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1

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

2

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

3

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1990-01-01

4

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

5

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

6

Positive Energy From rechargeable batteries to fuel cells: electrochemical energy as one  

E-print Network

between any two massive bodies (for instance the earth and sun) is called gravitational energy; the partPositive Energy From rechargeable batteries to fuel cells: electrochemical energy as one concern for the environment have brought the issue of energy production and exploitation to the public

Andelman, David

7

Summary of the metal--air fuel cell research program. [Mechanically rechargeable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to determine whether a full-performance, economical electric vehicle can be developed using a mechanically rechargeable metal--air battery as a power source. State-of-the-art and projected performance, energy conversion efficiency, estimates of cost of ownership and operation, considerations of market entry, and current research areas are discussed. Li, Al, and Ca seem to hold the greatest

1977-01-01

8

Safeguards for spent fuels: Verification problems  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of large quantities of spent nuclear fuels world-wide is a serious problem for international safeguards. A number of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member states, including the US, consider spent fuel to be a material form for which safeguards cannot be terminated, even after permanent disposal in a geologic repository. Because safeguards requirements for spent fuels are different from those of conventional bulk-handling and item-accounting facilities, there is room for innovation to design a unique safeguards regime for spent fuels that satisfies the goals of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty at a reasonable cost to both the facility and the IAEA. Various strategies being pursued for long-term management of spent fuels are examined with a realistic example to illustrate the problems of verifying safeguards under the present regime. Verification of a safeguards regime for spent fuels requires a mix of standard safeguards approaches, such as quantitative verification and use of seals, with other measures that are unique to spent fuels. 17 refs.

Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

1991-01-01

9

Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers  

SciTech Connect

Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

1980-01-01

10

Rechargeable cryogenic reactant storage and delivery system for fuel cell powered underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic liquid oxygen storage system for providing oxygen to a fuel cell powered underwater vehicle has been proven feasible through a research program with the Office of Naval Research. A system has been designed that meets the Navy specifications of storing 50 kg and delivering 0.1 to 100 g\\/min of oxygen in an unmanned underwater vehicle. The total system

M. S. Haberbusch; R. J. Stochl; C. T. Nguyen; A. J. Culler; J. S. Wainright; M. E. Moran

2002-01-01

11

Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints  

E-print Network

of this problem is mainly in the improvement of feasible solutions, but the following steps are discussed: Cost Matrix Transformation, Field Partitioning, Tour Generation and Rerouting, and Tour Improvement. Four neighborhoods were investigated (2-opt, 3-opt...

Levy, David

2013-06-26

12

Diesel Locomotive Fueling Problem (LFP) in Railroad Operations  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Diesel Locomotive Fueling Problem (LFP) in Railroad Operations Bodhibrata Nag Katta G their operating costs low. About 75% of transport by railroads in the world is based on diesel locomotives by diesel locomotives. One of the major compo- nents in the operating cost of diesel powered rail transport

Murty, Katta G.

13

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY RECHARGE CENTERS  

E-print Network

9/1/2005 1 WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY RECHARGE CENTERS revised July 1, 2005 A. SCOPE Recharge centers in charges to federal and nonfederal grants and contracts. In connection with Washington University's receipt recharge centers. This policy helps assure that Washington University consistently applies sound cost

Subramanian, Venkat

14

Accounting for intracell flow in models with emphasis on water table recharge and stream-aquifer interaction. 1. Problems and concepts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One method of modeling multiple sources and sinks is to determine the net recharge per cell. For example, for a model cell containing both a sink and recharge through the water table, the amount of recharge should be reduced by the ratio of the area of influence of the sink within the cell to the area of the cell. The reduction is the intercepted portion of the recharge. In a multilayer model this amount is further reduced by a proportion factor, which is a function of the depth of the flow lines from the water table boundary to the internal sink. A gaining section of a stream is a typical sink. The aquifer contribution to a gaining stream can be conceptualized as having two parts; the first part is the intercepted lateral flow from the water table and the second is the flow across the streambed due to differences in head between the water level in the stream and the aquifer below. The amount intercepted is a function of the geometry of the cell, but the amount due to difference in head across the stream bed is largely independent of cell geometry. -from Authors

Jorgensen, D.G.; Signor, D.C.; Imes, J.L.

1989-01-01

15

Estimating groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

Stonestrom, David A.

2011-01-01

16

Extended Run Fuel Cell Backup Power: Solving the Hydrogen Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Founded in 1996, IdaTech has become a leader in the development of fuel processors and integrated fuel cell systems for portable power, critical backup power and remote power applications world-side. The company is focusing on the commercial deployment of PEM fuel cell solutions for a wide range of power generation needs including critical backup, remote and portable applications. IdaTech's core

H. Koyama

2006-01-01

17

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride

J. L. Perry

1988-01-01

18

Modeling of Gap Closure in Uranium-Zirconium Alloy Metal Fuel - A Test Problem  

SciTech Connect

Uranium based binary and ternary alloy fuel is a possible candidate for advanced fast spectrum reactors with long refueling intervals and reduced liner heat rating [1]. An important metal fuel issue that can impact the fuel performance is the fuel-cladding gap closure, and fuel axial growth. The dimensional change in the fuel during irradiation is due to a superposition of the thermal expansion of the fuel due to heating, volumetric changes due to possible phase transformations that occur during heating and the swelling due to fission gas retention. The volumetric changes due to phase transformation depend both on the thermodynamics of the alloy system and the kinetics of phase change reactions that occur at the operating temperature. The nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles that contributes to fuel swelling is also influenced by the local fuel chemistry and the microstructure. Once the fuel expands and contacts the clad, expansion in the radial direction is constrained by the clad, and the overall deformation of the fuel clad assembly depends upon the dynamics of the contact problem. The neutronics portion of the problem is also inherently coupled with microstructural evolution in terms of constituent redistribution and phase transformation. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems have been defined with increasing complexity with the objective of capturing the fuel-clad interaction in complex fuels subjected to a wide range of irradiation and temperature conditions. The abstract, if short, is inserted here before the introduction section. If the abstract is long, it should be inserted with the front material and page numbered as such, then this page would begin with the introduction section.

Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL

2009-10-01

19

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of materials electrochemistry represents a fusion of solid-state chemistry and electrochemistry. The commercial success of the world's first rechargeable lithium battery, introduced recently by Sony, is a triumph of materials electrochemistry. By developing radically new anodes, cathodes and electrolytes, a cell has been produced which can store three times the energy per unit weight and volume compared with conventional

Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

20

Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

1973-01-01

21

Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of freshwater could be made available for the artificial-recharge operations. ?? 1989.

Kimrey, J. O.

1989-01-01

22

A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.  

PubMed

Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24803414

Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

2014-07-01

23

Comparing groundwater recharge and storage variability from GRACE satellite observations with observed water levels and recharge model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of groundwater resources, particularly in water stressed regions, requires estimates of groundwater recharge. This study in southern Mali, Africa compares approaches for estimating groundwater recharge and understanding recharge processes using a variety of methods encompassing groundwater level-climate data analysis, GRACE satellite data analysis, and recharge modelling for current and future climate conditions. Time series data for GRACE (2002-2006) and observed groundwater level data (1982-2001) do not overlap. To overcome this problem, GRACE time series data were appended to the observed historical time series data, and the records compared. Terrestrial water storage anomalies from GRACE were corrected for soil moisture (SM) using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to obtain monthly groundwater storage anomalies (GRACE-SM), and monthly recharge estimates. Historical groundwater storage anomalies and recharge were determined using the water table fluctuation method using observation data from 15 wells. Historical annual recharge averaged 145.0 mm (or 15.9% of annual rainfall) and compared favourably with the GRACE-SM estimate of 149.7 mm (or 14.8% of annual rainfall). Both records show lows and peaks in May and September, respectively; however, the peak for the GRACE-SM data is shifted later in the year to November, suggesting that the GLDAS may poorly predict the timing of soil water storage in this region. Recharge simulation results show good agreement between the timing and magnitude of the mean monthly simulated recharge and the regional mean monthly storage anomaly hydrograph generated from all monitoring wells. Under future climate conditions, annual recharge is projected to decrease by 8% for areas with luvisols and by 11% for areas with nitosols. Given this potential reduction in groundwater recharge, there may be added stress placed on an already stressed resource.

Allen, D. M.; Henry, C.; Demon, H.; Kirste, D. M.; Huang, J.

2011-12-01

24

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

25

Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

1995-01-01

26

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

1990-09-01

27

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Sánchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-10-01

28

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Sánchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-04-01

29

Spacecraft fuel-optimal and balancing maneuvers for a class of formation reconfiguration problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents fuel optimal and balancing methodologies for reconfiguring multiple spacecraft in formation subject to a Newtonian gravity field. For a kind of continuous-thrust propulsion system, a fuel-optimal control problem is formulated to minimize the integral squared control subject to the linearized Hill or Clohessy-Wiltshire dynamics of relative motion with respect to a circular reference orbit. Palmer's analytical solution for general reconfiguration is adapted to maneuvers between projected circular orbits, resulting in the optimal fuel consumption index as a function of configuration parameters such as orbit radius, phase angle, and transfer time. Parametric analyses reveal unique characteristics of individual fuel optimality and gross fuel consumption: for an arbitrary selection of initial/terminal orbit radii, (i) there exist special transfer times such that individual fuel consumption is optimally uniform for all phase angles, and (ii) the total fuel expenditure for a group of three or more spacecraft is invariant for the relatively same configuration with respect to the departure phase. These results serve to effectively design fuel balancing strategies for formation reconfiguration of multiple spacecraft.

Yoo, Sung-Moon; Lee, Sangjin; Park, Chandeok; Park, Sang-Young

2013-10-01

30

Rechargeable batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rechargeable batteries (RB’s) have found important new applications in rapidly expanding markets, such as portable computers (laptops), telecommunication equipment (handies), camcorders and tools. The interest in electric vehicles has continued to stimulate research on RB’s having improved specific energy. Attention has been focussed on nonaqueous battery systems, in particular on lithium batteries. Small rechargeable lithium batteries, available

Fritz Beck; Paul Rüetschi

2000-01-01

31

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30

32

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

33

Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem  

E-print Network

Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem Jay T. Pukrushpan starvation and degradation of the stack voltage. Different control configurations and FCS measurements of oxygen starvation and fast net FCS power response during rapid current (load) demands is also delineated

Stefanopoulou, Anna

34

Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem (ISP)-14  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and calculations for input values satisfactory results are obtained.

Sdouz, G.

1984-04-01

35

Improved rechargeable lithium electrode  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the research were (1) to demonstrate that a synthetically generated lithium-ion-conducting interphase could extend the cycle life of the lithium electrode; and (2) to determine whether an organic solvent's stability toward lithium is intrinsic or simply due to mediating surface films. The presence of superoxide ion was found to quadruple the life of LiAlCl4/tetrahydrofuran electrolyte and to allow lithium to be cycled to LiAlCl4/2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The discovery that 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran is more stable toward lithium-mercury amalgam than is tetrahydrofuran suggests that structural features of a solvent molecule may be manipulated so as to decrease its propensity for reduction by lithium metal. These results are said to provide a basis upon which solvents and the lithium solvent interface may be modified, leading to a practical secondary lithium electrode for use in rechargeable high-energy-density batteries.

Koch, V.R.

1983-04-01

36

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02

37

Minimum fuel control of the planar circular restricted three-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circular restricted three-body problem is considered to model the dynamics of an artificial body submitted to the attraction of two planets. Minimization of the fuel consumption of the spacecraft during the transfer, e.g. from the Earth to the Moon, is considered. In the light of the controllability results of Caillau and Daoud (SIAM J Control Optim, 2012), existence for this optimal control problem is discussed under simplifying assumptions. Thanks to Pontryagin maximum principle, the properties of fuel minimizing controls is detailed, revealing a bang-bang structure which is typical of L1-minimization problems. Because of the resulting non-smoothness of the Hamiltonian two-point boundary value problem, it is difficult to use shooting methods to compute numerical solutions (even with multiple shooting, as many switchings on the control occur when low thrusts are considered). To overcome these difficulties, two homotopies are introduced: One connects the investigated problem to the minimization of the L2-norm of the control, while the other introduces an interior penalization in the form of a logarithmic barrier. The combination of shooting with these continuation procedures allows to compute fuel optimal transfers for medium or low thrusts in the Earth-Moon system from a geostationary orbit, either towards the L 1 Lagrange point or towards a circular orbit around the Moon. To ensure local optimality of the computed trajectories, second order conditions are evaluated using conjugate point tests.

Caillau, J.-B.; Daoud, B.; Gergaud, J.

2012-10-01

38

Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem  

SciTech Connect

More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO{sub 2} fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

Yang, W. [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., Hong Cao road 29, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xian Ning west road 28, Xi'an, Shaanxi (China); Wu, H.; Cao, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xian Ning west road 28, Xi'an, Shaanxi (China)

2012-07-01

39

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

40

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

41

Comparison Study of SPEA2+, SPEA2, and NSGA-II in Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy Problem  

E-print Network

Comparison Study of SPEA2+, SPEA2, and NSGA-II in Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy Problem@mail.doshisha.ac.jp Abstract- Recently, the technology that can control NOx and Soot values of diesel engines by changing between fuel economy and NOx values. Therefore, the diesel engines that can change their characteristics

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

42

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

SciTech Connect

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

43

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates.

Scanlon, B.R.; Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

2002-01-01

44

Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

2007-01-01

45

Revised 06-2011 Rechargeable  

E-print Network

Waste Label (see separate instructions). Step 4: Bag It Insert a battery or cell phone in a provided bagRevised 06-2011 Rechargeable Battery And Cell Phone Recycling Program Guidelines University. For big batteries, or if no bag is available, cover terminals with non- conductive tape. Step 5: Seal

Taylor, Jerry

46

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems. PMID:11048714

Aurbach, D; Lu, Z; Schechter, A; Gofer, Y; Gizbar, H; Turgeman, R; Cohen, Y; Moshkovich, M; Levi, E

2000-10-12

47

Unsteady Climate, Groundwater Recharge, and Human Influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge is arguably the starting point of the groundwater hydrologic cycle. It marries above-ground hydrologic and climatic processes -runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration- with groundwater flow and biochemical dynamics. This paper focuses on unsteady climate and ground water recharge linkages. Unsteady climate by virtue of its seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations or by shifts in the earth-atmosphere's radiative budget caused by secular forcing. Recharge is primarily caused by spatially diffuse percolation or by streamflow seepage. These two mechanisms are briefly reviewed. Examples of regional recharge governed by unsteady climate and affected by unsteady population are presented. Questions are raised about climate-recharge-human feebacks, and adaptation possibilities are proposed.

Loaiciga, H. A.

2007-12-01

48

Groundwater recharge modelling using the Monte Carlo technique, Manawatu region, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, the Manawatu region of New Zealand, covers approximately 4200 km 2 and contains numerous aquifers in unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary formations. Most of the 5000 bores are shallow, with over 75% being less than 50 m. Of concern, is that 20% of bores in the south tap groundwater with a nitrate-nitrogen concentration above the drinking water standard (11.3 mg/l). An effective regional vulnerability assessment was therefore developed to mitigate this problem. While four factors largely control aquifer vulnerability in the study area, this paper focuses on developing a regional rainfall recharge model. Percolating rainwater is the major transporting agent for contaminants through soil and unsaturated zone. Mean annual recharge was calculated at each rainfall station throughout the study area using the Monte Carlo technique to randomise soil moisture parameters and approximate the variability of soils. These point estimates of recharge were then modelled spatially to produce a 'recharge surface'. Good agreement between the modelled and actual groundwater levels was obtained. Likewise, the regional recharge surface is consistent with the physical processes and the expected pattern. Uncertainty of recharge estimation is expressed as the standard deviation of the mean annual recharge resulting from the Monte Carlo modelling. Estimates of both recharge and uncertainty are presented as readily assimilated colour-coded maps which can be used by resource planners and other laypersons. This methodology is considered appropriate for other non-arid areas with limited soil and groundwater data coverage.

Bekesi, G.; McConchie, J.

1999-11-01

49

Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

Thaller, L. H. (inventor)

1976-01-01

50

Survey of rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

Not Available

1993-07-01

51

Altitude/path-angle transitions in fuel-optimal problems for transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altitude/path angle transitions to fuel-optimal, energy climb and descent paths are examined for subsonic transport aircraft. These transitions are termed boundary layers in singular perturbation theory, the framework used herein to simplify solutions to the state-Euler system. The energy climb and descent paths provide equilibrium or stationary points for the boundary layer system, and thus for moderate transitions, presumed valid for the class of aircraft considered, the boundary layer system may be linearized. This simplification allows derivation of an explicit solution to the two-point boundary-value, boundary layer problem and, as a consequence, yields a nearly optimal control law, in feedback form, for the transitions. Numerical simulation results using the feedback control law are presented for a Boeing 737 airframe (NASA-ATOPS Vehicle) employing twin JT8D-7-7A engines.

Gracey, C.; Price, D. B.

1983-01-01

52

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-09-01

53

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-01-01

54

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Böhlke, J.K.

2002-01-01

55

Coupled Model Development between Groundwater Recharge Quantity and Climate Change in Nakdong River Watershed using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Global climate change is disturbing the water circulation balance by changing rates of precipitation, recharge and discharge, and evapotranspiration. Groundwater, which occupies a considerable portion of the world's water resources, is related to climate change via surface water such as rivers, lakes, and marshes. In this study, the authors selected a relevant climate change scenario, A1B from the Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) which is distributed at Korea Meteorological Administration. By using data on temperature, rainfall, soil, and land use, the groundwater recharge rate for the research area was estimated by periodically and embodied as geographic information system (GIS). In order to calculate the groundwater recharge quantity, Visual HELP3 was used as main model, and the physical properties of weather, temperature, and soil layers were used as main input data. General changes to water circulation due to climate change have already been predicted. In order to systematically solve problems of ground circulation system, it may be urgent to recalculate the groundwater recharge quantity and consequent change under future climate change. The space-time calculation of changes of the groundwater recharge quantity in the study area may serve as a foundation to present additional measures to improve domestic groundwater resource management. Results showed that 26.19% of total precipitation was recharged from 1971 to 2000, 27.37% will be recharged from 2001 to 2030, 27.43% will be recharged from 2031 to 2050, and 26.06% will be recharged from 2051 to 2070, 27.88% will be recharged from 2051 to 2100. The groundwater recharge rate in this research showed susceptibility to changes in precipitation. The recharge rate was relatively little affected by the changes in Curve Number (CN), but it was rapidly reduced, as it approached the impermeable layers. Accordingly, the findings herein provide a basis for establishment of national plans on water resources management, use of groundwater in local areas for the purpose of settlement, and estimation of groundwater recharge quantities in areas where the groundwater hydrology is not measured. KEY WORDS: Groundwater recharge; Climate change; Curve Number; Special Report on Emissions Scenarios; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Lee, M.; Jeongho, L.; Changsub, S.; SeongWoo, J.

