-01-01

11

4. 5MW fuel cell tackles Tokyo's power generation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersed phosphoric acid fuel cell generators may be one of the answers to Tokyo's power-generation problem. Fuel cells combine fuel and oxygen, without combustion, to produce electricity. Because of their size - 10 to 50 MW - generators can be sited within the city, close to the load demand. The fuel cell's low emissions, high efficiency, rapid deployment, and low

D. M. Rastler; M. Kobayashi; L. M. Handley

1987-01-01

12

4. 5-MW fuel cell tackles Tokyo's power generation problems  

SciTech Connect

Dispersed phosphoric acid fuel cell generators may be one of the answers to Tokyo's power-generation problem. Fuel cells combine fuel and oxygen, without combustion, to produce electricity. Because of their size - 10 to 50 MW - generators can be sited within the city, close to the load demand. The fuel cell's low emissions, high efficiency, rapid deployment, and low noise levels make this new kind of generator particularly attractive for the Tokyo metropolitan area. To test the feasibility of using fuel cell generators to help supply electricity, the Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCo) has been operating the world's largest fuel cell power plant since 1983. TEPCo's 4.5-MW demonstration plant is providing valuable information and experience in the areas of design, operation, and maintenance of fuel cell power plant equipment.

Rastler, D.M.; Kobayashi, M.; Handley, L.M.

1987-03-01

13

Mechanical modeling of porous oxide fuel pellet A Test Problem  

SciTech Connect

A poro-elasto-plastic material model has been developed to capture the response of oxide fuels inside the nuclear reactors under operating conditions. Behavior of the oxide fuel and variation in void volume fraction under mechanical loading as predicted by the developed model has been reported in this article. The significant effect of void volume fraction on the overall stress distribution of the fuel pellet has also been described. An important oxide fuel issue that can have significant impact on the fuel performance is the mechanical response of oxide fuel pellet and clad system. Specifically, modeling the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel pellet in terms of its thermal expansion, mechanical deformation, swelling due to void formation and evolution, and the eventual contact of the fuel with the clad is of significant interest in understanding the fuel-clad mechanical interaction (FCMI). These phenomena are nonlinear and coupled since reduction in the fuel-clad gap affects thermal conductivity of the gap, which in turn affects temperature distribution within the fuel and the material properties of the fuel. Consequently, in order to accurately capture fuel-clad gap closure, we need to account for fuel swelling due to generation, retention, and evolution of fission gas in addition to the usual thermal expansion and mechanical deformation. Both fuel chemistry and microstructure also have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles. Fuel-clad gap closure leading to eventual contact of the fuel with the clad introduces significant stresses in the clad, which makes thermo-mechanical response of the clad even more relevant. The overall aim of this test problem is to incorporate the above features in order to accurately capture fuel-clad mechanical interaction. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems with increasing multi-physics coupling features, modeling accuracy, and complexity are defined with the objective of accurate simulation of fuel-clad mechanical interaction subjected to a wide-range of thermomechanical stimuli.

Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Barai, Pallab [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL

2009-10-01

14

Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

Patterson, D. J.

1983-01-01

15

Accounting for intracell flow in models with emphasis on water table recharge and stream-aquifer interaction. 1. Problems and concepts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One method of modeling multiple sources and sinks is to determine the net recharge per cell. For example, for a model cell containing both a sink and recharge through the water table, the amount of recharge should be reduced by the ratio of the area of influence of the sink within the cell to the area of the cell. The reduction is the intercepted portion of the recharge. In a multilayer model this amount is further reduced by a proportion factor, which is a function of the depth of the flow lines from the water table boundary to the internal sink. A gaining section of a stream is a typical sink. The aquifer contribution to a gaining stream can be conceptualized as having two parts; the first part is the intercepted lateral flow from the water table and the second is the flow across the streambed due to differences in head between the water level in the stream and the aquifer below. The amount intercepted is a function of the geometry of the cell, but the amount due to difference in head across the stream bed is largely independent of cell geometry. -from Authors

Jorgensen, D. G.; Signor, D. C.; Imes, J. L.

1989-01-01

16

Rechargeable lithium cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt

M. Salomon; E. J. Plichta

1984-01-01

17

METALLURGICAL PROBLEMS IN FABRICATION OF ZIRCONIUM-CLAD FUEL ELEMENTS FOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve adequate corrosion resistance in high-temperature water, the ; chemical composition and fabrication of zirconium cladding material must be ; carefully controlled. Present technology permits the satisfactory fabrication of ; a variety of fuel materials which are compatible with zirconium cladding. ; Homogeneity and melting cruci-ble problems still exist with some of the fuel ; alloys. Zirconium-clad fuel elements

1958-01-01

18

Artificial recharge of groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

Asano, T.

1985-01-01

19

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

20

The problem of liquid fuels (for aircraft engines)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crisis which troubles the world market for liquid fuel in general and for carburants in particular is doubtless one of the most serious ever experienced by modern industry. It is a national crisis of economic and political independence for countries like Italy and France. The solutions suggested for meeting the lack of liquid fuel may be summed up under two general headings: the economical use of the petroleum now available; creation of petroleum substitutes from natural sources within the country. The process of cracking is described at length.

Gallo, Gino

1924-01-01

21

Rechargeable lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low-temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF/sub 6/ or LiA1C/sup 14/ in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

Salomon, M.; Plichta, E.J.

1984-09-27

22

Variable motor-fuel taxes: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging US highway system faces maintenance and reconstruction costs as high as $220 billion, which exceeds traditional highway user-tax revenues. The use of heavier trucks that accelerate highway wear compounds the decline in revenue from changes in travel patterns and the economic downturn. Data from Iowa are used to compare gasoline-tax schemes that replace unit motor-fuel taxes with variable

D. J. Forkenbrock; C. A. Hoefer

1983-01-01

23

A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on ru catalysis.  

PubMed

Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2 /H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24803414

Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

2014-07-01

24

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

Gilmour, A.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Ritchie, A. G.

25

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

A. Gilmour; C. O. Giwa; J. C. Lee; A. G. Ritchie

1997-01-01

26

Comparative requirements for electric energy for production of hydrogen fuel and\\/or recharging of battery electric automobile fleets in New Zealand and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the current outlook for sustainable electric energy supply with concomitant reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, accelerated attention is focusing on the long-term development of hydrogen fuel cell and all-electric battery vehicles to provide alternative fuels to replace petroleum-derived fuels for automotive national fleets. The potential varies significantly between large industrially developed nations and smaller industrially developing nations. The

Paul Kruger; Jonathan D. Leaver

2010-01-01

27

REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD  

SciTech Connect

Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

2007-11-13

28

Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

1995-01-01

29

Modeling of multi-body thermo-mechanical and contact problems in CANDU fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and analysis of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical and multi-body contact problems in a CANDU®3CANDU is a registered trade mark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL).3 nuclear fuel element are presented in this paper. Each axisymmetric component in a fuel element is first modeled using the three-dimensional nine-node harmonic finite elements. All interior degrees of freedom (DOF’s) in the component

S. D. Yu; S. Xu; H. H. Yang

2004-01-01

30

Charge control investigation of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are identified.

Otzinger, B.; Somoano, R.

1984-01-01

31

Charge control investigation of rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge\\/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are

B. Otzinger; R. Somoano

1984-01-01

32

Groundwater recharge in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two interlinked networks of hydrological pathways in urban areas are described with particular reference to the links with groundwater. As well as reducing direct recharge, urbanization creates new pathways and sources of water for recharge, including leaking water mains, sewers, septic tanks and soakaways. The net effect is often to increase recharge to pre-urbanization rates, or higher in dry climates and cities with high densities and large imported water supplies.

Lerner, David N.

33

Spacecraft fuel-optimal and balancing maneuvers for a class of formation reconfiguration problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents fuel optimal and balancing methodologies for reconfiguring multiple spacecraft in formation subject to a Newtonian gravity field. For a kind of continuous-thrust propulsion system, a fuel-optimal control problem is formulated to minimize the integral squared control subject to the linearized Hill or Clohessy-Wiltshire dynamics of relative motion with respect to a circular reference orbit. Palmer's analytical solution for general reconfiguration is adapted to maneuvers between projected circular orbits, resulting in the optimal fuel consumption index as a function of configuration parameters such as orbit radius, phase angle, and transfer time. Parametric analyses reveal unique characteristics of individual fuel optimality and gross fuel consumption: for an arbitrary selection of initial/terminal orbit radii, (i) there exist special transfer times such that individual fuel consumption is optimally uniform for all phase angles, and (ii) the total fuel expenditure for a group of three or more spacecraft is invariant for the relatively same configuration with respect to the departure phase. These results serve to effectively design fuel balancing strategies for formation reconfiguration of multiple spacecraft.

Yoo, Sung-Moon; Lee, Sangjin; Park, Chandeok; Park, Sang-Young

2013-10-01

34

Rechargeable lithium battery with spinel-related ?-MnO 2 III. Scaling-up problems associated with LiMn 2O 4 synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling-up problems connected with the LiMn 2O 4 synthesis were studied. A strong effect of the mass of the starting materials and of the air flow rate through the furnace during the synthesis on the specific capacity was observed. The increase of the batch amount brings about a reduction in the specific surface area of the product, which cannot be compensated by grinding because it leads to considerable reduction of its electrochemical utilization. The very fast or slow cooling of the synthesized material have a negative effect on the specific capacity. The process of preparation of LiMn 2O 4 spinel with high electrochemical performance is a rather complex procedure, but it is possible to obtain a product, which is capable to exchange reversibly up to 0.9 equiv. Li per mole.

Manev, V.; Momchilov, A.; Nassalevska, A.; Sato, Atsushi

35

Using simulated annealing to minimize fuel consumption for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) has been addressed in many research papers. Only a few of them take time-dependent travel speeds into consideration. Moreover, most research related to the VRP aims to minimize total travel time or travel distance. In recent years, reducing carbon emissions has become an important issue. Therefore, fuel consumption is also an important index in the

Yiyo Kuo

2010-01-01

36

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30

37

High Power Rechargeable Thermal Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under STTR contract; a proof of concept for a portable, rechargeable thermal battery (RTB). Including a superinsulated case, a lightweight (10 lb) RTB can provide 250W for 2-6h at 140 Wh/kg with days of activation between recharging. It c...

T. D. Kaun

1997-01-01

38

Rechargeable batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rechargeable batteries (RB’s) have found important new applications in rapidly expanding markets, such as portable computers (laptops), telecommunication equipment (handies), camcorders and tools. The interest in electric vehicles has continued to stimulate research on RB’s having improved specific energy. Attention has been focussed on nonaqueous battery systems, in particular on lithium batteries. Small rechargeable lithium batteries, available

Fritz Beck; Paul Rüetschi

2000-01-01

39

Minimum fuel control of the planar circular restricted three-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circular restricted three-body problem is considered to model the dynamics of an artificial body submitted to the attraction of two planets. Minimization of the fuel consumption of the spacecraft during the transfer, e.g. from the Earth to the Moon, is considered. In the light of the controllability results of Caillau and Daoud (SIAM J Control Optim, 2012), existence for this optimal control problem is discussed under simplifying assumptions. Thanks to Pontryagin maximum principle, the properties of fuel minimizing controls is detailed, revealing a bang-bang structure which is typical of L1-minimization problems. Because of the resulting non-smoothness of the Hamiltonian two-point boundary value problem, it is difficult to use shooting methods to compute numerical solutions (even with multiple shooting, as many switchings on the control occur when low thrusts are considered). To overcome these difficulties, two homotopies are introduced: One connects the investigated problem to the minimization of the L2-norm of the control, while the other introduces an interior penalization in the form of a logarithmic barrier. The combination of shooting with these continuation procedures allows to compute fuel optimal transfers for medium or low thrusts in the Earth-Moon system from a geostationary orbit, either towards the L 1 Lagrange point or towards a circular orbit around the Moon. To ensure local optimality of the computed trajectories, second order conditions are evaluated using conjugate point tests.

Caillau, J.-B.; Daoud, B.; Gergaud, J.

2012-10-01

40

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02

41

Groundwater recharge: A hydrogeologic thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ensuing paper imparts vital information on an important component of the hydrologic cycle: recharge. Water flows through\\u000a the porous media and forms a definite flow pattern that can be depicted in an elaborate manner through the micro level studies\\u000a at the small watershed level. The estimation of recharge is indispensable for the groundwater budgeting studies. The advantages\\u000a and disadvantages

A. K. Taqveem

2009-01-01

42

Light aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels. Phase I. Literature search. Final report, October 1979September 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock,

D. J. Patterson; K. Morrison; M. Remondino; T. Slopsema

1980-01-01

43

Fuzzy-decision-making problems of fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered yeast  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy-decision-making procedure is applied to find the optimal feed policy of a fed-batch fermentation process for fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast 1400 (pLNH33). The policy consisted of feed flow rate, feed concentration, and fermentation time. The recombinant yeast 1400 (pLNH33) can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously to produce ethanol. However, the parent yeast utilizes glucose only. A partially selective model is used to describe the kinetic behavior of the process. In this study, this partially selective fermentation process is formulated as a general multiple-objective optimal control problem. By using an assigned membership function for each of the objectives, the general multiple-objective optimization problem can be converted into a maximizing decision problem. In order to obtain a global solution, a hybrid method of differential evolution is introduced to solve the maximizing decision problem. A simple guideline is introduced in the interactive programming procedures to find a satisfactory solution to the general multiple-objective optimization problem.

Wang, F.S.; Jing, C.H. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. of Renewable Resource Engineering] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. of Renewable Resource Engineering

1998-08-01

44

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

45

Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities\\u000a where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short-\\u000a or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge\\u000a requires permeable surface soils. Where

Herman Bouwer

2002-01-01

46

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

47

High energy lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl formate solutions are noted to be attractive in rechargeable Li cell applications due to their high conductivities and outstanding electrochemical stability; their primary limitation has been their inability to efficiently cycle Li. By doping methyl formate solutions with CO2, however, Li cycling efficiencies of the order of 98 percent have been achieved. A combination of transition metal oxide insertion-type

Walter B. Ebner; John A. Simmons; David L. Chua

1988-01-01

48

Earlier effective monitoring of alcohol-fuels projects may have minimized problems  

SciTech Connect

Although the Department of Energy's system for monitoring projects for the development and production of alcohol fuels now seems effective, it was not established until 7 months after some of the projects started and after major portions of them were conducted. This contributed to problems which may result in some projects not being completed after substantial portions of project funds were spent. GAO also found that 24 grantees scheduled to be paid on a reimbursable basis were erroneously advanced about $3 million. Of those grantees, only five returned a total of $378,110; and by the time the errors were detected, grantees had spent the balance of the funds advanced. Earlier effective monitoring may have detected the errors sooner, enabled more advances to be returned, and prevented a weakening of the Department's oversight and control over the projects. GAO makes recommendations which could help future projects from starting without effective monitoring.

Not Available

1982-04-23

49

Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

50

Expanded use of fossil fuels by the U. S. and the global carbon dioxide problem  

SciTech Connect

Continued combustion of fossil fuels contributes to a steady increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Projecting present increases in rates of fossil-fuel utilization, a doubling of CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere may be expected within the next 75 years. Based on preliminary calculations, coal utilization by the U.S. to the year 2020 accounts for between 9 and 14% of the increase in CO/sub 2/ concentration. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorbs infrared radiation, causing an increase in the surface temperature of the earth. The most recent climatic models indicate that each doubling in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration will result in a temperature increase of approximately 3 +- 1/sup 0/C, depending on the model used. Changes in average rates of precipitation and evaporation may follow, leading to higher probabilities of drought in the mid-latitudes (including the (U.S.). Manabe and Wetherald (J. Atmos. Sci., 32: 3-15 (1975)) have estimated the temperature increase at high latitudes to be three times the increase in the global average surface temperature. Large-scale melting of the polar ice caps and a subsequent increase in the surface area of the oceans may follow on a timetable that is not yet clear. The distribution of vegetation and agricultural activities can be expected to change in response to the temperature increase and associated with the analysis of the CO/sub 2//climate problem mandate the initiation of an immediate global-scale interdisciplinary research effort to determine more clearly the components and connections of the problem and to develop strategies for reducing the impacts, i.e., contingency plans that could be helpful regardless of impact details which remain to be determined. 26 references.

Emanuel, W.R.; Olson, J.S.; Killough, G.G.

1980-01-01

51

The Space Shuttle Main Engine High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump rotordynamic instability problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump) has been subject to a rotordynamic instability problem, characterized by large and damaging subsynchronous whirling motion. The original design of the HPFTP (from a rotordynamic viewpoint) and the evolution of the HPFTP subsynchronous whirl problem are reviewed. The models and analysis which have been developed and utilized to explain the HPFTP instability and improve its stability performance are also reviewed. Elements of the rotordynamic model which are discussed in detail include the following: (a) hydrodynamic forces due to seals, (b) internal rotor damping, (c) bearing and casing support stiffness asymmetry, and (d) casing dynamics. The stability and synchronous response characteristics of the following two design alternatives are compared: (a) a 'stiff' symmetric bearing support design and (b) a damped asymmetric stiffness design. With appropriate interstage seal designs, both designs are shown, in theory to provide substantially improved stability and synchronous response characteristics in comparison to the original design. The asymmetric design is shown to have better stability and synchronous response characteristics than the stiffly supported design.

Childs, D. W.

1977-01-01

52

Coupled Model Development between Groundwater Recharge Quantity and Climate Change in Nakdong River Watershed using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Global climate change is disturbing the water circulation balance by changing rates of precipitation, recharge and discharge, and evapotranspiration. Groundwater, which occupies a considerable portion of the world's water resources, is related to climate change via surface water such as rivers, lakes, and marshes. In this study, the authors selected a relevant climate change scenario, A1B from the Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) which is distributed at Korea Meteorological Administration. By using data on temperature, rainfall, soil, and land use, the groundwater recharge rate for the research area was estimated by periodically and embodied as geographic information system (GIS). In order to calculate the groundwater recharge quantity, Visual HELP3 was used as main model, and the physical properties of weather, temperature, and soil layers were used as main input data. General changes to water circulation due to climate change have already been predicted. In order to systematically solve problems of ground circulation system, it may be urgent to recalculate the groundwater recharge quantity and consequent change under future climate change. The space-time calculation of changes of the groundwater recharge quantity in the study area may serve as a foundation to present additional measures to improve domestic groundwater resource management. Results showed that 26.19% of total precipitation was recharged from 1971 to 2000, 27.37% will be recharged from 2001 to 2030, 27.43% will be recharged from 2031 to 2050, and 26.06% will be recharged from 2051 to 2070, 27.88% will be recharged from 2051 to 2100. The groundwater recharge rate in this research showed susceptibility to changes in precipitation. The recharge rate was relatively little affected by the changes in Curve Number (CN), but it was rapidly reduced, as it approached the impermeable layers. Accordingly, the findings herein provide a basis for establishment of national plans on water resources management, use of groundwater in local areas for the purpose of settlement, and estimation of groundwater recharge quantities in areas where the groundwater hydrology is not measured. KEY WORDS: Groundwater recharge; Climate change; Curve Number; Special Report on Emissions Scenarios; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Lee, M.; Jeongho, L.; Changsub, S.; SeongWoo, J.

2011-12-01

53

High energy lithium rechargeable cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl formate solutions are noted to be attractive in rechargeable Li cell applications due to their high conductivities and outstanding electrochemical stability; their primary limitation has been their inability to efficiently cycle Li. By doping methyl formate solutions with CO2, however, Li cycling efficiencies of the order of 98 percent have been achieved. A combination of transition metal oxide insertion-type cathode materials with the methyl formate electrolyte solutions and advanced cathode processing techniques, two promising rechargeable Li technologies have been defined: Li/V2O5, which has demonstrated 250 discharge cycles with little degradation in capacity, and Li/Li(x)CoO2, with excellent low temperature performance.

Ebner, Walter B.; Simmons, John A.; Chua, David L.

54

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-01-01

55

Survey of rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

Not Available

1993-07-01

56

Intercalation dynamics in rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the ion intercalation of rechargeable battery electrode particles during charging (or discharging). We have developed a general phase-field model which incorporates entropic, enthalpic and elastic effects within the particle as well as the nonlinear chemical reactions at the particle- electrolyte interface. It is shown through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations that particle size and elastic effects will decrease or even eliminate both the spinodal region and the miscibility gap in the phase diagram.

Stanton, Liam; Bazant, Martin

2009-03-01

57

GPU Based General-Purpose Parallel computing to Solve Nuclear Reactor In-Core fuel Management Design and Operation Problem  

SciTech Connect

In-core fuel management study is a crucial activity in nuclear power plant design and operation. Its common problem is to find an optimum arrangement of fuel assemblies inside the reactor core. Main objective for this activity is to reduce the cost of generating electricity, which can be done by altering several physical properties of the nuclear reactor without violating any of the constraints imposed by operational and safety considerations. This research try to address the problem of nuclear fuel arrangement problem, which is, leads to the multi-objective optimization problem. However, the calculation of the reactor core physical properties itself is a heavy computation, which became obstacle in solving the optimization problem by using genetic algorithm optimization.This research tends to address that problem by using the emerging General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) techniques implemented by C language for CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) parallel programming. By using this parallel programming technique, we develop parallelized nuclear reactor fitness calculation, which is involving numerical finite difference computation. This paper describes current prototype of the parallel algorithm code we have developed on CUDA, that performs one hundreds finite difference calculation for nuclear reactor fitness evaluation in parallel by using GPU G9 Hardware Series developed by NVIDIA.

Prayudhatama, D.; Waris, A.; Kurniasih, N.; Kurniadi, R. [Bosscha Laboratory, Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

58

The effect of random recharge on uniform steady free-surface flow in heterogeneous porous formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of parametric uncertainty in recharge rate and spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity upon free-surface flow is investigated in a stochastic framework. We examine the three-dimensional free-surface gravitational flow problem for sloped mean uniform flow in a randomly heterogeneous porous medium under the influence of random recharge. We develop analytic solutions for the variance of free-surface position, head, and

O. Amir

2004-01-01

59

Safety evaluation of rechargeable cells with lithium metal anodes and amorphous V 2 O 5 cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable cells with lithium metal anodes have a very large theoretical energy density and are a promising cell system.\\u000a However, rechargeable lithium metal cells are not yet currently commercially available. One of the biggest problems with the\\u000a cells is the poor safety aspect resulting from the high chemical reactivity of lithium. We have been studying a cell system\\u000a consisting of

J.-I. Yamaki; S.-I. Tobishima; Y. Sakurai; K.-I. Saito; K. Hayashi

1998-01-01

60

Advanced materials for electrodes and electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery possesses many outstanding advantages over the well known rechargeable battery systems, in particularly higher energy density and longer shelf life, as well as not suffering from the memory effect problems of Ni-MH batteries. Those advantages are making it the greatest energy source of choice for the portable electronic market. Graphite and LiCoO2 are commonly used in

Sau yen Chew

2009-01-01

61

Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

1994-01-01

62

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

1990-01-01

63

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important\\u000a considerations in choosing a technique include space\\/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different\\u000a techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important\\u000a because it may dictate the required space\\/time scales of

Bridget R. Scanlon; Richard W. Healy; Peter G. Cook

2002-01-01

64

Expanded use of fossil fuels by the US and the global carbon dioxide problem  

SciTech Connect

Projecting present increases in rates of fossil fuel utilization, a doubling of CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere may be expected within the next 75 years. Based on preliminary calculations, coal utilization by the United States to the year 2020 accounts for between 9 and 15% of the increase in CO/sub 2/ concentration. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorbs infra-red radiation, causing an increase in the surface temperature of the earth. The most recent climatic models indicate that each doubling in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration will result in a temperature increase of approximately 3 +- 1/sup 0/C, depending on the model used. Changes in average rates of precipitation and evaporation may follow, leading to higher probabilities of drought in the mid-latitudes (including the United States). Manabe and Wetherald (1975) have estimated the temperature increase at high latitudes to be three times the increase in the global average surface temperature. Large-scale melting of the polar ice caps and a subsequent increase in the surface area of the oceans may follow on a timetable that is not yet clear. The distribution of vegetation and agricultural activities can be expected to change in response to the temperature increase and associated changes in precipitation and evaporation. The many uncertainties associated with the analysis of the carbon dioxide/climate problem mandate the initiation of an immediate global-scale interdisciplinary research effort to determine more clearly the components and connections of the problem and to develop strategies for reducing the impacts, i.e., contingency plans that could be helpful regardless of impact details which remain to be determined.

Emanuel, W.R.; Olson, J.S.; Gillough, G.G.

1980-01-01

65

A Comparison of Trajectory Optimization Methods for the Impulsive Minimum Fuel Rendezvous Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present, a comparison of trajectory optimization approaches for the minimum fuel rendezvous problem. Both indirect and direct methods are compared for a variety of test cases. The indirect approach is based on primer vector theory. The direct approaches are implemented numerically and include Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). Quasi- Newton and Nelder-Meade Simplex. Several cost function parameterizations are considered for the direct approach. We choose one direct approach that appears to be the most flexible. Both the direct and indirect methods are applied to a variety of test cases which are chosen to demonstrate the performance of each method in different flight regimes. The first test case is a simple circular-to-circular coplanar rendezvous. The second test case is an elliptic-to-elliptic line of apsides rotation. The final test case is an orbit phasing maneuver sequence in a highly elliptic orbit. For each test case we present a comparison of the performance of all methods we consider in this paper.

Hughes, Steven P.; Mailhe, Laurie M.; Guzman, Jose J.

2003-01-01

66

Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems  

SciTech Connect

Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

King, J.M. Jr.

1996-03-01

67

NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

68

Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

Gee, G. W.

2005-05-01

69

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

70

Improved Carbon Anodes For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon anodes for rechargeable lithium cells improved by choosing binder contents and fabrication conditions to achieve maximum porosity, uniform loading, and maximum reversible lithium capacity. Stacking electrodes under pressure during assembly of cells increases cyclability of lithium. Rechargeable, high-energy-density lithium cells containing improved carbon anodes find use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other demanding applications.

Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

71

Lithium Cells Accept Hundreds Of Recharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New mixed-solvent electrolyte increases number of times room-temperature lithium cell discharged and recharged. Conductivity 70 percent higher. Useful in such other room-temperature rechargeable lithium cells as lithium/niobium triselenide and lithium molybdenum disulfide systems.

Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Deligiannis, Fotios; Halpert, Gerald

1991-01-01

72

Application of the RBD (Rechargement-Brasage-Diffusion) Process to the Deposition of Anti-Wear Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Initially, the rechargement-brasage-diffusion (RBD) was developed by SNECMA to solve problems occurring during assembly and repair of cast superalloy turbine parts. Beyond the metallurgical possibilities it offers, this process has proved to be economical...