2011-12-01

56

MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS – A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

2010-07-18

57

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

58

Micro windmills to recharge your mobile phone  

E-print Network

0Tweet 0 Micro windmills to recharge your mobile phone Discussion in 'Other Engineering Trades be hosted on your mobile phone and used to charge your mobile phone on the go. Rao's work has seen a greatMicro windmills to recharge your mobile phone | CrazyEngineers 1/19/2014http://www.crazyengineers.com/threads/micro-windmills-to-recharge-your-mobile-phone

Chiao, Jung-Chih

59

Advanced materials for electrodes and electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery possesses many outstanding advantages over the well known rechargeable battery systems, in particularly higher energy density and longer shelf life, as well as not suffering from the memory effect problems of Ni-MH batteries. Those advantages are making it the greatest energy source of choice for the portable electronic market. Graphite and LiCoO2 are commonly used in

Sau yen Chew

2009-01-01

60

Impacts of Decreasing Recharge Rates on Sustainable Groundwater Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groundwater is a vital resource for living and food security for at least two billion people worldwide. Ever increasing demand\\u000a on groundwater has led to overexploitation of the aquifers and degradation of groundwater quality. Climate change will exacerbate\\u000a these problems by producing reduced recharge rates in some areas, more reliance on groundwater resources due to decrease in\\u000a reliability of surface

Hasan Yazicigil; Koray K. Yilmaz; Burcu Unsal Erdemli; Ozlem Yagbasan

61

GPU Based General-Purpose Parallel computing to Solve Nuclear Reactor In-Core fuel Management Design and Operation Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-core fuel management study is a crucial activity in nuclear power plant design and operation. Its common problem is to find an optimum arrangement of fuel assemblies inside the reactor core. Main objective for this activity is to reduce the cost of generating electricity, which can be done by altering several physical properties of the nuclear reactor without violating any of the constraints imposed by operational and safety considerations. This research try to address the problem of nuclear fuel arrangement problem, which is, leads to the multi-objective optimization problem. However, the calculation of the reactor core physical properties itself is a heavy computation, which became obstacle in solving the optimization problem by using genetic algorithm optimization. This research tends to address that problem by using the emerging General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) techniques implemented by C language for CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) parallel programming. By using this parallel programming technique, we develop parallelized nuclear reactor fitness calculation, which is involving numerical finite difference computation. This paper describes current prototype of the parallel algorithm code we have developed on CUDA, that performs one hundreds finite difference calculation for nuclear reactor fitness evaluation in parallel by using GPU G9 Hardware Series developed by NVIDIA.

Prayudhatama, D.; Waris, A.; Kurniasih, N.; Kurniadi, R.

2010-06-01

62

Problems of the Northern Fuel Delivery and Possible Role of Mini Nuclear Power Plants (MNPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the main directions of organic fuel delivery to the northern territories of the country including the Sakha republic (Yakutia) (variants of the Northern, Siberian and Far Eastern directions of fuel delivery). Consideration is given to the specific features of the multi-link, seasonal scheme of organic fuel delivery to the arctic areas. The dynamics of change in the

A. P. Shadrin

63

A Comparison of Trajectory Optimization Methods for the Impulsive Minimum Fuel Rendezvous Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present, a comparison of trajectory optimization approaches for the minimum fuel rendezvous problem. Both indirect and direct methods are compared for a variety of test cases. The indirect approach is based on primer vector theory. The direct approaches are implemented numerically and include Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). Quasi- Newton and Nelder-Meade Simplex. Several cost function parameterizations are considered for the direct approach. We choose one direct approach that appears to be the most flexible. Both the direct and indirect methods are applied to a variety of test cases which are chosen to demonstrate the performance of each method in different flight regimes. The first test case is a simple circular-to-circular coplanar rendezvous. The second test case is an elliptic-to-elliptic line of apsides rotation. The final test case is an orbit phasing maneuver sequence in a highly elliptic orbit. For each test case we present a comparison of the performance of all methods we consider in this paper.

Hughes, Steven P.; Mailhe, Laurie M.; Guzman, Jose J.

2003-01-01

64

Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems  

SciTech Connect

Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

King, J.M. Jr.

1996-03-01

65

Ground Water Recharge through Pits and Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well water was successfully recharged to the Meade formation in Southcentral Kansas through a pit and a well. However, when surface runoff water was recharged, the surface of the pit became sealed over for all practical purposes and the specific capacity ...

H. L. Manges

1973-01-01

66

Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Gee, G.W.

1987-11-01

67

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun  

E-print Network

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

Braun, Paul

68

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

69

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok-Jin [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjyoon@kist.re.kr

2008-08-04

70

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01

71

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

72

Stability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining parameters which describe the performance of a microbial fuel cell requires the solution of an inverse problem. Two formulations have been presented in the literature: a convolutional approach or a direct quadrature approach. A complete study and analysis of the direct quadrature method, which leads to two systems for the unknown signal given measured complex data, known as the distribution function of relaxation times, is presented. A theoretical analysis justifies the minimal range of integration that is appropriate for the quadrature and suggests that the systems should be combined giving an overdetermined system that is not well posed but not as ill-posed as either system considered separately. All measures of ill-posedness support using the combined data when the level of error in both components of the complex measurements is equivalent. Tikhonov regularization for the filtered singular value and truncated singular value decomposition are used to find solutions of the underlying model system. Given such solutions the application requires the determination of the model parameters that define the signal, among which are the location and peaks of the individual processes of the cell. A nonlinear data fitting approach is presented which consistently estimates these parameters. Simulations support the use of the combined systems for finding the underlying distribution function of relaxation times and the subsequent nonlinear data fitting to these curves. The approach is also illustrated for measured practical data, demonstrating that without the theoretical analysis incorrect conclusions on the underlying physical system would arise. This work justifies the use of Tikhonov regularization combined with nonlinear data fitting for finding reliable solutions for the specific model, when the signal is comprised of a mixture of signals from a small number of processes.

Renaut, R. A.; Baker, R.; Horst, M.; Johnson, C.; Nasir, D.

2013-04-01

73

A Parallel Multi-Domain Solution Methodology Applied to Nonlinear Thermal Transport Problems in Nuclear Fuel Pins  

E-print Network

This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods...

Philip, Bobby; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P; Sampath, Rahul S; Clarno, Kevin T; Dilts, Gary A

2014-01-01

74

Expanded use of fossil fuels by the U. S. and the global carbon dioxide problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued combustion of fossil fuels contributes to a steady increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Projecting present increases in rates of fossil-fuel utilization, a doubling of COâ concentration in the atmosphere may be expected within the next 75 years. Based on preliminary calculations, coal utilization by the U.S. to the year 2020 accounts for between 9 and 14%

W. R. Emanuel; J. S. Olson; G. G. Killough

1980-01-01

75

Modelling of heat and mass transfer to solve the problem of particle ignition water–coal fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of particle ignition coal-water fuel (WCF) has been solved numerically, located at a high flow environment. Two different approaches to describe the physics of the process have been applied. According to the results of numerical simulation of the effect of the scale has been set about ambient temperature, the particle size on the inertia of the studied processes. A comparison of ignition delay times has been obtained using both methods of describing heat and mass transfer processes preceding fire.

Salomatov, V. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.; Gutareva, N. Y.

2014-10-01

76

Problems in developing bimodal space power and propulsion system fuel element  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses design of a space nuclear power and propulsion system fuel element (PPFE) developed on the basis of an enhanced single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) of the 'TOPAZ-2' thermionic converter-reactor (TCR), and presents the PPFE performance for propulsion and power modes of operation. The choice of UC-TaC fuel composition is substantiated. Data on hydrogen effect on the PPFE output voltage are presented, design solutions are considered that allow to restrict hydrogen supply to an interelectrode gap (IEG). Long-term geometric stability of an emitter assembly is supported by calculated data.

Nikolaev, Yu. V.; Gontar, A. S.; Zaznoba, V. A.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A. [Research Institute of SIA 'Lutch' Podolsk, Moscow Region, 142100 (Russian Federation); RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

1997-01-10

77

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

78

Estimating Recharge Jointly Using The Chloride Method, Remote Sensing Data and Stochastic Inverse Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is the Chobe Enclave region in semi-arid Northern Botswana. Growing water demand in the local villages led to the development of different water supply scenarios one of which uses groundwater from a nearby aquifer. A regional groundwater flow model was established, both within a stochastic and a deterministic approach. In principle recharge can be derived from a surface water balance. The input data for the water balance, evapotranspiration and precipitation, were calculated using remotely sensed data. The calculation of evapotranspiration is based on the surface energy balance using multi-channel images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). For several days of the year, actual ET is calculated and compared to station potential ET to yield crop coefficients. The crop coefficients are interpolated in time. Finally long-term ET is calculated by multiplying the crop coefficients with station potential ET. Precipitation is taken from station data and precipitation maps prepared by USAID using Meteosat images. As in most of the area surface runoff is small, subtracting evapotranspiration from precipitation yields recharge maps for the period 1990-2000. However, the values thus calculated are very inaccurate, as the errors both in precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates are large. Still, zones of different recharge and probable errors can be identified. The absolute value of the recharge flux in each zone is derived from the chloride method. Alternatively, the recharge flux was also estimated by the sequential self-calibrated method, a stochastic inverse modelling approach based on observed heads and pumping test data. Recharge values and transmissivities are estimated jointly in this method. The recharge zones derived from the water balance together with their stochastic properties are used as prior information. The method generates multiple equally likely solutions to the estimation problem and allows to assess the uncertainty of recharge estimates.

Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip; Eugster, Martin; Bauer, Peter; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

79

Design of an AUV recharging system  

E-print Network

The utility of present Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is limited by their on-board energy storage capability. Research indicates that rechargeable batteries will continue to be the AUV power source of choice for at ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2004-01-01

80

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges

J.-M. Tarascon; M. Armand

2001-01-01

81

Theory of the generalized chloride mass balance method for recharge estimation in groundwater basins characterised by point and diffuse recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) method to point recharge dominant groundwater basins can substantially under-estimate long-term average annual recharge by not accounting for the effects of localized surface water inputs. This is because the conventional CMB method ignores the duality of infiltration and recharge found in karstic systems, where point recharge can be a contributing factor. When point recharge is present in groundwater basins, recharge estimation is unsuccessful using the conventional CMB method with, either unsaturated zone chloride or groundwater chloride. In this paper we describe a generalized CMB that can be applied to groundwater basins with point recharge. Results from this generalized CMB are shown to be comparable with long-term recharge estimates obtained using the watertable fluctuation method, groundwater flow modelling and Darcy flow calculations. The generalized CMB method provides an alternative, reliable long-term recharge estimation method for groundwater basins characterised by both point and diffuse recharge.

Somaratne, N.; Smettem, K. R. J.

2014-01-01

82

Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

2011-10-01

83

Evaluation of changes in post-fire recharge under native woodland using hydrological measurements, modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper examines the use of a controlled fuel reduction burn in native woodland to increase recharge to a shallow aquifer system for water supply in south-western Australia. Soil moisture trends from neutron probe measurements and watertable dynamics from piezometers under adjacent burned and unburned plots were compared to determine the difference in recharge resulting from the fire. Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) subtracted from rainfall was used to independently estimate groundwater and soil moisture recharge and compare against a physically based model of soil-water fluxes. The use of naturally occurring chemicals (n-alkanes and cycloalkanes) produced in the fire as tracers of the recharge pulse in the winter following the fire was tested. It was found that in the winter following the fire (annual rainfall 701 mm), water storage in the 9 m thick unsaturated zone increased by about 300 mm but recharge to the watertable was only about 60 mm. In the subsequent year (rainfall 630 mm), leaf area index in the burned woodland recovered to be about 10% less than the unburned plot, remotely sensed ET rose above that in the unburned plot and recharge was lower in the burned than unburned plot. This trend continued and, after 3 years, increased ET negated any early recharge gains, and there was a net decrease in recharge resulting from the fire. The combination of water balance measurements, modelling and remote sensing provides a robust method to gain hydrological understanding of recharge mechanisms. Further work is required to refine the use of burn residue chemicals as soil water tracers, particularly in improving instrument design for groundwater sample collection in fine textured soils. As climate continues to change and regions with growing water shortages seek innovative solutions, approaches such as controlled burning may be needed; however, in this example, the approach was unproductive and further the environmental consequences need to be evaluated to make an appropriate assessment of trade-offs and viability of this approach.

Silberstein, Richard P.; Dawes, Warrick R.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Byrne, John; Smart, Natalie F.

2013-05-01

84

Optimal discharge and recharge control of battery-powered energy-aware systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the increasing dependence of many systems (such as wireless devices) on battery energy, we study the problem of optimally controlling how to discharge and recharge a non-ideal battery so as to maximize the work it can perform over a given time period and still maintain a desired final energy level. Modeling a battery as a dynamic system, we

Tao Wang; Christos G. Cassandras

2010-01-01

85

The used nuclear fuel problem - can reprocessing and consolidated storage be complementary?  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes our CISF (Consolidated Interim Storage Facilities) and Reprocessing Facility concepts and show how they can be combined with a geologic repository to provide a comprehensive system for dealing with spent fuels in the USA. The performance of the CISF was logistically analyzed under six operational scenarios. A 3-stage plan has been developed to establish the CISF. Stage 1: the construction at the CISF site of only a rail receipt interface and storage pad large enough for the number of casks that will be received. The construction of the CISF Canister Handling Facility, the Storage Cask Fabrication Facility, the Cask Maintenance Facility and supporting infrastructure are performed during stage 2. The construction and placement into operation of a water-filled pool repackaging facility is completed for Stage 3. By using this staged approach, the capital cost of the CISF is spread over a number of years. It also allows more time for a final decision on the geologic repository to be made. A recycling facility will be built, this facility will used the NUEX recycling process that is based on the aqueous-based PUREX solvent extraction process, using a solvent of tri-N-butyl phosphate in a kerosene diluent. It is capable of processing spent fuels at a rate of 5 MT per day, at burn-ups up to 50 GWD per ton of spent fuels and a minimum of 5 years out-of-reactor cooling.

Phillips, C.; Thomas, I. [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01

86

Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

87

Electrode materials for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe briefly the historical development of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries, the advantages and\\u000a challenges associated with the use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium rechargeable battery with an emphasis on the electrochemical\\u000a performance of various electrode materials. The following materials have been studied as cathode materials: LiMn2O4, MnO2, LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and anatase TiO2. Addition of

H. Manjunatha; G. S. Suresh; T. V. Venkatesha

2011-01-01

88

Computer Program for Predicting Recharge with a Master Recession Curve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data usi...

C. S. Heppner, J. R. Nimmo

2005-01-01

89

REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

90

Melt-Formable Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

conductivity in polymer electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. However, due to the strong in solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Yet, technical obstacles to their commercialization derive

Sadoway, Donald Robert

91

3/4/2014 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones http://www.innovationtoronto.com/2014/01/technology-microwindmills-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/4  

E-print Network

harness sun's energy during day for use at night | solar fuels The Next Data Privacy Battle May Be Waged Inside Your Car Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Flat panels with thousand-generation biofuel for cars Rise of the compliant machines Scientists demonstrate first contagious airborne Wi

Chiao, Jung-Chih

92

Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

93

Spatial and temporal variations in seepage during managed aquifer recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an increasingly important means of supplementing fresh water resources and helping to limit ground water overdraft. Many MAR systems are operated above a vadose zone and usually recharge rapidly during an initial phase of diversion. Recharge typically slows considerably within subsequent weeks to months as sedimentation, biofouling, soil compaction, drainage at the base of the

A. J. Racz; A. T. Fisher; C. M. Schmidt; B. S. Lockwood; M. Los Huertos

2009-01-01

94

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of

Alexander Vandenbohede; Emmanuel van Houtte; Luc Lebbe

2010-01-01

95

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

96

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from ¾140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

97

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been

D. Aurbach; Z. Lu; A. Schechter; Y. Gofer; H. Gizbar; R. Turgeman; Y. Cohen; M. Moshkovich; E. Levi

2000-01-01

98

Self-Recharging Virtual Currency David Irwin  

E-print Network

or starve. We outline the design and rationale for self-recharging currency in Cereus, a system for market to discourage fraudulent behav- ior. Currency transactions in Cereus are accountable: offline third-party audits use in Cereus1 , a system for service-oriented util- ity computing. The Cereus system is based

Shenoy, Prashant

99

Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell  

DOEpatents

A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

1985-01-01

100

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

101

Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

102

A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

2011-01-14

103

Rechargeable LI2O2 electrode for lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium batteries represent one of the most important developments in energy storage for 100 years, with the potential to address the key problem of global warming. However, their ability to store energy is limited by the quantity of lithium that may be removed from and reinserted into the positive intercalation electrode, Li(x)CoO(2), 0.5 < x < 1 (corresponding to 140 mA.h g(-1) of charge storage). Abandoning the intercalation electrode and allowing Li to react directly with O(2) from the air at a porous electrode increases the theoretical charge storage by a remarkable 5-10 times! Here we demonstrate two essential prerequisites for the successful operation of a rechargeable Li/O(2) battery; that the Li(2)O(2) formed on discharging such an O(2) electrode is decomposed to Li and O(2) on charging (shown here by in situ mass spectrometry), with or without a catalyst, and that charge/discharge cycling is sustainable for many cycles. PMID:16433559

Ogasawara, Takeshi; Débart, Aurélie; Holzapfel, Michael; Novák, Petr; Bruce, Peter G

2006-02-01

104

Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices  

SciTech Connect

A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

None

1981-01-01

105

Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

2012-12-01

106

Manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese oxides are considered as promising cathodes for rechargeable batteries due to their low cost and low toxicity as well as the abundant natural resources. In this dissertation, manganese oxides have been investigated as cathodes for both rechargeable lithium and alkaline batteries. Nanostructured lithium manganese oxides designed for rechargeable lithium cells have been synthesized by reducing lithium permanganate with methanol or hydrogen in various solvents followed by firing at moderate temperatures. The samples have been characterized by wet-chemical analyses, thermal methods, spectroscopic methods, and electron microscopy. It has been found that chemical residues in the oxides such as carboxylates and hydroxyl groups, which could be controlled by varying the reaction medium, reducing agents, and additives, make a significant influence on the electrochemical properties. The Li/Mn ratio in the material has also been found to be a critical factor in determining the rechargeability of the cathodes. The optimized samples exhibit a high capacity of close to 300 mAh/g with good cyclability and charge efficiency. The high capacity with a lower discharge voltage may make these nanostructured oxides particularly attractive for lithium polymer batteries. The research on the manganese oxide cathodes for alkaline batteries is focused on an analysis of the reaction products generated during the charge/discharge processes or by some designed chemical reactions mimicking the electrochemical processes. The factors influencing the formation of Mn3O4 in the two-electron redox process of delta-MnO2 have been studied with linear sweep voltammetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The presence of bismuth, the discharge rate, and the microstructure of the electrodes are found to affect the formation of Mn3O4, which is known to be electrochemically inactive. A faster voltage sweep and a more intimate mixing of the manganese oxide and carbon in the cathode are found to suppress the formation of Mn3O4. Bismuth has also been found to be beneficial in the one-electron process of gamma-MnO 2 when incorporated into the cathode. The results of a series of chemical reactions reveal that bismuth is blocking some reaction paths leading to the unwanted birnessite or Mn3O4. Barium is also found to play a similar role, but it is less effective than bismuth for the same amount of additive. Optimization of the additives has the potential to make the rechargeable alkaline cells based on manganese oxides to successfully compete with other rechargeable systems due to their low cost, environmental friendliness, and excellent safety features.

Im, Dongmin

107

Assessing controls on diffuse groundwater recharge using unsaturated flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate, vegetation, and soil controls on recharge is essential for estimating potential impacts of climate variability and land use/land cover change on recharge. Recharge controls were evaluated by simulating drainage in 5-m-thick profiles using a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated flow code (UNSAT-H), climate data, and vegetation and soil coverages from online sources. Soil hydraulic properties were estimated from STATSGO/SSURGO soils data using pedotransfer functions. Vegetation parameters were obtained from the literature. Long-term (1961-1990) simulations were conducted for 13 county-scale regions representing arid to humid climates and different vegetation and soil types, using data for Texas. Areally averaged recharge rates are most appropriate for water resources; therefore Geographic Information Systems were used to determine spatial weighting of recharge results from 1-D models for the combination of vegetation and soils in each region. Simulated 30-year mean annual recharge in bare sand is high (51-709 mm/yr) and represents 23-60% (arid-humid) of mean annual precipitation (MAP). Adding vegetation reduced recharge by factors of 2-30 (humid-arid), and soil textural variability reduced recharge by factors of 2-11 relative to recharge in bare sand. Vegetation and soil textural variability both resulted in a large range of recharge rates within each region; however, spatially weighted, long-term recharge rates were much less variable and were positively correlated with MAP (r2 = 0.85 for vegetated sand; r2 = 0.62 for variably textured soils). The most realistic simulations included vegetation and variably textured soils, which resulted in recharge rates from 0.2 to 118 mm/yr (0.1-10% of MAP). Mean annual precipitation explains 80% of the variation in recharge and can be used to map recharge.

Keese, K. E.; Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.

2005-06-01

108

Fuel lubricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were identified in the aeronautical industry in the 1960s, following a succession of in-flight engine failures. The influence of fuel composition upon fuel lubricity was established, as was the effect of various lubricity additives. Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were also subsequently identified in light-duty diesel engines when low-sulphur fuel was introduced. Again,

David Margaroni

1998-01-01

109

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

PubMed Central

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions. PMID:20940361

Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

2010-01-01

110

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

111

Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

1993-01-01

112

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn_2O_4 and VO_2(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO_3 in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.

Wu Li; J. R. Dahn; D. S. Wainwright

1994-01-01

113

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMnâOâ and VOâ(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNOâ in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Wu Li; J. R. Dahn; D. S. Wainwright

1994-01-01

114

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOEpatents

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07

115

Rechargeable alkaline zinc\\/ferricyanide battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of the alkaline zinc\\/ferricy anide rechargeable battery for utility load leveling applications was assessed. This battery meets the requirements for this application with cell voltages of 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge. Mean energy efficiency is 84% at 760 and 86% at 1110 4 hour cycles in full cell and redox half cell

G. B. Adams; R. P. Hollandsworth; B. D. Webber

1979-01-01

116

Non-aqueous, rechargeable electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

Non-aqueous rechargeable electrochemical cell is described comprising a negative electrode, a positive electrode containing an active material and an electrolyte solution into which said electrodes are immersed; said negative electrode comprising lithium; said electrolyte solution comprising sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) as solvent and at least one solute which is a lithium salt with an anion of a group 3A element halide; and said positive electrode comprising a lithium cobalt oxide as the active material.

Heitbaum, J.; Hambitzer, G.

1993-05-25

117

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and VO{sub 2}(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO{sub 3} in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Li, Wu; Dahn, J.R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Wainwright, D.S. [Moli Energy (1990) Limited, Maple Ridge, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-05-20

118

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

119

Nanomaterials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

In lithium-ion batteries, nanocrystalline intermetallic alloys, nanosized composite materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanosized transition-metal oxides are all promising new anode materials, while nanosized LiCoO2, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, and LiMn2O4 show higher capacity and better cycle life as cathode materials than their usual larger-particle equivalents. The addition of nanosized metal-oxide powders to polymer electrolyte improves the performance of the polymer electrolyte for all solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries. To meet the challenge of global warming, a new generation of lithium rechargeable batteries with excellent safety, reliability, and cycling life is needed, i.e., not only for applications in consumer electronics, but especially for clean energy storage and for use in hybrid electric vehicles and aerospace. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can lead to a new generation of lithium secondary batteries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent developments on nanomaterials and nanotechniques used for anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials, the impact of nanomaterials on the performance of lithium batteries, and the modes of action of the nanomaterials in lithium rechargeable batteries. PMID:16573064

Liu, Hua Kun; Wang, Guo Xiu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Jiazhao; Konstantinov, Kosta

2006-01-01

120

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.  

PubMed

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

121

Assessing controls on diffuse groundwater recharge using unsaturated flow modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding climate, vegetation, and soil controls on recharge is essential for estimating potential impacts of climate variability and land use\\/land cover change on recharge. Recharge controls were evaluated by simulating drainage in 5-m-thick profiles using a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated flow code (UNSAT-H), climate data, and vegetation and soil coverages from online sources. Soil hydraulic properties were estimated from STATSGO\\/SSURGO soils

K. E. Keese; B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy

2005-01-01

122

Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of Köppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

Barron, O. V.; Crosbie, R. S.; Dawes, W. R.; Charles, S. P.; Pickett, T.; Donn, M. J.

2012-12-01

123

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in

Andrew H Manning; D. Kip Solomon

2003-01-01

124

Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

2014-04-01

125

The national collection and recycling program for nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the effort of the rechargeable battery and rechargeable consumer products industries to form and implement a national collection program for rechargeable batteries in the US. Many states have mandatory labeling and collection requirements for rechargeable batteries. A national rechargeable battery management program to collect and recycle batteries throughout the US is discussed.

England, C.N. [Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-07-01

126

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25

127

Recycling of used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride) rechargeable battery was developed several years ago. Its higher electrochemical capacity and greater safety compared with the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery have resulted in very rapid increase in its production. The Ni-MH rechargeable battery consists of Ni, Co and rare earth metals, so that recycling is important to recover these valuable mineral resources. In this study, a basic recycling process for used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries has been developed, in which the Ni, Co and rare earth elements are recovered through a combination of mechanical processing and hydrometallurgical processing.

Yoshida, T.; Ono, H.; Shirai, R. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Ageo, Saitama (Japan). Corporate R and D Center

1995-12-31

128

Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modeling for a range of Köppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types the total annual rainfall had a weaker correlation with recharge than the rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. In regions with winter-dominated rainfall, annual recharge under the same annual rainfall, soils and vegetation conditions is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The relative importance of climate parameters other than rainfall is higher for recharge under annual vegetation, but overall is highest in the tropical climate type. Solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater relative importance than mean annual daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have lowest relative importance in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all considered cases of soil, vegetation and climate types recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4, indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

Barron, O. V.; Crosbie, R. S.; Pollock, D.; Dawes, W. R.; Charles, S. P.; Pickett, T.; Donn, M.

2012-05-01

129

A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

2014-05-01

130

PALEO-CHANNELS IN LOW ALLUVIAL PLAINS: INDIRECT RECHARGE PATHWAYS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDUCING MORE RECHARGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with description of a continuous monitoring scheme implemented in a sandy aquifer complex recharged by the Po river in low Padana plain near Ferrara (Italy). The aquifer actually is formed by two distinct sandy lithosomes: Holocenic paleo-channels (shallow unconfined aquifer) and Upper Pleistocenic sands (confined aquifer). The lithosomes are separated by a clayey aquitard but locally they

131

Glossary of testing terminology for rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Battery Test Working Task Force was formed in 1983 for the purpose of coordinating the evaluation of development rechargeable batteries by DOE-funded labs. The Task Force developed this glossary of testing terminology to improve the accuracy of communication and to permit meaningful comparisons of test results. It consists of a section of technical terms and a separate section of programmatic phrases and acronyms. The glossary emphasizes terms related to electric vehicle batteries due to the significant development and testing activities in this area. 8 refs.

Butler, P.C.

1988-10-01

132

Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

Huggins, Robert A.

1987-01-01

133

Analysis of regenerative fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a rechargeable fuel cell (RFC) system is considered. A newer type of rechargeable battery, the nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, is also evaluated. A review was made of past studies which showed large variations in weight, cost, and efficiency. Hydrogen-bromine and hydrogen-chlorine regenerable fuel cells were studied, and were found to have a potential for higher energy storage efficiency then the hydrogen-oxygen system. A reduction of up to 15 percent in solar array size may be possible as a result. These systems are not yet developed, but further study of them is recommended.

Gross, S.

1982-01-01

134

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro-windmills-recharge-phones/ 1/2  

E-print Network

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro-windmills-recharge-phones & Technology Search this site... R ECEN T P OSTS welcome Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Super Ty phoon (required) Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones January 16, 2014 · by mr.jade · in Energy, Innovation

Chiao, Jung-Chih

135

Sediment and microbial fouling of experimental groundwater recharge trenches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common method of recharging groundwater is by the use of injection wells and/or recharge trenches. With time the recharge capacities of the wells/trenches progressively decline. Deposition of suspended fines in the recharge water and growth of microorganisms in the aquifer are common causes of this decline. This paper presents an investigation of the relative significance of these two factors under controlled laboratory conditions. Large-scale physical models of recharge trenches were conducted in the laboratory to monitor the decline with time of the recharge capacity under controlled conditions. The physical models consisted of four hydraulically separate cells in which six different experiments were conducted. In three of the experiments microorganism were added as an inoculant. A nutrient and carbon fine solution was constantly injected into the influent stream entering through the inflow pipe. Both carbon fines and microorganisms caused plugging of the model recharge trenches in the laboratory. However, initialy the microbes appeared to have a beneficial effect by hindering the transport of the carbon fines from the gravel pack in the trench. Later the microbes contributed to the plugging of the gravel pack. A significant correlation was determined between the extent of carbon fine deposition and microbial growth. In the experiment using a biodegradable slurry, microbial growth did not affect the recharge capacity of the trench. One laboratory experiment involved the introduction of silt as a source of sediment fines to the model recharge trench. This experiment simulated conditions often found in the field when no carbon fine adsoprtion system is used and natural surface water is recharged into aquifer. This research will be useful in understanding the relative importance of factors contributing to the decline of recharge capacity observed in the field.

Warner, James W.; Gates, Timothy K.; Namvargolian, Reza; Miller, Paul; Comes, Gregory

1994-04-01

136

Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge  

E-print Network

[1] Groundwater recharge is likely to be affected by climate change. In semiarid regions where groundwater resources are often critical, annual recharge rates are typically small and most recharge occurs episodically. Such ...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

137

Availability of streamflow for recharge of the basal aquifer in the Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pearl Harbor area is underlain by an extensive basal aquifer that contains large supplies of fresh water. Because of the presence of a cap rock composed of sedimentary material that is less permeable than the basaltic lava of the basal aquifer, seaward movement of ground water is retarded. The cap rock causes the basal water to stand at a high level; thus, the lens of fresh water that floats on sea water is thick. Discharge from the basal ground-water body, which includes pumpage from wells and shafts, averaged 250 million gallons per day during 1931-65. Because the water level in the basal aquifer did not decline progressively, recharge to the ground-water body must have been approximately equal to discharge. Although pumping for agricultural use has decreased since 1931, net ground-water discharge has increased because of a large increase in pumping for urban use. Substitution of ground water for surface water in the irrigation of sugarcane has also contributed to a net increase in ground-water discharge. The development of Mililani Town will further increase discharge. The increase in ground-water discharge may cause an increase in chloride content of the water pumped from wells near the shore of Pearl Harbor unless the increased discharge is balanced by increased recharge to the local aquifer. The aquifer is recharged by direct infiltration and deep percolation of rain, principally in the high forested area, by infiltration and percolation of irrigation water applied in excess of plant requirements, by seepage of water through streambeds, and possibly by ground-water inflow from outside the area. Recharge is greatest in the uplands, where rainfall is heavy and where much infiltration takes place before rainwater collects in the middle and lower reaches of stream channels. Once water collects in and saturates the alluvium of stream channels, additional inflow to the streams will flow out to sea, only slightly decreased by seepage. Average annual direct runoff from the 90-square-mile Pearl Harbor area is 47.27 million gallons per day, or 11.1 inches; this is 13.3 percent of the average annual rainfall (83.3 in.) over the area. Average annual direct runoff in streams at the 800- and 400-foot altitudes is 29 and 38 million gallons per day, respectively. Kipapa Stream has the largest average annual direct runoff at those altitudes--6 and 9 million gallons per day, respectively. Because streams are flashy and have a wide range in discharge, only 60 percent of the average annual runoff can be economically diverted through ditches to recharge areas. The diversion may be increased slightly if reservoirs are used in conjunction with ditches to temporarily detain flows in excess of ditch capacity. The planned irrigation use of some of the perennial flow available in Waikele Stream near sea level will decrease pumping from and increase recharge to the basal aquifer. Suspended-sediment load is mainly silt and clay, and it increases rapidly with increased discharge. Thus, the use of streamflow for artificial recharge poses problems. High flows must be used if recharge is to be effective, but flows must not be so high as to cause clogging of recharge facilities with sediment or woodland debris. Practical tests are needed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of recharge structures, such as a reservoir or basin, large-diameter deep shafts, deep wells, or combinations of all these structures.

Hirashima, George Tokusuke

1971-01-01

138

Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

2013-01-01

139

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH C. P. Kumar* ABSTRACT is the principal means for replenishment of moisture in the soil water system and recharge to ground water at the upper boundary, the antecedent soil moisture conditions, the water table depth and the soil type

Kumar, C.P.

140

Autonomous Battery Recharging for Indoor Mobile Robots Seungjun Oh  

E-print Network

1 Autonomous Battery Recharging for Indoor Mobile Robots Seungjun Oh Australian National University the batteries on a mobile robot. The robot used in this project is the Nomadic Technologies? Nomad XR4000 mobile robot. The battery recharging system was implemented using the robot's built-in sensors to control

141

Transcutaneous Battery Recharging By Volume Conduction and its Circuit Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many implantable devices require large capacity batteries implanted in the body. Transcutaneous battery recharging can effectively maintain the longevity of these implants. Based on this consideration we have developed a transcutaneous battery recharging circuit unit which takes advantages of skin volume conduction. This unit is able to pass 2.8 mA from the outside to the inside of pig skin with

Zhide Tang; R. J. Sclabassi; C. Sun; S. A. Hackworth; Jun Zhao; X. T. Cui; M. Sun

2006-01-01

142

Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

2009-12-01

143

Probabilistic estimation and prediction of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment  

E-print Network

Quantifying and characterizing groundwater recharge are critical for water resources management. Unfortunately, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve in dry environments, where groundwater is often most important. ...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

2009-01-01

144

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374 000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to 720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU change was much greater than climate variability in Niger (Africa), where replacement of savanna by crops increased recharge by about an order of magnitude even during severe droughts. Sensitivity of recharge to LU/LC changes suggests that recharge may be controlled through management of LU. In irrigated areas, recharge varies from 10 to 485 mm year-1, representing 1-25% of irrigation plus precipitation. However, irrigation pumpage in groundwater-fed irrigated areas greatly exceeds recharge rates, resulting in groundwater mining. Increased recharge related to cultivation has mobilized salts that accumulated in the unsaturated zone over millennia, resulting in widespread groundwater and surface water contamination, particularly in Australia. The synthesis of recharge rates provided in this study contains valuable information for developing sustainable groundwater resource programmes within the context of climate variability and LU/LC change.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, Kelley E.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gaye, Cheikh B.; Edmunds, W. Michael; Simmers, Ian

2006-10-01

145

Groundwater recharge rate and zone structure estimation using PSOLVER algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

2014-01-01

146

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20 at% Mg. Kinetic studies on LaNi5-xSn x alloys proved that the mass transfer of hydrogen through these alloys was not hindered with increasing Sn substitutions for Ni. Collaborations with Energizer(c) found LanNi4.7Sn0.3 alloys to possess limited utility in rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride sealed-cell batteries.

Hightower, Adrian

147

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

148

Unlinkable Priced Oblivious Transfer with Rechargeable Wallets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first truly unlinkable priced oblivious transfer protocol. Our protocol allows customers to buy database records while remaining fully anonymous, i.e., (1) the database does not learn who purchases a record, and cannot link purchases by the same customer; (2) the database does not learn which record is being purchased, nor the price of the record that is being purchased; (3) the customer can only obtain a single record per purchase, and cannot spend more than his account balance; (4) the database does not learn the customer's remaining balance. In our protocol customers keep track of their own balances, rather than leaving this to the database as done in previous protocols. Our priced oblivious transfer protocol is also the first to allow customers to (anonymously) recharge their balances. Finally, we prove our protocol secure in the standard model (i.e., without random oracles).

Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Neven, Gregory

149

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

150

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

151

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

152

Advances in development of rechargeable mitochondrial antioxidants.  

PubMed

It has been about 15 years since the introduction of the rechargeable mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (RMA). Two major groups have been developing RMA of the MitoQ and SkQ types independently, and many additional trials have been done by other researchers. This has provided solid preclinical evidence of RMA efficacy in various models. Human trials of systemic MitoQ were not followed by further advances, but the safety of MitoQ and, most likely, other RMA in humans has been demonstrated. A prooxidant effect at higher concentrations of RMA was described. For RMA of the SkQ type, a large window between anti- and prooxidant concentrations was observed, which makes SkQs promising as potential medicines. Significant RMA-induced improvements in many diseases that do not have an accepted treatment have been described. This justifies further clinical trials of RMA. PMID:25149221

Lukashev, Alexander N; Skulachev, Maxim V; Ostapenko, Victoria; Savchenko, Alla Yu; Pavshintsev, V V; Skulachev, Vladimir P

2014-01-01

153

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

154

Fossil Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

Crank, Ron

155

Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model. PMID:21416662

Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A

2010-01-01

156

Rapid recharge capability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Range limitation is a significant drawback to the successful commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). An apt description of an EV is `a high performance vehicle with a one-gallon fuel tank'. In the absence of a `super battery', there are at least two approaches to resolving this drawback. The first approach is rapid recharge, i.e., recharging the battery as close as possible to the same time period as it takes to fill the petrol tank of an internal-combustion-engined (ICE) vehicle. Whilst not extending the vehicle range as such, this approach does enable high usage of the vehicle without experiencing unduly long recharge times. The ability of the battery to accept rapid recharge is paramount for this approach. The second approach is the development of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this case, the demand on the battery is the ability to provide, and also absorb from regenerative braking, high specific peak-power levels over a wide range of battery state-of-charge. This paper describes the ability, and indeed limitations, of the valve-regulated Genesis® lead-acid battery in meeting such requirements.

Fleming, F. A.; Shumard, P.; Dickinson, B.

157

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

158

Effects of artificial recharge on the Ogallala aquifer, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four recharge tests were conducted by injecting water from playa lakes through wells into the Ogallala Formation. Injection was by gravity flow and by pumping under pressure. At one site, 34-acre feet of water was injected by gravity and produced a significant increase in yield of the well. At a second site, gravity injection of only 0.58 acre-foot caused a significant decrease in permeability due to plugging by suspended sediment. At two other sites, injection by pumping 6 and 14 acre-feet respectively, resulted in discharge of water at the surface and in perching of water above the water table. Differences in success of recharge were largely due to aquifer lithology and, therefore, the type of permeability; the concentration of suspended solids in the recharge water; and the injection technique. The injection technique can be controlled and the concentration of suspended solids can be minimized by treatment, but the site for well recharge will accept water most rapidly if it is selected on the basis of a favorable geohydrologic environment. Geophysical logs were used to study the effect of aquifer lithology on recharge and to understand the movement of injected water. Temperature logs were particularly useful in tracing the movement of recharged water. Natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs provided important data on lithology and porosity in the aquifer and changes in porosity and water distribution resulting from recharge. Effective recharge of the Ogallala Formation, using water from playa lakes, is possible where geohydrologic conditions are favorable and the recharge system is properly constructed.

Brown, Richmond Flint; Keys, W. S.

1985-01-01

159

Ground-water recharge from streamflow data, NW Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual base flows of streams draining Okaloosa County and adjacent areas in northwest Florida were determined through hydrograph separation and correlation techniques for purposes of evaluating variations in ground-water recharge rates. Base flows were least in the northern part of the county and greatest in the southern part. Topographic and soils data were then superimposed on the distribution of base flow by subbasin to produce a map showing distribution of ground-water recharge throughout the county. The highest recharge rate occurs in the southern part of the county where relatively flat upland areas underlain by excessively drained sandy soils result in minimal storm runoff and evapotranspiration.

Vecchioli, John; Bridges, W. C.; Rumenik, R. P.; Grubbs, J. W.

1991-01-01

160

Groundwater storage variability and annual recharge using well-hydrograph and GRACE satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data for examining water storage anomalies have rich hydrogeological databases. Here, GRACE data are analyzed for southern Mali, Africa, a region with sparse hydrogeological data. GRACE data (2002-2008) did not overlap with observed groundwater-level data (1982-2002). Terrestrial water storage from GRACE was corrected for soil moisture using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model to obtain monthly groundwater storage anomalies and annual net recharge. Historical storage anomalies and net recharge were determined using the water-table fluctuation method for available observation wells. Average annual net recharge averaged 149.1 mm (or 16.4% of annual rainfall) and 149.7 mm (14.8%) from historical water level and GRACE data, respectively. Monthly storage anomaly lows and peaks were observed in May and September, respectively, but have a shift in peak to November using the corrected GRACE data, suggesting that the GLDAS model may poorly predict the timing of soil-water storage in this region. Notwithstanding problems with the GLDAS model, the soil moisture-corrected GRACE data accurately predict the relative timing and magnitude of groundwater-storage changes, suggesting that GRACE data are valuable for identifying long-term regional changes in groundwater storage in areas with sparse hydrogeological data.