J. Lesgourgues

1986-01-01

73

Stability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining parameters which describe the performance of a microbial fuel cell requires the solution of an inverse problem. Two formulations have been presented in the literature: a convolutional approach or a direct quadrature approach. A complete study and analysis of the direct quadrature method, which leads to two systems for the unknown signal given measured complex data, known as the distribution function of relaxation times, is presented. A theoretical analysis justifies the minimal range of integration that is appropriate for the quadrature and suggests that the systems should be combined giving an overdetermined system that is not well posed but not as ill-posed as either system considered separately. All measures of ill-posedness support using the combined data when the level of error in both components of the complex measurements is equivalent. Tikhonov regularization for the filtered singular value and truncated singular value decomposition are used to find solutions of the underlying model system. Given such solutions the application requires the determination of the model parameters that define the signal, among which are the location and peaks of the individual processes of the cell. A nonlinear data fitting approach is presented which consistently estimates these parameters. Simulations support the use of the combined systems for finding the underlying distribution function of relaxation times and the subsequent nonlinear data fitting to these curves. The approach is also illustrated for measured practical data, demonstrating that without the theoretical analysis incorrect conclusions on the underlying physical system would arise. This work justifies the use of Tikhonov regularization combined with nonlinear data fitting for finding reliable solutions for the specific model, when the signal is comprised of a mixture of signals from a small number of processes.

Renaut, R. A.; Baker, R.; Horst, M.; Johnson, C.; Nasir, D.

2013-04-01

74

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

75

Stability, compatibility, and related problems of additives in Naval distillate fuels derived from lower quality feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first two years of a study co-sponsored by DOE and the US Navy to determine which antioxidant additives are most effective in delaying fuel degradation in a variety of middle distillate straight run/light cycle oil blends. In this study, straight-run middle distillate and catalytically cracked product were mixed at ratios of 85:15, 70:30, and 60:40, respectively. All of these blended fuels were immediately treated with commercially available additives. Usual dosages were 12 and 24 ppM (volume/volume). Stability testing and fuel characterizations performed at four different laboratories were used to evaluate the additives. Each laboratory used a different type of stability test. The characterization studies were performed to ensure that the base fuel blends tested were within the range allowed by MIL-F-16884H and to determine whether any of the additives would make the fuels unacceptable for Navy use. Because of the high degree of stability of several of the control (additive-free) fuels, it was difficult to differentiate additive effectiveness in these fuels. Some studies were performed to see if controlled aging techniques prior to actual stability testing could increase the amount of sediment in the fuel. Results indicated that this would increase sediment in some cases and would have no effect in others. Sample collection techniques at the refineries were also investigated. Both lined and unlined cans were used in these studies. In cases where control fuels exhibited instability, it was possible to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of the 12 stabilizer additives. Five of the additives (2, 3, 10, 11, and 12) have been shown to be superior to the remaining seven. However, all 12 will continue to be tested during the remainder of this study. 2 refs., 6 figs., 25 tabs.

Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.

1987-02-01

76

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01

77

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

78

Problems of Developing the Distributed Control System for Fuel Element Fabrication Automation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specific features of distributed control system are studied. The peculiarities of data processing in this system are considered taking as an example the distributed on-line control system of technological parameters for a fuel element fabrication line. Th...

V. N. Budnikov Y. D. Fedorov A. A. Kashkirov

1988-01-01

79

Estimating Recharge Jointly Using The Chloride Method, Remote Sensing Data and Stochastic Inverse Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is the Chobe Enclave region in semi-arid Northern Botswana. Growing water demand in the local villages led to the development of different water supply scenarios one of which uses groundwater from a nearby aquifer. A regional groundwater flow model was established, both within a stochastic and a deterministic approach. In principle recharge can be derived from a surface water balance. The input data for the water balance, evapotranspiration and precipitation, were calculated using remotely sensed data. The calculation of evapotranspiration is based on the surface energy balance using multi-channel images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). For several days of the year, actual ET is calculated and compared to station potential ET to yield crop coefficients. The crop coefficients are interpolated in time. Finally long-term ET is calculated by multiplying the crop coefficients with station potential ET. Precipitation is taken from station data and precipitation maps prepared by USAID using Meteosat images. As in most of the area surface runoff is small, subtracting evapotranspiration from precipitation yields recharge maps for the period 1990-2000. However, the values thus calculated are very inaccurate, as the errors both in precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates are large. Still, zones of different recharge and probable errors can be identified. The absolute value of the recharge flux in each zone is derived from the chloride method. Alternatively, the recharge flux was also estimated by the sequential self-calibrated method, a stochastic inverse modelling approach based on observed heads and pumping test data. Recharge values and transmissivities are estimated jointly in this method. The recharge zones derived from the water balance together with their stochastic properties are used as prior information. The method generates multiple equally likely solutions to the estimation problem and allows to assess the uncertainty of recharge estimates.

Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip; Eugster, Martin; Bauer, Peter; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

80

Electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed thin film battery is comprised of a polymer-lithium ion cell material with barrier-layer packaging and mechanical reinforcing layers. A semi-solid/ solid electrolyte and a mesoporous polymer separator are sandwiched in between of anode and cathode. A composite film with a carbon nanotube (CNT) network serves as the anode and a mesoporous transitional metal oxide LixCoO2 as the cathode, where porous metal sheets serve as the current collector. The CNT network fabrics have high in-plane tensile strength. LiCoO2 is used as the cathode, because the Co atoms do not migrate to Li layers, so that cathode does not generate flammable gases during charging that create safety problems. Merit of this study is using the porous metal sheet, which is flexible, lightweight, low electric resistance, high strength and strong stability in alkaline solution. This paper presented development of electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery. Two-type electrolytes, semi-solid and solid, were attempted; high ionic conductivity of Li ion electrolytes was achieved.

Xu, Chunye; Ma, Chao; Taya, Minoru

2008-05-01

81

Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

2011-10-01

82

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design, development and testing of new mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Following research and development of a low cost silver-mercury cathode catalyst, prototype battery tests were conducted. Cycle life tests at 3....

J. Giltner

1975-01-01

83

REVISED NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1998  

EPA Science Inventory

Revised North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, unpublished map: North Carolina State University, as modified by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Division of Water Quality (DWQ) Groundwater Section, (polygons)...

84

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges

J.-M. Tarascon; M. Armand

2001-01-01

85

Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation

Charles W. Walker Jr.

1991-01-01

86

Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

Kimrey, J. O.

1985-01-01

87

Evaluation of changes in post-fire recharge under native woodland using hydrological measurements, modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper examines the use of a controlled fuel reduction burn in native woodland to increase recharge to a shallow aquifer system for water supply in south-western Australia. Soil moisture trends from neutron probe measurements and watertable dynamics from piezometers under adjacent burned and unburned plots were compared to determine the difference in recharge resulting from the fire. Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) subtracted from rainfall was used to independently estimate groundwater and soil moisture recharge and compare against a physically based model of soil-water fluxes. The use of naturally occurring chemicals (n-alkanes and cycloalkanes) produced in the fire as tracers of the recharge pulse in the winter following the fire was tested. It was found that in the winter following the fire (annual rainfall 701 mm), water storage in the 9 m thick unsaturated zone increased by about 300 mm but recharge to the watertable was only about 60 mm. In the subsequent year (rainfall 630 mm), leaf area index in the burned woodland recovered to be about 10% less than the unburned plot, remotely sensed ET rose above that in the unburned plot and recharge was lower in the burned than unburned plot. This trend continued and, after 3 years, increased ET negated any early recharge gains, and there was a net decrease in recharge resulting from the fire. The combination of water balance measurements, modelling and remote sensing provides a robust method to gain hydrological understanding of recharge mechanisms. Further work is required to refine the use of burn residue chemicals as soil water tracers, particularly in improving instrument design for groundwater sample collection in fine textured soils. As climate continues to change and regions with growing water shortages seek innovative solutions, approaches such as controlled burning may be needed; however, in this example, the approach was unproductive and further the environmental consequences need to be evaluated to make an appropriate assessment of trade-offs and viability of this approach.

Silberstein, Richard P.; Dawes, Warrick R.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Byrne, John; Smart, Natalie F.

2013-05-01

88

A new rechargeable device for deep brain stimulation: a prospective patient satisfaction survey.  

PubMed

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly successful in treating Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). Until recently implantable neurostimulators were nonrechargeable, battery-driven devices, with a lifetime of about 3-5 years. This relatively short duration causes problems for patients (e.g. programming and device-use limitations, unpredictable expiration, surgeries to replace depleted batteries). Additionally, these batteries (relatively large with considerable weight) may cause discomfort. To overcome these issues, the first rechargeable DBS device was introduced: smaller, lighter and intended to function for 9 years. Methods: Of 35 patients implanted with the rechargeable device, 21 (including 8 PD, 10 dystonia, 2 ET) were followed before and 3 months after surgery and completed a systematic survey of satisfaction with the rechargeable device. Results: Overall patient satisfaction was high (83.3 ± 18.3). Dystonia patients tended to have lower satisfaction values for fit and comfort of the system than PD patients. Age was significantly negatively correlated with satisfaction regarding process of battery recharging. Conclusions: Dystonia patients (generally high-energy consumption, severe problems at the DBS device end-of-life) are good, reliable candidates for a rechargeable DBS system. In PD, younger patients, without signs of dementia and good technical understanding, might have highest benefit. PMID:23328107

Timmermann, Lars; Schüpbach, Michael; Hertel, Frank; Wolf, Elisabeth; Eleopra, Roberto; Franzini, Angelo; Servello, Domenico; Skogseid, Inger-Marie; Rumia, Jordi; Aliaga, Antonio Salvador; Barbe, Michael T; Pauls, K Amande M; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Moro, Elena; Lloyd, Andrew; Maarouf, Mohammad

2013-01-01

89

Problems of output limits of large fossil fuel fired steam generators. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In power station construction problems of output limits are always governed by technical and economic criteria. They thus become an optimizing problem. If the necessary boundary conditions (e.g., risk, availability) cannot be predicted accurately, these criteria must be particularly intensively studied and carefully weighed. The work plan to be used for such optimization is presented. First, one or several technical

K. F. Seefeldt; H. Waldmann

1977-01-01

90

Fuzzy-decision-making problems of fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy-decision-making procedure is applied to find the optimal feed policy of a fed-batch fermentation process for fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast 1400 (pLNH33). The policy consisted of feed flow rate, feed concentration, and fermentation time. The recombinant yeast 1400 (pLNH33) can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously to produce ethanol. However, the parent yeast utilizes glucose

Feng-Sheng Wang; Chang-Huei Jing; George T. Tsao

1998-01-01

91

Silver Sulfide Cathode for Liquid Ammonia Batteries and Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the practical use of silver sulfide as a rechargeable cathode for batteries and fuel cells using ammonia electrolytes. The attractiveness of liquid ammonia electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells is largely due to the c...

M. H. Miles

1973-01-01

92

Certain Problems of Unstable Combustion in Rocket Engine Chambers Driven by Liquid Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph discusses only certain problems of unstable combustion in a rocket engine combustion chamber, namely, the types of instability, their manifestations, causes, and possible results for the drive, stability criteria and conclusions.

H. Krajewski

1966-01-01

93

A critical assessment of simple recharge models: application to the UK Chalk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the timing and magnitude of point-scale groundwater recharge is challenging, but possible at specific sites given sufficient high spatial and temporal resolution field observations, and a suitable physically based model. Such models are generally too computationally intensive and have too many unknown parameters to be practically applicable within distributed, larger-scale hydrological or groundwater models. This motivates the need for simpler recharge models, which are widely used within groundwater models. However, it is important that these models are able to capture adequately the unsaturated zone flow processes. We perform an inter-comparison of recharge simulated by a detailed physically based model and a simple recharge model, with both models applied to a field site in the fractured porous Chalk in the UK. Flow processes are simulated convincingly using a dual permeability, equivalent continuum, vertically heterogeneous, Richards' equation model, applied to a 2-D hillslope transect. A simple conventional recharge model was then calibrated to reproduce the water table response simulated by the physically based model. The performance in reproducing the water table was surprisingly good, given the known discrepancies between the actual processes and the model representation. However, comparisons of recharge fluxes simulated by each model highlighted problems with the process representations in the simple model. Specifically, bypass flow events during the summer were compensating for recharge that should have come from slow, continual drainage of the unsaturated zone. Such a model may still be useful for assessment of groundwater resources on a monthly basis, under non-extreme climatic conditions. However, under extreme wet or dry conditions, or under a changed climate the predictive capacity of such models is likely to be inadequate.

Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.

2013-06-01

94

Groundwater Recharge from Rainfall in the Southern Border of Lake Chad in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: One of the major problems in hydrogeology investigations of arid and semi-arid regions is th e determination of water that contributed to the recharge of the water table. By considering the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Quaternary aquifers in the Southern sector of the Lake Chad basin, this study has permitted to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the groundwater

Ngounou Ngatcha Benjamin; Mudry Jacques; Sarrot Reynauld Jean

95

Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for; Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The

Robert Filler; Zhong Shi; Braja Mandal

2004-01-01

96

Development of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable cells with improved low temperature performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to future plans to explore Mars and the outer planets, NASA has interest in developing lithium-ion rechargeable batteries that are capable of operating at low temperatures. To address these problems, we have initiated research focused upon the development of advanced electrolyte systems for lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance. Promising electrolyte solutions were selected based on conductivity and

M. C. Smart; C.-K. Huang; B. V. Ratnakumar; S. Surampudi

1997-01-01

97

Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

1995-02-01

98

Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

2013-08-01

99

Software problems in the development of the Defense Fuel Automated Management System  

SciTech Connect

A report on a review of the Defense Fuel Automated Management System (DFAMS) is presented. DFAMS is designed as a fully automated integrated system which will handle inventory management, procurement, financial control and accounting for bulk fuel products within the Department of Defense. DFAMS software is being developed with obsolete and vendor-dependent programming techniques. These techniques will cause the delivered system to be unnecessarily costly to maintain and, if incompatible hardware is acquired, lead to high conversion cost. Many commercial software tools are available that run on computers which support ANSI COBOL and can assist in the planning and creation of application systems. It is believed DLA should consider the use of such tools to improve the quality of the DFAMS application software and reduce potential maintenance cost. DFAMS developers do not inspect program code for compliance with DLA, Defense, federal, or ANSI standards. Software tools could greatly reduce the labor of such inspection. The Normalization and ADPER programs appear to be sound ADP management strategies that should achieve DLA's goals of standardizing its software and becoming as machine independent as possible. However, DLA may have difficulty achieving these goals because, at least with DFAMS, it is not enforcing conformance with the Normalization objectives.

Not Available

1983-09-06

100

Estimates of Ground-Water Recharge in Wadis of Arid, Mountainous Areas Using the Chloride Mass-Balance Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of ground-water supply in arid areas requires estimation of annual recharge. Traditional physical-based hydrologic estimates of ground-water recharge result in large uncertainties when applied in arid, mountainous environments because of infrequent, intense rainfall events, destruction of water-measuring structures associated with those events, and consequent short periods of hydrologic records. To avoid these problems and reduce the uncertainty of recharge estimates, a chloride mass-balance (CMB) approach was used to provide a time-integrated estimate. Seven basins exhibiting dry-stream beds (wadis) in the Asir and Hijaz Mountains, western Saudi Arabia, were selected to evaluate the method. Precipitation among the basins ranged from less than 70 mm/y to nearly 320 mm/y. Rain collected from 35 locations in these basins averaged 2.0 mg/L chloride. Ground water from 140 locations in the wadi alluvium averaged 200 mg/L chloride. This chloride concentration ratio of precipitation to ground water suggests that on average, approximately 1 percent of the rainfall is recharged, while the remainder is lost to evaporation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation in individual basins ranged from less than 1 to nearly 4 percent and was directly proportional to total precipitation. Independent calculations of recharge using Darcy's Law were consistent with these findings and are within the range typically found in other arid areas of the world. Development of ground water has lowered the water level beneath the wadis and provided more storage thus minimizing chloride loss from the basin by river discharge. Any loss of chloride from the basin results in an overestimate of the recharge flux by the chloride-mass balance approach. In well-constrained systems recharge in arid, mountainous areas where the mass of chloride entering and leaving the basin is known or can be reasonably estimated, the CMB approach provides a rapid, inexpensive method for estimating time-integrated ground-water recharge.

Wood, W. W.; Wood, W. W.

2001-05-01

101

A critical assessment of simple recharge models: application to the UK Chalk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for the rigorous quantification of the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge is proposed. This involves developing a physically based model for the flow processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones that is consistent with the conceptualisation of the system, and with field observations. Subsequently, the essential behaviour of this model is emulated using a simpler model that can be applied within operational groundwater models. We take a UK Chalk aquifer as a case study. Flow processes are simulated convincingly using a dual permeability, equivalent continuum, Richards' equation model, applied to a 2-D hillslope transect along which four monitoring wells recorded water levels in the unconfined aquifer. A simple conventional recharge model that has been widely used was calibrated to reproduce the water table response simulated by the physically based model. The performance in reproducing the water table was surprisingly good, given the known discrepancies between the actual processes and the model representation. However, comparisons of recharge fluxes simulated by each model highlighted problems with the recharge processes in the simple model. Specifically, artificial bypass flow events during the summer were compensating for recharge that should have come from slow, continual drainage of the unsaturated zone. Such a model may still be useful for assessment of groundwater resources on a monthly basis, under non-extreme climatic conditions. However, under extreme wet or dry conditions, or under a changed climate the predictive capacity of such models is likely to be inadequate.

Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.

2012-10-01

102

Activities of the Kharkov Institute Related to the Problem of Spent Nuclear Fuel Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT) is one of the oldest and largest centers for science in Ukraine. For many years experts at NSC KIPT have carried out scientific and technological research in various areas of the nuclear industry. During the last 10 years special attention has been given to resolution of problems of

V. M. AZHAZHA; I. M. NEKLYUDOV; S. Y. SAYENKO; V. N. VOYEVODIN

103

Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

104

All Inorganic Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Having the advantages of high energy density and good charge retention, rechargeable lithium batteries have been of interest to many companies and research organizations within the last 15 years. Various lithium rechargeable systems with different positiv...

H. C. Kuo A. N. Dey C. Schlaikjer D. Foster M. Kallianidis

1987-01-01

105

REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

106

Electrolyte Additive for Lithium Rechargeable Organic Electrolyte Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being deve...

W. K. Behl D. T. Chin

1988-01-01

107

Electrode materials for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe briefly the historical development of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries, the advantages and\\u000a challenges associated with the use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium rechargeable battery with an emphasis on the electrochemical\\u000a performance of various electrode materials. The following materials have been studied as cathode materials: LiMn2O4, MnO2, LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and anatase TiO2. Addition of

H. Manjunatha; G. S. Suresh; T. V. Venkatesha

2011-01-01

108

Lithium-manganese oxide rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A new type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions shuttle between a lithium-manganese oxide electrode and a carbon electrode was unveiled recently by chemists from Bell Communications Research (Bellcore), Red Bank, N.J. The new battery--still experimental--is safer, longer lasting, and potentially cheaper to manufacture than other lithium-ion batteries. In addition, it provides three times the energy of nickel-cadmium cells, the most popular type of rechargeable battery. Bellcore scientists believe the new battery could replace nickel-cadmium and small lead-acid batteries in many applications.

Dagani, R.

1993-01-04

109

Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

110

A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

2011-01-14

111

Behavior of TOC in a Deep Confined Aquifer During Groundwater Artificial Recharge Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, environmental geological problems such as land subsidence, land collapse, land cracking and salt-water intrusion have become important factors limiting economic development in some cities due to severe overexploitation of groundwater. So, a number of cities have carried out artificial recharge projects, which have played a significant role in controlling these problems. However, with the increasing trend of organic pollution appeared in the surface water, organic contaminated problems should not be neglected during this process. Although the organic components were always following in a lower concentration level, whether it would make groundwater face the organic pollution crisis was unknown for its' higher toxicity and durability. Based on a typical artificial recharge test carried out in a deep confined aquifer in this study area (located in Eastern China, there are 10 monitoring wells and 1 recharge well) that decided to control the field land subsidence, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was selected as the target components to reveal the organic elements' changing trend during groundwater artificial recharge process. The results (Fig. 1) showed that the concentration of TOC in each monitoring well was appeared in an increasing trend due to the mix influence of the recharge water (TOC was 1.88mg/L) and the origin groundwater (TOC was 0.58mg/L). But the maximum concentrations of TOC in J4, J5, J6 monitoring well (the distance from recharge well was 10m, 17m, 31m respectively) were lower than the recharge water 0.28, 0.49, 0.74 mg/L respectively, with non-linear growth. It indicated that except adsorption, microbial degradation might also occur in the aquifer during artificial recharge. With the groundwater environment from relatively anaerobic environment turn to aerobic environment, DO was able to characterize the relative strength of the TOC biodegradation. The average value of DO in recharge water was 4.33 mg/L, and the maximum value of DO in J4, J5, J6 monitoring well was about 2.54, 2.43, 2.22 mg/L, respectively. All of that showed the farther distance from the recharge well to monitoring wells, the smaller change in the value of DO. It suggested that biodegradation function was in a relative weakening trend away from the recharge position. Based on the complete control of geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions of the test site, GMS (groundwater modelling system) was used to simulate and forecast the TOC changing trend in the deep confined aquifer. The numerical results indicated the radius of influence (over 1.6mg/L) was 170m, 220m and 270m respectively after continuous recharge during 1 year, 2 year and 5 year.

Zhang, W.; He, H.; Shi, X.

2013-12-01

112

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 rnm per year was estimated in eastern

Jozsef Szilagyi; F. Edwin Harvey; Jerry F. Ayers

2005-01-01

113

A new modeling and calibration approach considering time variant recharge areas in karst systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In karst systems, various types of porosity create a strong heterogeneity of water flow and storage mechanisms. For a sustainable present and future water management predictive modeling is necessary, which has to be done by approaches that consider the particularities of karst systems. In our study we present a new type of hydrological model that considers the variability of karst system properties and a new calibration strategy that focuses on the problem of variable recharge areas typical in karst systems. Defining objective functions that consider hydrodynamic and hydrochemical information we first determine model parameters that are responsible for hydrodynamic response, without taking into account the recharge. Then, the recharge area is determined separately for individual hydrological years and entire time period by calibrating the model to fulfill the annual water balance. This stepwise calibration is done simultaneously for the new model and -for comparison for a simple reservoir model. The new approach was applied to a karst system at Southern Spain where we can show that hydrochemical information is crucial to find the most plausible set of parameters for both models. Considering different hydrological years we find that the recharge area is changing significantly (from 28 to 53 km2) among the years for the reservoir model, which indicates that there is a variable recharge area. The newly developed model shows much less variability of the recharge area at individual hydrological years and provides acceptable results for the whole time period. This is due to the consideration of variable soil and epikarst depths: they produce a time-variant "effective" recharge area dependent on rainfall amounts and soil and epikarst saturation. Considering the hydrogeological functioning of the area, this process can most probably be attributed to allogenic recharge. Hence, our karst-specific calibration approach identifies a variable recharge area and the new model is able to reproduce this process. Therefore we claim that the new model provides a more realistic system representation, which can be of high significance when the model is used beyond the conditions it was calibrated, e.g. for land-use or climate change scenarios.

Lange, J.; Hartmann, A.; Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.; Weiler, M.

2012-12-01

114

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetmethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The in situ hydrolysis of TEOS produces a mechanically stable three-dimensional network that entangles the polymer electrolytes and makes the film dimensionally flexible and stable. With this approach, the best dimensionally stable polymer electrolyte of this type produced so far, has a room temperature lithium ion conductivity of 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} S cm{sup {minus}1}. Another type of solid polymer electrolytes, polydiacetylene-based single-ion conductors with high room temperature proton conductivity were also developed. The best conductivity of these polymers is two orders of magnitude higher than that of Nafion under comparable experimental conditions. With further appropriate chemical modification, the new polymers could be used in fuel cells.

Narang, S.C.; Ventura, S.C. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemistry Lab.

1992-02-01

115

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from ¾140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

116

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

117

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2013-02-01

118

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2012-08-01

119

Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

120

Rechargeable Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of the present contract research is to develop and improve performance of Li/SO2Cl2 rechargeable cells with particular emphasis on: safety, discharge capacity, and cycle life. In order to achieve these objectives our approach is to i...

S. Hossain P. Harris R. McDonald C. Todino R. Witter

1990-01-01

121

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been

D. Aurbach; Z. Lu; A. Schechter; Y. Gofer; H. Gizbar; R. Turgeman; Y. Cohen; M. Moshkovich; E. Levi

2000-01-01

122

Recharging "Hot-Melt" Adhesive Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for recharging surface with "hot-melt" film makes use of one sided, high-temperature, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Purpose of the one-sided tape is to hold hot-melt charge in place until fused to surface. After adhesive has fused to surface and cooled, tape is removed, leaving adhesive on surface.

Progar, D. J.

1983-01-01

123

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their

Adrian Hightower

2001-01-01

124

Prototype Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the work performed on Phase I of an overall two-phase program. The aim of Phase I is to select a room-temperature lithium (Li) rechargeable couple that offers high energy density (60-90 Wh/1b), good rate capability (C/6-C/1), and low t...

W. B. Ebner H. W. Lin

1987-01-01

125

Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanically rechargeable zinc-air battery is a new power source that has an energy density in the order of 100 watthours per pound, twice that of the closest competing battery system. The many advantageous characteristics of this battery have encoura...

D. Linden

1969-01-01

126

Characteristics of carbon-lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-lithium rechargeable batteries are composed of an activated carbon positive electrode, a lithium-occluded alloy negative electrode, and an organic electrolyte. The discharge curve obtainable from batteries of this type exhibits the slightly inclining linearity of a capacitor. Potential applications are envisioned in computer memory backup power sources and maintenance-free power source applications involving solar cell arrays.

K. Momose; H. Hayakawa; N. Koshiba; T. Ikehata

1987-01-01

127

High reliability lithium rechargeable batteries for specialties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their development in the late 1980s, lithium rechargeable batteries have enjoyed rapid growth and wide use as a commodity battery known for its higher energy density storage and lightweight convenience. These same attributes are emerging as a strong platform in power source development for the medical and aerospace sectors with highly customized applications and narrowly defined criteria. Accordingly, this

H. Tsukamoto

2003-01-01

128

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Attia, Alan I. (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1994-01-01

129

Anode for Rechargeable Ambient Temperature Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode ha...

C. Huang S. Surampudi A. I. Attia G. Halpert

1992-01-01

130

High temperature rechargeable molten salt cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high temperature rechargeable molten salt cell. It comprises: a member of the group consisting of lithium, lithium aluminum alloy, lithium silicon alloy, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, an alkali metal, a group II A element, a group II A alloy and composite mixtures thereof, as the anode, a chemical compound of the composition XYSâ wherein X is

E. J. Plichta; W. K. Behl

1991-01-01

131

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

132

Ways of solving environmental problems while transferring the boilers for burning water-bitumen mixture instead of fuel oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information concerning a new kind (for Russia) of liquid fuel, i.e., water-bitumen mixture (orimulsion), is presented. The application of the new fuel instead of the fuel oil at a boiler of a power unit of 350-MW capacity makes it possible to decrease sufficiently the expenditures for fuel while keeping the main environmental indices.

Kotler, V. R.; Sosin, D. V.

2009-03-01

133

Inverse problem in hydrogeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties,

Jesffls Carrera; Andrés Alcolea; Agustín Medina; Juan Hidalgo; Luit J. Slooten

2005-01-01

134

Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

2012-12-01

135

Layered perovskite oxide: a reversible air electrode for oxygen evolution/reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries.  