Henry, Chris M.; Allen, Diana M.; Huang, Jianliang

2011-06-01

161

A comparison of single-continuum and dual-conductivity karst aquifer models during recharge events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling groundwater flow through karst aquifers is a complex problem due to the heterogeneous, dual porosity nature of carbonate formations. This has limited the practice of transport modeling in regions dependent on karst aquifers, and created a need to explore new modeling techniques to address the issue. In this modeling study, we simulate flow in synthetic karst systems that contain stochastically generated conduit networks. For a variety of network geometries, dual-conductivity model simulations are performed using the conduit flow process in MODFLOW. This approach allows for the simulation of turbulent flow, pipe roughness and tortuosity, and matrix-conduit fluid exchange, permitting the development of realistic transient flow systems in response to recharge events. For each conduit network, a corresponding equivalent porous media (single-continuum) model is constructed by assigning representative high hydraulic conductivity values along the conduits. Both model systems were run using identical transient recharge events. The model comparison considers spring discharge at the network outlet, as well as simulated heads throughout the domain. Using the dual-conductivity model as the objective, conduit hydraulic conductivities were adjusted in the single-continuum model. Results indicate that the suitability of the single-continuum approach depends on the magnitude and location of recharge relative to the conduit network.

Saller, S. P.; Ronayne, M. J.

2011-12-01

162

Evaluating Climate, Vegetation, and Soil Controls on Groundwater Recharge Using Unsaturated Flow Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relative importance of climate, vegetation, and soils in controlling groundwater recharge is critical for estimating recharge rates and for assessing the importance of these factors in controlling aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Understanding the role of climate and vegetation in controlling recharge will also be valuable in determining impacts of climate change and land use change on recharge. Numerical

K. E. Keese; B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy

2003-01-01

163

Spatial Variability of Groundwater Recharge and its Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality in Southern New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

to the percentage of well-drained soils near wells. Spatial patterns of and topographic data to determine whether recharge recharge estimates, exceedance probabilities, and clay content indicate could be accurately predicted from landscape character- that sediment texture controls recharge in the study area. Relations with land elevation and a topographic wetness index were statistically istics. Finally, recharge estimates were compared with

Bernard T. Nolan; Arthur L. Baehr; Leon J. Kauffman

2003-01-01

164

Optimal energy management for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to save fuel and reduce pollution, the research on fuel cell hybrid electric locomotive has been greatly concerned. This paper presents an analysis of the energy management for hybrid locomotive with two power source, which are fuel cell stack and storage battery, respectively. The battery is used to discharge during high power demand, and recharge through regenerative braking.

Zhi-ling Jiang; Wei-rong Chen; Chao-hua Dai; Zhan-li Cheng

2010-01-01

165

Evaluation of groundwater recharge in Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin for specific rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound groundwater resources planning and management are lack in the Choushui River alluvial fan, resulting in the occurrence of serious land subsidence and seawater intrusion. Even the disasters induced by overpumping of groundwater pose a potential threat on the Taiwan High Speed Rail. In addition to improving the water resources management in the alluvial fan, the development of groundwater resources in the neighboring hills. Mingchu Basin, which is located on the midstream segment of the Choushui River and comprised of the gravel formation of Pleistocene, is an effective solution to resolve the problem in limited water resources. Moreover, the Dongpurui River and Qingshui River both converge into Choushui River in this basin. Because of wide drainage areas and good hydrogeological conditions, the Mingchu Basin is considered a high potential recharging region of groundwater. This work is to evaluate the groundwater recharge in the Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin, using the WASH123D model equipped with the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) to simulate the interaction of surface water and groundwater for specific five rainfall events. This study particularly focuses on the simulation of the groundwater flow, and evaluates the effect of different rainfall events on the groundwater recharge. First, to meet in-situ hydrogeological structure and hydraulic parameters, the GMS is used to construct hydrogeological database, mesh, hydrogeological parameters, initial condition and boundary conditions. Then, simulated parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and pumping rates, need to be calibrated and verified in the model. After the calibration and verification, the simulated groundwater flow can reflect actual groundwater situation. Finally, when specific five rainfall events impose on the ground, groundwater recharge can be determined using the groundwater model.

Lin, Zong Sheng; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

2014-05-01

166

Heat Tracing Percolation in Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation rates in Managed Aquifer Rechage (MAR) facilities, such as recharge basins and stream channels, can vary widely through both time and space. Natural variations in sediment hydraulic conductivity can create 'dead zones' in which percolation rates are negligible. Clogging is a constant problem, leading to decays in facility percolation rates . Measuring percolation rate variations is important for management, maintenance, and remediation of surface MAR facilities We have used Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS) to monitor percolation in two very different recharge facilities. The first is a small (2 ha) nearly round recharge basin of homogeneous sediment type in which water balance can be closely monitored. The second is a long narrow river channel separated from an active river by a levee. The alluvial sediment in the river channel varies widely in texture and water balance is difficult to monitor independently. Both facilities were monitored by trenching in fiber optic cable and measuring the propagation rate of the diurnal temperature oscillations carried downward with infiltrating water. In this way, heat was used as a tracer of percolation rates along the section defined by the trenched cable (400 and 1600 m, respectively). We were able to confirm the FODTS measurements of percolation in the recharge basin and demonstrate its wide applicability in the river channel. Results from the measurements have been used to understand both the hydraulic behavior of percolation in the facilities and to make management decisions regarding facility operations and the potential need for additional surface sediment remediation. Estimation of specific discharge (m/day) through the basin using the wavelet method. Basin stage is shown above

Becker, M.; Ellis, W.; Bauer, B.; Hutchinson, A.

2013-12-01

167

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

168

ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

1984-01-01

169

Energy Storage with Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery with characteristics suitable for load-levelling and electric vehicle applications was developed. The battery was to use an organic electrolyte and a dissolved depolarizer. Studies were made of transitio...

S. B. Brummer, F. W. Dampier, V. R. Koch, R. D. Rauh, T. F. Reise

1978-01-01

170

Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

2010-01-01

171

Analysis of the pareto front of a multi-objective optimization problem for a fossil fuel power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the Pareto front of a simple fossil fuel power plant using a common third-order model. This front is first examined analytically. Then the power plant model is transferred over to a steady-state model using a static neural network and the front is estimated using various geometric and heuristic approaches. This paper is the first of the two

Joel H. Van Sickel; Paramasivam Venkatesh; Kwang Y. Lee

2008-01-01

172

Remote sensing of soil moisture: implications for groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Remote sensing provides information on the land surface. Therefore, linkages must be established if these data are to be\\u000a used in groundwater and recharge analyses. Keys to this process are the use of remote sensing techniques that provide information\\u000a on soil moisture and water-balance models that tie these observations to the recharge. Microwave remote sensing techniques\\u000a are used to

Thomas J. Jackson

2002-01-01

173

Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.  

PubMed

This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area. PMID:22016042

Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-10-01

174

Quantifying groundwater recharge from floods in semi-arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods represent an important aquifer recharge component in semi-arid environment. Changes in land use and the creation of artificial barriers to protect land from inundation can considerably influence the amount of aquifer recharge. Despite their importance, mechanisms that control flood recharge are poorly understood. Moreover, groundwater flow models rarely incorporate these processes with an appropriate physics based approach. In this study, we use a fully integrated surface subsurface fluid flow model to quantify changes in flood recharge induced by changes in land use. First, the flow simulations are performed on a synthetic aquifer to understand first order controls on flood recharge. Later, the simulations are extended to a real aquifer located in the lower Namoi aquifer, New South Wales, Australia. The long term groundwater monitoring hydrographs are used to calibrate the aquifer model. Satellite and aero-photographic surveys available both before and after changes in land use enable the comparison of flood extent to groundwater hydrograph response. The results show that the volume of water provided by the floods can represent a significant fraction of the aquifer water balance, and that changes in land use have a considerable effect on it. In addition, the results highlight the importance of treating flood recharge as a non-linear process.

Comunian, A.; Ajami, H.; Kelly, B. F.

2013-12-01

175

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01

176

Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.  

PubMed

Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities. PMID:24164580

Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-01-01

177

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

178

Feasibility of artificial recharge to the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation in the coastal plain near Atlantic City, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renewed development of the Atlantic City area since the mid-1970 's has increased the demand for water. Increased pumpage from the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation has reversed an antecedent water-level recovery in this aquifer, thus reducing water in storage and increasing the potential for saltwater intrusion. Practicable approaches to providing a dependable water supply while properly managing withdrawals from the 800-foot sand include development of surface- and ground-water supplies but artificial recharging the 800-foot sand is the principal alternative discussed. Investigation of its feasibility locally included a review of methods of artificial recharge and attendant operational problems, investigation of local hydrogeologic conditions, and collection and interpretation of water-quality data. System design and quality of injected water are important for successful artificial recharge. Mixtures of water from the 800-foot sand and from a representative local public-supply system may become supersaturated with oxygen. Significant temperature differences between two such waters would likely exacerbate that condition. Limited chemical analyses suggest that suspended solids concentration of water from local public supplies may at times be high enough to cause clogging of recharge-well screens. These problems are soluable by appropriate conditioning of recharge water. (USGS)

May, J.E.

1985-01-01

179

Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years. Analysis of water-level and temporal-gravity data were used to estimate recharge volumes. Data presented in this chapter were collected from 1999 though 2002. Precipitation and streamflow during this period were less than the long-term average; however, two periods of significant streamflow resulted in recharge?one in the summer of 1999 and the other in the fall/winter of 2000. Flux estimates of infiltration and recharge vary from less than 0.1 to 1.0 cubic meter per second per kilometer of streamflow. Recharge-flux estimates are larger than infiltration estimates. Larger recharge fluxes than infiltration fluxes are explained by the scale of measurements. Methods used to estimate recharge rates incorporate the largest volumetric and temporal scales and are likely to have fluxes from other nearby sources, such as unmeasured tributaries, whereas the methods used to estimate infiltration incorporate the smallest scales, reflecting infiltration rates at individual measurement sites.

Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

2007-01-01

180

8/10/12 Bureaucracy fuels China's safe water problems | Eco-Business.com 1/2www.eco-business.com/news/bureaucracy-fuels-chinas-safe-water-problems/  

E-print Network

-problems/ Policy & Finance Energy Green Buildings Transport Manufacturing Waste Eco-Cities Food & Agriculture Water adds to the challenge over water sustainability in China. Two-thirds of China's 669 cities have water praised China's commitment, made in January 2011, to spur water conservation and manage this crucial

181

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

Doyle, C.M.

1995-08-01

182

Isotopic assessment of the recharge of a coastal aquifer in N. Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Mati coastal plain aquifers serve as a groundwater source for about 250 000 people. A major concern is the rate of recharge from an alluvial fan at the entry of River Mati into the coastal plain. The investigation revealed brackish groundwater close to the Adriatic coast. However, the groundwater was artesian indicating the sea water intrusion is not currently a threat. As per ^18O analysis this water was not a mix of old sea water but had the signature of the river water. The salinity is likely to be derived by diffusion from intercalated clay layers. 14C dating of the water showed ages of the most brackish water up to 7 000 years. Upstream there are a large number of active and abandoned copper mines and about 10 M ton of waste rock from these mines. The ^34S in the river water was close to the value for sulphides in this waste rock. Also the groundwater showed values close to that of the river. Only the brackish groundwater close to the sea shore had a sea water signature, probably derived from sulphate diffusion from the above mentioned clay layers. Thus currently the groundwater extracted in a large well-field for the Durres town is more or less completely fed by recharge from the river. Large scale sand and gravel extraction in the alluvial cone is a threat to this recharge, lowering the head for flow and also presenting a risk for pollution by oil and fuel from the vehicles used for the sand and gravel extraction. It is recommended that a number of the artesian wells close to the Adriatic coast are monitored regarding the head above ground level.

Jacks, Gunnar; Kumanova, Xhume; Marku, Sonila

2013-04-01

183

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

1973-01-01

184

A novel class of positive electrodes for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel class of organosulfur positive electrodes for intermediate temperature rechargeable batteries is described here. High temperature batteries such as sodium/sulfur exhibit alluring and unrivaled power and energy densities but unfortunately are plagued by corrosion problems. A decrease in the operating temperature from 350 C to the 110 to 150 C temperature range resulted in a simplified cell technology allowing for the use of polymeric seals. The non-aggressive nature of the positive electrode lessened also considerably the corrosion issues. A tetraethylthiuram disulfide/diethyldithiocarbamate cell was first investigated because of its attractive theoretical energy density of 360 Wh/kg and because of the low melting point of the diethyldithiocarbamate sodium salt (145 C), condition necessary to maintain the electrode in the liquid state. (Sodium and Beta Alumina were respectively the negative electrode and the solid electrolyte). The low melting sodium salt requirement can be advantageously replaced by the use of a solvent in charge of solubilizing the sodium salt generated during discharge. Low viscosity and high dielectric constant were identified as two key factors in the solvent optimization. The addition of 20 percent in weight of dimethyl sulfoxide or of sulfolane permitted the cell charge and discharge at 5 mA/sq cm at 130 C. Peak current densities of 100 mA/sq cm at 1 Volt were also obtained. The perspectives opened by solvent addition, led to the concept of electroactive solvent where the electroactive material itself solvates the sulfide sodium salt. In this respect, the alkoxyalkyl disulfides are promising candidates because of their combined low viscosity, high energy density and thermal stability.

Mailhe, C. C.

1987-10-01

185

Investigation of groundwater recharge in arid environments through continuous monitoring of water fluxes within the unsaturated zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For groundwater resources management in arid environments the rate of aquifer replenishment due to groundwater recharge is one of the most important factors and unfortunately also one of the most difficult to derive with sufficient accuracy. In general, the potential evaporation by far exceeds the precipitation limiting groundwater recharge. Unsaturated zone processes play a key role in groundwater recharge as the thickness of the unsaturated zone in arid areas may reach several thenth of meters, compared to millimeters or centimeters of assumed groundwater recharge per year. This indicates the complexity of the problem. Overcoming the field capacity along the infiltration path to initiate downward movement on such a long distance to the groundwater table would require the recharge of tenths or even hundreds of years. Also, precipitation is highly variable in space, time, and intensity and may be followed by hot and dry conditions leading to an alternation of downward and upward movement of water. For this study, field sites in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (located app. 200km SW of Riyadh) were selected that represent typical settings for potential groundwater recharge in arid regions, i.e. sand dune areas and wadi beds. In the field campaign vibro-coring techniques applying direct-push technologies (Geoprobe 7720DT) were used to retrieve undisturbed soil sampling down to depths of about 15 m in the unsaturated zone. The drilled boreholes were consequently used for the installation of specially designed flat cable TDR sensors that provide continuous monitoring of the soil moisture content in high vertical resolution. In addition, temperature sensors were installed to monitor temperature fluctuations in the unsaturated zone. We present data on the analyses of soil samples as well as on the measured water content evolution over time as determined by the TDR flat band cables. Results show, that significant changes in water content occurred within the observation time indicating the potential for groundwater recharge even under the arid conditions encountered at the field sites. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the cooperation between Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ (Leipzig, Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany); GIZ-IS/Dornier Consulting (Riyadh Office, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and the Ministry of Water and Electricity (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia); within the framework of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) funded research program IWAS (http://www.iwas-sachsen.ufz.de/).

Kallioras, A.; Reshid, M.; Dietrich, P.; Rausch, R.; Al-Saud, M.; Schuth, C.

2012-04-01

186

Estimation of recharge through selected drainage wells and potential effects from well closure, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage wells have been used in Orange County, Florida, and surrounding areas to alleviate flooding and to control lake levels since 1904. Over 400 drainage wells have been drilled in the county, but many are now redundant because of surface drainage systems that have been installed within the last two or three decades. Most of the drainage wells emplace water into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a zone of high transmissivity within the Floridan aquifer system. In 1992, the Orange County Stormwater Management Department identified 23 wells that were considered noncritical or redundant for current drainage control. These wells were targeted for closure to eliminate maintenance and possible contamination problems. A 3-year study (1992 through 1994) encompassed several drainage basins in the county. Inflow to 18 of the 23 drainage wells on the noncritical list and the effects of closure of these noncritical wells on the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer were estimated. Three sites were chosen for intensive study and were used for further extrapolation to other noncritical sites. The total average annual recharge rate through the 18 selected wells was estimated to be 9 cubic feet per second, or about 6 million gallons per day. The highest rate of long-term recharge, 4.6 cubic feet per second, was to well H-35. Several wells on the noncritical list were already plugged or had blocked intakes. Yields, or the sum of surface-water outflows and drainage-well recharge, from the drainage basins ranged from 20 to 33 inches per year. In some of the basins, all the yield from the basin was recharge through a drainage well. In other basins, most of the yield was surface outflow through canals rather than to drainage wells. The removal of the recharge from closure of the wells was simulated by superposition in a three-dimensional ground-water flow model. As a second step in the model, water was also applied to two sites in western Orange County that could receive redirected surface water. One of the sites is CONSERV II, a distribution system used to apply reclaimed water to the surficial aquifer system through rapid infiltration basins and grove irrigation. The second site, Lake Sherwood, has an extremely high downward recharge rate estimated to be at least 54 inches per year. The results from the simulations showed a decline of 1 foot or less in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer with removal of the recharge and a mound of about 1 foot in the vicinity of the two sites in western Orange County. The Lake Sherwood site seems to reduce the declines caused by closure of the wells to a greater degree than the CONSERV II site, partly because the Lake Sherwood site is closer to the drainage-well basins.

Bradner, L. A.

1996-01-01

187

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of the ponds. The artificial recharge project loops the water cycle: extracted water goes to the users and their waste water is purified and re-used. Therefore, it is an example of sustainable water management in coastal aquifers. Groundwater flow of this recharge site has been examined in the past by the use of a tracer test, hydrochemistry (environmental isotopes, conservative tracers) and groundwater flow modelling. Temperature, however, forms a relatively easy measurement which can add to or confirm the knowledge of the groundwater flow. Temperature time series (temperature as function of time) were measured at different levels in a number of wells located between the recharge ponds and the extraction wells, and in one well south of the recharge and extraction area. Secondly, temperature logs (temperature as function of depth) were measured in these wells at different times over the course of 2 years. Finally, the temperature of the recharged and extracted water is constantly monitored by the water company. The temperature of the recharge water shows a yearly fluctuation, ranging from 25 °C during summer to slightly above 0 °C during the winter. The temperature of the extracted water (combination of water extracted in all the wells) ranges between 17 °C during summer and 10 °C during winter. Minima and maxima in the extracted water are observed between 76 and 110 days (mean of 90 days and standard deviation of 13.5 days) later in the extracted water with respect to the recharged water. Measurements show that the difference in time when maxima and minima are observed in an observation well with reference to the ponds increases with depth (for instance from 28 days 4.1 m below surface to 154 days 10 m below surface for an observation well at 10 m from the ponds). This confirms previous flow modelling which showed that groundwater flows relatively rapidly laterally from the recharge ponds towards the extraction wells. Additionally, part of the recharge water flows in a deeper flow cycle towards the extraction wells. Residence times in this deeper flow cycle are evidently larger than in the direct lateral flow cycle from the ponds towards the wells. This explains the increase with depth. The 154 days (with respect to a mean time of 90 days) points to the fact that the extracted water contains a large spectrum of residence times with mean of 90 days for the heat transport, as was also derived by the flow modelling previously

Vandenbohede, Alexander; van Houtte, Emmanuel; Lebbe, Luc

2010-05-01

188

Crab Burrows are Important Conduits for Groundwater Recharge in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research suggests that recharge from man-made ponds may stimulate arsenic mobilization within Bangladeshi aquifers. Man-made ponds are widespread throughout Bangladesh and are generally underlain by low permeability clays that could potentially limit flow to the sandy aquifer below if they are not compromised by preferential flow paths. Animal borrows are one common type of preferential flow path through surface clays. Across the Ganges Delta, terrestrial crabs dig borrows, sometimes as long as 10 meters. In our study pond in Munshiganj, Bangladesh we found crab burrows extending through the surficial clays and down into the shallow aquifer spaced approximately every meter. We use these field observations along with a novel, coupled isotope and water balance model to quantify the fluxes into and out of the pond. We show that nearly all of the aquifer recharge from the pond is through crab burrows which have enhanced the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial sediments by several orders of magnitude. In addition we show that the recharging pond water is shifting the solute composition of water beneath the pond. We suggest that, as a result of crab burrows, young ponds may contribute large fluxes of recharge water whereas older ponds may contribute little recharge to the aquifer. All terrestrial crabs have gills that must remain moist to allow for respiration. So, to ensure an uninterrupted water source, their borrows must reach the maximum depth that the water table drops to seasonally after irrigation ceases and before the onset of the monsoon. Once a pond is installed crabs living within the sediments that now make up the new pond bottom would no longer need to construct burrows to ensure a constant supply of water. Over time, burrows that existed prior to pond construction can clog. Water balance data for an old pond at our study site indicates that this pond contributes less recharge than our newly constructed pond.

Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, D. C.; Badruzzaman, A.; Harvey, C. F.

2013-12-01

189

Evaluation of artificial groundwater recharge effects with MIKE-SHE: a case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many areas where the technical and financial resources are limited, the treatment and disposal of wastewater comprise a problem. With increasing frequency, the wastewater reuse is considered as another alternative for water management alternative. In this way, the wastewater is converted into an added value resource. Treated wastewater infiltration into the soil could be a viable tertiary treatment, especially for small communities where the availability of land is not a problem and the wastewater has not industrial waste contribution and is highly biodegradable. The Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain) develops non-conventional wastewater treatments for small villages. Currently, a project regarding wastewater reutilization for aquifer recharge through a horizontal permeable reactive barrier and a subsequent soil infiltration is being carried out. One of the aspects to be evaluated within this context is the impact on aquifer. Consequently, the main goal of the present study is to assess the effects on the water flow derived from the future recharge activities by using the MIKE-SHE hydrological code. The unsaturated and saturated zones have been integrated in the model, which requires geological, land use, topography, piezometric head, soil and climate data to build up the model. The obtained results from the model show that with the annual recharge volume contributed by the experimental plant (3 m3 or 0.19 L/s) there is no effect in the groundwater flow. A volume of 400 m3/year (25 L/s) would be required to yield a variation in the piezometric head and therefore, in the groundwater flow i.e. a volume about 100 times larger than the estimated is necessary. To calibrate the model, simulated piezometric head values have been compared to the measured field data at a number of locations. In the calibration, the percent error had to be lower than 15 % at each location. Future works concerning groundwater quality and reactive transport modelling should be undertaken in order to get a more accurate impact evaluation of the recharge activities.

Leal, M.; Martínez-García, I.; Carreño, F.; de Bustamante, I.; Lillo, J.

2012-04-01

190

Hydrogeological evaluation of an over-exploited aquifer in Dhaka, Bangladesh towards the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population of Dhaka City is presently about 12 million and according to present trends in population growth, that number will most likely increase to 17.2 million by the year 2025. A serious water crisis is expected due to the extremely limited quality and quantity of water resources in the region. Previous studies have shown that the current trend in groundwater resource development is non-sustainable due to over-exploitation of the regional aquifer system, resulting in rapidly decreasing groundwater levels of about 2 to 3 meters per year. Today, annual groundwater extraction clearly exceeds natural groundwater recharge. New water management strategies are needed to guarantee future generations of Dhaka City a secured and sustained water supply as well as sustainable development of the city. The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is one potential measure. As the first step towards a new water management strategy for Dhaka City, the authors report on the hydrogeological conditions of the greater Dhaka region and from this are able to present the location of potential recharge sites and identify appropriate recharge technologies for AR implementation. The aquifers of greater Dhaka can be grouped in three major categories: Holocene Deposit, Pleistocene Deposit and Plio-Pleistocene Deposit. The aquifers are generally thick and multilayered with relatively high transmissivity and storage coefficients. AR is considered feasible due to the fact these aquifers are alluvium deposit aquifers which characteristically have moderate to high hydraulic conductivity. Low costs for recovery of recharged water and large recharge volume capacity are generally associated with aquifers of unconsolidated sediments. Spatial analysis of the region has shown that Karaniganj, Kotoali, Savar, Dhamrai, Singair upazila, which are situated in greater Dhaka region and close to Dhaka City, could serve as recharge sites to the subsurface by pond infiltration technique. A study involving the use of a 3-D mathematical model shows that the abstraction or recharge in the area within and around Dhaka City does not affect the groundwater level below the city. Therefore, in order to improve the groundwater level, artificial groundwater recharge directly at the city area would be mostly appropriate. As the thickness of the surface impermeable layer varies from 5 m to 45 m, the combination of infiltration and injection technology would be a proper choice. Detailed studies are required using the most appropriate state of the art spatial analysis to support the final selection and ranking of suitable locations for the AR facilities, according to flood risk, urbanization, underground characteristics, water sources, AR technology and later use of the recovered water. Groundwater quality data reveal that the upper aquifer below Dhaka City contains relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions, quite variable in space. The ground water is predominantly of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. Cation exchange and oxidation may enhance the biogeochemical processes in the aquifer under the existing prevailing conditions. Many reports conclude that that the groundwater chemistry of the upper aquifer has been influenced by various anthropogenic processes, showing wide variations of groundwater quality depending on the area, which would complicate the implementation of AR projects. The preliminary evaluation of the potential for AR implementation, considering environmental and social impacts, as well as the available water sources for infiltration and injection (conventional or non-conventional), AR may be considered a viable response measure with regards to the problems Dhaka City is facing. Without the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge or similar measures, groundwater availability and groundwater quality will further decrease and serious water crisis are to be expected. Measures to avoid groundwater contamination must also be taken to complement the benefits provided by AR implementation.

Azizur Rahman, M.; Rusteberg, Bernd; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

191

Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene. Surface-based electrical-resistivity imaging provided areal extension of borehole information from sampled profiles. These images indicate narrowly focused recharge beneath the Amargosa River channel, flanked by large tracts of recharge-free basin floor.

Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

2007-01-01

192

Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-01-01

193

Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters.  

PubMed

Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network. Although considerably more verification is needed, UGIf shows promise for use: in providing input for regional groundwater solute transport models; in identifying gaps in knowledge and data; in determining which processes are the most important influences on urban groundwater quantity and quality; in evaluating existing recharge models; in planning, for example in investigation of the effects of landuse or climate change; and in assessing groundwater vulnerability. PMID:16325236

Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

2006-05-01

194

78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

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2011-09-01

205

An aqueous rechargeable formate-based hydrogen battery driven by heterogeneous pd catalysis.  

PubMed

The formate-based rechargeable hydrogen battery (RHB) promises high reversible capacity to meet the need for safe, reliable, and sustainable H2 storage used in fuel cell applications. Described herein is an additive-free RHB which is based on repetitive cycles operated between aqueous formate dehydrogenation (discharging) and bicarbonate hydrogenation (charging). Key to this truly efficient and durable H2 handling system is the use of highly strained Pd nanoparticles anchored on graphite oxide nanosheets as a robust and efficient solid catalyst, which can facilitate both the discharging and charging processes in a reversible and highly facile manner. Up to six repeated discharging/charging cycles can be performed without noticeable degradation in the storage capacity. PMID:25382034

Bi, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yong-Mei; Du, Xian-Long; Wang, Jian-Qiang; He, He-Yong; Cao, Yong

2014-12-01

206

Fuel cell modelling for power supply systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today academic and industrial research is addressed on fuel cell based power supply to replace current lithium-ion and similar rechargeable battery systems. For system simulation, fuel cell models are developed. Even if power electronics designers demand for a black-box model to limit the knowledge of physical and chemical parameters, high performance in terms of model accuracy and portability is absolutely

Valeria Boscaino; Giuseppe Capponi; Patrizia Livreri; Filippo Marino

2008-01-01

207

Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge is described from East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping and rotations.Important sources of uncertainty and shortcomings in recharge estimation are discussed in the light of the

I. P. Holman

2006-01-01

208

Estimated Recharge Rates From Groundwater Temperatures In The Nara Basin, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge rates to the sandy aquifer in the Nara basin, Japan, were determined by using a theory that describes the simultaneous transfer of heat and water in a porous medium. Seasonal changes in temperatue-depth profiles were used to estimate the recharge rates in a relatively shallow aquifer. Estimations of the recharge rates were done by fitting a dimensionless parameter

Makoto Taniguchi

1994-01-01

209

Rechargeable Battery Management and Recycling: A Green Design Educational Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable battery use is expected to continue growing with the increasing prevalence of portable electronics, appliances, and tools. Batteries represent a large volume of toxic and hazardous materials in common use, and these materials must be managed to avoid or minimize dissipation into the environment. One type of battery widely used in portable applications is nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCds). This module

Rebecca Lankey; Francis McMichael

210

PRINCIPALS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANT BEHAVIOR DURING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavior of a variety of organic contaminants having low molecular weight has been observed during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. The evidence is site-specific, but is believed to have broader implications regarding the general behavior of organic contaminants in ...

211

Potential for Recharge in Agricultural Soils of the Mississippi Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water models predict that 5 percent or less of precipitation in the Mississippi Delta region recharges the heavily-used alluvial aquifer; however the presence of agricultural chemicals in ground water suggests more substantial recharge. In a preliminary assessment of the potential for aerial recharge through the agricultural soils of the Bogue Phalia basin in the Mississippi Delta, we applied a method for rapidly measuring field- saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) in 26 locations in cotton and soybean fields. The technique makes use of a portable falling-head, small-diameter, single-ring infiltrometer and an analytical formula for Kfs that compensates both for falling head and for subsurface radial spreading. Soil samples were also collected at the surface and at about 6 cm depth at each location for particle size analysis. Kfs values are generally higher than anticipated and vary over more than three orders of magnitude from 1x10-2 to 5x10-6 cm/s. There is also a correlation between Kfs and mean particle size which may prove useful in generalizing recharge rates over larger areas. A 2-m ring infiltration test is planned that will include the use of tracers and subsurface instruments for measuring water content and matric potential from the near surface to about 5 m to evaluate flow and transport below the root zone.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Coupe, R. H.; Rose, C. E.; Manning, M. A.

2007-12-01

212

Separation composition evaluation in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports, the evaluation of Viskase sausage casings (SCs) in a variety of configurations for silver\\/zinc rechargeable cells has been reported. The conclusions have been that several layers of SC, while providing improved resistance to silver migration acid zinc dendrite growth compared to standard cellophane film, also impart increased internal impedance which leads to faster capacity loss in comparison

H. Lewis; S. Henderson; T. Danko

2001-01-01

213

High power, rechargeable, pile type silver zinc battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high rate rechargeable silver-zinc pile type battery including a plurality of bipolar electrodes which are assembled into a full scale multi-cell pile. Each of bipolar electrodes includes a positive side having a porous silver matrix attached to silver foil and a negative side having a porous zinc structure vapor deposited on silver foil. A separator including

L. R. Erisman; R. A. Marsh

1978-01-01

214

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting

1980-01-01

215

Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones  

E-print Network

Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones A micro-windmill is pictured on the face designed a micro-windmill that generates wind energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone be embedded in a sleeve for a cell phone. Wind, created by waving the cell phone in air or holding it up

Chiao, Jung-Chih

216

Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation Optimal Recharging Strategy for  

E-print Network

while the Spanish government has committed to having 1 million electric or hybrid cars on Spanish roads price differentials in electricity tariffs are designed to dissuade car owners from recharging for Electric Vehicles in France Margaret Armstrong Charles El Hajj Moussa Jérôme Adnot Alain Galli Philippe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy -- Policy and protocol  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in myriad applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios for this technology range from propulsion power for autonomous unmanned vehicles to power sources for exercise mines. Current battery chemistries that might eventually be replaced by rechargeable lithium batteries include silver-zinc batteries, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, and possibly lithium thermal batteries. The Navy is developing and implementing a universal test protocol for evaluating the safety characteristics of rechargeable lithium power sources, as discussed by Winchester et al (1995). Test plans based on this protocol are currently being used to evaluate both commercially available and developmental products. In this paper the authors will review the testing protocol that has been developed for evaluating the safety of rechargeable lithium batteries. Relevant data from current test programs will be presented.

Banner, J.A.; Winchester, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1996-12-31

218

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/Oâ battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

219

Cops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin  

E-print Network

study of such games has a long history, tracing back to the work of Pierre Bouguer, who in 1732 studied applications reaching from law enforcement to video games and thus were studied within different disciplinesCops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin Petr A. Golovach Daniel Lokshtanov Abstract

Fomin, Fedor V.

220

Cops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin  

E-print Network

- ematical study of such games has a long history, tracing back to the work of Pierre Bouguer, who in 1732 applications reaching from law enforcement to video games and thus were studied within differ- ent disciplinesCops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin Petr A. Golovach Daniel Lokshtanov Abstract

Fomin, Fedor V.

221

Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.  

PubMed

The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. PMID:20533955

Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

2011-01-01

222

NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

1990-01-01

223

Spatial and Temporal Infiltration Dynamics during Managed Aquifer Recharge  

E-print Network

to catchment runoff.19 Introduction and Project Motivation20 Groundwater is essential for meeting fresh water to the environment and water supply associated with overdraft, artificial38 recharge of groundwater is gaining, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 2 Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency, Watsonville

Fisher, Andrew

224

Advanced traction rechargeable battery system for cableless mobile robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robot often relies on a battery system as its power supply and such kind of mobile robot is called cableless mobile robot. In the past years, while there are many researches on automation and control techniques, mechanical and sensor designs of mobile robot, very little systematic and comprehensive work has been done in the design of rechargeable battery power

Chenghui Cai; Dong Du; Zhiyu Liu

2003-01-01

225

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN THE CEDAR CREEK WASTEWATER RECLAMATION - RECHARGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cedar Creek Wastewater Reclamation Plant (CCWRP) located in Nassau County, NY is a 0.24 cu m/s (5.5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plant designed to produce a high quality effluent suitable for groundwater recharge. The CCWRP was constructed as a demonstration proje...

226

A solution to the problem of optimizing the fuel bias for a liquid propellant rocket by an application of the central limit theorem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of determining the fuel bias for a bipropellant liquid rocket that minimizes outage associated penalties on payload potential is presented. A fuel bias so derived is normally called the optimum fuel bias. The subjects discussed are: (1) probability density function of outage, (2) computer program listing, and (3) choosing the optimum fuel bias.

Viera, W. J.

1974-01-01

227

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

228

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real’ vegetation under the ‘real’ moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

2010-12-01

229

Rechargeable lithium batteries with solid polymer electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific and technical problems connected with the realization of a practical lithium battery with a solid polymer electrolyte are reviewed. The viewpoint is that one important aim of basic scientific work should be to provide sufficient experimental data and theoretical understanding to permit computer-aided optimization of battery design, and performance. At present, this aim cannot be reached. The types of

J. W. Lorimer

1990-01-01

230

Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kle?e. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it shows tremendous susceptibility of the aquifer to pollution and reinforces the position of groundwater protection zones above aquifer.

Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

2013-04-01

231

Understanding surface-groundwater interactions through combined physical and chemical data analysis: tracing shallow groundwater recharge in Christchurch, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining sustainable water resource utilization rates is an important problem faced by regulatory agencies all around the world. One of the key parameters in determining accurate water budgeting schemes is the rate of water resource replenishment, or ‘recharge’ in groundwater systems. Fundamental questions regarding groundwater recharge include: What is the source of recharge? What is the spatial distribution of recharge? What is the annual average recharge rate, from potentially disparate sources in disparate areas? Answers to these questions can be gained through combining physical and chemical hydrogeological research tools, including stable isotopic compositions. Land-use intensification, including significant increases in dairying, has placed a priority on developing water resource management practices throughout New Zealand. In Canterbury (eastern South Island, New Zealand), applications for groundwater abstraction have increased 2-fold in the past decade. Fortunately, a wealth of long-term physical hydrogeological data for Cantberbury Plains aquifers is available through the regional government. However, basic chemical data, including potential tracers such as stable isotopic compositions, are generally absent at the regional scale. Here we present the first compilation of ?18O and ?D values from individual precipitation events, local surface waters, depression springs, and groundwaters from the greater-Christchurch area. A variety of analytical methods were used in an effort to evaluate the potential use of water resource stable isotopic compositions as tracers of surface-groundwater interaction in the local hydrologic cycle. Our analysis produced several important findings: 1) Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Intergrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) analysis does not yield a consistent pattern relating isotopic composition to air parcel trajectory. 2) shallow groundwater and depression spring isotopic compositions match high-altitude derived braided river waters, but not local precipitation. However, further research is needed to better constrain long-term average ?18O and ?D values for precipitation. 3) long-term trends in piezometric surface elevations reflect changes in river base flow conditions; 4) short-term fluctuations, in piezometric surface elevations, correspond with significant precipitation events. In combination, these results present a compelling case for shallow groundwater recharge by surface water channel leakage in this portion of the Canterbury Plains, demonstrating the potential application of combined physical and chemical hydrologic data analysis to informing water resource management and decision-making practices.

Blackstock, J. M.; Horton, T. W.; Zawar-Reza, P.

2010-12-01

232

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K.S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

233

Unitized regenerative fuel cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh\\/kg) have been designed;\\u000athat use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized);\\u000aregenerative fuel cells (URFCs).[1] URFC systems are being designed and developed for a variety;\\u000aof applications, including high altitude long endurance (HALE) solar rechargeable aircraft (SRA),;\\u000azero emission vehicles (ZEVs), hybrid energy storage\\/propulsion systems

F Mitlitsky; T M Molter; B Myers; A H Weisberg

1998-01-01

234

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/10  

E-print Network

/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/10 ADVERTISEMENT LOG IN REGISTERFIND MY COMPANY News ADVERTISEMENT Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Mon, 01/13/2014 - 9:06am Get today's R micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones

Chiao, Jung-Chih

235

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/print/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/3  

E-print Network

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/print/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/3 One of Smitha Rao's micro- windmills is placed here uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones

Chiao, Jung-Chih

236

3/4/2014 Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones http://www.cemag.us/news/2014/01/mini-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones#.UxY6ePldWa8 1/9  

E-print Network

3/4/2014 Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones http://www.cemag.us/news/2014/01/mini-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones'S GUIDE LOG IN REGISTERFIND MY COMPANY News Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones ADVERTISEMENT Mon, 01 energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone batteries constantly in need of recharging

Chiao, Jung-Chih

237

A Fully Integrated Wireless System for Intracranial Direct Cortical Stimulation, Real-Time Electrocorticography Data Transmission, and Smart Cage for Wireless Battery Recharge  

PubMed Central

Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402–405?MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

2014-01-01

238

Comparison of surface and groundwater balance approaches in the evaluation of managed aquifer recharge structures: Case of a percolation tank in a crystalline aquifer in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To face the problem of groundwater depletion, the Indian Government relies on large projects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Numerous recharge structures such as percolation tanks exist but the impact of these structures on groundwater resources remains poorly understood. Although the evaporation/infiltration ratio of percolation tanks was determined in several studies in semi-arid contexts using surface water balance methods, few studies evaluated the impact on the aquifer recharge. However, knowledge on recharge dynamics over time and space is essential for (1) the quantitative evaluation of stored water volumes, (2) the identification of beneficiaries (farmers) and (3) the estimation of percolation tanks recharge zone to the extent that is required to define proper management regulations at basin scale. These three points are of prime importance in the case of semi-arid regions where a limited number of rain events determine the water stored over the entire year. Assessment of the stored groundwater is even more difficult in crystalline aquifers due to the heterogeneous structure of flow paths. To date no methodological guidelines exist for local assessment of percolation tanks in crystalline aquifers. In this paper, we develop a method for calculating a local groundwater budget and we compare it with a computed surface balance. The method is applied to a case study in semi-arid crystalline context. From the groundwater balance we draw conclusions on (1) the limited amount of stored water in the aquifer, (2) the delayed recharge of the aquifer highlighting temporary storage/slow groundwater movement in the unsaturated zone and (3) the limited number of beneficiaries in years of medium monsoon rainfall. These results complement the understanding of the hydrodynamic functioning of percolation tanks, and their impact on the local groundwater balance.