PubMed

For the development of a rechargeable metal-air battery, which is expected to become one of the most widely used batteries in the future, slow kinetics of discharging and charging reactions at the air electrode, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, are the most critical problems. Here we report that Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 (n = 3), functions as a reversible air electrode catalyst for both ORR and OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. The function of RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an ORR catalyst was confirmed by using an alkaline fuel cell composed of Pd/LaSr3Fe3O10-2x(OH)2x·H2O/RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.23 V was obtained. RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 also catalyzed OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. Reversible ORR and OER are achieved because of the easily removable oxygen present in RP-LaSr3Fe3O10. Thus, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 minimizes efficiency losses caused by reactions during charging and discharging at the air electrode and can be considered to be the ORR/OER electrocatalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:23802735

Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Takano, Hiroshi; Ohguri, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Motofumi; Murota, Tadatoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

2013-07-31

136

Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is described which consisted of studying the effects of electrode cycling in very pure KOH solutions, with and without controlled additions of impurities, on oxide formation, oxygen evolution kinetics, oxygen reduction kinetics (including hydrogen peroxide formation), and changes in electrode structure. Bright platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes were studied. Three main problem areas are identified: the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on prolonged cycling, which leads to a degradation of performance; the dissolution and subsequent deposition of dendritic platinum in the separator, leading to short-circuit ing and loss of electrocatalyst; and the disruptive effect of bubbling during gas evolution on charge. Each of these problem areas is analyzed, and remedial solutions are proposed.

Giner, J.; Holleck, G.; Malachesky, P. A.

1970-01-01

137

Monitoring Cave Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone for Natural and Simulated Rainfall Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across semi-arid regions of the world, woody plant encroachment is widespread with potential implications for groundwater recharge and streamflow. In an effort to better understand the interactions between woody plants and recharge, we are monitoring drip rates in shallow caves in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone of Central Texas. The surface is covered by a dense stand of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). In addition to stemflow, throughfall, and surface runoff was monitored for both natural precipitation events as well as simulated rainfall. Interception and throughfall are measured using a grid of rain gauges and throughfall collectors. Surface runoff measurements were quantified with a 15.24 centimeter H- flume instrumented with an ultrasonic water level sensor. Drip collectors constructed inside the cave collect recharge entering the cave from the ceiling. Large scale rainfall simulation equipment onsite allows us to "re-create" these naturally occurring rainfall events and compare the resulting data with that from the original event. Performing these types of tests allows us to learn important information about the cave footprint's ability to transmit recharge waters into the cave. During a simulation, water is applied directly to the cave footprint and not to the entire hillslope as in a natural rain event. We found that recharge for the natural and simulated events were similar. In each case, recharge makes up less than 5% of the water budget, in spite of the fact that there was little, if any, surface runoff. The working hypothesis is that most of the rainfall is routed off the hillslope as lateral subsurface flow.

Gregory, L.; Veni, G.; Shade, B.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, M. K.

2005-12-01

138

Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation of chlorine and thereby diminishing the capacity for corrosion. For a primary cell, greater discharge capacity was obtained with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. Since PMT becomes electrically insulating in the reduced state, this could be used as a built-in safety feature to avert the hazards associated with abuse over-discharge.

Walker, Charles W., Jr.

1991-11-01

139

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

PubMed Central

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions.

Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

2010-01-01

140

Rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials.  

PubMed

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be "washed out" by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions. PMID:20940361

Cao, Z; Sun, X; Yeh, C-K; Sun, Y

2010-12-01

141

A fuel cell-powered battery-charging station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable batteries such as lithium-ion cells are playing an increasingly significant role in the utilization of portable electronic devices such as portable computers, cellular phones and camcorders. However, their advantages are partially restricted by the limited usable time. A fuel cell power battery-charging station provides a good solution for recharging these batteries in the fieldwork. This dissertation presents the work

Zhenhua Jiang

2003-01-01

142

The potential role of technological modifications and alternative fuels in alleviating Air Force energy problems. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short- and long-term measures to reduce the consumption of petroleum jet fuels by the Air Force are examined. Engine retrofits and aerodynamic modifications to existing aircraft can save significant quantities of jet fuel; however, savings in fuel expenditures are not enough to offset high initial costs of engine retrofits. If accomplished early in an aircraft's life cycle, relatively lower costs

J. R. Gebman; W. L. Stanley; J. P. Weyant; W. T. Mikolowsky

1976-01-01

143

New mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, development and testing of new mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Following research and development of a low cost silver-mercury cathode catalyst, prototype battery tests were conducted. Cycle life tests at 3.5 amperes indicated satisfactory performance through at least 26 cycles when this test was terminated for the final hardware build. The cathode bi-cell design utilized the

J. Giltner

1975-01-01

144

Dynamically compacted rechargeable ceramic lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable ceramic battery is made of a LixMn2O4 (x = 1.1) cathode, a graphite anode and a BPO4:yLi2O (y ?- 0.035) solid electrolyte by dynamic compaction. This battery system has a theoretical open-circuit potential of 4.2 V and a high energy density, which makes it interesting for application in electric vehicles.

M. J. G. Jak; E. M. Kelder; M. Stuivinga; J. Schoonman

1996-01-01

145

Rechargeable alkaline zinc\\/ferricyanide battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of the alkaline zinc\\/ferricy anide rechargeable battery for utility load leveling applications was assessed. This battery meets the requirements for this application with cell voltages of 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge. Mean energy efficiency is 84% at 760 and 86% at 1110 4 hour cycles in full cell and redox half cell

G. B. Adams; R. P. Hollandsworth; B. D. Webber

1979-01-01

146

High specific power lithium polymer rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on its proprietary positive electrode. This battery offers high steady-state (>250 W\\/kg) and peak power densities (3000 W\\/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. This PolyPlus lithium polymer battery also delivers high specific energy. The first generation battery has a energy density of 100 Wh\\/kg

May-Ying Chu; Lutgard De Jonghe; Steven Visco

1996-01-01

147

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and VO{sub 2}(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO{sub 3} in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Li, Wu; Dahn, J.R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Wainwright, D.S. [Moli Energy (1990) Limited, Maple Ridge, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-05-20

148

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated

1995-01-01

149

Capacity degradation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Li rechargeable cells made with structural arrangement Li\\/membrane\\/LixV2O5 were examined under different charge states using ac impedance, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These states include charged, discharged, and over cycled. The lowest internal resistance was obtained from the cell at charged state; the resistance increased when the cell was

J. P. Zheng; P. L. Moss; R. Fu; Z. Ma; Y. Xin; G. Au; E. J. Plichta

2005-01-01

150

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

151

Advanced rechargeable lithium sulfur dioxide cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical performance and safety of the rechargeable lithium sulfur dioxide system has been investigated in laboratory cells and in high rate D cells. Small design and active materials were optimized to that cathode utilization of 1.6Ah\\/grams of carbon and 0.19Ah\\/cm3 of cathode were achieved with 100-200 cycles. Discharge and charge of cells at temperatures down to -30 C were

R. C. McDonald; P. Harris; F. Goebel; S. Hossain; R. Vierra

1991-01-01

152

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOEpatents

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07

153

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin

Z. Cao; X. Sun; C.-K. Yeh; Y. Sun

2010-01-01

154

Nanomaterials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

In lithium-ion batteries, nanocrystalline intermetallic alloys, nanosized composite materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanosized transition-metal oxides are all promising new anode materials, while nanosized LiCoO2, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, and LiMn2O4 show higher capacity and better cycle life as cathode materials than their usual larger-particle equivalents. The addition of nanosized metal-oxide powders to polymer electrolyte improves the performance of the polymer electrolyte for all solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries. To meet the challenge of global warming, a new generation of lithium rechargeable batteries with excellent safety, reliability, and cycling life is needed, i.e., not only for applications in consumer electronics, but especially for clean energy storage and for use in hybrid electric vehicles and aerospace. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can lead to a new generation of lithium secondary batteries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent developments on nanomaterials and nanotechniques used for anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials, the impact of nanomaterials on the performance of lithium batteries, and the modes of action of the nanomaterials in lithium rechargeable batteries. PMID:16573064

Liu, Hua Kun; Wang, Guo Xiu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Jiazhao; Konstantinov, Kosta

2006-01-01

155

Ground water recharge from Lake Chad  

SciTech Connect

Lake Chad is a shallow, closed basin lake located in Sub-Sharan Africa. It has the largest drainage basin of any lake in the world, and is also very old, being formed by tectonic processes during the Cretaceous. These features should combine to form a saline lake, but the open waters of Lake Chad are reasonably fresh, having a total dissolved solids concentration of about 320 mg/1. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by noting that recharge of the unconfined aquifer to the SW in Nigeria by ground water infiltration through the lakebed can remove significant quantities of water and dissolved solutes from the lake. The authors have measured and calculated ground water infiltration and velocities by several techniques. Direct, volumetric measurements of ground water recharge seepage give velocities on the order of .28-8.8 x 10/sup -3/ m/day. Tracer monitoring in a borehole dilution test yielded ground water velocities of 3.6 m/day to the SW (away from the lake). Hydraulic conductivities approx. .004-.6 m/day were determined by falling head measurements. Finally, using static water levels, the potentiometric surface within approx. 80 km of the southwest portion of Lake Chad yields water table gradients of 1.0-1.7 x 10/sup -4/ away from the lake. These results confirm that surface water and solute inflow to Lake Chad is removed by recharge to the unconfined aquifer in Nigeria.

Isiorho, S.; Matisoff, G.; McCall, P.L.

1985-01-01

156

The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.  

PubMed

Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time ?t. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time ?t = ?t(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given ?t. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the Li(+) transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible ?t. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li(+) transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li(+) conductivity ?(Li) > 10(-3) S cm(-1), synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies. PMID:23294028

Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

2013-01-30

157

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.  

PubMed

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

158

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

PubMed Central

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g?1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cedric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

159

Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive < 30 mm of recharge a year. PMID:15726925

Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

2005-01-01

160

Analysis of regenerative fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a rechargeable fuel cell (RFC) system is considered. A newer type of rechargeable battery, the nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, is also evaluated. A review was made of past studies which showed large variations in weight, cost, and efficiency. Hydrogen-bromine and hydrogen-chlorine regenerable fuel cells were studied, and were found to have a potential for higher energy storage efficiency then the hydrogen-oxygen system. A reduction of up to 15 percent in solar array size may be possible as a result. These systems are not yet developed, but further study of them is recommended.

Gross, S.

1982-01-01

161

Transient heat and mass transfer modeling aspects of rechargeable lithium\\/polymer electrolyte batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium\\/polymer electrolyte batteries have the potential for higher energy density than existing lithium-ion type batteries. However, lithium\\/polymer batteries have limited cycle life. Discharge capacity is extremely sensitive to temperature and discharge rate, and potential safety problems exist and are related to battery temperature distribution. This dissertation addresses several of these battery performance limiting issues by modeling fundamental heat and

Joseph Phillip Fellner

1997-01-01

162

Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

2014-04-01

163

Shale recharge and production behavior of geopressured reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The reservoir simulator MUSHRM was used to study the conditions under which significant shale recharge may be expected. The calculations presented herein show that shale recharge is a strong function of the vertical shale permeability but is not greatly influenced by the shale compressibility. Significant shale recharge will occur only if the vertical shale permeability is at least of the order of 0.01 ..mu..d.

Garg, S.K.

1980-04-01

164

Rechargeable zinc-air battery technology implementations in portable electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy's rechargeable zinc-air battery technology has the unique set of characteristics to provide long battery run-time for portable electronics. With more energy per pound and high energy content cells, rechargeable zinc-air can provide sufficient energy in a lightweight battery that is practical to build. Improvements made in the past year make AER Energy's rechargeable zinc-air even more flexible and

T. Cutler

1997-01-01

165

[Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].  

PubMed

Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1720061

Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

1990-05-01

166

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25

167

A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

2014-05-01

168

Seismicity induced by seasonal ground-water recharge at Mt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, is dominated by spring snow melt which provides a natural large- amplitude,and narrow-width,pore-fluid pressure signal. Time delays between,this seasonal groundwater,recharge,and seismicity triggered by groundwater,recharge,can thus be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic,diffusivities and,the state of stress in the crust. We approximate,seasonal,variations in groundwater,recharge,with discharge in runoff- dominated streams at high elevations. We interpolate the

M. Saar; M. Manga

2003-01-01

169

Characterisation of recharge processes and groundwater flow mechanisms in weathered-fractured granites of Hyderabad (India) using isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the problem of realistic assessment of groundwater potential and its sustainability, it is vital to study the recharge processes and mechanism of groundwater flow in fractured hard rocks, where inhomogeneties and discontinuities have a dominant role to play. Wide variations in chloride, ?18O and 14C concentrations of the studied groundwaters observed in space and time could

B. S. Sukhija; D. V. Reddy; P. Nagabhushanam; S. K. Bhattacharya; R. A. Jani; Devender Kumar

2006-01-01

170

Phosphidation of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles and their electrochemical and biocompatible superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

Phosphidated-Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) shows high capacity with a significantly enhanced kinetics opening new possibilities for ultra-fast charge/discharge of lithium rechargeable batteries. The in vitro cytotoxicity test proves its fabulous cell viability, indicating that the toxicity problem of nanoparticles can be also solved by phosphidation. PMID:21952411

Jo, Mi Ru; Nam, Ki Min; Lee, Youngmin; Song, Kyeongse; Park, Joon T; Kang, Yong-Mook

2011-11-01

171

Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

Huggins, Robert A.

1987-01-01

172

Organic electrolyte for use in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said organic electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates in general to use of an organic electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte; and, in particular, to the use of 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in dimethylcarbonate (DMC) or 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in (DMC) mixtures with methyl formate (MF) in which the mass percent of the (DMC) can vary from 25 to 100 mass percent as the electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell, and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte.

Plichta, E.J.; Slane, S.M.; Salomon, M.

1987-07-06

173

Problems of interaction between water and fuel containing masses inside the object "Shelter" of Chornobyl nuclear power plant. (in Ukrainian)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main forms of the existence of nuclear fuel and major concomitant factors of nuclear and ecological danger of the object ``Shelter'' are presented. The processes of interaction between water and fuel containing materials have been analysed on the basis of experimental data.

Yukhnovskii, I. R.; Kobryn, A. E.; Tokarevskii, V. V.; Tokarchuk, M. V.

174

Practical solutions to the aircraft minimum fuel, fixed-range, fixed time-of-arrival trajectory optimization problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A practical scheme is presented for generating fixed range, minimum fuel vertical flight profiles that also satisfy time-of-arrival constraints. The resulting algorithm is suitable for incorporation into an on-board flight management system. Example results show that such a capability can save up to 6% of fuel burned in flights subject to delays because of terminal area congestion.

Sorensen, J. A.; Waters, M. H.

1980-01-01

175

Experimental survey of rechargeable alkaline zinc electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable alkaline zinc-air cells and zinc-manganese dioxide cells need zinc electrodes working for at least 100 cycles under anode limiting conditions. The discharge of the manganese dioxide cathode especially must be limited to a definite fraction (1/3) of its available capacity to obtain a good cycle life. This study proposes a new test cell for investigations on pasted alkaline zinc powder electrodes. When, following experimentation, the value of the construction was established, a series of different electrode mixtures was cycled. It was found that 100 full discharges could be obtained with a zinc utilization of about 30 percent in the final cycles.

Binder, L.; Odar, W.

1984-09-01

176

Characterization of AA size lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of AA size rechargeable cells for underwater vehicle and other naval applications is complete for AT&T's lithium\\/niobium triselenide (Li\\/NbSe3) and Moli Energy's lithium\\/molybdenum disulfide (Li\\/MoS2) and in progress on Moli Energy's lithium\\/manganese dioxide (Li\\/MnO2) and W. R. Grace's lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2). Cell cycling was performed at various discharge rates, temperatures, and depths of discharge. At 25 C and 1

T. C. Murphy; D. M. Cason-Smith; S. D. James; P. H. Smith

1990-01-01

177

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01

178

Characterization of AA size lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of AA size rechargeable cells for underwater vehicle and other naval applications is complete for AT&T's lithium\\/niobium triselenide (Li\\/NbSe3) and Moli Energy's lithium\\/molybdenum disulfide (Li\\/MoS2) and is in progress on Moli Energy's lithium\\/manganese dioxide (Li\\/MnO2) and W.R. Grace's lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2). Cell cycling was performed at various discharge rates, temperatures, and depths of discharge. At 25°C and 1 mA\\/cm2

T. C. Murphy; D. M. Cason-Smith; S. D. James; P. H. Smith

1990-01-01

179

Low temperature studies on rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium cells using intercalating cathodes of TiS2, a-MoS3, and mixed a-MoS3\\/TiS2 were studied at temperatures from 25 to -40 C. On the basis of conductivity investigations, LiAsF6 and LiAlCl4 electrolytes were selected for use in a binary solvent containing 24.4 mass percent 4-butyrolactone in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The Li\\/TiS2 and Li\\/a-MoS3-TiS2 cells cycled well at 2 mA\\/sq cm down to -30

E. J. Plichta; M. Salomon

1984-01-01

180

Sediment and microbial fouling of experimental groundwater recharge trenches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common method of recharging groundwater is by the use of injection wells and/or recharge trenches. With time the recharge capacities of the wells/trenches progressively decline. Deposition of suspended fines in the recharge water and growth of microorganisms in the aquifer are common causes of this decline. This paper presents an investigation of the relative significance of these two factors under controlled laboratory conditions. Large-scale physical models of recharge trenches were conducted in the laboratory to monitor the decline with time of the recharge capacity under controlled conditions. The physical models consisted of four hydraulically separate cells in which six different experiments were conducted. In three of the experiments microorganism were added as an inoculant. A nutrient and carbon fine solution was constantly injected into the influent stream entering through the inflow pipe. Both carbon fines and microorganisms caused plugging of the model recharge trenches in the laboratory. However, initialy the microbes appeared to have a beneficial effect by hindering the transport of the carbon fines from the gravel pack in the trench. Later the microbes contributed to the plugging of the gravel pack. A significant correlation was determined between the extent of carbon fine deposition and microbial growth. In the experiment using a biodegradable slurry, microbial growth did not affect the recharge capacity of the trench. One laboratory experiment involved the introduction of silt as a source of sediment fines to the model recharge trench. This experiment simulated conditions often found in the field when no carbon fine adsoprtion system is used and natural surface water is recharged into aquifer. This research will be useful in understanding the relative importance of factors contributing to the decline of recharge capacity observed in the field.

Warner, James W.; Gates, Timothy K.; Namvargolian, Reza; Miller, Paul; Comes, Gregory

1994-04-01

181

Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

Zeng, X.

2004-12-01

182

Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the managed aquifer recharge system have been evaluated. Among numerous results it could be shown that replacing the lawn by sand basins and operating them constantly during winter holds the largest potential to increase the infiltration volume. However, this is only an option for new to build structures since the current basin positions would lead to large direct losses of recharged groundwater into the river Mur. Adjusting the timing of infiltration and withdrawal based on subsurface travel time yields an increase of the pumped amount of about 11% given about the same extension the wells' capture zones. The overall costs of artificial groundwater recharge amount to 0,15 €/m³ excluding pumping and distribution costs compared to a water price of about 1,5 €/m³ charged to consumers. Currently, the implications of building a hydro power plant adjacent to the recharge site are evaluated emphasizing the need for innovative solutions given only limited land resources. On the basis of the projected impacts of climate change on the availability of surface water and groundwater in the South-Eastern alpine regions, the aquifers can act as a buffer system to help overcome the timely shift between supply and demand. Thus, also in predominantly humid regions artificial groundwater recharge represents a viable and sustainable solution to safeguard the supply of drinking water in the long term.

Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

2010-05-01

183

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system

P. Barney; R. G. Jungst; D. Ingersoll; C. OGorman; T. L. Paez; A. Urbina

1998-01-01

184

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the

Pierre Girard; Claude Hillaire-Marcel; Marie Solange Oga

1997-01-01

185

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches

S. S. D. Foster; P. J. Chilton

2004-01-01

186

Electrochemically active polymers for rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical energy storage systems (batteries) have a tremendous role in technical applications. In this review the authors examine the prospects of electroactive polymers in view of the properties required for such batteries. Conducting organic polymers are considered here in the light of their rugged chemical environment: organic solvents, acids, and alkalis. The goal of the present article is to provide, first of all in tabular form, a survey of electroactive polymers in view of potential applications in rechargeable batteries. It reviews the preparative methods and the electrochemical performance of polymers as rechargeable battery electrodes. The theoretical values of specific charge of the polymers are comparable to those of metal oxide electrodes, but are not as high as those of most of the metal electrodes normally used in batteries. Therefore, it is an advantage in conventional battery designs to use the conducting polymer as a positive electrode material in combination with a negative electrode such as Li, Na, Mg, Zn, MeH{sub x}, etc. 504 refs.

Novak, P.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section; Santhanam, K.S.V. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)] [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mueller, K.

1997-01-01

187

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global synthesis of the findings from ???140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ???720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Nin??os (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Nin??as (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (??? 10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU change was much greater than climate variability in Niger (Africa), where replacement of savanna by crops increased recharge by about an order of magnitude even during severe droughts. Sensitivity of recharge to LU/LC changes suggests that recharge may be controlled through management of LU. In irrigated areas, recharge varies from 10 to 485 mm year-1, representing 1-25% of irrigation plus precipitation. However, irrigation pumpage in groundwater-fed irrigated areas greatly exceeds recharge rates, resulting in groundwater mining. Increased recharge related to cultivation has mobilized salts that accumulated in the unsaturated zone over millennia, resulting in widespread groundwater and surface water contamination, particularly in Australia. The synthesis of recharge rates provided in this study contains valuable information for developing sustainable groundwater resource programmes within the context of climate variability and LU/LC change. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Scanlon, B. R.; Keese, K. E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Gaye, C. B.; Edmunds, W. M.; Simmers, I.

2006-01-01

188

Groundwater Recharge Rate and Zone Structure Estimation Using PSOLVER Algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

2014-05-01

189

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the aquifer recharge process using isotopic analyses of water ( 2H, 18O, 3H). The first area, centred on the village of Kobio, is the 21-km 2 drainage basin of the Lomona intermittent stream, some 60 km southwest of Niamey (the capital city of Niger). The second area, in the vicinity of Niamey, represents a portion of the Niger basin, draining a surface area many orders of magnitude larger than the Lomona basin. The mean 18O composition of water from all wells in the Kobio aquifer provides evidence for recharge by evaporated water. This is confirmed by the concomitant increase of 18O content with rising static water levels as recharge proceeded. Tritium data suggest progressive aging of the Kobio aquifer water in the flow direction inferred from static water levels, with a down-gradient depletion of 18O composition, suggesting that `enriched' recharge water is progressively mixed with `depleted' aquifer water. Recharge by a reach of the Lomona is proposed to explain these results. In the Niamey area wells, the 18O time series clearly define an injection of evaporated water from the surface into the fractured aquifer. This recharging plume of evaporated water most likely originates from the Niger River. Thus, isotope data for two drainage basins of very different sizes indicate that aquifers are recharged by water from the rivers and that the flow regime of surface waters controls the recharge process.

Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Oga, Marie Solange

1997-10-01

190

Fossil Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

Crank, Ron

191

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

192

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

193

Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

2001-01-01

194

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

1994-11-01

195

Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

Manzo, Michelle A.

2003-01-01

196

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

197

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

1993-08-01

198

Quantifying the modern recharge of the "fossil" Sahara aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS), one of the world's largest groundwater systems, shows an overall piezometric decline associated with increasing withdrawals. Estimating the recharge rate in such a semiarid system is challenging but crucial for sustainable water development. In this paper, the recharge of the NWSAS is estimated using a regional water budget based on GRACE terrestrial water storage monthly records, soil moisture from the GLDAS (a land data system that assimilates hydrological information), and groundwater pumping rates. A cumulated natural recharge rate of 1.40 ± 0.90 km3 yr-1is estimated for the two main aquifers. Our results suggest a renewal rate of about 40% which partly contradicts the premise that recharge in this area should be very low or even null. Aquifer depletion inferred from our analysis is consistent with observed piezometric head decline in the two main aquifers in the region. Annual recharge variations were also estimated and vary between 0 and 4.40 km3 yr-1for the period 2003-2010. These values correspond to a recharge between 0 and 6.75 mm yr-1 on the 650,000 km2of outcropping areas of the aquifers, which is consistent with the expected weak and sporadic recharge in this semiarid environment. These variations are also in line with annual rainfall variation with a lag time of about 1 year.

GonçAlvèS, J.; Petersen, J.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Baba-Sy, O.

2013-06-01

199

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

200

Spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture samples obtained from unsaturated-zone profiles in sands from northern Nigeria were used to obtain recharge estimates using the chloride (Cl) mass-balance method and to produce records of past recharge and climatic events. Recharge rates range from 14-49 mm/year, on the basis of unsaturated-zone Cl values and rainfall chemistry measured over eight years at three local stations. The unsaturated-zone results also provide a record of the changing recharge and climatic events of the past 80 years; this record compares quite well with modelling results using precipitation data from Maiduguri, especially for the late 20th-century period of drought. The best fit for the model is made, however, by using a lower mean rainfall Cl (0.65 mg/l) than that obtained from the mean of the field results (1.77 mg/l Cl). This result implies that the measured rainfall Cl probably overestimates the depositional flux of Cl, although the lower value is comparable to the minimum of the measured rainfall Cl values (0.6 mg/l Cl). Recharge estimates made using these lower Cl values range from 16-30 mm/year. The spatial variability was then determined using results from 360 regional shallow wells over 18,000 km2. Using the revised rainfall estimate, the Cl balance indicates a value of 43 mm for the regional recharge, suggesting that either additional preferential flow is taking place over and above that from the vadose one, or that the regional recharge represents inputs from earlier wetter periods. These recharge estimates compare favourably with those from hydraulic modelling in the same area and suggest that the recharge rates are much higher than values previously published for this area. High nitrate (NO3) concentrations (NO3-N>Cl) preserved under aerobic conditions in the vadose zone reflect secondary enrichment from N-fixing vegetation, as occurs elsewhere in the Sahel.

Edmunds, W. M.; Fellman, E.; Goni, I. B.; Prudhomme, C.

2002-02-01

201

Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.

2013-06-01

202

Fuel substitution and efficient woodstoves: Are they the answers to the fuelwood supply problem in Northern Nigeria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuelwood consumption in Northern Nigeria exceeds the sustainable production, and the deficit is currently met through long-distance transport from the southern part of the country at an artificially low cost Current household fuel consumption patterns and factors affecting stove choice are discussed. Little has been done to promote more efficient woodstoves in the region, but prospects for stove programs are

Eric L. Hyman

1994-01-01

203

Heat Tracing Percolation in Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation rates in Managed Aquifer Rechage (MAR) facilities, such as recharge basins and stream channels, can vary widely through both time and space. Natural variations in sediment hydraulic conductivity can create 'dead zones' in which percolation rates are negligible. Clogging is a constant problem, leading to decays in facility percolation rates . Measuring percolation rate variations is important for management, maintenance, and remediation of surface MAR facilities We have used Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS) to monitor percolation in two very different recharge facilities. The first is a small (2 ha) nearly round recharge basin of homogeneous sediment type in which water balance can be closely monitored. The second is a long narrow river channel separated from an active river by a levee. The alluvial sediment in the river channel varies widely in texture and water balance is difficult to monitor independently. Both facilities were monitored by trenching in fiber optic cable and measuring the propagation rate of the diurnal temperature oscillations carried downward with infiltrating water. In this way, heat was used as a tracer of percolation rates along the section defined by the trenched cable (400 and 1600 m, respectively). We were able to confirm the FODTS measurements of percolation in the recharge basin and demonstrate its wide applicability in the river channel. Results from the measurements have been used to understand both the hydraulic behavior of percolation in the facilities and to make management decisions regarding facility operations and the potential need for additional surface sediment remediation. Estimation of specific discharge (m/day) through the basin using the wavelet method. Basin stage is shown above

Becker, M.; Ellis, W.; Bauer, B.; Hutchinson, A.