Boisson, A.; Baïsset, M.; Alazard, M.; Perrin, J.; Villesseche, D.; Dewandel, B.; Kloppmann, W.; Chandra, S.; Picot-Colbeaux, G.; Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Maréchal, J. C.

2014-11-01

239

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

240

Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

2012-12-01

241

Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

2013-04-01

242

Hydrogeophysical characterization of shallow unconsolidated sediments for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water curtain cultivation system is usually used to offer a stable heat source using a geothermal heat of groundwater. However, it may cause groundwater drawdown by an excessive use of groundwater such as over-pumping. Therefore, as part of an effort to develop a sustainable water curtain system, artificial groundwater recharge is projected to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. Geophysical approaches are systematically applied to characterize unconsolidated sediments and riverside porous aquifers for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area. Resistivity survey is applied to map the distribution of subsurface structure, especially unconsolidated sediments. A series of test holes are drilled, and water level, temperature, and groundwater electrical conductivity are monitored to characterize hydrogeological properties of the site. The natural gamma and induction profiles enable us to estimate stratigraphic cross section and interpret inter-borehole. Borehole compensated neutron porosity is derived for a small-diameter, dual-detector neutron logs. Consequently, geophysical methods could enhance knowledge of the physical properties of unconsolidated sediments, and they are expected to evaluate injection feasibility of artificial groundwater recharge systems to the sustainable water resource management.

Shin, Jehyun; Hwang, Seho; Won, Byeongho; Kim, Yongcheol

2013-04-01

243

Geophysical Methods for Improved Understanding of Managed Aquifer Recharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is increasingly being used as a means of augmenting groundwater supplies. With the increased use, questions arise regarding the suitability of sites for such operations, as well as the operational efficiency of these systems. In this work we specifically look at MAR using an artificial recharge pond. There are two operational challenges commonly faced in artificial recharge ponds: 1) A decrease in infiltration rate of water into the subsurface during operating; this limits the amount of stored water. 2) Low recovery rates of the stored water. Addressing both of these challenges requires sufficient information about the spatial and temporal variation in governing hydrologic properties and processes. Geophysical methods provide a novel way of obtaining such information from the region beneath a recharge pond. A study of the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, near Watsonville California, presented a unique opportunity to develop and test geophysical methods, specifically for improved understanding off MAR. At this site we deployed a series of geophysical sensors aimed at addressing the two operational challenges at the site. We first addressed the question: What is controlling the decrease in filtration rate? The development and installation of electrical conductivity probes beneath the pond allowed us to monitor changes in the top ~1 m over a 4-month period. This dataset revealed that clogging in the top ~10 cm was responsible for the decreased infiltration rate. These 1D data were augmented by a time-lapse 2D ERT dataset that shows significant lateral variability in infiltration at the site. The second question we addressed was: Why is the recovery rate so low? Using a combination of cone-penetrometer testing and seismic reflection data, we developed a subsurface model that suggested there was a thin clay layer that may be impeding the flow of water to the recovery wells. To further understand this, we developed electrical conductivity probes, containing pore pressure transducers, to monitor changes in electrical conductivity and fluid pressure to a depth of 30 m. The data acquired with these probes clearly showed that the subsurface clay layer was impeding flow to the screened zone of the recovery wells. The findings at the site demonstrate the value of geophysics obtaining information regarding the siting and operation of artificial recharge ponds.

Pidlisecky, A.; Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

2013-12-01

244

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

245

Characterizing Field Biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater with Active Reclaimed Water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging contaminant in groundwater, because of its aqueous miscibility, exceptional animal toxicity, and human carcinogenicity. NDMA detections in groundwater have been tracked to either decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) used in rocket fuel facilities or chlorine disinfection in wastewater reclamation plants. Laboratory experiments on both unsaturated and saturated soil samples have demonstrated that NDMA can be biodegraded by microbial activity, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, very limited direct evidence for its biodegradation has been found from the field in saturated groundwater. Our research aimed to evaluate photolysis and biodegradation of NDMA occurring along the full travel path - from wastewater reclamation plant effluent, through rivers and spreading grounds, to groundwater. For this evaluation, we established an extensive monitoring network to characterize NDMA concentrations at effluent discharge points, surface water stations, and groundwater monitoring and production wells, during the operation of the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge facilities in Los Angeles County, California. Field monitoring for NDMA has been conducted for more than six years, including 32 months of relatively lower NDMA concentrations in effluent, 43 months of elevated NDMA effluent concentrations, and 7 months with significantly reduced NDMA effluent concentrations. The NDMA effluent concentration increase and significant concentration decrease were caused by changes in treatment processes. The NDMA sampling data imply that significant biodegradation occurred in groundwater, accounting for a 90% mass reduction of NDMA over the six-year monitoring period. In addition, the occurrence of a discrete well monitored effluent release during the study period allowed critical analysis of the fate of NDMA in a well- characterized, localized groundwater flow subsystem. The data indicate that 80% of the recharged NDMA mass was biodegraded in groundwater with the remaining mass pumped out by extraction wells. To reproduce the observation data, a groundwater flow and transport model was developed and calibrated against groundwater elevation and NDMA concentration data. The calibrated half-life of NDMA in groundwater is 69 days, which is consistent with the values obtained through laboratory incubation using soil samples from the Montebello Forebay Spreading Grounds. Given the photolysis of NDMA in surface water and biodegradation in groundwater observed during this study, reclaimed wastewater with limited NDMA concentrations can be safely used for groundwater recharge under the study area conditions.

McCraven, S.; Zhou, Q.; Garcia, J.; Gasca, M.; Johnson, T.

2007-12-01

246

Heat as a Tracer for Estimating Ground-water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles above the water table may be analyzed to estimate ground-water recharge (or discharge). Depending on depth, sediment temperature profiles are established by meteorological conditions and/or the geothermal gradient, and modified by the direction and rate of ground-water fluxes through the sediments. For shallow water tables (less than 30 m), the combined effects of meteorological boundary conditions and ground-water fluxes generally determine sediment temperature profiles, while for deeper water tables, the combined effects of the geothermal gradient and ground-water fluxes determine vertical temperature profiles. Three approaches are presented to demonstrate the manner in which recharge rates may be estimated by matching predicted temperatures with measured temperatures above the water table. For the case of a shallow water table beneath a streambed, a variably saturated heat and water (liquid-only) transport simulation code, VS2DH, was used with an optimization procedure to inversely fit simulated temperatures to measured temperatures for several Southwestern stream channels. In some cases, temperature-based estimates of vertical flux were compared to surface-water measurements of streamflow loss. For the case of a deep water table, two different approaches were examined. An analytical solution with limitations on stratigraphic complexity was compared to measured temperature profiles beneath Yucca Flat, NV. A simulation code, TOUGH2, was used to match simulated to measured temperatures profiles beneath washes near Beatty, NV. Hypothetical results using the analytical solution generated a linear vertical temperature gradient for no-flow conditions, a concave upward gradient for groundwater recharge, and a concave downward gradient for groundwater discharge. TOUGH2 simulation results were capable of matching the complex temperature profiles in the deep, highly layered unsaturated material underlying the wash sites. Best-fit analytical and simulation temperature profiles yielded estimates of ground-water recharge for the Yucca Flat and wash sites, which reflected their dissimilar hydrological settings.

Constantz, J. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Kwicklis, E.

2001-12-01

247

Estimation of groundwater recharge parameters by time series analysis.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed that relates water level fluctuations in a Dupuit aquifer to effective precipitation at the top of the unsaturated zone. Effective precipitation, defined herein as that portion of precipitation which becomes recharge, is related to precipitation measured in a nearby gage by a two-parameter function. A second-order stationary assumption is used to connect the spectra of effective precipitation and water level fluctuations.-from Authors

Naff, R. L.; Gutjahr, A. L.

1983-01-01

248

Managed aquifer recharge: rediscovering nature as a leading edge technology.  

PubMed

Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has rapidly increased in Australia, USA, and Europe in recent years as an efficient means of recycling stormwater or treated sewage effluent for non-potable and indirect potable reuse in urban and rural areas. Yet aquifers have been relied on knowingly for water storage and unwittingly for water treatment for millennia. Hence if 'leading edge' is defined as 'the foremost part of a trend; a vanguard', it would be misleading to claim managed aquifer recharge as a leading edge technology. However it has taken a significant investment in scientific research in recent years to demonstrate the effectiveness of aquifers as sustainable treatment systems to enable managed aquifer recharge to be recognised along side engineered treatment systems in water recycling. It is a 'cross-over' technology that is applicable to water and wastewater treatment and makes use of passive low energy processes to spectacularly reduce the energy requirements for water supply. It is robust within limits, has low cost, is suitable from village to city scale supplies, and offers as yet almost untapped opportunities for producing safe drinking water supplies where they do not yet exist. It will have an increasingly valued role in securing water supplies to sustain cities affected by climate change and population growth. However it is not a universal panacea and relies on the presence of suitable aquifers and sources of water together with effective governance to ensure human health and environment protection and water resources planning and management. This paper describes managed aquifer recharge, illustrates its use in Australia, outlining economics, guidelines and policies, and presents some of the knowledge about aquifer treatment processes that are revealing the latent value of aquifers as urban water infrastructure and provide a driver to improving our understanding of urban hydrogeology. PMID:21076220

Dillon, P; Toze, S; Page, D; Vanderzalm, J; Bekele, E; Sidhu, J; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S

2010-01-01

249

A specialized ROV for cleaning groundwater recharge basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's (HBOI) Engineering Division completed the design and development of a precision dredge vehicle for Orange County Water District in Anaheim, California. The prototype vehicle-referred to as the basin cleaning vehicle (BCV)-is designed to remove the silt-clogging layer from the District's natural, sand-bottom, groundwater recharge lakes. The vehicle functions like a swimming pool cleaner to

Donna M. Kocak; Jerry W. Neely; John Holt; M. Miyake

1999-01-01

250

Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.

1990-01-01

251

Scale effects of hydrostratigraphy and recharge zonation on base flow.  

PubMed

Uncertainty regarding spatial variations of model parameters often results in the simplifying assumption that parameters are spatially uniform. However, spatial variability may be important in resource assessment and model calibration. In this paper, a methodology is presented for estimating a critical basin size, above which base flows appear to be relatively less sensitive to the spatial distribution of recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and below which base flows are relatively more sensitive to this spatial variability. Application of the method is illustrated for a watershed that exhibits distinct infiltration patterns and hydrostratigraphic layering. A ground water flow model (MODFLOW) and a parameter estimation code (UCODE) were used to evaluate the influence of recharge zonation and hydrostratigraphic layering on base flow distribution. Optimization after removing spatial recharge variability from the calibrated model altered base flow simulations up to 53% in watersheds smaller than 40 km(2). Merging six hydrostratigraphic units into one unit with average properties increased base flow residuals up to 83% in basins smaller than 50 km(2). Base flow residuals changed <5% in watersheds larger than 40 and 50 km(2) when recharge and hydrostratigraphy were simplified, respectively; thus, the critical basin size for the example area is approximately 40 to 50 km(2). Once identified for an area, a critical basin size could be used to guide the scale of future investigations. By ensuring that parameter discretization needed to capture base flow distribution is commensurate with the scope of the investigation, uncertainty caused by overextending uniform parameterization or by estimating extra parameter values is reduced. PMID:16681517

Juckem, Paul F; Hunt, Randall J; Anderson, Mary P

2006-01-01

252

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25

253

Characteristics of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical performance of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) containing a LiV3O8 (negative electrode) and LiCoO2 (positive electrode) in saturated LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte was studied. These two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and intercalation\\/deintercalation of lithium ions occurs within the window of electrochemical stability of water. The obtained capacity of this cell system is about 55mAh\\/g based

G. J. Wang; N. H. Zhao; L. C. Yang; Y. P. Wu; H. Q. Wu; R. Holze

2007-01-01

254

Alkaline composite film as a separator for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new type of separator film for application in rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The films are made\\u000a of mainly alkaline calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and a small amount of polymer binder. Owing to porosity and capillarity, the composite films show excellent wettability\\u000a with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes. Typically, the composite films composed of CaCO3 and Teflon and wetted with

S. S. Zhang; K. Xu; T. R. Jow

2003-01-01

255

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01

256

Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries  

E-print Network

This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

Licht, Stuart

2013-01-01

257

The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

1987-01-01

258

Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed. Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans. Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not extend to the distal ends of all washes. Where urbanization had concentrated spatially distributed runoff into a small number of fixed channels, enhanced infiltration induced recharging conditions, mobilizing accumulated chloride. Estimated amounts of ground-water recharge from the studied reaches were small. Extrapolating on the basis of drainage areas, the estimated aggregate recharge from small intermittent streams is minor compared to recharge from the Mojave River. Recharge is largely controlled by streamflow availability, which primarily reflects precipitation patterns. Precipitation in the Mojave Desert is strongly controlled by topography. Cool moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean are mostly blocked from entering the desert by the high mountains bordering its southern edge. Storms do, however, readily enter the region through Cajon Pass. These storms generate flow in the Mojave River that often reaches Afton Canyon, more than 150 kilometers downstream. The isotopic composition of ground water reflects the localization of recharge beneath the Mojave River. Similar processes occur near San Gorgonio Pass, 75 kilometers southeast from Cajon Pass along the bounding San Andreas Fault.

Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin; Predmore, Steven

2007-01-01

259

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 ?g/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

2012-01-01

260

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.  

PubMed

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. PMID:21740423

O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

2012-01-01

261

Evaluation of groundwater artificial recharge management scenario for sustainable water resources development in Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources in Gaza Strip are currently facing extreme over-exploitation which has led to a sharp decline of the groundwater level in this Mediterranean coastal aquifer overtime. Salinity of the groundwater is very high as a result of subsequent seawater intrusion of the aquifer. The contamination of the Gaza Strip groundwater by seawater has wide-ranging effects on the regional economy as well as agricultural productivity. In order to guarantee the sustainability of regional development, which requires the access to clean water, groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is being considered as a potential solution to this current water resources problem. The objective of the present study is to analyze several strategies for the implementation and management of AR in Gaza Strip and their potential impacts on agriculture, environment, and the socio-economy. Based on the water policy on wastewater reclamation and reuse (Yr. 2005 - 2025), six AR management strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local stakeholder community. These scenarios take into consideration the development of the new North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant and were also judged with respect to a base-line scenario, otherwise known as the "Do Nothing Approach." Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) on ranking of the AR management scenarios was used. Twenty-one criteria ranging over a wide spectrum and four categories (Environmental, Public Health, Social, and Economical) were defined to ensure sound evaluation of each of the six AR management scenarios. A detailed geo-database was prepared to analyze all the related spatial, non-spatial, and temporal data. Socio-economic studies, field surveys, mathematical modeling, and GIS analysis were used for the criteria quantification. In the MCDA, Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHP) combined with weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Composite Programming (CP) was employed. The six AR management strategies were thus compared to the "Do Nothing Approach" based on the defined environmental, health, social, and economical criteria, the most important being related to the environment and the economy. The robustness of the achieved ranking of AR management options has been tested by changing the selected criteria, criteria importance and criteria structure. The final analysis shows that all six AR management strategies are better than "doing nothing". The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge with maximum possible infiltration of secondary treated effluent in conjunction with sustainable reuse of the recharged water for agricultural development is the most effective AR solution to the water resources problems of the Gaza Strip.

Rusteberg, Bernd; Azizur Rahman, M.; Abusaada, Muath; Rabi, Ayman; Rahman Tamimi, A.; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

262

Fuel cells feasibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

1981-01-01

263

Evaluating Climate, Vegetation, and Soil Controls on Groundwater Recharge Using Unsaturated Flow Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relative importance of climate, vegetation, and soils in controlling groundwater recharge is critical for estimating recharge rates and for assessing the importance of these factors in controlling aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Understanding the role of climate and vegetation in controlling recharge will also be valuable in determining impacts of climate change and land use change on recharge. Numerical modeling is a valuable tool for assessing controls on recharge and for developing a predictive understanding of recharge processes. Unsaturated flow modeling was used to simulate recharge for a range of climate (arid - humid), vegetation (shrub, grass, forest, crops), and soils (fine - coarse grained, monolithic - layered) using data from Texas. Data from 10 meteorological stations in the state provided long-term (30 yr) climate forcing ranging from arid to humid conditions. Spatial distribution of dominant vegetation associations provided by the USGS was used to assign vegetation parameters using GIS and including fractional vegetation coverage, leaf area index, root depth, and root length density. Varying levels of soils data were used in the simulations ranging from simple monolithic sand profiles to complex layered soil profiles from the SSURGO database and pedotransfer functions were used to translate soils data to hydraulic parameters for the simulations. The effect of climate was evaluated using monolithic sand profiles without vegetation. Recharge rates varied from 54 mm/yr in arid west Texas to 720 mm/yr in humid east Texas, correlating positively with precipitation (R=0.99, slope = 0.69). These recharge rates represent 24 to 61 percent of long-term average precipitation. High potential recharge rates in monolithic sand profiles indicate that climate is not the limiting factor controlling recharge and that vegetation and soil texture are important in reducing recharge. Addition of vegetation to the monolithic sand profiles reduced recharge rates for most cases by factors ranging from 2 to 11. Soil profile layering reduced recharge rates in most cases relative to recharge rates based on monolithic sand profiles by factors ranging from 2 to 10. Recharge estimates based on nonvegetated, layered soil profiles were quite variable locally depending on soil texture and sequence of layers. However, aerially weighted average recharge rates for the counties analyzed in this study were much less variable and were positively correlated with precipitation (R=0.79; slope = 0.19). The final simulations included vegetation and layered soil profiles and resulted in recharge rates ranging from 0 to 328 mm/yr which represent reductions from potential recharge by factors ranging from 6 to 380. Unsaturated flow modeling proved to be a useful tool in evaluating the effects of climate, soil, and vegetation on recharge because these factors could be isolated in different simulations. Modeling results indicate that long-term average precipitation can be used as a predictor of recharge, but is not the limiting factor; vegetation and soil texture are important in reducing recharge. The results of this study have important implications for estimating recharge and indicate that the role of vegetation and soil texture in reducing recharge could significantly impact aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

Keese, K. E.; Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.

2003-12-01

264

Ponds and Rice Fields: The Hydrology and Chemistry of Aquifer Recharge in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow aquifer in Bangladesh, which provides drinking water for millions and irrigation water for innumerable rice fields, is severely contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. Water balance calculations show that surface ponds and irrigated rice fields are the primary sources of recharge to this contaminated aquifer. Recharge from an individual rice field is both temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas flow from a pond is more constant and uniform through the pond sediments. Rice field recharge is focused through bunds (the berms surrounding the field), and depends on irrigation intervals. Field flow patterns are controlled by cracks and the development of an unsaturated zone. The water chemistry of these two recharge sources is distinctly different. Compared to the rice fields, ponds contribute recharge with a higher organic carbon load and increased concentrations of solutes associated with anoxic microbial respiration. The differences in the recharge behavior and solute loads of these two sources may explain the spatial patterns of groundwater chemistry that control arsenic concentrations.

Neumann, R. B.; Harvey, C. F.