2013-12-01

204

Evaluation of groundwater recharge in Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin for specific rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound groundwater resources planning and management are lack in the Choushui River alluvial fan, resulting in the occurrence of serious land subsidence and seawater intrusion. Even the disasters induced by overpumping of groundwater pose a potential threat on the Taiwan High Speed Rail. In addition to improving the water resources management in the alluvial fan, the development of groundwater resources in the neighboring hills. Mingchu Basin, which is located on the midstream segment of the Choushui River and comprised of the gravel formation of Pleistocene, is an effective solution to resolve the problem in limited water resources. Moreover, the Dongpurui River and Qingshui River both converge into Choushui River in this basin. Because of wide drainage areas and good hydrogeological conditions, the Mingchu Basin is considered a high potential recharging region of groundwater. This work is to evaluate the groundwater recharge in the Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin, using the WASH123D model equipped with the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) to simulate the interaction of surface water and groundwater for specific five rainfall events. This study particularly focuses on the simulation of the groundwater flow, and evaluates the effect of different rainfall events on the groundwater recharge. First, to meet in-situ hydrogeological structure and hydraulic parameters, the GMS is used to construct hydrogeological database, mesh, hydrogeological parameters, initial condition and boundary conditions. Then, simulated parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and pumping rates, need to be calibrated and verified in the model. After the calibration and verification, the simulated groundwater flow can reflect actual groundwater situation. Finally, when specific five rainfall events impose on the ground, groundwater recharge can be determined using the groundwater model.

Lin, Zong Sheng; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

2014-05-01

205

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

2010-10-27

206

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE/DISCHARGE, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality and Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Groundwater Recharge/Discharge digital data to enhance planning, siting ...

207

Waste Water Recharge and Dispersion in Porous Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recharge and disposal of treated and untreated waste waters in aquifers results in a mixing of these waters with the natural groundwater. The distribution and boundaries of the ensuing mixture are determined by dispersion and diffusion. This study inc...

J. A. Hoopes D. R. F. Harleman

1965-01-01

208

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rec...

P. Barney R. G. Jungst C. O'Gorman T. L. Paez A. Urbina

1998-01-01

209

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc/Air Battery Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance characteristics of the Yardney 20 AH Zinc/Air mechanically rechargeable systems are discussed in the light of the high power output requirements of the Technical Guidelines. Several design changes and improvements were incorporated into the bi...

R. F. Chireau R. G. Gunther

1972-01-01

210

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell\\/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

P. N. Jr

1988-01-01

211

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

212

ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

Reichard, Eric, G.; Bredehoeft, John, D.

1984-01-01

213

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions...

D. H. Doughty

1995-01-01

214

Transition Metal Compounds as Cathodic Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison was made between rechargeable lithium batteries, based on lithium intercalation or lithium interstitial compounds of transition metal chalcogenides or oxides, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Several chalcogenides and oxides show promise as cath...

H. F. Hunger J. E. Ellison

1977-01-01

215

Status of the Development of Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cel...

G. Halpert S. Surampudi D. Shen C. Huang S. Narayanan

1993-01-01

216

Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

1993-01-01

217

Graphite fiber as a positive electrode of rechargeable lithium cells  

SciTech Connect

Graphite compounds have gained interest as possible positive electrodes for rechargeable lithium cells. Their charge-discharge characteristics have been studied in organic electrolytic solutions such as sulfolane dimethylsulfite, and propylene carbonate.

Matsuda, Y.; Katsuma, H.; Morita, M.

1984-01-01

218

Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

2010-01-01

219

Fuel substitution and efficient woodstoves: Are they the answers to the fuelwood supply problem in Northern Nigeria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuelwood consumption in Northern Nigeria exceeds the sustainable production, and the deficit is currently met through long-distance\\u000a transport from the southern part of the country at an artificially low cost Current household fuel consumption patterns and\\u000a factors affecting stove choice are discussed. Little has been done to promote more efficient woodstoves in the region, but\\u000a prospects for stove programs are

Eric L. Hyman

1994-01-01

220

Estimating ground-water recharge from streamflow records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate ground-water recharge based on the investigation of the balance between ground-water recharge and discharge from streamflow hydrographs. Two methods of hydrograph analysis are employed in a case study of Cho-Shui River basin, Taiwan. The first is the recession-curve-displacement method, which assumes the linearity of the master recession curve while the profile of

Wei-Ping Chen; Cheng-Haw Lee

2003-01-01

221

Delineating volcanic aquifer recharge areas using geochemical and isotopic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative recharge areas are evaluated using geochemical and isotopic tools, and inverse modeling. Geochemistry and water quality\\u000a in springs discharging from a volcanic aquifer system in Guatemala are related to relative recharge area elevations and land\\u000a use. Plagioclase feldspar and olivine react with volcanically derived CO2 to produce Ca-montmorillonite, chalcedony and goethite in the groundwater. Alkalinity, Mg, Ca, Na, and

Brendan M. Mulligan; M. Cathryn Ryan; Tomás Padilla Cámbara

222

An approach for predicting groundwater recharge in mountainous watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPredicting groundwater supply for an entire watershed in mountainous terrain required an approach that considered a wide range in data availability between valley bottom and headwater areas, large change in elevation, and steep topography. The methodology utilized the MIKE-SHE numerical code to simulate overland flow, actual evapotranspiration and recharge for data-rich areas, and a simpler, seasonal water budget for data-limited areas. Recharge estimates were combined to form spatially variable recharge boundary conditions for a larger-scale groundwater flow model of the entire mountainous watershed. Research focused on the BX Creek watershed, located in the north Okanagan Basin in British Columbia, one of Canada's fastest growing and most water-limited regions. Groundwater recharge was found to vary from 0 to 20 mm/yr at lower elevations, and from 20 to 50 mm/yr at higher elevations. Simulation of the whole flow system illustrated that 58% of the groundwater flux from upland areas occurs through a relatively narrow alluvial fan aquifer that extends to the valley bottom, and the remaining recharge is nearly equally divided between groundwater flow through the mountain block (20%) and direct recharge (22%). Geochemical data from domestic water wells within the watershed suggest that water in the alluvial aquifer and bedrock are generally similar (i.e., common origin); however, stable isotope data indicate that groundwater in the alluvial aquifer may be derived from snowmelt recharge at a different time and elevation than snowmelt recharge to the bedrock. The combination of modelling results and complimentary geochemical and isotopic analyses of surface water and groundwater, provide an adequate first-order approximation of groundwater flow in the watershed.

Smerdon, B. D.; Allen, D. M.; Grasby, S. E.; Berg, M. A.

2009-02-01

223

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1989-06-27

224

Electrochemical behavior of hydrated molybdenum oxides in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide-hydrates of molybdenum (OHM) are investigated as 3-volt cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. These\\u000a materials with different water content showed a much better performance than that of MoO3 as cathode of the rechargeable lithium battery. We report the electrochemical characteristics of Li\\/\\/OHM batteries using\\u000a the oxides and oxide-hydrates of molybdenum which were synthesized from molybdic acid. The oxide has

B. Yebka; C. Julien; G. A. Nazri

1999-01-01

225

Inorganic electrolyte Li\\/CuCl2 rechargeable cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable lithium battery using a cathode of copper(II) chloride and an electrolyte consisting of LiAlCl4.3SO2 has been developed. The efficiency of lithium plating was evaluated in lithium-limited prototype cells. Cathode rechargeability was evaluated in cathode-limited prototypes, and system energy density was demonstrated by use of a wound D cell. The use of an electrolyte system which reacts reversibly with

A. N. Dey; W. L. Bowden; H. C. Kuo; M. L. Gopikanth; C. Schlaikjer; D. Foster

1989-01-01

226

Rechargeable Li\\/V2O5 D cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on practical ambient temperature rechargeable lithium cells and batteries using V2O5. V2 O5 has interesting characteristics as a positive for lithium rechargeable cells. The material can be used to a 2.8 V discharge cutoff (upper plateau) or to 2 V. The development of practical D size cells for both uses is discussed, and capacity retention date and

R. J. Staniewicz; A. Romero; M. Broussely; J. M. Bodet; J. Labat

1992-01-01

227

Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.  

PubMed

Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. PMID:21434908

Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

2012-01-01

228

Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

2013-06-01

229

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01

230

Feasibility of artificial recharge to the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation in the coastal plain near Atlantic City, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renewed development of the Atlantic City area since the mid-1970 's has increased the demand for water. Increased pumpage from the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation has reversed an antecedent water-level recovery in this aquifer, thus reducing water in storage and increasing the potential for saltwater intrusion. Practicable approaches to providing a dependable water supply while properly managing withdrawals from the 800-foot sand include development of surface- and ground-water supplies but artificial recharging the 800-foot sand is the principal alternative discussed. Investigation of its feasibility locally included a review of methods of artificial recharge and attendant operational problems, investigation of local hydrogeologic conditions, and collection and interpretation of water-quality data. System design and quality of injected water are important for successful artificial recharge. Mixtures of water from the 800-foot sand and from a representative local public-supply system may become supersaturated with oxygen. Significant temperature differences between two such waters would likely exacerbate that condition. Limited chemical analyses suggest that suspended solids concentration of water from local public supplies may at times be high enough to cause clogging of recharge-well screens. These problems are soluable by appropriate conditioning of recharge water. (USGS)

May, J. E.

1985-01-01

231

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

232

Rechargeable wireless EMG sensor for prosthetic control.  

PubMed

Surface electrodes in modern myoelectric prosthetics are often embedded in the prosthesis socket and make contact with the skin. These electrodes detect and amplify muscle action potentials from voluntary contractions of the muscle in the residual limb and are used to control the prosthetic's movement and function. There are a number of performance-related deficiencies associated with external electrodes including the maintenance of sufficient electromyogram (EMG) signal amplitude, extraneous noise acquisition, and proper electrode interface maintenance that are expected to be improved or eliminated using the proposed implanted sensors. This research seeks to investigate the design components for replacing external electrodes with fully-implantable myoelectric sensors that include a wireless interface to the prosthetic limbs. This implanted technology will allow prosthetic limb manufacturers to provide products with increased performance, capability, and patient-comfort. The EMG signals from the intramuscular recording electrode are amplified and wirelessly transmitted to a receiver in the prosthetic limb. Power to the implant is maintained using a rechargeable battery and an inductive energy transfer link from the prosthetic. A full experimental system was developed to demonstrate that a wireless biopotential sensor can be designed that meets the requirements of size, power, and performance for implantation. PMID:21095801

Lichter, P A; Lange, E H; Riehle, T H; Anderson, S M; Hedin, D S

2010-01-01

233

Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.  

PubMed

Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities. PMID:24164580

Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-01-01

234

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-09-01

235

Organic electrolyte for use in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said organic electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates in general to use of an organic electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte; and, in particular, to the use of 1 to 2 mol\\/dm³ LiAsFâ in dimethylcarbonate (DMC) or 1 to 2 mol\\/dm³ LiAsFâ in (DMC) mixtures with methyl formate (MF) in which the mass percent

E. J. Plichta; S. M. Slane; M. Salomon

1987-01-01

236

Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years. Analysis of water-level and temporal-gravity data were used to estimate recharge volumes. Data presented in this chapter were collected from 1999 though 2002. Precipitation and streamflow during this period were less than the long-term average; however, two periods of significant streamflow resulted in recharge?one in the summer of 1999 and the other in the fall/winter of 2000. Flux estimates of infiltration and recharge vary from less than 0.1 to 1.0 cubic meter per second per kilometer of streamflow. Recharge-flux estimates are larger than infiltration estimates. Larger recharge fluxes than infiltration fluxes are explained by the scale of measurements. Methods used to estimate recharge rates incorporate the largest volumetric and temporal scales and are likely to have fluxes from other nearby sources, such as unmeasured tributaries, whereas the methods used to estimate infiltration incorporate the smallest scales, reflecting infiltration rates at individual measurement sites.

Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

2007-01-01

237

Fundamental Concepts of Recharge in the Desert Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge in arid basins does not occur in all years or at all locations. To address the temporal and spatial variability of recharge, one must (1) distinguish between recharge and net infiltration, (2) understand travel time in the unsaturated zone, and (3) comprehend the local- and basin-scale deterministic processes and surficial properties that control net infiltration. Net infiltration is the quantity of water that moves below the zone of surface evapotranspiration whereas recharge is the quantity or process of water entering the saturated zone. Under steady-state conditions, net infiltration becomes recharge unless diverted to an area of spring flow, generally by laterally extensive, low-permeability rock. The rate of net infiltration, thickness of unsaturated zone, and the effective porosity of the flow-pathway control travel time through the unsaturated zone. Net infiltration and recharge vary spatially owing to variations in surface microclimates, root zone and unconsolidated material thickness, faults and fractures, and thickness and hydrologic properties of geologic strata in the unsaturated zone. Although temporal fluctuations in net infiltration diminish with depth, resultant recharge is expected to vary on timescales of days to centuries making decadal-scale climate cycles significant to understanding recharge. Results of model simulations of recharge indicate that net infiltration occurs in less than 5 percent of the area of a typical southwest basin and only when the surface-water supply exceeds the storage capacity of the root zone and evapotranspiration over a fixed period of time. The critical components controlling net infiltration and recharge are precipitation, as rain or snow (and snow accumulation and melt); infiltration and water storage capacity of the overlying soil (within the zone of evapotranspiration); potential and actual evapotranspiration; and bedrock permeability. In the desert Southwest, potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation on a yearly basis. However, on shorter time scales and in certain areas of a basin, precipitation and (or) snowmelt exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil and becomes runoff or exceed the storage capacity of the soil and becomes runoff in shallow soils or percolates below the root zone in deeper soils. A method to simulate the spatial and temporal variability of net infiltration was developed using a deterministic water-balance model and extensive GIS coverages. The GIS coverages include a digital elevation model and maps of geology, soils, vegetation, precipitation, and air temperature. Other required surficial properties for the model, such as permeability, porosity, and water-retention functions, have been calculated from associated data sets. The deterministic model identifies the areas and climatic conditions that allow for excess water, quantifies the amount of water available either as runoff or in-place recharge, and allows inter-basin comparison of recharge mechanisms (i.e. mountain front, mountain block, ephemeral stream) and potential recharge for current, wetter, and drier climates. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be estimated if unsaturated zone thickness and permeability data are available. The model, which uses a monthly time step, is being used to evaluate the role of decadal-scale climate cycles (El Niño/La Niña and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) and recharge potential at a pixel scale (generally 30 - 90 meters) across the entire desert Southwest.

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Blainey, J. B.; Hevesi, J. A.

2001-12-01

238

Coupling Stormwater Capture and Managed Aquifer Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are quantifying the performance of a system that couples stormwater capture and managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Our field site is a working ranch in the Pajaro Valley, central coastal California, where runoff from ~125 acres of farmed and grazed land is directed into a 2.5-acre infiltration basin. Stormwater captured for MAR at this site would otherwise be routed off the property and eventually into the ocean. We instrumented the site prior to the start of the 2013 water year (1 October 2012) to measure local precipitation, total inflow to the basin, and point-specific infiltration rates across the bottom of the basin using heat as a tracer. We also deployed sediment measurement and collection instruments to quantify the amount, texture, and biochemical nature of sediment accumulating in the basin, and to evaluate associated maintenance requirements for the system. The 2013 water year was relatively dry, with total precipitation less than 50% of the long-term average for this region; most of this precipitation occurred in December 2012. Water level and flow records indicate 17 distinct rain events that generated runoff, most early in the water year. The total inflow to the infiltration basin was 4.1 x 104 m3, equivalent to ~33 ac-ft. During a water year with average precipitation, it appears that this system could collect 80-100 ac-ft of runoff. There was up to 10 cm of sediment accumulation in some parts of the infiltration basin by the end of the rainy season. Sediment samples collected at the end of the season are being processed for analysis of sediment distribution and character. Thermal data are being analyzed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in infiltration rates across the basin. These data will be combined to assess the efficacy of coupling stormwater capture and MAR, and can guide future projects in this region of high groundwater demand and limited resources.

Beganskas, S.; Hill, C. L.; Fisher, A. T.; Los Huertos, M.

2013-12-01

239

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

1973-01-01

240

Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

1980-03-01

241

Estimating infiltration recharge using a response function model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall infiltration influences both the quantity and quality of groundwater systems. The knowledge of the process of infiltration recharge is of great importance to the management of groundwater systems and the hydraulically connected streams. In this study, a response function model is developed to estimate soil water flux at the water table or the process of infiltration recharge from rainfall and evaporation data. The gamma probability density function is modified to represent the travel time distribution of infiltrating water by rainfall events. The travel time distribution is used to determine the recharge process according to the effective infiltration of a rainfall event. The effective infiltration is the amount of soil water pushed down into groundwater by infiltrating water of a rainfall event and is evaluated based on the vadose-zone soil water balance. Superposition is employed to compute the recharge rate produced by a sequence of rainfall events. Estimations of soil water flux at different groundwater depths are compared with lysimetric observations in the field. Good agreements between the estimated and observed results confirm the reliability of the response function model for predicting infiltration recharge processes.

Wu, Jinquan; Zhang, Renduo; Yang, Jinzhong

1997-11-01

242

Energy harvesting by implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantable glucose fuel cells are a promising approach to realize an autonomous energy supply for medical implants that solely relies on the electrochemical reaction of oxygen and glucose. Key advantage over conventional batteries is the abundant availability of both reactants in body fluids, rendering the need for regular replacement or external recharging mechanisms obsolete. Implantable glucose fuel cells, based on

S. Kerzenmacher; J. Ducrée; R. Zengerle; F. von Stetten

2008-01-01

243

Fuel cell\\/lithium-ion battery hybrid for manportable applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we have demonstrated a hybrid system of a fuel cell and rechargeable battery with pulse power capability. It successfully ran a pulse power load simulation synonymous with military electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 35 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a Li-ion battery. Two cyclic regimes were utilized.

L. P. Jarvis; P. J. Cygan; M. P. Roberts

2002-01-01

244

Hydrogeological evaluation of an over-exploited aquifer in Dhaka, Bangladesh towards the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population of Dhaka City is presently about 12 million and according to present trends in population growth, that number will most likely increase to 17.2 million by the year 2025. A serious water crisis is expected due to the extremely limited quality and quantity of water resources in the region. Previous studies have shown that the current trend in groundwater resource development is non-sustainable due to over-exploitation of the regional aquifer system, resulting in rapidly decreasing groundwater levels of about 2 to 3 meters per year. Today, annual groundwater extraction clearly exceeds natural groundwater recharge. New water management strategies are needed to guarantee future generations of Dhaka City a secured and sustained water supply as well as sustainable development of the city. The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is one potential measure. As the first step towards a new water management strategy for Dhaka City, the authors report on the hydrogeological conditions of the greater Dhaka region and from this are able to present the location of potential recharge sites and identify appropriate recharge technologies for AR implementation. The aquifers of greater Dhaka can be grouped in three major categories: Holocene Deposit, Pleistocene Deposit and Plio-Pleistocene Deposit. The aquifers are generally thick and multilayered with relatively high transmissivity and storage coefficients. AR is considered feasible due to the fact these aquifers are alluvium deposit aquifers which characteristically have moderate to high hydraulic conductivity. Low costs for recovery of recharged water and large recharge volume capacity are generally associated with aquifers of unconsolidated sediments. Spatial analysis of the region has shown that Karaniganj, Kotoali, Savar, Dhamrai, Singair upazila, which are situated in greater Dhaka region and close to Dhaka City, could serve as recharge sites to the subsurface by pond infiltration technique. A study involving the use of a 3-D mathematical model shows that the abstraction or recharge in the area within and around Dhaka City does not affect the groundwater level below the city. Therefore, in order to improve the groundwater level, artificial groundwater recharge directly at the city area would be mostly appropriate. As the thickness of the surface impermeable layer varies from 5 m to 45 m, the combination of infiltration and injection technology would be a proper choice. Detailed studies are required using the most appropriate state of the art spatial analysis to support the final selection and ranking of suitable locations for the AR facilities, according to flood risk, urbanization, underground characteristics, water sources, AR technology and later use of the recovered water. Groundwater quality data reveal that the upper aquifer below Dhaka City contains relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions, quite variable in space. The ground water is predominantly of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. Cation exchange and oxidation may enhance the biogeochemical processes in the aquifer under the existing prevailing conditions. Many reports conclude that that the groundwater chemistry of the upper aquifer has been influenced by various anthropogenic processes, showing wide variations of groundwater quality depending on the area, which would complicate the implementation of AR projects. The preliminary evaluation of the potential for AR implementation, considering environmental and social impacts, as well as the available water sources for infiltration and injection (conventional or non-conventional), AR may be considered a viable response measure with regards to the problems Dhaka City is facing. Without the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge or similar measures, groundwater availability and groundwater quality will further decrease and serious water crisis are to be expected. Measures to avoid groundwater contamination must also be taken to complement the benefits provided by AR implementation.

Azizur Rahman, M.; Rusteberg, Bernd; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

245

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of the ponds. The artificial recharge project loops the water cycle: extracted water goes to the users and their waste water is purified and re-used. Therefore, it is an example of sustainable water management in coastal aquifers. Groundwater flow of this recharge site has been examined in the past by the use of a tracer test, hydrochemistry (environmental isotopes, conservative tracers) and groundwater flow modelling. Temperature, however, forms a relatively easy measurement which can add to or confirm the knowledge of the groundwater flow. Temperature time series (temperature as function of time) were measured at different levels in a number of wells located between the recharge ponds and the extraction wells, and in one well south of the recharge and extraction area. Secondly, temperature logs (temperature as function of depth) were measured in these wells at different times over the course of 2 years. Finally, the temperature of the recharged and extracted water is constantly monitored by the water company. The temperature of the recharge water shows a yearly fluctuation, ranging from 25 °C during summer to slightly above 0 °C during the winter. The temperature of the extracted water (combination of water extracted in all the wells) ranges between 17 °C during summer and 10 °C during winter. Minima and maxima in the extracted water are observed between 76 and 110 days (mean of 90 days and standard deviation of 13.5 days) later in the extracted water with respect to the recharged water. Measurements show that the difference in time when maxima and minima are observed in an observation well with reference to the ponds increases with depth (for instance from 28 days 4.1 m below surface to 154 days 10 m below surface for an observation well at 10 m from the ponds). This confirms previous flow modelling which showed that groundwater flows relatively rapidly laterally from the recharge ponds towards the extraction wells. Additionally, part of the recharge water flows in a deeper flow cycle towards the extraction wells. Residence times in this deeper flow cycle are evidently larger than in the direct lateral flow cycle from the ponds towards the wells. This explains the increase with depth. The 154 days (with respect to a mean time of 90 days) points to the fact that the extracted water contains a large spectrum of residence times with mean of 90 days for the heat transport, as was also derived by the flow modelling previously

Vandenbohede, Alexander; van Houtte, Emmanuel; Lebbe, Luc

2010-05-01

246

Evaluation of artificial groundwater recharge effects with MIKE-SHE: a case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many areas where the technical and financial resources are limited, the treatment and disposal of wastewater comprise a problem. With increasing frequency, the wastewater reuse is considered as another alternative for water management alternative. In this way, the wastewater is converted into an added value resource. Treated wastewater infiltration into the soil could be a viable tertiary treatment, especially for small communities where the availability of land is not a problem and the wastewater has not industrial waste contribution and is highly biodegradable. The Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain) develops non-conventional wastewater treatments for small villages. Currently, a project regarding wastewater reutilization for aquifer recharge through a horizontal permeable reactive barrier and a subsequent soil infiltration is being carried out. One of the aspects to be evaluated within this context is the impact on aquifer. Consequently, the main goal of the present study is to assess the effects on the water flow derived from the future recharge activities by using the MIKE-SHE hydrological code. The unsaturated and saturated zones have been integrated in the model, which requires geological, land use, topography, piezometric head, soil and climate data to build up the model. The obtained results from the model show that with the annual recharge volume contributed by the experimental plant (3 m3 or 0.19 L/s) there is no effect in the groundwater flow. A volume of 400 m3/year (25 L/s) would be required to yield a variation in the piezometric head and therefore, in the groundwater flow i.e. a volume about 100 times larger than the estimated is necessary. To calibrate the model, simulated piezometric head values have been compared to the measured field data at a number of locations. In the calibration, the percent error had to be lower than 15 % at each location. Future works concerning groundwater quality and reactive transport modelling should be undertaken in order to get a more accurate impact evaluation of the recharge activities.

Leal, M.; Martínez-García, I.; Carreño, F.; de Bustamante, I.; Lillo, J.

2012-04-01

247

Using stable isotopes of water to re-evaluate the recharge/discharge functions of North American bogs and fens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In North American mires hydrologists commonly find raised bog crests and low-lying fen water tracks to be focal points for groundwater recharge and discharge, respectively. To further test these observations we synoptically surveyed vertical profiles of peat pore water ?18O/?2H and major mineral solutes from a range of bog and fen landforms across the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota. We also sampled a detailed transect through a 150 km2 bog-fen complex in the Red Lake II peatland watershed of the GLAP. The molar ratios of Ca/Mg in the pore water beneath the Red Lake II bog crest are depleted in Mg with respect to the atmospheric average of 3.6, indicative of preferential flushing of Mg from the peat by meteoric recharge. Higher solute concentrations in the middle of the peat profile at an adjacent fen show focused groundwater discharge with Ca/Mg ratios of ~1.4, similar to that of water from local wells tapping underlying glacial till. However, contrary to expectations, we find evidence that modern recharge has penetrated throughout the peat column beneath both bog and fen landforms throughout the GLAP. Landform surface features control the isotopic recharge value. These landform-specific isotope signatures propagate through vertical pore water profiles. Pore waters deeper than 0.5 m partition into discrete ranges of ?18O according to three a priori landform classifications: 1) -11.9 ± 0.4 o for bog crests, 2) -10.6 ± 0.1 o for Sphagnum lawns, and 3) -8.8 ± 1.0 o for fen water tracks. The fen water tracks have standing water at their surface that is seasonally enriched by isotope fractionating evaporation and therefore fingerprints recharge to depths ?3 m. Incongruities between isotope and solute mixing trends may be related to the dual porosity nature of peat and matrix diffusion, which could supply solutes to active pore spaces following flushing by meteoric recharge. This buffering of base solutes in the deep peat may influence methanogenic bacteria that are sensitive to pH. Our results support the hypothesis that the downward transport of labile carbon substrates from the surface of northern peat basins fuels methane production in deeper peat strata.

Levy, Zeno; Siegel, Donald; Glaser, Paul; Dasgupta, Soumitri

2014-05-01

248

Hydrogeology of Regional Valley Fill Aquifers with Mountain System Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in the North Okanagan was investigated using an integrated physical, geochemical and numerical approach. The North Okanagan Groundwater Characterization and Assessment (NOGWCA) project began with an investigation of the geology and hydrostratigraphy of the North Okanagan region. The Deep Creek and Fortune Creek watersheds were found to contain multiple valley-fill aquifers which are recharged via mountain system recharge (MSR) and direct recharge to unconfined aquifers in the valley bottom. Detailed hydrometric data indicates groundwater recharge within the alluvial fan of Fortune Creek, and discharge to surface water in the lower reaches of Deep Creek. Valley side recharge from the adjacent mountains generates artesian conditions in the valley center. Physical hydrogeological measurements and groundwater and surface water geochemistry were used to determine the overall groundwater flow regime, inter-aquifer exchange and surface-water groundwater interactions. Conservative elements and deuterium/oxygen isotopes were used in a mixing cell model (MCM) approach to assess groundwater flow between aquifers. Efforts to accurately quantify and understand MSR are hampered by sparse data on the geochemical character of bedrock aquifers. Watershed scale recharge estimates and water balances were derived from a regional integrated climate dataset coupled to FEFLOW simulations. The first stage modeled steady state conditions within the main valley center aquifer. Integrated surface water and groundwater modeling is to be carried out in the future. The groundwater flow modeling will contribute to subsequent water management decisions at the watershed scale. Climate change and economic change scenarios will be considered in the integrated surface water and groundwater modeling.

Ping, J.; Nichol, C.; Wei, A.

2009-05-01

249

Study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transport...

E. M. Murphy J. E. Szercsody

1991-01-01

250

77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small...15 min). Results of EFB thermal runaway on flightdeck...

2012-02-14

251

Transmission losses, infiltration and groundwater recharge through ephemeral and intermittent streambeds: A review of applied methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overview of methods to quantify recharge in ephemeral and intermittent streams.Provides temporal and spatial scales of recharge measured using each method.Identifies gaps in the literature and suggests future directions.

Shanafield, Margaret; Cook, Peter G.

2014-04-01

252

Thin rechargeable batteries for CMOS SRAM memory protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-02-01

253

Thin rechargeable batteries for CMOS SRAM memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-01-01

254

Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

dell, R. M.

255

A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

1988-01-01

256

Current state, problems, and prospects of development of the fuel and power industry of the Russian Federation  

SciTech Connect

Despite the political and territorial changes that have occurred in the former USSR, the Russian Federation as before remains the core of the entire energy supply system of countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the three Baltic States, as well as an exporter of oil and gas to European countries. Demonstrated gas reserves in Russia amount to 47 trillion cubic meters and coal reserves more than 200 billion tons. With the dissolution of the USSR, the infrastructure of the entire region was affected. The main production of pipes remained in Ukraine and 80% of the production of oil equipment remained in Azerbaijan. The majority of underground gas storage facilities, refineries, and electric-power installations constructed during the past 20 years remained in Belarus, Baltic Countries, and Ukraine. To solve some of the problems, laws were passed that aimed at the formation of market relations in the economy and power industry. The transition to a market economy in the oil and gas industry should take 5-7 years and has a large effect on the overall markets reforms taking place. The article also outlines the history and present state of petroleum reserves and development in Russia.

Shatalov, A.T.

1994-09-01

257

Ground-Water Recharge Through Active Sand Dunes in Northwestern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water-resouree investigations in semiarid basins of the Great Basin in western North America conclude that groundwater recharge from direct precipitation on the valley floor is negligible. However, many of these basins contain large areas covered by unvegetated, active sand dunes that may act as conduits for ground-water recharge. The potential for this previously undocumented recharge was investigated in an

David L. Berger

1992-01-01

258

A dimensionless number describing the effects of recharge and geometry on discharge from simple karstic aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of karstic aquifers to storms are often used to obtain information about aquifer geometry. In general, spring hydrographs are a function of both system geometry and recharge. However, the majority of prior work on storm pulses through karst has not studied the effect of recharge on spring hydrographs. To examine the relative importance of geometry and recharge, we

M. D. Covington; C. M. Wicks; M. O. Saar

2009-01-01

259

WASTEWATER CONTAMINATE REMOVAL FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second report in a series which describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a g...

260

Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

Heilweil, V. M.; Watt, D. E.

2011-01-01

261

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc/Air Battery Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program of study, design and development leading to the fabrication of new high performance 20 amphere hour mechanically rechargeable zinc/air batteries capable of meeting the requirements listed in the U.S. Army Electronics Command...

R. F. Chireau

1973-01-01

262

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the

Philip N

1989-01-01

263

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is an Atlanta based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc air battery system. The primary advantage of the AER Energy Advanced Technology Battery is that its energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead acid batteries, and fifty percent higher than lithium ion batteries. This

M. Schimpf

1995-01-01

264

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through

P. N. Jr

1989-01-01

265

Recent advances in rechargeable zinc-air battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy's battery development effort is focused on improving the zinc-air rechargeable battery system to serve the portable computer market. Therefore system attributes such as energy density, power, life, form factor, environmental impact and safety are areas of active investigation. The battery system consists of cells in series, an air manager housing and an electronic control system for battery charge

D. Sieminski

1997-01-01

266

Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

1993-01-01

267

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy-policy and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in a myriad of applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios

Julie A. Banner; Clinton S. Winchester

1996-01-01

268

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attribute...

J. B. Bates N. J. Dudney C. D. Evans F. X. Hart

1999-01-01

269

Method of Increasing the Useful Life of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cycle life of rechargeable lithium batteries is significantly prolonged by applying to the battery as a charging mode a current interrupted at intervals of 1 milliseconds to 9 seconds in a frequency range of about 0.1 to about 10 Hertz.

O. C. Wagner

1986-01-01

270

Rechargeable Battery Management and Recycling: A Green Design Educational Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable battery use is expected to continue growing with the increasing prevalence of portable electronics, appliances, and tools. Batteries represent a large volume of toxic and hazardous materials in common use, and these materials must be managed to avoid or minimize dissipation into the environment. One type of battery widely used in portable applications is nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCds). This module

Rebecca Lankey; Francis McMichael

271

Preliminary Study of Rechargeable Lithium Cells for Space Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research carried out on lithium rechargeable cells using on organic electrolyte and intercalation compounds is described. Metal oxides such as V2O5, MoO3, and MoV2O8 are investigated as possible cathode materials. V2O5 shows the most potential of the thre...

J. Labat J. Goualard

1989-01-01

272

Characterization of Ether Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2Me-THF)/LiAsF6 and several diethyl ether (DEE)/LiAsF6-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li/TiS2 cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at var...

K. M. Abraham J. L. Goldman D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

273

Electrolytic characteristics of fluoromethyl methyl carbonate for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monofluorinated solvents exert the polar effect on various properties. We have investigated the electrolytic properties of fluoromethyl methyl carbonate (FMMC, monofluorinated dimethyl carbonate) and its application to lithium rechargeable batteries. We describe the dependence of electrolytic conductivity on the temperature, the molar concentrations of three lithium salts, and the molar fractions of the binary solvents. The conductivities of the FMMC

Noritoshi Nanbu; Susumu Watanabe; Masahiro Takehara; Makoto Ue; Yukio Sasaki

2009-01-01

274

Development of new safe electrode for lithium rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept cathode was proposed to improve the safety of lithium rechargeable batteries. The cathode contains a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) compound that can drastically increase resistivity at more than a specified temperature (PTC properties). A PTC cathode containing the PTC compound was fabricated and its resistivity was evaluated. The resistivity of PTC cathodes increased by several tens at

Makiko Kise; Shoji Yoshioka; Kouji Hamano; Daigo Takemura; Takashi Nishimura; Hiroaki Urushibata; Hajimu Yoshiyasu

2005-01-01

275

NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

1990-01-01

276

Lithium rechargeable cell with a poly 3-methylthiophene cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) cathode showed excellent coulombic efficiency during cycling in a lithium rechargeable cell. An electrolyte containing dimethyl carbonate was used since it is stable at the high anodic potentials reached during cell charging. The polymer cathode tolerated modest overcharge and was able to continue cycling after a severe short-circuit with minimal loss of capacity.

Charles W. Walker Jr.; Steven M. Slane

1992-01-01

277

Polypyrrole Electrodes as Cathodes in a Rechargeable Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on Li ion rechargeable cells fabricated with polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer cathodes is reported in this paper. The PPy was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of large surfactant anion dodecylbenzene sulphonate. Polyacrylonitrile based solid polymer electrolytes containing lithium triflate and ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticisers were used as the separators. Cycling

K. P. Vidanapathirana; M. A. Careem; S. Skaarup

2002-01-01

278

Rechargeable LiNiO sub 2 \\/carbon cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. In this paper, the authors discuss the factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells. For ease of cell assembly the cathode should be stable in air

J. R. Dahn; U. von Saken; M. W. Juzkow; H. Al-Janaby

1991-01-01

279

Rechargeable LiNiO2\\/carbon cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is

J. R. Dahn; U. von Sacken; M. W. Juzkow; H. Al-Janaby

1991-01-01

280

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni\\/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode

Doughty

1995-01-01

281

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni\\/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode

Doughty

1996-01-01

282

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh\\/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh\\/kg at the C\\/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test

G. Halpert; S. Surampudi; D. Shen; C.-K. Huang; S. Narayanan; E. Vamos; D. Perrone

1993-01-01

283

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN THE CEDAR CREEK WASTEWATER RECLAMATION - RECHARGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cedar Creek Wastewater Reclamation Plant (CCWRP) located in Nassau County, NY is a 0.24 cu m/s (5.5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plant designed to produce a high quality effluent suitable for groundwater recharge. The CCWRP was constructed as a demonstration proje...

284

LOCALIZED RECHARGE INFLUENCES ON MTBE TRANSPORT AND WELL PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vertical characterization of a gasoline release site at East Patchogue, New York showed that methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and aromatic plumes "dived" as they passed beneath a sand pit. That this behavior was caused by aquifer recharge was shown by two pieces of evidence. Fir...

285

Lithium-Air Battery: Study of Rechargeability and Scalability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-air battery is anticipated as the battery with highest energy density among all existing rechargeable battery systems known now. Literature reports suggest that the theoretical energy density of Li-air battery is close to that of gasoline. Thus, i...

M. Nookala

2012-01-01

286

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting

1980-01-01

287

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/Oâ battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

288

Application of the Chloride Mass-balance Approach for Recharge Estimation in a Humid Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge is a critical variable for water-balance within a hydrologic basin, and is thus an essential quantity for evaluating long-term ground-water resource sustainability and quality. Recharge studies have generally focused on arid and semi-arid regions, where water resources are most scarce and recharge is most influenced by near-surface conditions. Recharge processes have been addressed to a lesser degree in humid regions. Furthermore, recharge estimation in humid regions has focused more on regional-scale estimates, either from water-balance models or ground-water flow models. However, to address issues such as focused recharge and land-use impacts on recharge, point or local-scale values of recharge integrated over varying time intervals are necessary. Environmental tracers offer the opportunity to finely quantify recharge spatially and temporally over an area. The utility of tracers in estimating recharge has been demonstrated in arid and semi-arid environments, where the water-balance approaches are inapplicable. In this setting, recharge rates are relatively small compared to the measurements of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). As a result, small errors associated with measurement of P and ET lead to large recharge estimation errors and limit the utility of soil- water balance methods. Applications of environmental tracers to determine recharge through the vadose zone have included chloride, 18O and 2H, and the radioactive isotopes, tritium and 36Cl, with chloride and tritium being the most common tracers used. In this study we use the chloride mass-balance approach, applied to both the vadose and saturated zones, to investigate recharge to a sand aquifer in a humid setting. The results are evaluated in light of the detailed soil and sediment stratigraphy and variations in chloride loading, and compared to recharge rates determined at differing scales using other methods.

Waldron, B.; Larsen, D.

2008-12-01

289

Transient heat and mass transfer modeling aspects of rechargeable lithium/polymer electrolyte batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable lithium/polymer electrolyte batteries have the potential for higher energy density than existing lithium-ion type batteries. However, lithium/polymer batteries have limited cycle life. Discharge capacity is extremely sensitive to temperature and discharge rate, and potential safety problems exist and are related to battery temperature distribution. This dissertation addresses several of these battery performance limiting issues by modeling fundamental heat and mass transfer processes that occur during lithium/polymer battery operation. A transient, three dimensional heat transfer and generation model was developed and applied to a single lithium/poly(ethylene oxide)/titanium disulfide cell. This model can be used to predict the cell temperatures for a new type of thermal battery, namely, a lithium/polymer thermal battery. Fundamental processes that occur at the lithium/polymer electrolyte interface were determined and a diffusion-limited reaction model was proposed to explain the interfacial resistance growth with time. The addition of alumina to the poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte reduces the magnitude and growth rate of the interfacial resistance mainly by serving as a diluent. The cell voltage and discharge capacity as a function of discharge rate for a room temperature rechargeable lithium/polymer electrolyte/lithium manganese oxide cell were accurately simulated by a simple diffusion-limited reaction model and by a transient, two-dimensional mass transfer and generation model. The importance of using the intrinsic lithium chemical diffusion coefficient in modeling lithium insertion cathode materials is addressed.

Fellner, Joseph Phillip

290

Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

Hammond, W.W. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Water Research)

1993-02-01

291

Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kle?e. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it shows tremendous susceptibility of the aquifer to pollution and reinforces the position of groundwater protection zones above aquifer.

Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

2013-04-01

292

Defining Flood Recharge Processes: Lower Bill Williams River, Western Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks provide hydrologic connections between upland and headwater catchments and downstream reaches. In arid and semi-arid regions, full connectivity of a river system is rare and moments of connection may only occur during large flood events. Here we investigate the Bill Williams River, among the most arid river basins in the United States. The aridity of this system-and the associated lack of complicating hillslope processes adjacent to the river-provides a unique opportunity to study flood recharge processes in relative isolation. During all but the highest flows, the river infiltrates completely at the east end of Planet Valley and reemerges at the west end where it enters the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Determining the source of baseflow in the lower Bill Williams/NWR, and the residence time of this water in the Planet Valley aquifer, will provide insight into the dependence of streamflow on earlier recharge-inducing floods. Defining this dependence more clearly is the next step toward a detailed knowledge of the long-term, basin-scale impacts of floods on water quality and quantity. To determine the impact of floods and the recharge they induce, surface and groundwater samples were collected during high and low flows throughout the basin from April 2007 through the present. Isotopic (?18OH2O, ?2HH2O) and chemical differences (most notably SO4) in streamflow and groundwater along the system indicate the importance of older groundwater in NWR baseflow-either in the form of prior flood recharge or influxes from local springs. Sulfate isotope analysis (?34SSO4, ?18OSO4) is pending for samples throughout the lower basin and this information should allow streamflow sources to be defined and quantified. This study provides a better characterization of the hydrologic and hydrochemical behavior of a Basin and Range river, and allows the effects of flood recharge processes to be more clearly defined at the basin scale.

Simpson, S. C.; Meixner, T.; Hogan, J.

2008-12-01

293

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K. S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

294

Electrolyte for Lithium-Inorganic Non-Aqueous Rechargeable Cell System and Rechargeable Cell System Including Said Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved high energy lithium inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell system. A more particular object of the invention is to provide such an improved system wherein the lithium dithionite discharge pro...

R. J. Mammone M. Binder

1985-01-01

295

Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a

R. J. Mammone; M. Binder

1986-01-01

296

The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater recharge in a forested basin in northern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recharge varies spatially and temporally as it depends on a wide variety of factors (e.g. vegetation, precipitation, climate, topography, geology, and soil type), making it one of the most difficult, complex, and uncertain hydrologic parameters to quantify. Despite its inherent variability, groundwater modellers, planners, and policy makers often ignore recharge variability and assume a single average recharge value for an entire watershed. Relatively few attempts have been made to quantify or incorporate spatial and temporal recharge variability into water resource planning or groundwater modelling efforts. In this study, a simple, daily soil-water balance model was developed and used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge of the Trout Lake basin of northern Wisconsin for 1996-2000 as a means to quantify recharge variability. For the 5 years of study, annual recharge varied spatially by as much as 18 cm across the basin; vegetation was the predominant control on this variability. Recharge also varied temporally with a threefold annual difference over the 5-year period. Intra-annually, recharge was limited to a few isolated events each year and exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern. The results suggest that ignoring recharge variability may not only be inappropriate, but also, depending on the application, may invalidate model results and predictions for regional and local water budget calculations, water resource management, nutrient cycling, and contaminant transport studies. Recharge is spatially and temporally variable, and should be modelled as such. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dripps, W. R.; Bradbury, K. R.

2010-01-01

297

Groundwater Recharge In Semi-Arid Regions Of India: An Overview Of Results Obtained Using Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural direct groundwater recharge was measured in the semi-arid/arid regions of India using techniques that employ environmental, geochemical, and artificial tracers. India is a sub-continent and has diverse hydrogeological and hydrometeorological conditions, including monsoon-type rainfall. Various geologic units were investigated, including unconsolidated, semiconsolidated, and consolidated materials and crystalline granitic/gneissic rocks. In the arid sands of Western Rajasthan and the semi-arid alluvial tracts of Gujarat, recharge rate is 3-10 percent (20-50 mm) of local average annual rainfall, whereas in the alluvial tracts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana, recharge rates are about 12-20 percent (120-200 mm). The coastal semiconsolidated sandstone aquifers of Pondicherry and Neyveli have an average recharge rate of about 15-25 percent (200-300 mm). The consolidated aquifers, consisting of the basaltic and granitic-gneissic complexes, have a natural recharge rate of 3-15 percent (20-100 mm). Low values of recharge in Rajasthan and Gujarat are primarily due to arid conditions. The relatively high values of recharge to coastal aquifers are due to favourable hydrogeologic and climatic conditions. The weathered granitic and gneissic complexes of southern India have neither hydrogeological nor hydrometeorological factors in their favour, which accounts for their small recharge rates. The basaltic regions have intermediate recharge values (8-12 percent). Limited natural rainfall recharge and increased water use throughout the sub-continent calls for conservation as well as augmentation by artificial recharge techniques.

Sukhija, B. S.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Reddy, D. V.

1996-03-01

298

Hydrogeophysical characterization of shallow unconsolidated sediments for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water curtain cultivation system is usually used to offer a stable heat source using a geothermal heat of groundwater. However, it may cause groundwater drawdown by an excessive use of groundwater such as over-pumping. Therefore, as part of an effort to develop a sustainable water curtain system, artificial groundwater recharge is projected to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. Geophysical approaches are systematically applied to characterize unconsolidated sediments and riverside porous aquifers for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area. Resistivity survey is applied to map the distribution of subsurface structure, especially unconsolidated sediments. A series of test holes are drilled, and water level, temperature, and groundwater electrical conductivity are monitored to characterize hydrogeological properties of the site. The natural gamma and induction profiles enable us to estimate stratigraphic cross section and interpret inter-borehole. Borehole compensated neutron porosity is derived for a small-diameter, dual-detector neutron logs. Consequently, geophysical methods could enhance knowledge of the physical properties of unconsolidated sediments, and they are expected to evaluate injection feasibility of artificial groundwater recharge systems to the sustainable water resource management.

Shin, Jehyun; Hwang, Seho; Won, Byeongho; Kim, Yongcheol

2013-04-01

299

Hydrometeorological daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) for the Western Mountain Aquifer, Israel: Model application and effects of temporal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge is a critical issue for water management. Recharge assessment and the factors affecting recharge are of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to develop a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) on the basis of a water balance principle with input from conventional and generally available precipitation and evaporation data and demonstrate the application of this

N. A. Sheffer; E. Dafny; H. Gvirtzman; S. Navon; A. Frumkin; E. Morin

2010-01-01

300

Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

2012-12-01

301

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

302

Fuel cells feasibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

1981-01-01

303

Geophysical Methods for Improved Understanding of Managed Aquifer Recharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is increasingly being used as a means of augmenting groundwater supplies. With the increased use, questions arise regarding the suitability of sites for such operations, as well as the operational efficiency of these systems. In this work we specifically look at MAR using an artificial recharge pond. There are two operational challenges commonly faced in artificial recharge ponds: 1) A decrease in infiltration rate of water into the subsurface during operating; this limits the amount of stored water. 2) Low recovery rates of the stored water. Addressing both of these challenges requires sufficient information about the spatial and temporal variation in governing hydrologic properties and processes. Geophysical methods provide a novel way of obtaining such information from the region beneath a recharge pond. A study of the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, near Watsonville California, presented a unique opportunity to develop and test geophysical methods, specifically for improved understanding off MAR. At this site we deployed a series of geophysical sensors aimed at addressing the two operational challenges at the site. We first addressed the question: What is controlling the decrease in filtration rate? The development and installation of electrical conductivity probes beneath the pond allowed us to monitor changes in the top ~1 m over a 4-month period. This dataset revealed that clogging in the top ~10 cm was responsible for the decreased infiltration rate. These 1D data were augmented by a time-lapse 2D ERT dataset that shows significant lateral variability in infiltration at the site. The second question we addressed was: Why is the recovery rate so low? Using a combination of cone-penetrometer testing and seismic reflection data, we developed a subsurface model that suggested there was a thin clay layer that may be impeding the flow of water to the recovery wells. To further understand this, we developed electrical conductivity probes, containing pore pressure transducers, to monitor changes in electrical conductivity and fluid pressure to a depth of 30 m. The data acquired with these probes clearly showed that the subsurface clay layer was impeding flow to the screened zone of the recovery wells. The findings at the site demonstrate the value of geophysics obtaining information regarding the siting and operation of artificial recharge ponds.

Pidlisecky, A.; Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

2013-12-01

304

Wind energy for electric vehicle recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatially diluted character of the kinetic energy content of wind makes it an attractive means of energy supply for electric vehicles intended for local traffic in suburban areas where individually owned windmills used for this purpose can be spaced at large enough distances from one another to avoid undesirable interference effects. These windmills would charge large stationary batteries whenever the wind intensity is sufficiently high, and the batteries would transfer their charge overnight to the small batteries carried by the vehicles. Such systems using wind generators of relatively small size (5 to 10 kW) are simple and rugged and should be able to operate over long periods between overhauls. Since it would be equipped with automatic controls, it could operate unattended and could bring about a significant near-term savings in the fuel required for transportation. This paper examines various aspects of systems of this type, leading to the conclusion that with the major components of the system already well-developed, this source of energy could be utilized in a cost-effective manner in most parts of this country.

Sammells, A. F.; Fejer, A. A.

305

Anodic materials for rechargeable Li-batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six sub-micro-crystalline alloy powders (Sn-Sb, Sn-Ag, Sb-Ag, and Sn-Sb-Ag alloys), where all constituents are able to alloy reversibly with Li and which are therefore characterized by large theoretical Li storage capacities, have been synthesized by chemical precipitation with NaBH 4, and their composite electrodes have been electrochemically tested by constant current cycling and cyclic voltammetry. Sn/SnSb and SnSb showed the best performance, with stable capacities of 600 and 500 mAh g -1, respectively, for more than 30 cycles. All of the materials exhibit large irreversible capacities in the first cycle, which are also often found for other metallic-intermetallic systems. Since, however, first cycle efficiencies of 89-95% can be achieved with electroplated thin Sn films, this is not an intrinsic problem of Sn or Sn-containing compounds, and it is not the trapping of Li in any of the many lithiated Sn phases that should be the main reason for the large irreversible capacities of the composite electrodes, but rather other factors, such as oxide impurities and especially contact problems in the composite electrode.

Wachtler, Mario; Winter, Martin; Besenhard, Jürgen O.

306

Characterizing Field Biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater with Active Reclaimed Water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging contaminant in groundwater, because of its aqueous miscibility, exceptional animal toxicity, and human carcinogenicity. NDMA detections in groundwater have been tracked to either decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) used in rocket fuel facilities or chlorine disinfection in wastewater reclamation plants. Laboratory experiments on both unsaturated and saturated soil samples have demonstrated that NDMA can be biodegraded by microbial activity, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, very limited direct evidence for its biodegradation has been found from the field in saturated groundwater. Our research aimed to evaluate photolysis and biodegradation of NDMA occurring along the full travel path - from wastewater reclamation plant effluent, through rivers and spreading grounds, to groundwater. For this evaluation, we established an extensive monitoring network to characterize NDMA concentrations at effluent discharge points, surface water stations, and groundwater monitoring and production wells, during the operation of the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge facilities in Los Angeles County, California. Field monitoring for NDMA has been conducted for more than six years, including 32 months of relatively lower NDMA concentrations in effluent, 43 months of elevated NDMA effluent concentrations, and 7 months with significantly reduced NDMA effluent concentrations. The NDMA effluent concentration increase and significant concentration decrease were caused by changes in treatment processes. The NDMA sampling data imply that significant biodegradation occurred in groundwater, accounting for a 90% mass reduction of NDMA over the six-year monitoring period. In addition, the occurrence of a discrete well monitored effluent release during the study period allowed critical analysis of the fate of NDMA in a well- characterized, localized groundwater flow subsystem. The data indicate that 80% of the recharged NDMA mass was biodegraded in groundwater with the remaining mass pumped out by extraction wells. To reproduce the observation data, a groundwater flow and transport model was developed and calibrated against groundwater elevation and NDMA concentration data. The calibrated half-life of NDMA in groundwater is 69 days, which is consistent with the values obtained through laboratory incubation using soil samples from the Montebello Forebay Spreading Grounds. Given the photolysis of NDMA in surface water and biodegradation in groundwater observed during this study, reclaimed wastewater with limited NDMA concentrations can be safely used for groundwater recharge under the study area conditions.

McCraven, S.; Zhou, Q.; Garcia, J.; Gasca, M.; Johnson, T.

2007-12-01

307

Prussian blue containing Nafion composite film as rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A solid-state thin film rechargeable battery has been prepared using a novel efficient technique of ''surface complexation method'' by which a thin layer of Prussian blue (PB) can be overlaid on a solid polymer electrolyte of Nafion (NF) as matrix. An electrochemical cell made of the composite PB-Nf film sandwiched with supporting electrodes was examined on i-V curves in solid state and for characteristics as a rechargeable battery. The resulting PB-Nf battery showed good durability in repetitive cycles of charging and discharging and gave the following results: open-circuit voltage of the unit cell per 160 ..mu..m 0.68V, short-circuit current 0.2-2 mA/cm/sup 2/ depending upon the water content of the Nf matrix, and an energy density of about 50 Wh/kg.

Honda, K.; Hayashi, H.

1987-06-01

308

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

309

Advanced rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide cell. Final report, Sep 88-Feb 91  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical performance and safety of the rechargeable lithium sulfur dioxide system has been investigated in laboratory cells and in high rate D cells. Small design and active materials were optimized to that cathode utilization of 1.6Ah/gram of carbon and 0.19Ah/cm3 of cathode were achieved with 100-200 cycles. Discharge and charge of cells at temperatures down to -30 C were examined, as were pulse discharge, storage, high temperature, and voltage delay. Analytical techniques were developed for determination of SO2 electrolyte phase behavior and analysis of lithium dithionate degradation product. Cell venting, shorting, and over-heating remain persistent problems as the testing proceeds to the larger spiral-wound cell. Cell venting seems to occur the most on charge, or shortly thereafter, and is associated with accumulation of reactive side-products. Large cell electrodes are pyrophoric when examined in air after extensive cycling.