2007-12-01

265

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

1990-01-01

266

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01

267

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern\\u000a Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate\\u000a possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ?35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are\\u000a dominantly 2–4° cooler than the

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

268

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ˜35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are dominantly 2-4° cooler than

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

269

Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode,

A. Robert Armstrong; Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

270

Contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel time, and groundwater water quality of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1997-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The City of Independence, Missouri, operates a well field in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Contributing recharge areas (CRA) were last determined for the well field in 1996. Since that time, eight supply wells have been installed in the area north of the Missouri River and well pumpage has changed for the older supply wells. The change in pumping has altered groundwater flow and substantially changed the character of the CRA and groundwater travel times to the supply wells. The U.S Geological Survey, in a cooperative study with the City of Independence, Missouri, simulated steady-state groundwater flow for 2007 well pumpage, average annual river stage, and average annual recharge. Particle-tracking analysis was used to determine the CRA for supply wells and monitoring wells, and the travel time from recharge areas to supply wells, recharge areas to monitoring wells, and monitoring wells to supply wells. The simulated CRA for the well field is elongated in the upstream direction and extends to both sides of the Missouri River. Groundwater flow paths and recharge areas estimated for monitoring wells indicate the origin of water to each monitoring well, the travel time of that water from the recharge area, the flow path from the vicinity of each monitoring well to a supply well, and the travel time from the monitoring well to the supply well. Monitoring wells 14a and 14b have the shortest groundwater travel time from their contributing recharge area of 0.30 years and monitoring well 29a has the longest maximum groundwater travel time from its contributing recharge area of 1,701 years. Monitoring well 22a has the shortest groundwater travel time of 0.5 day to supply well 44 and monitoring well 3b has the longest maximum travel time of 31.91 years to supply well 10. Water-quality samples from the Independence groundwater monitoring well network were collected from 1997 to 2008 by USGS personnel during ongoing annual sampling within the 10-year contributing recharge area (CRA) of the Independence well field. Statistical summaries and the spatial and temporal variability of water quality in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Independence well field were characterized from analyses of 598 water samples. Water-quality constituent groups include dissolved oxygen and physical properties, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, wastewater indicator compounds, fuel compounds, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), alachlor, and atrazine. The Missouri Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for iron was exceeded in almost all monitoring wells. The Missouri Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic was exceeded 32 times in samples from monitoring wells. The MCL for barium was exceeded five times in samples from one monitoring well. The SMCL for manganese was exceeded 160 times in samples from all monitoring wells and the combined well-field sample. The most frequently detected wastewater indicator compounds were N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), phenol, caffeine, and metolachlor. The most frequently detected fuel compounds were toluene and benzene. Alachlor was detected in 22 samples and atrazine was detected in 37 samples and the combined well-field sample. The MCL for atrazine was exceeded in one sample from one monitoring well. Samples from monitoring wells with median concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen larger than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) are located near agricultural land and may indicate that agricultural land practices are the source of nitrogen to groundwater. Largest median values of specific conductance; total inorganic nitrogen; dissolved calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, arsenic, manganese, bicarbonate, and sulfate and detections of wastewater indicator compounds generally were in water samples from monitoring wells with CRAs that intersect the south bank of the Missouri River. Zones of higher specific conductance were located just upstream from the Independen

Kelly, Brian P.

2011-01-01

271

Preliminary results of column experiments simulating nutrients transport in artificial recharge by treated wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrients (phosphates, nitrates, nitrites and ammonium) are very often present in treated wastewater as consequence of the inefficient removal capability during wastewater treatments. Such compounds represent an environmental concern since they are responsible for contamination and/or eutrophication problems when reaching the water bodies (groundwater, river, streams…). Therefore, when wastewater reclamation activities such as artificial recharge are planned, special attention should be paid to these compounds to avoid groundwater deterioration. In this context, we proposed the installation of a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (H-PRB) made of different reactive materials, among them zeolite and palygorskite, to remove nutrients or at least to decrease their concentrations. The overall aim of this research is to evaluate if the application of a H-PRB could represent a feasible solution for the attenuation of nutrients when unconventional water resources (i.e. treated wastewater) are used for recharge activities. Specifically, this study is intended to identify the transport processes affecting nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and phosphates when treated wastewater is infiltrated through the reactive materials of the H-PRB. Column experiments are generally suitable to examine the interactions between reactive materials and treated wastewater that affect the transport behavior of nutrients. For example, processes such as adsorption can be identified and quantified. Thus, laboratory column experiments were carried out using zeolite or palygorskite as column infilling material and synthetic treated wastewater as column influent. The experiments are closely connected to an experimental field study in Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville-Spain) where a pilot H-PRB is currently under evaluation. The columns were operated under saturated conditions applying a constant flow rate of 1.2 mL/min equivalent to the infiltration rate estimated through infiltration experiments at the field site. Wastewater synthesized in the laboratory simulates the secondary effluent used for recharge activities in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes, Experimental results showed that ammonium and phosphates are clearly retarded when infiltrating through both materials (zeolite and palygorskite) as consequence of cation exchange and surface complexation processes. Indeed, after about 14 days from the beginning of the experiments the two compounds do not appear at the column effluent exhibiting a very strong retardation. Concerning nitrites and nitrates, no retardation is observed. Preliminary interpretation of the experimental results by means of the geochemical modeling code PHREEQ-C confirmed and quantified the importance of specific reactive processes affecting transport of nutrients through the applied reactive materials.

Leal, María; Meffe, Raffaella; Lillo, Javier

2013-04-01

272

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

273

Use of soil moisture probes to estimate ground water recharge at an oil spill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil moisture data collected using an automated data logging system were used to estimate ground water recharge at a crude oil spill research site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Three different soil moisture probes were tested in the laboratory as well as the field conditions of limited power supply and extreme weather typical of northern Minnesota: a self-contained reflectometer probe, and two time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, 30 and 50 cm long. Recharge was estimated using an unsaturated zone water balance method. Recharge estimates for 1999 using the laboratory calibrations were 13 to 30 percent greater than estimates based on the factory calibrations. Recharge indicated by the self-contained probes was 170 percent to 210 percent greater than the estimates for the TDR probes regardless of calibration method. Results indicate that the anomalously large recharge estimates for the self-contained probes are not the result of inaccurate measurements of volumetric moisture content, but result from the presence of crude oil, or bore-hole leakage. Of the probes tested, the 50 cm long TDR probe yielded recharge estimates that compared most favorably to estimates based on a method utilizing water table fluctuations. Recharge rates for this probe represented 24 to 27 percent of 1999 precipitation. Recharge based on the 30 cm long horizontal TDR probes was 29 to 37 percent of 1999 precipitation. By comparison, recharge based on the water table fluctuation method represented about 29 percent of precipitation. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

Delin, G.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.

2005-01-01

274

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

275

Groundwater-recharge estimation in the Ordos Plateau, China: comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is a key factor in water-balance studies, especially in (semi-)arid areas. In this study, multiple methods\\u000a were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the Ordos Plateau (China), including reference to water-table fluctuation, Darcy’s\\u000a law and the water budget. The mean annual recharge rates found were: water-table-fluctuation method (46–109 mm\\/yr); saturated-zone\\u000a Darcian method (17–54 mm\\/yr); and water-budget method (21–109 mm\\/yr). Generally, groundwater-recharge

Lihe Yin; Guangcheng Hu; Jinting Huang; Dongguang Wen; Jiaqiu Dong; Xiaoyong Wang; Hongbo Li

276

Hydrologic and hydraulic assessment of artificial recharge in the Sparta Aquifer of Union County, Arkansas .  

E-print Network

??Groundwater pumping from the Sparta aquifer in Union County, Arkansas, has long exceeded natural recharge, threatening the regional water supply. An alternative water-supply project, completed… (more)

Sowby, Robert B

2013-01-01

277

Modeling spatiotemporal impacts of hydroclimatic extremes on groundwater recharge at a Mediterranean karst aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aquifers provide large parts of the water supply for Mediterranean countries, though climate change is expected to have a significant negative impact on water availability. Recharge is therefore a key variable that has to be known for sustainable groundwater use. In this study, we present a new approach that combines two independent methods for karst recharge estimation. The first method derives spatially distributed information of mean annual recharge patterns through GIS analysis. The second is a process-based karst model that provides spatially lumped but temporally distributed information about recharge. By combining both methods, we add a spatial reference to the lumped simulations of the process-based model. In this way, we are able to provide spatiotemporal information of recharge and subsurface flow dynamics also during varying hydroclimatic conditions. We find that there is a nonlinear relationship between precipitation and recharge rates resulting in strong decreases of recharge following even moderate decreases of precipitation. This is primarily due to almost constant actual evapotranspiration amounts despite varying hydroclimatic conditions. During the driest year in the record, almost the entire precipitation was consumed as actual evapotranspiration and only little diffuse recharge took place at the high altitudes of our study site. During wettest year, recharge constituted a much larger fraction of precipitation and occurred at the entire study site. Our new method and our findings are significant for decision makers in similar regions that want to prepare for possible changes of hydroclimatic conditions in the future.

Hartmann, Andreas; Mudarra, Matías; Andreo, Bartolomé; Marín, Ana; Wagener, Thorsten; Lange, Jens

2014-08-01

278

Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell Portable Power Workshop End User Perspective Industrial  

E-print Network

Improvement Rate Battery Energy Density vs. Time 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1990 1995 2000 2005-50 retail price · Rechargeable Batteries ­ NiMH, Li-Ion, Li-polymer ­ $20-50 (cell phone) ­ $50-150 (laptop #12;4 Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell Portable Power Workshop Rechargeable Battery

279

Environmental problems of fossil fuels and suggested solution: Hydrogen energy system; a one-semester multi-disciplinary course for upper division science and engineering students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impending crisis of fossil fuel exhaustion, the devastating acid rain, the greenhouse effect have made the search for an alternate fuel imperative to the survival of man. This course is designed to inform all upper division science and engineering students about the nature of the crisis and to suggest a viable solution. The hydrogen energy system has not had

1989-01-01

280

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone.  

PubMed

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 x 10(6) m(3) of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 x 10(6) m(3) of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area. PMID:18194322

Izbicki, John A; Flint, Alan L; Stamos, Christina L

2008-01-01

281

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 ?? 10 6 m3 of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 ?? 10 6 m3 of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area.

Izbicki, J. A.; Flint, A. L.; Stamos, C. L.

2008-01-01

282

Indian Ocean Dipole interpreted in terms of Recharge Oscillator Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a year-to-year fluctuation with significant impacts on regional patterns of weather variability and ocean biogeochemical cycles. The IOD originates through ocean-atmosphere interactions and large scale ocean dynamics similar to those that characterize El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific. In this presentation we use observations and a linear analytical wind forced model to address the question of whether variations in upper ocean heat content are a necessary precondition for the development of IOD events as they are for ENSO in the Pacific. High quality satellite altimetry data, which are a proxy for thermocline depth and upper ocean heat content, are used both to describe IOD variability over the period 1993-2011 and to validate the dynamical model. Results are interpreted in terms of Recharge Oscillator theory, which was originally developed to explain ENSO in the Pacific but can be applied to the IOD since similar processes are at work in both oceans on interannual time scales. As in the Pacific, the dominant modes of variability in the Indian Ocean include an east-west thermocline tilting mode, which is approximately in phase with zonal wind stress and SST gradients along the equator, and a zonally coherent recharge mode that leads the tilting mode by about four months. However, the maximum correlation between these two modes, which occurs when the recharge mode in boreal summer (JJA) leads the titling mode in boreal fall (SON), is very weak and not statistically significant. These spatial patterns and lead-lag correlations are found both in observations and the analytical model. These results suggest that, unlike for ENSO, heat content is of marginal value as a predictor in the equatorial Indian Ocean for the development of IOD events. We conclude that other factors, such as ENSO forcing from the Pacific, are more important in initiating IOD events than preconditioning of upper ocean heat content along the equator.

McPhaden, M. J.; Nagura, M.

2012-12-01

283

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-09-01

284

RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis  

PubMed Central

The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1?ms to 100?s) and spatial range (1?µm to 1?mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented. PMID:24365948

Tanida, H.; Fukuda, K.; Murayama, H.; Orikasa, Y.; Arai, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Uruga, T.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohta, T.; Ogumi, Z.

2014-01-01

285

Tracers in recharge — Effects of partitioning in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning among mobile and stationary water phases in a soil measurably reduces movement of a tracer relative to the mobile water phase. The quantity of water infiltrating the soil, however, still follows from the product of the distance travelled by the tracer and average moisture content of the soil over that distance. Partitioning between surface and water phases in a soil by proton and protium exchange has only a small effect on the retention of isotopically labelled water. Partitioning between surface, water and gas phases in a soil, however, strongly decreases diffusive movement of isotopically labelled water in the gas phase. In sandy soils with moisture contents less than 5%, the effective diffusion coefficient in the gas phase can be reduced by a factor between 50 and 5000. As a soil dries out, diffusive movement of 18O labelled water will become larger than of HDO and HTO. Negative charges on soil surfaces repel chloride and bromide. The effect of charge exclusion on movement of Cl - and Br - relative to HDO was measured in small columns for a number of soils from the southwest of Western Australia. Data from these experiments show that in the unsaturated zone of sandy soils, charge exclusion can reduce the pore volume available to Cl - and Br - in the water phase at field capacity by > 20%. Recharge to ground water, if calculated from the position of Cl - or Br - tracers and average moisture in the soil profile, must then be reduced by the same percentage. The effect of charge exclusion in soils on the calculation of recharge from profile data, was evaluated for a practical situation. Significant amounts of bromide from car exhaust gases accumulate in soils in urban areas and can be used to trace water movement. A site was chosen in metropolitan Perth on a sparsely vegetated calcareous sand near the junction of two busy roads. A seasonal effect on bromide accumulation in the soil profile at this site was clearly visible from data on the soil solution. The distribution of bromide in the soil profile appears to correspond to 93% of rainfall recharging ground water. Correcting the data for charge exclusion, results in a calculated recharge of ? 70% of annual rainfall.

Gerritse, Robert G.; Adeney, John A.

1992-02-01

286

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

287

Lithiated manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithiated manganese oxides LixMnyO2 prepared at the low temperature of 400-450°C exhibited significantly different electrochemical properties than the spinel phase, LiMn2O4, formed at 650-850°C. The former was nonstoichiometric and yielded a capacity of ~0.7 LiMn2 unit at ~2.8 V in polymer electrolyte-based Li cells. Its excellent rechargeability was demonstrated by more than 100 charge\\/discharge cycles. Spinel Li2Mn4 was formed by

K. M. Abraham; D. M. Pasquariello; T. H. Hguyen; Z. Jiang; D. Peramunage

1996-01-01

288

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

289

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-01-01

290

Review problems on photosynthesis, carbon cycle. Julie Wright, HAS222d/253e 2007 1) Photosynthesis resembles the hydrogen fuel cell we studied in the lab. The following reactions  

E-print Network

Review problems on photosynthesis, carbon cycle. Julie Wright, HAS222d/253e 2007 1) Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis coupled half-reactions: 2H2O ---> O2 + 4H+ + 4e- E'o = -0.82 (written here as an oxidation) the overall reaction of photosynthesis is: H2O + CO2 ---> O2 + CH2O E'o = -1.24 Hydrogen fuel cell: 2H2O

291

Numerical assessment of ASR recharge using small-diameter wells and surface basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) methods are increasingly used to overcome the temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Common ASR recharge methods utilize large-diameter injection wells or surface infiltration basins and trenches, and can be costly to implement. A new low-cost ASR recharge method is currently being developed. This approach is based on recharge via gravity in small-diameter wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. Numerical modeling is used here to assess the potential of this new approach under conditions commonly faced in field settings. The primary objective is to investigate if a battery of small-diameter DP wells can serve as a viable alternative to a surface basin under typical field conditions, while the secondary objective is to assess which subsurface parameters have the greatest control on DP well performance. Simulation results indicate that gravity recharge via small-diameter wells appears to have a distinct advantage over recharge via surface infiltration basins. For example, two 0.05-m shallow vadose-zone wells with 9-m screens can recharge water at a greater rate than a 60 m2 basin. Also, results reveal that, contrary to an infiltration basin, the recharge rate in a DP well has a much stronger dependence on the horizontal component of hydraulic conductivity than on the vertical component. Moreover, near-surface layers of low hydraulic conductivity, which can significantly reduce the recharge capacity of a surface basin, have a relatively small impact on the recharge capacity of a well as long as a significant portion of the well screen is installed below those layers. Given that installation and operation costs can be low in comparison to common ASR recharge methods, this new approach appears to have great potential for recharging good quality water in shallow unconsolidated aquifers. A field investigation has recently been initiated to follow up the findings of this simulation assessment.

Händel, Falk; Liu, Gaisheng; Dietrich, Peter; Liedl, Rudolf; Butler, James J.

2014-09-01

292

Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Grubbs, J. W.

1995-01-01

293

Investigations on fabrication and lifetime performance of self – air breathing direct hydrogen micro fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ever – increasing demand for more powerful, compact and longer – life power modules for portable electronic devices for leisure, communication and computing. Micro fuel cells have the potential to replace battery packs for portable electronic appliances because of their high power density, longer operating and standby times, and substantially shorter recharging times. However, fuel cells have

S. Giddey; S. P. S. Badwal; F. T. Ciacchi; D. Fini; B. A. Sexton; F. Glenn; P. W. Leech

2010-01-01

294

Aircraft fuel system simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the design, development, and test of aerospace fuel and propellant systems is becoming a more complex problem. In particular, fuel and propellant systems are being asked to perform functions such as vehicle center of gravity control, thermal management, and damage control. These flight-critical functions, combined with the progress of new fuel system controllers toward an integrated

T. G. Davis

1990-01-01

295

Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

2009-12-01

296

Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

Jaafar, H. H.

2014-05-01

297

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

298

Clogging in Managed Aquifer Recharge: Hydrodynamics and Geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the engineered process by which water is delivered into an aquifer for storage, transmission, or treatment. Perhaps the most significant technical challenge in MAR is clogging, a detrimental reduction of permeability in the aquifer porous media. This presentation describes research from the allied fields of water treatment, soil science, and petrology, each of which sheds light on the mechanisms by which hydrodynamics and geochemistry influence clogging in MAR. The primary focus is clogging by suspended solids, especially clay colloids, which are ubiquitous in natural porous media. When colloids deposit in aquifers, they reduce the effective porosity and alter the pore space geometry, both of which can inhibit the flow of groundwater. Management of clogging is complicated by the complexity inherent in this system, in which hydrodynamics, geochemistry, clay mineralogy, and colloidal effects each play a role. This presentation will briefly review colloid filtration, mobilization, and clogging models, then highlight the key physical and chemical variables that control clogging. It will be argued that clogging in managed aquifer recharge is analogous to clogging in soils or hydrocarbon reservoirs, rather than to clogging in granular media filters used for water treatment. Based on this analogy, the presentation will conclude with several recommendations to prevent or manage clogging in MAR.

Mays, D. C.