McDonald, R.C.; Harris, P.; Goebel, F.; Hossain, S.; Vierra, R.

1991-11-01

310

Evaluation of groundwater artificial recharge management scenario for sustainable water resources development in Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources in Gaza Strip are currently facing extreme over-exploitation which has led to a sharp decline of the groundwater level in this Mediterranean coastal aquifer overtime. Salinity of the groundwater is very high as a result of subsequent seawater intrusion of the aquifer. The contamination of the Gaza Strip groundwater by seawater has wide-ranging effects on the regional economy as well as agricultural productivity. In order to guarantee the sustainability of regional development, which requires the access to clean water, groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is being considered as a potential solution to this current water resources problem. The objective of the present study is to analyze several strategies for the implementation and management of AR in Gaza Strip and their potential impacts on agriculture, environment, and the socio-economy. Based on the water policy on wastewater reclamation and reuse (Yr. 2005 - 2025), six AR management strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local stakeholder community. These scenarios take into consideration the development of the new North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant and were also judged with respect to a base-line scenario, otherwise known as the "Do Nothing Approach." Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) on ranking of the AR management scenarios was used. Twenty-one criteria ranging over a wide spectrum and four categories (Environmental, Public Health, Social, and Economical) were defined to ensure sound evaluation of each of the six AR management scenarios. A detailed geo-database was prepared to analyze all the related spatial, non-spatial, and temporal data. Socio-economic studies, field surveys, mathematical modeling, and GIS analysis were used for the criteria quantification. In the MCDA, Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHP) combined with weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Composite Programming (CP) was employed. The six AR management strategies were thus compared to the "Do Nothing Approach" based on the defined environmental, health, social, and economical criteria, the most important being related to the environment and the economy. The robustness of the achieved ranking of AR management options has been tested by changing the selected criteria, criteria importance and criteria structure. The final analysis shows that all six AR management strategies are better than "doing nothing". The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge with maximum possible infiltration of secondary treated effluent in conjunction with sustainable reuse of the recharged water for agricultural development is the most effective AR solution to the water resources problems of the Gaza Strip.

Rusteberg, Bernd; Azizur Rahman, M.; Abusaada, Muath; Rabi, Ayman; Rahman Tamimi, A.; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

311

Electronic structure and optical spectra of novel rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic spectra of promising materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, LiC6 and LiMn2O4, have been studied. Theoretical calculations in combination with experiments for the pi*0 and sigma* x-ray absorption edges are reported for the pure graphite and the graphite intercalation compound, LiC6. The anisotropy of the absorption spectra is due to the difference in the optical matrix elements for two different

Gennadiy E. Grechnev; Rajeev Ahuja; Jinghua Guo; Olle Eriksson

2004-01-01

312

Templated Nanocarbon Black Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fabrication of high energy density electrode materials for solid-state rechargeable batteries via block copolymer templating schemes was investigated. Atom transfer radical polymerization was used to synthesize the copolymer template poly((oligooxyethylene) methacrylate)-block-poly(butyl methacrylate), POEM-b-PBMA. Continuous, nanoscale phases of vanadium oxide were subsequently grown within the POEM domains of the microphase-separating block copolymer using sol-gel synthesis from a

Ozge Akbulut; Elsa A. Olivetti; Donald R. Sadoway; Anne M. Mayes

2006-01-01

313

Scale effects of hydrostratigraphy and recharge zonation on base flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uncertainty regarding spatial variations of model parameters often results in the simplifying assumption that parameters are spatially uniform. However, spatial variability may be important in resource assessment and model calibration. In this paper, a methodology is presented for estimating a critical basin size, above which base flows appear to be relatively less sensitive to the spatial distribution of recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and below which base flows are relatively more sensitive to this spatial variability. Application of the method is illustrated for a watershed that exhibits distinct infiltration patterns and hydrostratigraphic layering. A ground water flow model (MODFLOW) and a parameter estimation code (UCODE) were used to evaluate the influence of recharge zonation and hydrostratigraphic layering on base flow distribution. Optimization after removing spatial recharge variability from the calibrated model altered base flow simulations up to 53% in watersheds smaller than 40 km2. Merging six hydrostratigraphic units into one unit with average properties increased base flow residuals up to 83% in basins smaller than 50 km2. Base flow residuals changed <5% in watersheds larger than 40 and 50 km2 when recharge and hydrostratigraphy were simplified, respectively; thus, the critical basin size for the example area is ???40 to 50 km2. Once identified for an area, a critical basin size could be used to guide the scale of future investigations. By ensuring that parameter discretization needed to capture base flow distribution is commensurate with the scope of the investigation, uncertainty caused by overextending uniform parameterization or by estimating extra parameter values is reduced. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

Juckem, P. F.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

314

Virus fate and transport during artificial recharge with recycled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale experiment was conducted at a research site using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human viruses, bromide as a conservative tracer, and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) to investigate the fate and transport of viruses during artificial recharge. Observed virus concentrations were fitted using a mathematical model that simulates virus transport in one-dimensional, homogeneous, water-saturated

Robert Anders; C. V. Chrysikopoulos

2005-01-01

315

Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett

1998-11-01

316

Changes in vegetation diversity caused by artificial recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforst to increase the rate of artificial recharge through basins often necessitates scrapping and ditching before and during operations. Such operations can result in more or less drastic changes in vegetation (depending on what was there before), characterized by diminisched numbers of species and lowered diversity. Two examples, one from Texas and one from the Netherlands are presented showing how similar treatments cause similar changes in two completely difference plant communities. ?? 1979 Dr. W. Junk b.v. - Publishers.

van, Hylckama, T. E. A.

1979-01-01

317

Heat as a Tracer for Estimating Ground-water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles above the water table may be analyzed to estimate ground-water recharge (or discharge). Depending on depth, sediment temperature profiles are established by meteorological conditions and/or the geothermal gradient, and modified by the direction and rate of ground-water fluxes through the sediments. For shallow water tables (less than 30 m), the combined effects of meteorological boundary conditions and ground-water fluxes generally determine sediment temperature profiles, while for deeper water tables, the combined effects of the geothermal gradient and ground-water fluxes determine vertical temperature profiles. Three approaches are presented to demonstrate the manner in which recharge rates may be estimated by matching predicted temperatures with measured temperatures above the water table. For the case of a shallow water table beneath a streambed, a variably saturated heat and water (liquid-only) transport simulation code, VS2DH, was used with an optimization procedure to inversely fit simulated temperatures to measured temperatures for several Southwestern stream channels. In some cases, temperature-based estimates of vertical flux were compared to surface-water measurements of streamflow loss. For the case of a deep water table, two different approaches were examined. An analytical solution with limitations on stratigraphic complexity was compared to measured temperature profiles beneath Yucca Flat, NV. A simulation code, TOUGH2, was used to match simulated to measured temperatures profiles beneath washes near Beatty, NV. Hypothetical results using the analytical solution generated a linear vertical temperature gradient for no-flow conditions, a concave upward gradient for groundwater recharge, and a concave downward gradient for groundwater discharge. TOUGH2 simulation results were capable of matching the complex temperature profiles in the deep, highly layered unsaturated material underlying the wash sites. Best-fit analytical and simulation temperature profiles yielded estimates of ground-water recharge for the Yucca Flat and wash sites, which reflected their dissimilar hydrological settings.

Constantz, J. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Kwicklis, E.

2001-12-01

318

Optimized zinc electrode for the rechargeable zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of a long-lived, electrically rechargeable zinc–air battery the structure and wettability of pasted zinc electrodes were optimized. Pasted zinc electrodes containing 1 to 10% cellulose but having almost the same nominal capacities were prepared and tested in zinc\\/oxygen cells. The effect of discharge rate on cell voltage and delivered capacity, as well as the maximum power, were

S. Müller; F. Holzer; O. Haas

1998-01-01

319

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is a US-based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc-air battery system. The advantage of the AER Energy Technology Battery is that it's energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead-acid batteries, and almost twice that of currently available lithium-ion batteries. This new battery technology can enable

M. Schimpf

1993-01-01

320

Nanostructured cathode materials for alkaline and lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Nanocorp, Inc. is pioneering the synthesis of nanostructured active battery materials by a novel aqueous solution reaction (ASR) process that is inherently low cost and scalable to volume production. Strategies for the production of high energy content battery electrodes are discussed. Focus areas include Ni(OH)2, both pure and Al-doped and ?-MnO2 for rechargeable alkaline batteries as well as the

D. E. Reisner; Jinxiang Daib; Rongde Gea; Meidong Wanga; Hui Yea; D. Xiao; A. J. Salkind

1999-01-01

321

Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, is dominated by spring snow melt which provides a natural large-amplitude and narrow-width pore-fluid pressure signal. Time delays between this seasonal groundwater recharge and seismicity triggered by groundwater recharge can thus be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic diffusivities and the state of stress in the crust. We approximate seasonal variations in groundwater recharge with discharge in runoff-dominated streams at high elevations. We interpolate the time series of number of earthquakes, N, seismic moment, Mo, and stream discharge, Q, and determine cross-correlation coefficients at equivalent frequency bands between Q and both N and Mo. We find statistically significant correlation coefficients at a mean time lag of about 151 days. This time lag and a mean earthquake depth of about 4.5 km are used in the solution to the pressure diffusion equation, under periodic (1 year) boundary conditions, to estimate a hydraulic diffusivity of ??10 -1 m 2/s, a hydraulic conductivity of about Kh?10 -7 m/s, and a permeability of about k?10 -15 m 2. Periodic boundary conditions also allow us to determine a critical pore-fluid pressure fraction, P'/ P0?0.1, of the applied near-surface pore-fluid pressure perturbation, P0?0.1 MPa, that has to be reached at the mean earthquake depth to cause hydroseismicity. The low magnitude of P'?0.01 MPa is consistent with other studies that propose 0.01? P'?0.1 MPa and suggests that the state of stress in the crust near Mt. Hood could be near critical for failure. Therefore, we conclude that, while earthquakes occur throughout the year at Mt. Hood, elevated seismicity levels along pre-existing faults south of Mt. Hood during summer months are hydrologically induced by a reduction in effective stress.

Saar, Martin O.; Manga, Michael

2003-09-01

322

Long cycle life rechargeable lithium\\/titanium disulfide cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2) cells are being developed for long life rechargeable applications. The effects of cathode thickness, packing density, percent carbon, electrolyte type, and anode type on cycle life were evaluated. Cathode thickness was found to have the most dramatic effect on cycle life, followed by cathode packing density and electrolyte type. The cycle life of AA Li\\/TiS2 cells increased

C. J. Post; E. S. Takeuchi

1992-01-01

323

Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of

Marc Doyle; Jeremy P. Meyers; John Newman

2000-01-01

324

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li\\/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li\\/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode\\/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters

S. R. Narayanan; D. H. Shen; S. Surampudi; A. I. Attia; G. Halpert

1993-01-01

325

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of lithium-titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS[sub 2]) rechargeable cells has been studies as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li\\/TiS[sub 2] cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode\\/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation

S. R. Narayanan; D. H. Shen; S. Surampudi; A. I. Attia; G. Halpert

1993-01-01

326

12-Crown-4 Ether Improves Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments show addition of 12-crown-4 ether (12Cr4) to thin film of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and LiBF4 reduces charge-transfer resistance of film and enhances performance of electrochemical cell in which film is electrolyte, anode is lithium, and cathode is LixCoO2. By increasing conductivity of the electrolyte, 12Cr4 reduces polarization loss; enabling cell to sustain higher current. Result is new type of rechargeable lithium cell.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan I.

1992-01-01

327

Recent developments and future prospects for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible future developments of lithium rechargeable batteries are discussed. Lithium ion liquid electrolyte batteries are now well established, with energy densities of up to around 150Whkg?1. There are prospects of increases in the energy density to perhaps 200–250Whkg?1 by using new cathode materials (lithium nickel cobalt oxide) and light weight construction. High power cells make it possible for these batteries

A. G. Ritchie

2001-01-01

328

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25

329

AC impedance study of Li\\/SO2 rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of lithium passivation and the development of the impedance of carbon electrodes and LiGaCl4 and LiAlCl4 non-solvate electrolytes in rechargeable Li\\/SO2 cells have been studied using the AC impedance technique. The effects of cycling and depth of discharge (DOD) on impedance parameters and the effects of electrolyte concentration on cell performance and open circuit voltage (OCV) are discussed.

T. J. Lee; G. T. K. Fey

1990-01-01

330

Performance of lithium-sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-sulfur dioxide rechargeable system has been investigated with LiAlCl4 electrolyte in hermetically sealed experimental cells. Over 50 cells were tested at 1-5 mA\\/cm2 discharge and 0.5-2 mA\\/cm2 charge rates using carbon cathode material to evaluate cycle life and capacity at ambient (21°C) and low (-30°C) temperatures. Most of the cells delivered excellent cycle life with significantly higher capacity than

Sohrab Hossain; Peter Harris; Robert McDonald; Franz Goebel

1990-01-01

331

Characterization of ether electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2Me-THF)\\/LiAsFâ and several diethyl ether (DEE)\\/LiAsFâ-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li\\/TiSâ cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at various depths of discharge, evaluation of rate\\/capacity behavior of cells at 25C and -10C, and storage of cells at 50C for up to one month with subsequent cycling. The thermal stability of

K. M. Abraham; J. L. Goldman; D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

332

Characteristics of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical performance of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) containing a LiV3O8 (negative electrode) and LiCoO2 (positive electrode) in saturated LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte was studied. These two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and intercalation\\/deintercalation of lithium ions occurs within the window of electrochemical stability of water. The obtained capacity of this cell system is about 55mAh\\/g based

G. J. Wang; N. H. Zhao; L. C. Yang; Y. P. Wu; H. Q. Wu; R. Holze

2007-01-01

333

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01

334

Inorganic electrolyte solutions and gels for rechargable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of inorganic oxychloride compounds have been evaluated for use as electrolytic solvents in rechargeable lithium batteries. Compared with SOâ-based electrolytes, these showed much improved safety while maintaining room temperature conductivities of 10⁻³--10⁻² S\\/cm and electrochemical voltage windows of 4.5--5.5 vs. Li{sup +}\\/Li and supporting reversible lithium metal deposition\\/stripping. With the addition of 2 â¼ 5% polymer, the solutions

Kang Xu; N. D. Day; C. A. Angell

1996-01-01

335

Estimation of groundwater recharge parameters by time series analysis.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed that relates water level fluctuations in a Dupuit aquifer to effective precipitation at the top of the unsaturated zone. Effective precipitation, defined herein as that portion of precipitation which becomes recharge, is related to precipitation measured in a nearby gage by a two-parameter function. A second-order stationary assumption is used to connect the spectra of effective precipitation and water level fluctuations.-from Authors

Naff, R. L.; Gutjahr, A. L.

1983-01-01

336

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

1990-01-01

337

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01

338

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 ?g/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

2012-01-01

339

Identification of priority organic compounds in groundwater recharge of China.  

PubMed

Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion, especially in arid areas. Traditional water treatment systems are inefficient to remove all the types of contaminants that would pose risks to groundwater, so it is crucial to establish a priority list of organic compounds (OCs) that deserve the preferential treatment. In this study, a comprehensive ranking system was developed to determine the list and then applied to China. 151 OCs, for which occurrence data in the wastewater treatment plants were available, were selected as candidate OCs. Based on their occurrence, exposure potential and ecological effects, two different rankings of OCs were established respectively for groundwater recharge by surface infiltration and direct aquifer injection. Thirty-four OCs were regarded as having no risks while the remaining 117 OCs were divided into three groups: high, moderate and low priority OCs. Regardless of the recharge way, nonylphenol, erythromycin and ibuprofen were the highest priority OCs; their removal should be prioritized. Also the database should be updated as detecting technology is developed. PMID:24960229

Li, Zhen; Li, Miao; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Yeping; Wu, Miaomiao

2014-09-15

340

Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge in arid areas is critical for water resources management and for contaminant transport from waste deposit sites located in these areas. However, the impact of climate change on groundwater in arid areas is not well understood at this point, because of difficulties in accurately measuring soil-water flow processes under arid conditions and in quantifying complex interactions among climate, soil water, and vegetation in these areas. The purpose of this exploratory study is to develop an innovative approach to assessing the impact of climate change on soil-water dynamics in arid areas. The approach is based on a new hypothesis that in arid areas, temporally averaged soil-water saturation will not be affected by climate change during growing seasons as a result of the naturally occurring optimization processes for vegetation growth. Arid-area soil-water dynamics in growing seasons is important because precipitation and groundwater recharge mainly occur during these seasons. The hypothesis is supported by results from a comprehensive literature survey of published data. Stochastic models are developed based on the hypotheses to determine impacts of climate changes on groundwater recharge in arid areas. Modeling results show that the impacts are largely buffered by the associated vegetation dynamics.

Liu, H.; Zhang, K.

2009-12-01

341

Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

Bergstrom, R. E.; Aten, R. E.

1965-01-01

342

Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using advanced and costly treatments. Nevertheless, a number of studies are demonstrating that physical, chemical and biochemical processes associated with water movement within the subsoil represent a natural alternative way to reduce the presence of these contaminants. This processes are called Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). Aquifer recharge will become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes as long as the presence of pathogens and organic and inorganic pollutants is avoided. To this end, understanding the biogeochemical degradation processes occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. 2. Laboratory batch experiments A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. The setup of the experiments consists of glass bottles containing 120 g of soil and 240 ml of synthetic water spiked with the mix of micropollutants. A source of easily degradable organic carbon and, depending on the type of test, electron acceptors are added in order to yield aerobic respiration and nitrate/iron/manganese/sulphate reduction conditions. The evolution of the processes is monitored by sacrificing duplicate bottles according to a defined schedule and analysing water for major and minor components as well as for micropollutants. Results from biotic tests are compared with abiotic ones in order to discern biodegradation from other chemical processes. The soil, the synthetic water and the micropollutants selected for the experiments are representative of a test site in the nearby of Barcelona (Spain) where artificial recharge of groundwater through ponds is going to be performed using river water or tertiary effluent from a waste water treatment plant. The results of the experiments improve the knowledge on the behaviour of the selected micropollutants under different redox conditions and provide with useful information on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data coll

Tobella, J.

2010-05-01

343

Simulation of ground-water level fluctuations using recharge estimated by field infiltrometer measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An infiltrometer was used at multiple locations at a site in Lee County, Fl. to define the spatial variability in infiltration parameters. Water-level data from a well at this site were collected hourly and used to determine the temporal variability in recharge. These results were used to define recharge in a representative stochastic numerical model of the aquifer. Model results without recharge compare well with existing analytical solutions for spatial head variability. Simulations with representative recharge events indicate that recharge produces a significant to dominant effect on head variability, which creates dispersion of contaminants, and that small-scale spatial and temporal recharge variations are the predominant mechanism causing the head variations.

Swain, E. D.

1997-01-01

344

Stability, compatibility, and related problems of additives in naval distillate fuels derived from lower-quality feedstocks. Topical report No. 2, August 1984-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first two years of a study co-sponsored by DOE and the U.S. Navy to determine which antioxidant additives are most effective in delaying fuel degradation in a variety of middle-distillate straight-run light-cycle oil blends. In this study, straight-run middle distillate and catalytically cracked product were mixed at ratios of 85:15, 70:30, and 60:40, respectively. All of these blended fuels were immediately treated with commercially available additives. Usual dosages were 12 and 24 ppm (volume/volume). Stability testing and fuel characterizations performed at four different laboratories were used to evaluate the additives. Each laboratory used a different type of stability test. The characterization studies were performed to ensure that the base fuel blends tested were within the range allowed by MIL-F-16884H and to determine whether any of the additives would make the fuels unacceptable for Navy use.

Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.

1987-01-01

345

Contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel time, and groundwater water quality of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1997-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The City of Independence, Missouri, operates a well field in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Contributing recharge areas (CRA) were last determined for the well field in 1996. Since that time, eight supply wells have been installed in the area north of the Missouri River and well pumpage has changed for the older supply wells. The change in pumping has altered groundwater flow and substantially changed the character of the CRA and groundwater travel times to the supply wells. The U.S Geological Survey, in a cooperative study with the City of Independence, Missouri, simulated steady-state groundwater flow for 2007 well pumpage, average annual river stage, and average annual recharge. Particle-tracking analysis was used to determine the CRA for supply wells and monitoring wells, and the travel time from recharge areas to supply wells, recharge areas to monitoring wells, and monitoring wells to supply wells. The simulated CRA for the well field is elongated in the upstream direction and extends to both sides of the Missouri River. Groundwater flow paths and recharge areas estimated for monitoring wells indicate the origin of water to each monitoring well, the travel time of that water from the recharge area, the flow path from the vicinity of each monitoring well to a supply well, and the travel time from the monitoring well to the supply well. Monitoring wells 14a and 14b have the shortest groundwater travel time from their contributing recharge area of 0.30 years and monitoring well 29a has the longest maximum groundwater travel time from its contributing recharge area of 1,701 years. Monitoring well 22a has the shortest groundwater travel time of 0.5 day to supply well 44 and monitoring well 3b has the longest maximum travel time of 31.91 years to supply well 10. Water-quality samples from the Independence groundwater monitoring well network were collected from 1997 to 2008 by USGS personnel during ongoing annual sampling within the 10-year contributing recharge area (CRA) of the Independence well field. Statistical summaries and the spatial and temporal variability of water quality in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Independence well field were characterized from analyses of 598 water samples. Water-quality constituent groups include dissolved oxygen and physical properties, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, wastewater indicator compounds, fuel compounds, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), alachlor, and atrazine. The Missouri Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for iron was exceeded in almost all monitoring wells. The Missouri Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic was exceeded 32 times in samples from monitoring wells. The MCL for barium was exceeded five times in samples from one monitoring well. The SMCL for manganese was exceeded 160 times in samples from all monitoring wells and the combined well-field sample. The most frequently detected wastewater indicator compounds were N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), phenol, caffeine, and metolachlor. The most frequently detected fuel compounds were toluene and benzene. Alachlor was detected in 22 samples and atrazine was detected in 37 samples and the combined well-field sample. The MCL for atrazine was exceeded in one sample from one monitoring well. Samples from monitoring wells with median concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen larger than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) are located near agricultural land and may indicate that agricultural land practices are the source of nitrogen to groundwater. Largest median values of specific conductance; total inorganic nitrogen; dissolved calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, arsenic, manganese, bicarbonate, and sulfate and detections of wastewater indicator compounds generally were in water samples from monitoring wells with CRAs that intersect the south bank of the Missouri River. Zones of higher specific conductance were located just upstream from the Independen

Kelly, Brian P.

2011-01-01

346

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central\\u000a Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause\\u000a large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface\\u000a porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of

Christopher S. Heppner; John R. Nimmo; Gordon J. Folmar; William J. Gburek; Dennis W. Risser

2007-01-01

347

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of

Christopher S. Heppner; John R. Nimmo; Gordon J. Folmar; William J. Gburek; Dennis W. Risser

2007-01-01

348

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the soil moisture budget method and the base-flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches\\u000a exist for estimating recharge. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a water balance concept with two methods to estimate\\u000a the groundwater recharge in the Ching-Shui watershed, Taiwan. First, a soil moisture budget method is established to estimate\\u000a the infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration,

Cheng-Haw Lee; Hsin-Fu Yeh; Jin-Fa Chen

2008-01-01

349

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern\\u000a Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate\\u000a possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ?35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are\\u000a dominantly 2–4° cooler than the

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

350

Effect of land development on groundwater recharge determined from non-steady chloride profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of clearing and subsequent crop and pasture growth on recharge to ground waters was investigated in three experimental catchments in the brigalow ( Acacia harpophylla) lands of north-eastern Australia. Recharge was calculated from soil chloride data, using a simple transient solute mass balance model. Clearing had a substantial initial effect on groundwater recharge, with average recharge rates of 29 to 70 mm year -1 in two cleared catchments, compared with 7 mm year -1 in an uncleared catchment. These results were attributed to record high rains that fell while both cleared catchments were bare of vegetation, before crops or pastures were established. The effect was only short lived, however, with no significant recharge occurring in any of the three catchments during the period in which crops and pastures were fully established. This lack of recharge was contrary to the general belief that clearing and establishment of crops or pastures causes a sustained increase in groundwater recharge. The low recharge rates at this site were attributed to the slowly permeable soils and the climate of the study site, where potential evaporation exceeds average rainfall in all months, and to the water use characteristic of brigalow. Brigalow is shallow-rooted, and at this site generated lower soil water deficits than either crops or pastures. Clearing is unlikely to result in high water-tables in these soils under pastures or opportunity cropping systems under the average climatic conditions of the region. The simple transient solute mass balance model used to estimate recharge rates gave important and significant differences in recharge when compared with a more commonly used steady-state model. All recharge rates calculated with the steady-state model were ? 1.8 mm year -1 (most < 0.3 mm year -1), and so this model could not identify the gross short-term recharge response to clearing at this site.

Thorburn, Peter J.; Cowie, Bruce A.; Lawrence, Paul A.

1991-04-01

351

Using CRD method for quantification of groundwater recharge in the Gaza Strip, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall is the main source of groundwater recharge in the Gaza Strip area in Palestine. The area is located in the semi-arid\\u000a zone and there is no source of recharge other than rainfall. Estimation of groundwater recharge from rainfall is not an easy\\u000a task since it depends on many uncertain parameters. The cumulative rainfall departure (CRD) method, which depends on

Husam Baalousha

2005-01-01

352

Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of\\u000a the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater\\u000a recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites\\u000a in east-central

Dennis W. Risser; William J. Gburek; Gordon J. Folmar

2009-01-01

353

A generalized estimate of ground-water-recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge rates were estimated by analysis of streamflow, precipitation, and basin-characteristics data. Streamflow data were partitioned into ground-water-discharge and surface-water-runoff components. Regression equations relate ground-water discharge to precipitation at each basin. Basin-characteristics and long-term precipitation data were used to aid in the interpolation of recharge characteristics within gaged and ungaged areas. A multiple regression equation was developed to estimate spatial variation of recharge. The generalized estimate provides a consistent method for approximating recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.

Holtschlag, David J.

1997-01-01

354

Use of soil moisture probes to estimate ground water recharge at an oil spill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil moisture data collected using an automated data logging system were used to estimate ground water recharge at a crude oil spill research site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Three different soil moisture probes were tested in the laboratory as well as the field conditions of limited power supply and extreme weather typical of northern Minnesota: a self-contained reflectometer probe, and two time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, 30 and 50 cm long. Recharge was estimated using an unsaturated zone water balance method. Recharge estimates for 1999 using the laboratory calibrations were 13 to 30 percent greater than estimates based on the factory calibrations. Recharge indicated by the self-contained probes was 170 percent to 210 percent greater than the estimates for the TDR probes regardless of calibration method. Results indicate that the anomalously large recharge estimates for the self-contained probes are not the result of inaccurate measurements of volumetric moisture content, but result from the presence of crude oil, or bore-hole leakage. Of the probes tested, the 50 cm long TDR probe yielded recharge estimates that compared most favorably to estimates based on a method utilizing water table fluctuations. Recharge rates for this probe represented 24 to 27 percent of 1999 precipitation. Recharge based on the 30 cm long horizontal TDR probes was 29 to 37 percent of 1999 precipitation. By comparison, recharge based on the water table fluctuation method represented about 29 percent of precipitation. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.

2005-01-01

355

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

356

Mountain-block recharge present and past in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ~35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are dominantly 2-4° cooler than the measured water-table temperature near the mountain front. Computed minimum mountain-block recharge fractions are dominantly 0.2-0.5, consistent with previous large mountain-block recharge estimates. NGTs do not display the distinct low during the last glacial maximum observed in other paleorecharge studies; samples recharged 15-25 ka ago are on average only 1.3° cooler than Holocene samples. Instead, samples with the coldest NGTs were recharged 25-35 ka ago. A proposed explanation is that higher precipitation rates during the last glacial maximum resulted in a lower mean recharge elevation for the basin, essentially buffering the effect of the lower mean annual air temperature and producing NGTs similar to the Holocene. In the period preceding the last glacial maximum, precipitation rates more like today’s resulted in Holocene-like mountain-block recharge fractions, producing a mean NGT ~5° cooler than the Holocene, as expected.

Manning, Andrew H.

2011-01-01

357

Indirect and direct recharges in a tropical forested watershed: Mule Hole, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIt is commonly accepted that forest plays role to modify the water cycle at the watershed scale. However, the impact of forest on aquifer recharge is still discussed: some studies indicate that infiltration is facilitated under forest while other studies suggest a decrease of recharge. This paper presents an estimate of recharge rates to groundwater in a humid forested watershed of India. Recharge estimates are based on the joint use of several methods: chloride mass balance, water table fluctuation, geophysics, groundwater chemistry and flow analysis. Two components of the recharge (direct and indirect) are estimated over 3 years of monitoring (2003-2006). The direct and localized recharges resulting from rainfall over the entire watershed surface area is estimated to 45 mm/yr while the indirect recharge occurring from the stream during flood events is estimated to 30 mm/yr for a 2 km-long stream. Calculated recharge rates, rainfall and runoff measurements are then combined in a water budget to estimate yearly evapotranspiration which ranges from 80% to 90% of the rainfall, i.e. 1050 mm/y as an average. This unexpected high value for a deciduous forest is nevertheless in agreement with the forest worldwide relationship between rainfall and evapotranspiration. The large evapotranspiration from the forest cover contributes to decrease the recharge rate which leads to a lowering of the water table. This is the reason why the stream is highly ephemeral.

Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Varma, Murari R. R.; Riotte, Jean; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Kumar, M. S. Mohan; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, M.; Braun, Jean-Jacques

2009-01-01

358

Potential for, and possible effects of, artificial recharge in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rapid population growth in Carson Valley, west- central Nevada, requires a dependable municipal water source. Artificial recharge of aquifers using available flow of the Carson River is one way to increase the amount of water in underground storage and maintain a dependable ground-water supply. Ground water can be artificially recharged by routing excess surface water or, after proper treatment, routing wastewater to infiltration basins or injection wells. Withdrawal wells would remove stored water when needed. As a first step, maps showing areas in Carson Valley with high, low, moderate and unknown potential for artificial recharge were developed on the basis of the distribution of geologic units, depth to water, specific yield, infiltration rate, and location of natural recharge and discharge. For recharge by means of infiltration, areas totaling 5,700 acres have high potential, 23,900 acres have moderate potential, and 6,200 acres have low potential. For recharge through injection, areas totaling 7,800 acres have high potential and 43,500 acres have moderate potential; 23,000 acres have unknown potential because data are lacking on subsurface conditions. A ground-water-flow model was used to assess the possible results of artificial recharge. Simulations with no accompanying ground-water withdrawal show that, when recharge by injection is simulated near the valley floor, heads in the semiconfined aquifer increase over much of the valley, floor; only about 20 percent of the recharged water is stored in the aquifer after 5 years and as much as 80 percent is lost to streamflow and evapotranspiration. When recharge is simulated on the eastern side of the valley, 80 percent of the recharged water remains in storage after 5 years. When recharge is simulated near the valley floor, more water is lost to discharge than when recharge is on the eastern side of the valley. When recharge is applied for long periods without accompanying withdrawal, recharged water moves downgradient to discharge areas. The recharge water that discharges to the surface-water system could in turn replenish base flow of the Carson River and benefit downstream users.

Maurer, Douglas K.; Peltz, Lorri A.

1994-01-01

359

SWB-A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) computer code has been developed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater recharge. The SWB model calculates recharge by use of commonly available geographic information system (GIS) data layers in combination with tabular climatological data. The code is based on a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance approach, with components of the soil-water balance calculated at a daily timestep. Recharge calculations are made on a rectangular grid of computational elements that may be easily imported into a regional groundwater-flow model. Recharge estimates calculated by the code may be output as daily, monthly, or annual values.

Westenbroek, S. M.; Kelson, V. A.; Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Bradbury, K. R.

2010-01-01

360

Hydrological functions of sinkholes and characteristics of point recharge in groundwater basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karstic limestone aquifers are hydrologically and hydrochemically extremely heterogeneous and point source recharge via sinkholes and fissures is a common feature. We studied three groundwater systems in karstic settings dominated by point source recharge in order to assess the relative contributions to total recharge from point sources using chloride and ?18O relations. Preferential groundwater flows were observed through an inter-connected network of highly conductive zones with groundwater mixing along flow paths. Measurements of salinity and chloride indicated that fresh water pockets exist at point recharge locations. A measurable fresh water plume develops only when a large quantity of surface water enters the aquifer as a point recharge source. The difference in chloride concentrations in diffuse and point recharge zones decreases as aquifer saturated thickness increases and the plumes become diluted through mixing. The chloride concentration in point recharge fluxes crossing the watertable plane can remain at or near surface runoff chloride concentrations, rather than in equilibrium with groundwater chloride. In such circumstances the conventional chloride mass balance method that assumes equilibrium of recharge water chloride with groundwater requires modification to include both point and diffuse recharge mechanisms.

Somaratne, N.; Smettem, K.; Lawson, J.; Nguyen, K.; Frizenschaf, J.

2013-09-01

361

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

362

Rechargeable silver-modified mercuric oxide-zinc cell for cardiac pacemakers.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted on rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker batteries under simulated and actual biologic conditions, using a variety of discharge rates and charging schedules. In tests on 96 cells at a 6.4 milliampere (ma) discharge, recharging once every 15 months of simulated pacing at a 25 microampere (mua) drain, the earliest cell failure occurred after an equivalent of 50 years of pacing. The mean pacing equivalent for all 96 cells was more than 140 years. In 6.4 ma discharge tests on 24 cells, recharging once every 8 days of simulated pacing, only 1 cell in 24 failed after an equivalent of more than 500 years of pacing (actual time 2 years). In tests on 13 cells pacing at a 200 mua drain without recharging, the simulated mean duration of pacing before total discharge was 4.8 years. Seven other cells at a 200 mua drain with periodic recharging continue to function normally after more than 7 years of actual time, simulating 56 years of pacing at a 25 mua drain. Cardiac pacemakers using the rechargeable mercury-zinc cell have been implanted in animals for more than 2 1/2 years and in patients for more than 1 year with all units continuing to function satisfactorily. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that a rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker will function continuously for more than 4 years without recharging and that periodic recharging will extend pacing life far beyond that predicted for lithium and nuclear primary power sources. PMID:983958

Tyers, G F; Hughes, H C; Brownlee, R R; Manley, N J; Gorman, I N

1976-11-01

363

Azonbenzene-functionalized carbon nantubes as a high energy density solar thermal fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal fuels, which store energy from the sun in the chemical bonds of molecules, are a fascinating energy storage prospect: in principle they are 100% renewable, produce no emissions or by-products, are easily transportable in the form of liquids or powders, and can be recharged by the sun without any special equipment. However, adaptation of solar fuels as a

Alexie Kolpak; Engin Durgan; Jeff Grossman

2011-01-01

364

TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND DESIGN OVERVIEW OF A HYBRID FUEL CELL ENGINE FOR A MOTORCYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global development of fuel cell based propulsion has emphasized larger vehicles, with most manufacturers demonstrating a car, van or truck. However, the transportation market in many countries is dominated by smaller two and three wheeled vehicles. A fuel cell motorcycle could replace two stroke scooters that proliferate emissions, as well as, their electric counterparts that require long recharges for

Nathan J. English; Ramesh K. Shah

365

Sources and mechanisms of recharge for ground water in the west-central Amargosa Desert, Nevada; a geochemical interpretation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the west-central Amargosa Desert, Nevada, was recharged primarily by overland flow of snowmelt in or near the present-day stream channels, rather than by subsurface flow from highland recharge areas to the north. Geochemical arguments, including reaction mechanisms, are used to support these findings. Carbon-, hydrogen-, and oxygen-isotope data show that much of the recharge in the area occurred during late Wisconsin time. Absence of ground-water recharge prior to late Pleistocene is considered to indicate that either climatic conditions were unfavorable for recharge or that ground-water velocities were such that they transported this earlier recharge away from the study aea. (USGS)

Claassen, H. C.

1983-01-01

366

Simulation of runoff and recharge and estimation of constituent loads in runoff, Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey developed a watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) to simulate runoff and recharge and to estimate constituent loads in surface-water runoff in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and runoff data collected during 1970?98 from four gaged basins in the outcrop and catchment area were used to calibrate and test the model. The calibration parameters were applied in simulations of the four calibration basins and six ungaged basins that compose the study area to obtain runoff and recharge volumes for 4 years, 1997?2000. In 1997, simulated runoff from the study area was 5.62 inches. Simulated recharge in the study area was 7.85 inches (20 percent of rainfall). In 1998, simulated runoff was 11.05 inches; simulated recharge was 10.99 inches (25 percent of rainfall). In 1999, simulated runoff was 0.66 inch; simulated recharge was 3.03 inches (19 percent of rainfall). In 2000, simulated runoff was 5.29 inches; simulated recharge was 7.19 inches (21 percent of rainfall). During 1997?2000, direct infiltration of rainfall accounted for about 56 percent of the total Edwards aquifer recharge in Bexar County. Streamflow losses contributed about 37 percent of the recharge; flood impoundment contributed 7 percent. The simulated runoff volumes were used with event-mean-concentration data from basins in the study area and from other Bexar County basins to compute constituent loads and yields for various land uses. Annual loads for suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total lead were consistently largest from undeveloped land and smallest from commercial land or transportation corridors. Annual loads and yields varied with rainfall, with the maximum loads produced in the wettest year (1998) and the minimum loads produced in the driest year (1999).

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2002-01-01

367

Aviation Fuel Lubricity Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel system components have experienced problems with the 'slipperiness' or lubricity of the fuel back to the early 1960's. As a consequence of the level of refinement necessary for the PWA 523 fuel (now designated MIL-T-38219 grade JP-7) to obtain its hi...

1988-01-01

368

Fuel cell based traction drive with supercapacitor power boost control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel cell based traction drive and its control are presented. Dual cascaded voltage source inverter and supercapacitor bank allow to increase performances and efficiency. The proposed control allows to optimize the power flow from the two sources in whatever operating condition. Because the supercapacitor system cannot be normally recharged completely in case of asymmetric duty cycle of the vehicle,

C. Attaianese; E. Della Grotta; M. Di Monaco; G. Tomasso

2010-01-01

369

Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

2013-01-01

370

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-01-01

371

Electrode performance of romanechite for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied romanechite, (2×3) tunnel type manganese dioxide, as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. We synthesized the sample by soft chemical techniques, and its chemical composition was Ba0.18MnO2.10·0.42H2O. We obtained a first discharge capacity of 120mAhg?1 (energy density 264mWhg?1). The capacity decreased with cycling. We examined the thermal behavior of this material, revealing its high thermal stability.

Masayuki Tsuda; Hajime Arai; Yasue Nemoto; Yoji Sakurai

2001-01-01

372

A sealed rechargeable metal-oxygen battery for traction purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a sealed, rechargeable iron-oxygen battery that is based on a new oxygen electrode design is described, noting that the electrode design has made it possible to considerably simplify construction. It is pointed out that the oxygen electrode can be described as a self-breathing oxygen pocket electrode. It reaches 2 cm above the electrolyte in the battery and is fed with oxygen at the top of the battery by virtue of the pressure difference between the top of the electrode and the bottom.

Bursell, M.

373

High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

1988-01-01

374

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

375

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

376

RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis  

PubMed Central

The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1?ms to 100?s) and spatial range (1?µm to 1?mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented.

Tanida, H.; Fukuda, K.; Murayama, H.; Orikasa, Y.; Arai, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Uruga, T.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohta, T.; Ogumi, Z.

2014-01-01

377

Glyme-based nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ethers [(CH3O(CH2CH2O)nCH3, n = 1, 2, 3, and 4)] are generally known as “glymes”. This study examines the conductivity, lithium ion solvation state and charge–discharge cycling efficiency of lithium metal anodes in glyme-based electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells. 1M (M: moll?1) LiPF6 was used as the solute. The properties of the glymes were investigated by using a ternary

S. Tobishima; H. Morimoto; M. Aoki; Y. Saito; T. Inose; T. Fukumoto; T. Kuryu

2004-01-01

378

Characterization of ether electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran(2Me-THF)\\/LiAsFâ and several diethyl ether (DEE)\\/LiAsFâ-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li\\/TiSâ cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at various depths of discharge, evaluation of rate\\/capacity behavior of cells at 25° and -10°C, and storage of cells at 50°C for up to one month with subsequent cycling. The thermal stability of the

K. M. Abraham; J. L. Goldman; D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

379

Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations are vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flowpaths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, ?13C, ?18O, ?2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. Despite the water table fluctuating by 0.9-3.7 m annually producing estimated recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1, residence times of shallow (11-29 m) groundwater determined by 14C ages are between 100 and 10 000 years. 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater and groundwater electrical conductivity in individual areas remains constant over the period of study. Although diffuse local recharge is evident, the depth to which it penetrates is limited to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Rather, groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High, and acts as a regional discharge zone where upward head gradients are maintained annually, limiting local recharge. Additionally, the Gellibrand River does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10 000 years BP to the present day are interpreted to indicate an increase in recharge rates on the Barongarook High.

Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendón, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

2014-06-01

380

Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach  

SciTech Connect

Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

2002-08-31

381

Recharge Rates and Chemistry Beneath Playas of the High Plains Aquifer - A Literature Review and Synthesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are important zones of recharge to the High Plains (or Ogallala) aquifer and critical habitat for birds and other wildlife in the otherwise semiarid, shortgrass prairie and agricultural landscape. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on ground water from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution of recharge from playas to the regional aquifer. To address these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Playa Lakes Joint Venture, present a review and synthesis of the more than 175 publications about recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas and interplaya settings. Although a number of questions remain regarding the controls on recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas, the results from most published studies indicate that recharge rates beneath playas are substantially (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. The synthesis presented here supports the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this synthesis yield science-based implications for the protection and management of playas and ground-water resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

2009-01-01

382

Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated

P. Barney; D. Ingersoll; R. Jungst; C. OGorman; T. L. Paez; A. Urbina

1998-01-01

383

Application of a Genetic Algorithm for Estimating Recharge Potential of the Choushui Rover Alluvial Fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As groundwater resources are vital to the regional water supply, protection of groundwater resources have become important issues. A systematic approach to locating high recharge areas is the first step in protection of groundwater. In a previous study proposed by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), the CGS used a factor-based approach to determine the spatial distribution of recharge potential (RP).

S. Yang; L. Chang; Y. Chen; C. Jung; C. Huang; J. Chen; P. J. Tsai

2010-01-01

384

PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE VIA INFILTRATION OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosys...

385

Air, ground, and groundwater recharge temperatures in an alpine setting, Brighton Basin, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases are useful tracers for constraining groundwater recharge temperature and elevation, critical in determining source areas of groundwater recharge in mountainous terrain. A monitoring network in the alpine Brighton Basin in the Wasatch Mountains of northern Utah, USA, was established to examine the relationship between air temperatures, ground temperatures, and noble gas groundwater recharge temperatures. Maximum noble gas groundwater recharge temperatures computed using the closed-system equilibration model from 25 samples collected over the 2 year period 2007 to 2009 averaged 2.9 ± 1.2°C, within the experimental error of the mean ground temperature of 2.3°C measured within the probable recharge area. Maximum noble gas recharge temperatures vary from 0 to 7°C, also comparable to ground temperature variations in the region. Groundwater ages in the collected samples vary from 0 to 7 years indicating changing flow paths to the collection site during the experiment. Mean ground temperatures in the upper 1 m of soil over the 2 year time period is 2.3°C, which is 1°C cooler than the mean surface air temperature extrapolated from a nearby meteorological station. This comparison contradicts an earlier observation that mean annual ground temperatures in central Utah are generally warmer than air temperatures. The offset in the Brighton Basin is explained by modeling a snow effect on ground temperature. This detailed study suggests that interpretation of groundwater recharge temperatures derived from noble gases should be attentive to the complex local ground temperature effects in the recharge areas.

Masbruch, Melissa D.; Chapman, David S.; Solomon, D. Kip

2012-10-01

386

Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

Dickinson, J. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Leake, S. A.

2004-01-01

387

A new approach to delineate the groundwater recharge zone in hard rock terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineation of potential groundwater recharge zone is vital to augment groundwater resources in hard rock terrain. It is also important for the sustainable deve - lopment and management of groundwater resources. Conventionally, suitable zone for potential groundwater recharge is deciphered using tritium injection, hydro - geological, geophysical geomorphological maps and regional groundwater model, which are often time consuming and uneconomical.

N. C. Mondal; V. S. Singh

388

Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

2012-11-01

389

A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties

M. Koo; D. Lee

2002-01-01

390

Influence of model conceptualisation on one-dimensional recharge quantification: Uley South, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model conceptualisation is a key source of uncertainty in one-dimensional recharge modelling. The effects of different conceptualisations on transient recharge predictions for the semi-arid Uley South Basin, South Australia, were investigated. One-dimensional unsaturated zone modelling was used to quantify the effect of variations of (1) lithological complexity of the unsaturated zone, and (2) representation of preferential flow pathways. The simulations considered ranges of water-table depths, vegetation characteristics, and top soil thicknesses representative for the study area. Complex lithological profiles were more sensitive to the selected vegetation characteristics and water-table depth. Scenarios considering runoff infiltration into, and preferential flow through sinkholes resulted in higher and faster recharge rates. A comparison of modelled and field-based recharge estimates indicated that: (1) the model simulated plausible recharge rates, (2) only the models with preferential flow correctly reproduced the timing of recharge, and (3) preferential flow is probably redistributed in the unsaturated zone rather than passing to the water table directly. Because different but equally plausible conceptual models produce widely varying recharge rates, field-based recharge estimates are essential to constrain the modelling results.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.; Hutson, John L.

2014-06-01

391

Rainwater and Groundwater Chemistry in the Eritrean Highlands - Inference for Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractured aquifers made of metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary sequenced are the major sources of groundwater across the highland region of Eritrea. Areas of relatively high recharge rate are located in riverbeds and fracture zones. The significance of groundwater as potential resources for usage in the area is related to the amount of recharge that occurs as well as factors that

E. Haile; G. Jacks

2005-01-01

392

The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

2010-11-01

393

Polymer electrolyte lithium batteries rechargeability and positive electrode degradation: An AC impedance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC impedance measurements of polymer electrolyte-based, symmetrical composite cathode cells were used to probe the effects of the composite cathode composition and fabrication process upon its performance when used in polymer electrolyte-based thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. The relationship between cycling performance and AC impedance measurements were used to elucidate some of the reported failure mechanisms of rechargeable lithium polymer

R. Koksbang; I. I. Olsen; P. E. Tonder; N. Knudsen; D. Fauteux

1991-01-01

394

Groundwater recharge in natural dune systems and agricultural ecosystems in the Thar Desert region, Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and nutrient availability for crop production are critical issues in (semi)arid regions. Unsaturated-zone Cl tracer data and nutrient (NO3 and PO4) concentrations were used to quantify recharge rates using the Cl mass balance approach and nutrient availability in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. Soil cores were collected in dune/interdune settings in the arid Thar Desert (near Jaisalmer) and in rain-fed (nonirrigated) and irrigated cropland in the semiarid desert margin (near Jaipur). Recharge rates were also simulated using unsaturated zone modeling. Recharge rates in sparsely vegetated dune/interdune settings in the Jaisalmer study area are 2.7-5.6 mm/year (2-3% of precipitation, 165 mm/year). In contrast, recharge rates in rain-fed agriculture in the Jaipur study area are 61-94 mm/year (10-16% of precipitation, 600 mm/year). Minimum recharge rates under current freshwater irrigated sites are 50-120 mm/year (8-20% of precipitation). Nitrate concentrations are low at most sites. Similarity in recharge rates based on SO4 with those based on Cl is attributed to a meteoric origin of SO4 and generally conservative chemical behavior in these sandy soils. Modeling results increased confidence in tracer-based recharge estimates. Recharge rates under rain-fed agriculture indicate that irrigation of 20-40% of cultivated land with 300 mm/year should be sustainable.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Gates, John; Reedy, Robert C.; Sinha, Amarendra K.

2010-06-01

395

Effects of rainwater-harvesting-induced artificial recharge on the groundwater of wells in Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of the increasing deterioration of groundwater supplies in Rajasthan, India, rainwater harvesting practices in southern Rajasthan were studied to determine the effects of artificially recharged groundwater on the supply and quality of local groundwater. A physical and geochemical investigation utilizing environmental tracers (?18O and Cl-), groundwater level and groundwater quality measurements, and geological surveys was conducted with two objectives: (1) to quantify the proportion of artificially recharged groundwater in wells located near rainwater harvesting structures and (2) to examine potential effects of artificial recharge on the quality of groundwater in these wells. A geochemical mixing model revealed that the proportion of artificial recharge in these wells ranged from 0 to 75%. Groundwater tracer, water table, and geological data provided evidence of complex groundwater flow and were used to explain the spatial distribution of artificial recharge. Furthermore, wells receiving artificial recharge had improved groundwater quality. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the water quality in these wells and wells determined not to receive artificial recharge, for electrical conductivity and SO{4/-}. The findings from this study provide quantitative evidence that rainwater harvesting structures in southern Rajasthan influence the groundwater supply and quality of nearby wells by artificially recharging local groundwater.

Stiefel, John M.; Melesse, Assefa M.; McClain, Michael E.; Price, René M.; Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Chauhan, Narendra K.

2009-12-01

396

Development of advanced electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are a necessary companion to most portable electronic devices, and the rechargeable lithium battery is the most energy dense and lightest of all the competing battery types. These features make it the most likely battery to be used in future electronic devices, which will be smaller and have increased functionality. Therefore, the performance of the rechargeable lithium battery must

Scott Andrew Needham

2007-01-01

397

Paleosols as deep regolith: implications for ground-water recharge across a loessial climosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick loess deposits consisting of paleosol sequences comprise the deep regolith of the Palouse region in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Ground water is the principal water supply for the Palouse Basin, yet recharge mechanisms and rates through this regolith are poorly understood. Forecasting the sustainability of the water supply has been hampered because models that predict ground-water recharge are

A. T. O'Geen; P. A. McDaniel; J. Boll; C. K. Keller

2005-01-01

398

Importance of unsaturated zone flow for simulating recharge in a humid climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transient recharge to the water table is often not well understood or quantified. Two approaches for simulating transient recharge in a ground water flow model were investigated using the Trout Lake watershed in north-central Wisconsin: (1) a traditional approach of adding recharge directly to the water table and (2) routing the same volume of water through an unsaturated zone column to the water table. Areas with thin (less than 1 m) unsaturated zones showed little difference in timing of recharge between the two approaches; when water was routed through the unsaturated zone, however, less recharge was delivered to the water table and more discharge occurred to the surface because recharge direction and magnitude changed when the water table rose to the land surface. Areas with a thick (15 to 26 m) unsaturated zone were characterized by multimonth lags between infiltration and recharge, and, in some cases, wetting fronts from precipitation events during the fall overtook and mixed with infiltration from the previous spring snowmelt. Thus, in thicker unsaturated zones, the volume of water infiltrated was properly simulated using the traditional approach, but the timing was different from simulations that included unsaturated zone flow. Routing of rejected recharge and ground water discharge at land surface to surface water features also provided a better simulation of the observed flow regime in a stream at the basin outlet. These results demonstrate that consideration of flow through the unsaturated zone may be important when simulating transient ground water flow in humid climates with shallow water tables.

Hunt, R. J.; Prudic, D. E.; Walker, J. F.; Anderson, M. P.

2008-01-01

399

DISTRIBUTION OF AREAL RECHARGE TO A DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK (FRACNET) MODEL USING THE ANALYTIC ELEMENT METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Rain water filtering down through the soil will provide recharge of the saturated fractured rock aquifer. he computer model FRACNET has been designed to distribute areal recharge into linear fracture zones in order to complete the regional water balance. n this presentation, a te...

400

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

401

Quantifying ground water recharge at multiple scales using PRMS and GIS.  

PubMed

Management of ground water resources requires a method to calculate demonstrably accurate recharge rates at local to regional scales using readily available information bases. Many methods are available to calculate recharge, but most are unable to satisfy all these conditions. A distributed parameter model is shown to meet the stated needs. Such models are input intensive, however, so a procedure to define most inputs from GIS and hydrogeological sources is presented. It simplifies the PRMS calibration observed streamflow hydrographs by reducing degrees of freedom from dozens to four. For seven watersheds (60 to 500 km2), the GIS-aided calibrations have average errors of 5% on recharge and 2% on total streamflow, verifying the accuracy of the process. Recharge is also calculated for 63 local-scale subwatersheds (average size 37 km2). For the study area, calculated recharges average 11 cm/yr. Soil and rock conductivity, porosity, and depth to the water table are shown to be the physical properties which dominate the spatial variability of recharge. The model has been extended to uncalibrated watersheds where GIS and climatic information are known. It reproduces total annual discharge and recharge to within 9% and 10%, respectively, indicating the process can also be used to calculate recharge in ungauged watersheds. It has not been tested outside the study area, however. PMID:14763622

Cherkauer, Douglas S

2004-01-01

402

Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is likely to become increasingly important for irrigated agriculture due to anticipated changes to the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. Protecting the quantity and quality of subsurface water supplies will require flexible management strategies that can enhance groundwater recharge. We present results from a study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in central coastal California, and propose the use

C. M. Schmidt; T. A. Russo; A. T. Fisher; A. J. Racz; C. G. Wheat; M. Los Huertos; B. S. Lockwood

2010-01-01

403

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

404

Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

2009-12-01

405

Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by ?18O results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (?34S >21 ‰) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (?34S <10 ‰), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

Kumanova, X.; Marku, S.; Fröjdö, S.; Jacks, G.

2014-06-01

406

Heat flow from rechargeable neuromodulation systems into surrounding media.  

PubMed

A synergistic investigation involving both experiment and numerical simulation was performed in vitro to determine the heat flow from rechargeable neuromodulation systems into surrounding media. Each system consists of an implant and an external recharging antenna, and the heat flows of each of these components were determined separately. Three systems, each produced by a different medical device firm, were evaluated. The evaluated products included those from Medtronic Inc. (MDT), ANS (a St. Jude Company), and the Boston Scientific Company (BSC, formerly Advanced Bionics). To ensure statistical significance, three nominally identical samples of each of the three systems were included in the study. Furthermore, for each sample of each system, replicate evaluations were performed for both the implant and the antenna. It was found that for both components of MDT, substantially lower rates of heat flow were produced compared with those for ANS and BSC. With regard to the latter systems, the higher rates of heat flow were not consistently ordered for the implant and for the antenna. In general, replicate data runs for each system and each component were in satisfactory agreement. The different samples of the MDT system showed only minor deviations with regard to heat flow. The deviations among the different samples of both ANS and BSC were larger than those evidenced for MDT. PMID:22151284

Weinmann, Jacob J; Sparrow, Ephraim M

2009-04-01

407

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

SciTech Connect

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of lithium-titanium disulfide (Li/TiS[sub 2]) rechargeable cells has been studies as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS[sub 2] cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled five times have been compared with the parameters of cells that have been cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a ten-fold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS[sub 2]/electrolyte interface are not significantly affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode. The study demonstrate the value of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in investigating failure mechanisms. The approach and methodology followed here can be extended to other rechargeable lithium battery system.

Narayanan, S.R.; Shen, D.H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.)

1993-07-01

408

Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

Jaafar, H. H.

2014-05-01

409

Spatio-temporal recharge patterns in a semi-arid alluvial basin with irrigated crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge in semi-arid regions with irrigated crops is predominantly driven by irrigation technology and cropping patterns, but also by the seasonal distribution of rainfall and the availability of irrigation water. A significant amount of basin recharge occurs from ephemeral streams and unlined irrigation canals. A spatially distributed, GIS-based hydrologic model of water application and water use at the land-atmosphere interface was developed to estimate transient recharge to the deep vadose zone and into the unconfined alluvial aquifer. The spatial basis for the hydrologic model are individual landuse units (diffuse recharge) and a network of streams and canals with water seepage (lineal recharge). The land-atmosphere interface and unsaturated zone model component (LAIUZ) is coupled to a surface water supply model component (SWSM) that provides surface water deliveries by district or sub-district, depending on available information. Using LAIUZ and SWSM, we investigate the regional behavior and spatio-temporal variability of deep vadose zone recharge in the 3,800 square kilometer Tule groundwater basin of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Surface water management in the topographically flat basin is divided between two dozen irrigation and water districts. All surface water is imported or is natural discharge into the basin. Groundwater extractions are managed by landowners on a field-by-field basis. Monthly varying recharge and groundwater pumping rates are computed for the hydrologic years 1970 through 2000. The average size of the GIS landuse units is 0.4 sq. kilometers. The GIS coverage distinguishes over 60 landuse types. Applied and consumptive water use are computed based on actual evapotranspiration and known irrigation or water use efficiencies for each landuse unit. Seepage from streams is computed by mass balance. The resulting model estimates of groundwater recharge and pumping are in good agreement with measured groundwater level changes for the thirty-year period (model validation). Throughout the region, the deep vadose zone (up to 30 m deep) is found to account for a significant amount of intermediate-term basin storage, particularly during wet year cycles. The hydrologic model demonstrates that practically all of the annual precipitation (230 mm) is available for intermediate storage in the root zone, crop water uptake, or deep percolation. No direct losses to evaporation occur, presumably because most precipitation occurs during the winter months. Diffuse recharge is 110 mm/year (range: 38 - 200 mm/year). Lineal recharge accounts for one-third of the total recharge (170 mm/year) in the basin. In wet years, lineal recharge along streams and in intentional recharge basins may account for over 50% of the total recharge, whereas in dry years it may be as little as 8%.

Ruud, N. C.; Harter, T.; Naugle, A. W.

2001-12-01

410

Climate Impact on Groundwater Recharge in Southeastern Louisiana and Southwestern Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases of concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a significant effect on global climate, precipitation and hydrology, which in turn influences recharge to aquifers. Groundwater recharge study is imperative to the sole source aquifer, for example the Southern Hills aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi, which provides more than 50 percent of the drinking water consumed in the area overlying the aquifer and has no substitute drinking water source(s). To trace the climate impact and its consequent groundwater availability, this study developed a GIS-based integrated framework to connect climate models to a high-resolution hydrologic model to quantify long-term groundwater recharge. We employed the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP3) model as our hydrologic model to estimate spatial-temporal distribution of potential recharge for a regional scale. HELP3 model was especially suitable for our recharge study due to Louisiana humid climate and the use of a regional-scale water budget approach. Detailed surficial soil property and land cover were obtained from the NRCS and the USGS to derive maps of curve number for the HELP3 model. Wireline well logs and drillers logs were analyzed to determine stratigraphic lithology and the first major sand encountered beneath the soil layer. For a regional scale, we used global circulation model (GCM) downscaled daily precipitation and temperature obtained from USGS CASCaDE Project Climate Data as the forcing input to the HELP3 model. The emission scenarios considered in this study were A2, B1 and A1FI from Parallel Climate Model 1 (PCM) and from the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab's GFDL CM2.1 model. We used the computed runoff from USGS WaterWatch along with the HELP3 model to calculate the recharge index (RI) and delineate the recharge index map for individual hydrologic units in terms of Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs). The recharge index was defined as the percentage of precipitation that recharges aquifers. High-resolution recharge index maps were obtained to quantify the spatial impact of climate change on long-term groundwater availability. The framework was applied to the recharge study on the Southern Hills aquifer system overlain by twenty HUCs. The RI map for the Southern Hill aquifer system was obtained based on the computed runoff data from 1951 to 2000 in WaterWatch. Then the HELP3 model was applied to recharge estimation from 2000 to 2050. The results showed the differences in recharge estimation given different climate scenarios. Moreover, the results showed spatial-temporal variation of recharge in the aquifer system due to variations in land use, soil characteristics and predicted meteorological variables.

Beigi, E.; Tsai, F. T.

2012-12-01

411

3H and 14C as tracers of ground-water recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface spreading of water from the Santa Clara River is used to recharge aquifers underlying the Oxnard Plain. These aquifers are divided into an upper system about 400 feet thick, and a lower system more than 1,000 feet thick. In previous studies, it has been reported that surface spreading recharged aquifers in both the upper and lower systems. Water from most wells perforated in the upper system has tritium levels consistent with decay-corrected concentrations found in water recharged after 1952 when tritium levels increased as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Water from most wells in the lower system does not contain measurable tritium and must have been recharged prior to 1952. Carbon-14 ages estimated for water from wells in the lower system range from recent to about 25,000 years before present. These data show that the lower system is not effectively recharged by surface spreading.

Izbicki, John, A.; Michel, Robert, L.; Martin, Peter

1992-01-01

412

A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper accounting for the Lisse effect on the water table, and the incorporation of aquifer drainage so that recharge can be detected even if the water table does not rise. A methodology for filtering noise and non-rainfall-related water table fluctuations is also presented. The model has been applied to 2 years of field data collected in the Tomago sand beds near Newcastle, Australia. It is shown that gross recharge estimates are very sensitive to time step size and specific yield. Properly accounting for the Lisse effect is also important to determining recharge.

Crosbie, Russell S.; Binning, Philip; Kalma, Jetse D.

2005-01-01

413

Modeling Integrated Cave Drip Recharge Data using DReAM (Daily Recharge Assessment Model) in a Dry Eastern Mediterranean Area, Sif Cave - Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding recharge mechanisms and controls in karst regions is extremely important for managing water resources because of the dynamic nature of the system. To better understand this mechanism, a cave in the recharge area of the karstic Western Mountain Aquifer (WMA) of Israel was equipped to measure precipitation infiltration (2006-2008) by collecting integrated water drips from three areas in the cave (14, 46, and 52 m2 areas). Barrels equipped with pressure transducers record drip rate and volume for each of the three areas and enable estimation of recharge. A water budget model - DReAM (Daily Recharge Assessment Model) was used to quantify and predict infiltration behavior at the cave. DReAM includes calculations of all water cycle components - precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff and recharge. The model was calibrated and validated using two independent sets of values, providing good agreement between calculated and observed data. Modeling results agree with previous studies that show: 1) three distinct flow paths (slow, intermediate, and fast flows) of water infiltrating at the cave; 2) a threshold of ~100 mm rain at the beginning of the rainy season for infiltration to begin; and 3) a decrease in lag time between rain events and infiltration response throughout the rainy season. This modeling tool and analysis approach can translate precipitation to groundwater recharge which will be very important for projecting future water resources in response to climate variability.

Anker, Y.; Sheffer, N. A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Gimburg, A.; Morin, E.

2010-12-01

414

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

415

Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater recharge on Jeju Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of groundwater recharge spatial and temporal variability are essential inputs to groundwater flow models that are used to test groundwater availability under different management and climate conditions. In this study, a soil water balance analysis was conducted to estimate groundwater recharge on the island of Jeju, Korea, for baseline, drought, and climate-land use change scenarios. The Soil Water Balance (SWB) computer code was used to compute groundwater recharge and other water balance components at a daily time step using a 100 m grid cell size for an 18-year baseline scenario (1992-2009). A 10-year drought scenario was selected from historical precipitation trends (1961-2009), while the climate-land use change scenario was developed using late 21st century climate projections and a change in urban land use. Mean annual recharge under the baseline, drought, and climate-land use scenarios was estimated at 884, 591, and 788 mm, respectively. Under the baseline scenario, mean annual recharge was within the range of previous estimates (825-959 mm) and only slightly lower than the mean of 902 mm. As a fraction of mean annual rainfall, mean annual recharge was computed as only 42% and less than previous estimates of 44-48%. The maximum historical reported annual pumping rate of 241 × 106 m3 equates to 15% of baseline recharge, which is within the range of 14-16% computed from earlier studies. The model does not include a mechanism to account for additional sources of groundwater recharge, such as fog drip, irrigation, and artificial recharge, and may also overestimate evapotranspiration losses. Consequently, the results presented in this study represent a conservative estimate of total recharge.

Mair, Alan; Hagedorn, Benjamin; Tillery, Suzanne; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Westenbroek, Stephen; Ha, Kyoochul; Koh, Gi-Won

2013-09-01

416

Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change  

SciTech Connect

The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.

2004-02-23

417

Groundwater recharge of carbonate aquifers of the Silesian-Cracow Triassic (southern Poland) under human impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Triassic carbonate unit has been intensively drained by zinc and lead ore mines and numerous borehole fields since the nineteenth century. Its groundwater recharge has increased due to: pumping of water from boreholes, mining activity, and urbanization. An approach to determine the amounts of the recharge at a variety of spatial scales is presented in the paper. Different methods were used to identify and quantify recharge components on a regional and local scale: mathematical modelling was performed for four aquifers included in an aquifer system, an analytical estimation based on the assumption that an average recharge is equal to the average discharge of the hydrogeological system—for six man-made drainage centres, and the method of water level fluctuation (WLF) was applied in one observation borehole. Results of modelling have been supplemented by observation of environmental tracers (?18O, ?2H, 3H), noble gases temperatures, and 4Heexc in groundwater. The regional aquifer’s current recharge according to estimations performed by means of modelling varies from 39 to 101 mm/year on average. Depending on the aquifer site the average precipitation ranges from 779 to 864 mm/year. In the confined part of the aquifer average recharge ranges from 26 to 61 mm/year. Within outcrops average recharge varies from 96 to 370 mm/year. Current recharge estimated by the analytical method for man-made drainage centres varies from 158 up to 440 mm/year. High values are caused by different recharge sources like precipitation, induced leakage from shallow aquifers, and water losses from streams, water mains and sewer systems. Pumping of water, mining and municipal activities constitute additional factors accounting for the intensified recharge.

Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

2008-07-01

418

How long does it take for aquifer recharge or aquifer discharge processes to reach steady state?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater flow models are usually characterized as being either transient flow models or steady state flow models. Given that steady state groundwater flow conditions arise as a long time asymptotic limit of a particular transient response, it is natural for us to seek a finite estimate of the amount of time required for a particular transient flow problem to effectively reach steady state. Here, we introduce the concept of mean action time (MAT) to address a fundamental question: how long does it take for a groundwater recharge process or discharge processes to effectively reach steady state? This concept relies on identifying a cumulative distribution function, F(t; x), which varies from F(0; x) = 0 to F(t; x) ? 1- as t ? ?, thereby providing us with a measurement of the progress of the system towards steady state. The MAT corresponds to the mean of the associated probability density function f(t; x) = dF/dt, and we demonstrate that this framework provides useful analytical insight by explicitly showing how the MAT depends on the parameters in the model and the geometry of the problem. Additional theoretical results relating to the variance of f(t; x), known as the variance of action time (VAT), are also presented. To test our theoretical predictions we include measurements from a laboratory-scale experiment describing flow through a homogeneous porous medium. The laboratory data confirms that the theoretical MAT predictions are in good agreement with measurements from the physical model.

Simpson, Matthew J.; Jazaei, Farhad; Clement, T. Prabhakar

2013-09-01

419

Corrosion in ICPP fuel storage basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant currently stores irradiated nuclear fuel in fuel storage basins. Historically, fuel has been stored for over 30 years. During the 1970's, an algae problem occurred which required higher levels of chemical treatment of t...

W. J. Dirk

1993-01-01

420

Development of a fuel cell for the EMU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fuel cell technology for the advanced portable life support system is reviewed, using the breadboard test data, and the design concepts are presented for the development of the improved preprototype fuel cell. Subscale test results confirm the suitability of the solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell fueled by hydride stored hydrogen and oxygen for extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) power generation. Issues verified include passive, zero-G product water removal, nonventing operation in the EMU duty cycle, and complete recovery of product water in potable form. The long cycle life and quick rechargeability are confirmed in 600 h of testing including 150 deep discharge cycles.

Beckstrom, Paula; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.

1990-01-01

421

Zeolite in horizontal permeable reactive barriers for artificial groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spanish Water Reuse Royal Decree 1620/2007 considers groundwater recharge as a feasible use of reclaimed water. To achieve the water quality established in the above-mentioned legislation, a tertiary wastewater treatment is required. In this context, the infiltration of effluents generated by secondary wastewater treatments through a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (HPRB) may represent a suitable regeneration technology. Some nutrients (phosphate and ammonium) and some Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are not fully removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. To avoid groundwater contamination when effluents of wastewater treatments plants are used in artificial recharge activities, these contaminants have to be removed. Due to its sorption capacities, zeolite is among the most used reactive materials in Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB). Therefore, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the zeolite retention effectiveness of nutrients and PPCPs occurring in treated wastewater. Batch sorption experiments using synthetic wastewater (SWW) and zeolite were performed. A 1:4 zeolite/SWW ratio was selected due to the high sorption capacity of the reactive material.The assays were carried out by triplicate. All the bottles containing the SWW-zeolite mixture were placed on a mechanical shaker during 24 hours at 140 rpm and 25 °C. Ammonium and phosphate, as main nutrients, and a group of PPCPs were selected as compounds to be tested during the experiments. Nutrients were analyzed by ion chromatography. For PPCPs determination, Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was applied before their analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time of flight (LC-MS/ TOF). The experimental data were fitted to linearized Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to obtain sorption parameters. In general, Freundlich model shows a greater capability of reproducing experimental data. To our knowledge, sorption of the investigated compounds on zeolite has rarely been addressed and this holds true especially for PPCPs. Therefore, the obtained results will be useful for the design and characterization of those HPRBs in which zeolite will be employed to regenerate treated wastewater for artificial recharge activities.

Leal, María; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

2013-04-01

422

Use of Constructed Wetlands for Polishing Recharge Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of constructed wetlands for waste water treatment is becoming increasingly popular as more focus is being shifted to natural means of waste treatment. These wetlands employ processes that occur naturally and effectively remove pollutants and can greatly minimize costs when compared to full scale treatment plants. Currently, wetland design is based on basic “rules-of-thumb,” meaning engineers have a general understanding but not necessarily a thorough knowledge of the intricate physical, biological, and chemical processes involved in these systems. Furthermore, there is very little consideration given to use the wetland as a recharge pond to allow the treated water to percolate and recharge the local groundwater aquifers. The City of Foley, located in Alabama, and the Utilities Board of the City of Foley partnered with Wolf Bay Watershed Watch to evaluate alternative wastewater effluent disposal schemes. Rather than discharging the treated water into a local stream, a pilot program has been developed to allow water from the treatment process to flow into a constructed wetlands area where, after natural treatment, the treated water will then be allowed to percolate into a local unconfined aquifer. The goal of this study is to evaluate how constructed wetlands can be used for “polishing” effluent as well as how this treated water might be reused. Research has shown that constructed wetlands, with proper design and construction elements, are effective in the treatment of BOD, TSS, nitrogen, phosphorous, pathogens, metals, sulfates, organics, and other substances commonly found in wastewater. Mesocosms will be used to model the wetland, at a much smaller scale, in order to test and collect data about the wetland treatment capabilities. Specific objectives include: 1. Determine optimum flow rates for surface flow wetlands where water treatment is optimized. 2. Evaluate the capabilities of constructed wetlands to remove/reduce common over the counter pharmaceuticals such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen. 3. Evaluate the use of different wetland plants and their treatment characteristics. 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the wetlands to allow treated to water to recharge local into a local groundwater aquifer.

Cardwell, W.

2009-12-01

423

Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes IV: Geochemical, thermal and mass consequences of energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC)  

SciTech Connect

A wealth of geochemical and petrological data provide evidence that the processes of fractional crystallization, assimilation, and magma recharge (replenishment) dominate the chemical signatures of many terrestrial igneous rocks. Previous work [ Spera and Bohrson, 2001 ; Bohrson and Spera, 2001 ] has established the importance of integrating energy, species and mass conservation into simulations of complex magma chamber processes. An extended version of the energy-constrained formulation, Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC), tracks mass and compositional variations of melt, cumulates, and enclaves in a magma body undergoing simultaneous recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallization [ Spera and Bohrson, 2002 ]. Because many EC-RAFC results are distinct from those predicted by extant RAFC formulations, the primary goal of this paper is to present a range of geochemical and mass relationships for selected cases that highlight issues relevant to modern petrology. Among the plethora of petrologic problems that have important, well-documented analogues in nature are the geochemical distinctions that arise when a magma body undergoes continuous versus episodic recharge, the connection between erupted magmas and associated cumulate bodies, the behavior of recharge-fractionation dominated systems (RFC), thermodynamic conditions that promote the formation of enclaves versus cumulates, and the conditions under which magma bodies may be described as chemically homogeneous. Investigation of the effects of continuous versus episodic recharge for mafic magma undergoing RAFC in the lower crust indicates that the resulting geochemical trends for melt and solids are sensitive to the intensity and composition of recharge, suggesting that EC-RAFC may be used as a tool to distinguish the nature of the recharge events. Compared to the record preserved in melts, the geochemical and mass characteristics of solids associated with particular RAFC events may record a more complete view of the physiochemical history of an open-system magma body. The capability of EC-RAFC to track melts and solids creates a genetic link that can be compared to natural analogues such as layered mafic intrusions and flood basalts, or mafic enclaves and their intermediate-composition volcanic or plutonic hosts. The ability to quantify chemical and volume characteristics of solids and melts also underscores the need for integrated field, petrologic and geochemical studies of igneous systems. While it appears that a number of volcanic events or systems may be characterized by continuous influx or eruption of magma (“steady state systems”), reports describing compositional homogeneity for products that represent eruptions of more than one event are relatively rare. In support of this, EC-RAFC results indicate that very specific combinations of recharge conditions, bulk distribution coefficients, and element concentrations are required to achieve geochemical homogeneity during cooling of a magma body undergoing RAFC. In summary, critical points are that EC-RAFC provides a method to quantitatively investigate complex magmatic systems in a thermodynamic context; it predicts complex, nonmonotonic geochemical trends for which there are natural analogues that have been difficult to model; and finally, EC-RAFC establishes the link between the chemical and physical attributes of a magmatic system. Application of EC-RAFC promises to improve our understanding of specific tectonomagmatic systems as well as enhance our grasp of the essential physiochemical principles that govern magma body evolution.

Wendy A. Bohrson Department of Geological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, 98926, USA; Frank J. Spera Institute for Crustal Studies and Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA

2003-07-01

424

RELAP5 / MOD3.2 analysis of INSC standard problem INSCSP - R7 : void fraction distribution over RBMK fuel channel height for experiments performed in the ENTEK BM test facility.  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer program has been used to analyze a series of tests investigating void fraction distribution over height in RBMK fuel channels performed in Facility BM at the ENTEK. This is RBMK Standard Problem 7 in Joint Project 6, which is the investigation of Computer Code Validation for Transient Analysis of RBMK and VVER Reactors, between the United States and Russian Minatom International Nuclear Safety Centers. The experiment facility and data, RELAP5 nodalization, and results are shown for all tests. Agreement between RELAP5 and the experiment data is reasonable.

Garner, P. L.

2002-08-22

425

RELAP5/MOD3.2 analysis of INSC standard problem INSCSP - R7 : void fraction distribution over RBMK fuel channel height for experiments performed in the ENTEK BM test facility.  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer program has been used to analyze a series of tests investigating void fraction distribution over height in RBMK fuel channels performed in Facility BM at the ENTEK. This is RBMK Standard Problem 7 in Joint Project 6, which is the investigation of Computer Code Validation for Transient Analysis of RBMK and VVER Reactors, between the United States and Russian Minatom International Nuclear Safety Centers. The experiment facility and data, RELAP5 nodalization, and results are shown for all tests. Agreement between RELAP5 and the experiment data is reasonable.

Garner, P. L.

2002-05-24

426

Rainfall seasonality and an ecohydrological feedback offset the potential impact of climate warming on evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

potential impact of projected climate warming on the terrestrial hydrologic cycle is uncertain. This problem has evaded experimentalists due to the overwhelming challenge of measuring the entire water budget and introducing experimental warming treatments in open environmental systems. We present new data from a mesocosm experiment that examined the combined responses of evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and potential groundwater recharge (R; lysimeter drainage) to a 3.5°C temperature increase in a grassland ecosystem experiencing a Mediterranean climate. The temperature increase was applied both symmetrically throughout the day, and asymmetrically such that daily minimum temperature was 5°C greater than ambient and daily maximum temperature was 2°C greater than ambient. Our results span 3 water years and show that symmetric and asymmetric warming-enhanced ET during the spring. However, this increase in ET reduced soil moisture more rapidly, resulting in less ET during the summer than occurred under ambient temperature, and no difference in total ET during the combined spring and summer (March to October). Groundwater recharge was reduced during late-spring storms relative to the ambient temperature treatment, but these reductions were less than 4% of total annual R, and were offset by slightly greater R in the fall under both warming treatments. The results highlight the potential for local interactions between temperature, vegetation, and soils to moderate the hydrological response to climate warming, particularly in environments where precipitation is seasonal and out of phase with the vegetation growing season.

Pangle, Luke A.; Gregg, Jillian W.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

2014-02-01

427

Quality assessment of reclaimed water for its possible use for crop irrigation and aquifer recharge in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

The city of Ensenada, Baja California, has three wastewater treatment plants and is one of the few cities in Mexico that treats all the wastewater that it generates. The largest wastewater treatment plant, called El Naranjo, treats on average 316 liters per second and complies with even the most stringent Mexican standards although a stricter control has to be achieved in order to avoid environmental and health problems At the moment, only 2% of the treated wastewater is used for the irrigation of sports fields and public landscape. The reclaimed water could be reused for the irrigation of crops for non-human consumption or ornamental products and/or for aquifer recharge. For reuse practices, two facts must be considered: a) an important part of the valley's production is exported to the USA and b) 30% of the city of Ensenada's water supply is obtained from the Maneadero aquifer. There is currently no Mexican legislation to stipulate adequate standards for aquifer recharge and decisions should be based on legislation from other places. Therefore, at the moment there is still a lack of technical and scientific elements to be able to make the best decision about the reuse of the wastewater. PMID:15344803

Mendoza-Espinosa, L; Orozco-Borbón, M Victoria; Silva-Nava, Patricia

2004-01-01

428

New amorphous thin-film lithium electrolyte and rechargeable microbattery  

SciTech Connect

Sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in pure N{sub 2} results in the formation of an amorphous lithium electrolyte that is stable in contact with lithium and has electrical properties that are suitable for application in a thin-film cell. Thin-film rechargeable lithium cells have been fabricated and characterized using this electrolyte between a lithium anode and an amorphous vanadium oxide cathode. The open circuit voltage of the cell is 3.6 to 3.7 V, and it has a capacity of 130 {mu}Ah/cm{sup 2} when discharged to 1.5 V. The ac impedance of the cells measured at different stages of discharge indicate a significant decrease in internal resistance at about the midpoint of the discharge.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.

1992-02-01

429

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

430

Development and testing of nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nanoparticles in composite electrodes for Li batteries may have considerable kinetic advantages due to the reduction of the diffusion length for lithium insertion in the active mass, and also because of the reduction of the overall charge transfer resistance of the electrodes. We report herein on the synthesis of various types of nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries and their testing as active mass in anodes and cathodes. These include SnO, VO x, Li xMnO 2, and various types of carbon nanotubes. Sonochemistry was applied for the synthesis of part of the nanophases. The tools for this study included X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and standard electrochemical techniques (CV, SSCV, chronopotentiometry and impedance spectroscopy).

Odani, A.; Nimberger, A.; Markovsky, B.; Sominski, E.; Levi, E.; Kumar, V. G.; Motiei, M.; Gedanken, A.; Dan, P.; Aurbach, D.

431

Novel cathode material for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

This article describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel crosslinked polymer with tricyanuric acid core bearing tetrasulfide bridges as a novel redox polymerization electrode material for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. The new material was synthesized by reaction of stoichiometric sulfur monochloride amounts with trithiocyanuric acid and the structure of the redox polymer proven by the means of elementary analysis, infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical evaluation of the polymer as electroactive cathode component showed cycling stability up to 140 cycles after initial capacity of 650 mAhg(-1) with 73% utilization of the theoretical specific capacity (893 mAhg(-1)) regarding the electroactive tetrasulfide moieties. Cell operation with excess amounts of electrolyte did not accelerate the cell degradation, indicating that the reduced sulfur species such as lower polysulfides (Li2S, Li2S2) and tris lithium salt of trithiocyanuric acid are efficiently immobilized on the cathode side. PMID:24388137

Gronwald, Oliver; Garsuch, Arnd; Panchenko, Alexander

2013-01-01

432

Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

DOEpatents

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL) [Downers Grove, IL

2007-04-17

433

Carbon blacks as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium cells  

SciTech Connect

Various carbon blacks as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium cells were investigated. The charge capacity of lithium cells were approximately proportional to the surface area of carbon blacks. Ketjen black EC has the highest surface area (950m/sup 2//g) and exhibited the highest discharge capacity (398 Ah/kg) in our experiments where cutoff potentials were 1.0V vs Li/Li/sup +/ on discharge and 4.5V on charge. The Ketjen black EC cathode also showed good cycling characteristics at a constant capacity (50 Ah/kg). In contrast to this, acetylene black, which has a higher crystalline structure and smaller surface area, exhibited a lower discharge capacity (6Ah/kg). Such differences of features for various carbon black cathodes were clearly observed in cyclic voltammetry measurements.

Watanabe, A.; Mori, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Nakamura, Y.