2013-12-01

299

Recharge Mechanism to North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) Using Environmental Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive understanding is highly needed for any successful transboundary cooperation policy. Moreover, an analysis of the NWSAS can be of particular interest for policy makers and researchers. This paper aims to reveals and to assess the renewability of North Western Sahara Aquifer System(NWSAS) as one of the major transboundary multi-layered aquifer system, in North Africa, shared by Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya and is often referred to as the Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional (SASS).The paper is primarily intended for exploring whether it receives a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge or it is at risk of being depleted and excessively pumped, where the main challenge for NWSAS ,is that it should be abstracted rationally for equitable use. Environmental isotopes data of ?18O, ?2H, 3H ,14C as well as characteristics of d-excess are used to illustrate whether NSWAS is renewable or non-renewable resource.Geochemical, hydrological and statistical evidences supporting the renewability of NWSAS are provided through pairs of cross-plots . The study has clearly indicated that NWSAS is receiving a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge to the aquifer because of the following reasons; Firstly, the moderately depleted delta values of O-18 and H-2 of water from Sahara Atlas in Algeria and the Dahar and the Dj. Nefoussa in Tunisia and Libya with ?18O content (- 6.0‰ to -5.0‰) compared with that of palaeowater (-7.0 to -9.0 ‰) indicate a considerable fraction of modern water recharging NWSAS.This considerable fraction of modern water should be attributed to originate from the present-day precipitation (-6.5‰).Secondly, the presence of significant amount of 14C >2 % and 3H > 5TU., frequently found in data should be attributed to a mixing with shallow and modern water, where old water practically contains no 14C. The foregoing facts are in good agreement with the results of conventional hydrologic approach. This would contradicts the assumption that the NWSAS is non-renewable water resource. In this context, the NWSAS is being located in one of the driest regions on the planet, these huge resources have been recognized to be of great importance to the socio-economic development of its riparian countries. So the present paper addresses the necessity of identifying specific cooperation problems which evolve out of these hydrogeological attributes and prevalent use patterns. Accordingly, the description of NWSAS as non renewable, devoid of any meaningful recharge , a rather stagnant water body, disconnected from any surface water body in addition to its classification as "non-renewable" would therefore be misleading and represents one of the most obvious inaccuracy as well. Keywords stable isotopes of 18O and 2H, unstable isotopes of 14C and 3H.renewal , socio-economic development, Riparian,

Al-Gamal, Samir

2010-05-01

300

Hydrogen fuel closer to reality because of storage advances  

E-print Network

extracted for use in hydrogen fuel cell batteries and then be recharged with hydrogen over and over words, until now, after hydrogen release, the ammonia borane couldn't be recycled efficiently enough. Simple scheme reduces expense, complexity of the recycle stage The Science paper describes a simple

301

Powering Wireless Sensor Nodes with Micro Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to achieve long term system operation is using hydrogen fuel cells, which feature much higher energy density if compared with standard batteries. In this demonstrator we show a power unit which activates the hydrogen flow through an electrovalve to recharge the batteries, minimizing hydrogen waste and significantly boosting lifetime. Experimental results demonstrate 85\\\\% of efficiency.

Michele Magno; Davide Brunelli; Luca Benini; Roberta Giuffrida; Salvatore Leonardi; Andrea Lazzara

2013-01-01

302

Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

2013-01-01

303

Recycling rechargeable lithium ion batteries: Critical analysis of natural resource savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable Li-ion battery applications in consumer products are fastly growing, resulting in increasing resources demand: it is for example estimated that battery applications account for nearly 25% of the worldwide cobalt demand in 2007. It is obvious that recycling of batteries may help saving natural resources. However, it is not straightforward to quantify to what extent rechargeable battery recycling saves

Jo Dewulf; Geert Van der Vorst; Kim Denturck; Herman Van Langenhove; Wouter Ghyoot; Jan Tytgat; Kurt Vandeputte

2010-01-01

304

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org | 6622011, Vol. 10 Groundwater Recharge through  

E-print Network

groundwater recharge, including water quantity and quality. Soil core samples (0­11-m depth) from six recharge fluxes and to test matrix vs. preferential flow hypotheses. Water contents under irrigated Cropland vs. Natural Land, Israel Land use change from natural ecosystems to cropland influences

Scanlon, Bridget R.

305

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants  

E-print Network

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants Pengfei Li describes an integrated analog front-end for wireless powering and recharging of miniature Li-ion bat is accomplished using Schottky barrier contact diodes with lower forward voltage drop for improved efficiency

Slatton, Clint

306

Electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries: Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and electrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium rechargeable battery is the newest member of the rechargeable battery family and is best known for its high energy density, long battery life, low self-discharge rate and light weight. This battery may become one of the most important energy sources in consumer market, industrial and military applications. Intercalation compounds play a critical role in determining the overall performance

Xulong Zhang

1997-01-01

307

Paleosols as deep regolith: implications for ground-water recharge across a loessial climosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick loess deposits consisting of paleosol sequences comprise the deep regolith of the Palouse region in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Ground water is the principal water supply for the Palouse Basin, yet recharge mechanisms and rates through this regolith are poorly understood. Forecasting the sustainability of the water supply has been hampered because models that predict ground-water recharge are

A. T. O'Geen; P. A. McDaniel; J. Boll; C. K. Keller

2005-01-01

308

The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

2010-11-01

309

Modeling of Groundwater Artificial Recharge by Reactivating an Old Stream Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper refers to the development and verification of a groundwater artificial recharge model in Xanthi plain, Thrace, Greece. The relative geological and hydrogeological research of the study area is described, as well as the artificial recharge application by reactivating an old stream bed of Kosynthos River, since 1994. The simulation of the aquifer system of the study area was

F. Pliakas; C. Petalas; I. Diamantis; A. Kallioras

2005-01-01

310

DISTRIBUTION OF AREAL RECHARGE TO A DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK (FRACNET) MODEL USING THE ANALYTIC ELEMENT METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Rain water filtering down through the soil will provide recharge of the saturated fractured rock aquifer. he computer model FRACNET has been designed to distribute areal recharge into linear fracture zones in order to complete the regional water balance. n this presentation, a te...

311

Recharge characteristics of a phreatic aquifer as determined by storage accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cumulative storage accumulation curve (CSAC) is a tool for saturated-volume fluctuation (SVF) analysis of transient recharge to shallow phreatic aquifers discharging only to springs. The method assumes that little underflow or phreatic evapotranspiration occurs. The CSAC is a modified water-table hydrograph that distinguishes storage increase caused by recharge from loss due to springflow-induced recession. Required for the analysis are water-table fluctuations at a single representative location within the catchment of a single spring and either direct measurements or robust interpolations of springflows at different aquifer stages. The method employs empirical manipulation of head observations, varying spring catchment area to minimize CSAC water-level changes in late portions of long recessions. Results include volumetric estimates of recharge integrated over individual events and instantaneous rates of recharge to the water table, at the temporal resolution of the water-level sampling interval. The analysis may also yield physically realistic information on spring catchment and recharge focusing. In a test case in West Virginia, USA, recharge estimates by this technique were consistent with integrated springflow time series but greater than estimates based on potential evapotranspiration. Results give insight into dynamic recharge behavior over time as well as an indication of recharge catchment size.

Ketchum, Neil J.; Donovan, Joseph J.; Avery, William H.

2000-12-01

312

Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

2012-06-01

313

Influence of model conceptualisation on one-dimensional recharge quantification: Uley South, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model conceptualisation is a key source of uncertainty in one-dimensional recharge modelling. The effects of different conceptualisations on transient recharge predictions for the semi-arid Uley South Basin, South Australia, were investigated. One-dimensional unsaturated zone modelling was used to quantify the effect of variations of (1) lithological complexity of the unsaturated zone, and (2) representation of preferential flow pathways. The simulations considered ranges of water-table depths, vegetation characteristics, and top soil thicknesses representative for the study area. Complex lithological profiles were more sensitive to the selected vegetation characteristics and water-table depth. Scenarios considering runoff infiltration into, and preferential flow through sinkholes resulted in higher and faster recharge rates. A comparison of modelled and field-based recharge estimates indicated that: (1) the model simulated plausible recharge rates, (2) only the models with preferential flow correctly reproduced the timing of recharge, and (3) preferential flow is probably redistributed in the unsaturated zone rather than passing to the water table directly. Because different but equally plausible conceptual models produce widely varying recharge rates, field-based recharge estimates are essential to constrain the modelling results.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.; Hutson, John L.

2014-06-01

314

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 126 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

315

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

316

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

317

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-print Network

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R reserved. Keywords: Block copolymer; Lithium batteries; Transference number; Single-ion conductor 1 and cathode binder thin-�lm, solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries of the type Li/ BCE/LiMnO2 have been

Sadoway, Donald Robert

318

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

319

Development of advanced electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are a necessary companion to most portable electronic devices, and the rechargeable lithium battery is the most energy dense and lightest of all the competing battery types. These features make it the most likely battery to be used in future electronic devices, which will be smaller and have increased functionality. Therefore, the performance of the rechargeable lithium battery must

Scott Andrew Needham

2007-01-01

320

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In

S. Pozdniakov; N. Lykhina

2010-01-01

321

Relation of pathways and transit times of recharge water to nitrate concentrations using stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values of precipitation, irrigation water, soil water, and ground water were used with soil-moisture contents and water levels to estimate transit times and pathways of recharge water in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer. Nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations in ground water were also measured to assess their relation to seasonal recharge. Stable isotope

Matthew K. Landon; Geoffrey N. Delin; Stephen C. Komor; Charles P. Regan

2000-01-01

322

Derived Operating Rules for Allocating Recharges and Withdrawals among Unconnected Aquifers  

E-print Network

either a specified target delivery rate for withdrawals or available surface water supply to recharge solutions. The results show how cost characteristics, fraction of recharged water available for withdrawal discharge; Water storage; Pumps; Optimization. Introduction Water storage for many water supply systems

Pasternack, Gregory B.

323

A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper

Russell S. Crosbie; Philip Binning; Jetse D. Kalma

2005-01-01

324

COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

E-print Network

Page 1 COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Jean by applying the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental footprint of alkaline cells and Ni-MH batteries phase. Besides, the emphasis on rechargeable batteries is only justified from an environmental point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

Dickinson, J.E.; Hanson, R.T.; Ferre, T.P.A.; Leake, S.A.

2004-01-01

326

MODIS-aided statewide net groundwater-recharge estimation in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates (2000 to 2009) across Nebraska at about 1-km resolution were obtained by linear transformations of the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daytime surface temperature values with the help of the Priestley-Taylor equation and the complementary relationship of evaporation. For positive values of the mean annual precipitation and ET differences, the mean annual net recharge was found by an additional multiplication of the power-function-transformed groundwater vulnerability DRASTIC-code values. Statewide mean annual net recharge became about 29 mm (i.e., 5% of mean annual precipitation) with the largest recharge rates (in excess of 100 mm/year) found in the eastern Sand Hills and eastern Nebraska. Areas with the largest negative net recharge rates caused by declining groundwater levels due to large-scale irrigation are found in the south-western region of the state. Error bounds of the estimated values are within 10% to 15% of the corresponding precipitation rates and the estimated net recharge rates are sensitive to errors in the precipitation and ET values. This study largely confirms earlier base-flow analysis-based statewide groundwater recharge estimates when considerations are made for differences in the recharge definitions. The current approach not only provides better spatial resolution than available earlier studies for the region but also quantifies negative net recharge rates that become especially important in numerical modeling of shallow groundwater systems. PMID:23216050

Szilagyi, Jozsef; Jozsa, Janos

2013-01-01

327

Groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration for two natural ecosystems covered with oak and heather  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge from two natural areas with high (oak) and low (heath) vegetation were estimated by calibrating a semi-physical numerical soil water and heat model to fit 8 and 7 years of TDR-measurements of water content, respectively. The measurements were made between the surface and 7 m depth. For the oak stand, the estimated annual recharge for

U. L. Ladekarl; K. R. Rasmussen; S. Christensen; K. H. Jensen; B. Hansen

2005-01-01

328

Uncertainty quantification in predicting deep aquifer recharge rates, with applicability in the Power River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to determine the uncertainties associated with a water budget model developed to predict recharge rates to deep aquifers in the Power River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. The inputs to this model are springtime snowmelt, streambed infiltration, infrequent convective rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The dominant recharge mechanism for the deeper aquifer units is assumed to be infiltrated

F. L. Ogden; K. Puckett

2006-01-01

329

Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

2012-11-01

330

77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2012-11-01

331

77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2012-09-12

332

76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2011-11-14

333

ELSEVIER Journal of Hydrology180(1996)31-53 Groundwater recharge in the Victoria Nile basin of east  

E-print Network

recharge. Recharge investigations in this environment are typically inhibited by a shortage of good quality infiltration of rainfall, an assumption implicit in the soil moisture balance approach. Deforestation over

Jones, Peter JS

334

78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...airworthiness standard for lead acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries...of the nickel cadmium and lead acid rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable lithium ion...Unlike nickel cadmium and lead acid batteries, some types of lithium...

2013-08-22

335

78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...airworthiness standard for lead acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries...of the nickel cadmium and lead acid rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable lithium ion...Unlike nickel cadmium and lead acid batteries, some types of lithium...

2013-12-19

336

Climate Impact on Groundwater Recharge in Southeastern Louisiana and Southwestern Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases of concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a significant effect on global climate, precipitation and hydrology, which in turn influences recharge to aquifers. Groundwater recharge study is imperative to the sole source aquifer, for example the Southern Hills aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi, which provides more than 50 percent of the drinking water consumed in the area overlying the aquifer and has no substitute drinking water source(s). To trace the climate impact and its consequent groundwater availability, this study developed a GIS-based integrated framework to connect climate models to a high-resolution hydrologic model to quantify long-term groundwater recharge. We employed the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP3) model as our hydrologic model to estimate spatial-temporal distribution of potential recharge for a regional scale. HELP3 model was especially suitable for our recharge study due to Louisiana humid climate and the use of a regional-scale water budget approach. Detailed surficial soil property and land cover were obtained from the NRCS and the USGS to derive maps of curve number for the HELP3 model. Wireline well logs and drillers logs were analyzed to determine stratigraphic lithology and the first major sand encountered beneath the soil layer. For a regional scale, we used global circulation model (GCM) downscaled daily precipitation and temperature obtained from USGS CASCaDE Project Climate Data as the forcing input to the HELP3 model. The emission scenarios considered in this study were A2, B1 and A1FI from Parallel Climate Model 1 (PCM) and from the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab's GFDL CM2.1 model. We used the computed runoff from USGS WaterWatch along with the HELP3 model to calculate the recharge index (RI) and delineate the recharge index map for individual hydrologic units in terms of Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs). The recharge index was defined as the percentage of precipitation that recharges aquifers. High-resolution recharge index maps were obtained to quantify the spatial impact of climate change on long-term groundwater availability. The framework was applied to the recharge study on the Southern Hills aquifer system overlain by twenty HUCs. The RI map for the Southern Hill aquifer system was obtained based on the computed runoff data from 1951 to 2000 in WaterWatch. Then the HELP3 model was applied to recharge estimation from 2000 to 2050. The results showed the differences in recharge estimation given different climate scenarios. Moreover, the results showed spatial-temporal variation of recharge in the aquifer system due to variations in land use, soil characteristics and predicted meteorological variables.

Beigi, E.; Tsai, F. T.

2012-12-01

337

3/5/2014 Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone | Philippine Latest News http://philsense.com/2014/01/11/micro-windmill-technology-future-uses-include-recharging-your-smartphone/ 1/6  

E-print Network

3/5/2014 Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone | Philippine Latest News http://philsense.com/2014/01/11/micro-windmill-technology-future-uses-include-recharging-your-smartphone Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone Your ads w ill be inserted

Chiao, Jung-Chih

338

4/2/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone -Yahoo News Philippines https://ph.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1  

E-print Network

4/2/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone - Yahoo News Philippines https://ph.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1 Micro windmills may soon recharge your mobile phone GMA News Online ­ Mon, Jan 13, 2014 Taking a cue from the Dutch

Chiao, Jung-Chih

339

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-11020142 1/2  

E-print Network

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones A University of Texas at Arlington research associate and electrical engineering be used to charge cell phone batteries by embedding hundreds of them in a cell phone sleeve

Chiao, Jung-Chih

340

2/17/2014 TechnologyUses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://powerelectronics.com/print/blog/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones?group_id=17022 1/2  

E-print Network

2/17/2014 TechnologyUses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://powerelectronics.com/print/blog/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones?group_id=17022 1/2 print | close Technology Uses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Fri, 2014-01-24 14:30 A UT Arlington (Texas) research

Chiao, Jung-Chih

341

4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones -PC Advisor http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/digital-home/3497368/micro-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/12  

E-print Network

4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones - PC Advisor http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/digital-home/3497368/micro-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/12 Sign In Sign in with your email address Sign up;4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones - PC Advisor http

Chiao, Jung-Chih

342

2/1/2014 New Micro-Windmill TechnologyTo Recharge Cell Phone Batteries http://www.technocrazed.com/new-micro-windmill-technology-to-recharge-cell-phone-batteries 1/4  

E-print Network

2/1/2014 New Micro-Windmill TechnologyTo Recharge Cell Phone Batteries http://www.technocrazed.com/new-micro-windmill-technology-to-recharge-cell-phone-batteries manual winding or new batteries. It is the researchers' dream to recharge the cell phone batteries automatically. So that these batteries provide the unlimited autonomy to the users. Luckily, an electrical

Chiao, Jung-Chih

343

Selection Site for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater in Hard Rocks Using ANN with Special Reference to India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years there has been overall development in the field of agriculture and industry in the Asian countries, particularly in India. The growth in urbanization has also been increasing. All these have lead to ever increasing demand for water. It has resulted into indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater resources, which is major source of fresh water in hard rock terrain. The hard rocks pose special problems for artificial recharge due to the limited extent of aquifer horizons, heterogeneity and low hydraulic conductivity. The fracture system may have good storativity. One such area is Kurmapalli watershed covering an area of about 108 sq km in Nalgonda district (Andhra Pradesh), India. It is drought prone area. This basin is characterized by poor land soil, scarce vegetation, erratic rainfall, heavy runoff and lack of soil moisture for most part of the year. Recurring drought coupled with increase in groundwater exploitation results in decline in the groundwater levels. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is a paradigm shift towards research methodology in the field of hydrology. An approach based on Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) algorithm is developed to estimate the best location for artificial recharge. The proposed technique is applied to climatic and hydrological data of wells gathered from the different locations of the study area. Feed Forward BPNN is used to train the predefined inputs and outputs. After successful completion of training with appropriate data, different ANN models are developed to estimate the proper site for artificial recharge. High degree of predictive accuracy of the Feed-Forward Network based predictive model proves ANN techniques is a potential tool for hydrological studies.

Banerjee, Pallavi

2010-05-01

344

Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional ground-water recharge estimates for Minnesota were compared to estimates made on the basis of four local- and basin-scale methods. Three local-scale methods (unsaturated-zone water balance, water-table fluctuations (WTF) using three approaches, and age dating of ground water) yielded point estimates of recharge that represent spatial scales from about 1 to about 1000 m2. A fourth method (RORA, a basin-scale analysis of streamflow records using a recession-curve-displacement technique) yielded recharge estimates at a scale of 10-1000s of km2. The RORA basin-scale recharge estimates were regionalized to estimate recharge for the entire State of Minnesota on the basis of a regional regression recharge (RRR) model that also incorporated soil and climate data. Recharge rates estimated by the RRR model compared favorably to the local and basin-scale recharge estimates. RRR estimates at study locations were about 41% less on average than the unsaturated-zone water-balance estimates, ranged from 44% greater to 12% less than estimates that were based on the three WTF approaches, were about 4% less than the age dating of ground-water estimates, and were about 5% greater than the RORA estimates. Of the methods used in this study, the WTF method is the simplest and easiest to apply. Recharge estimates made on the basis of the UZWB method were inconsistent with the results from the other methods. Recharge estimates using the RRR model could be a good source of input for regional ground-water flow models; RRR model results currently are being applied for this purpose in USGS studies elsewhere. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Delin, G. N.; Healy, R. W.; Lorenz, D. L.; Nimmo, J. R.

2007-01-01

345

Data-Conditioned Distributions of Groundwater Recharge Under Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is likely to be impacted by climate change, with changes in precipitation amounts altering moisture availability and changes in temperature affecting evaporative demand. This could have major implications for sustainable aquifer pumping rates and contaminant transport into groundwater reservoirs in the future, thus making predictions of recharge under climate change very important. Unfortunately, in dry environments where groundwater resources are often most critical, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve due to high sensitivity to modeling and input errors. Some recent studies on climate change and groundwater have considered recharge using a suite of general circulation model (GCM) weather predictions, an obvious and key source of uncertainty. This work extends beyond those efforts by also accounting for uncertainty in other land-surface model inputs in a probabilistic manner. Recharge predictions are made using a range of GCM projections for a rain-fed cotton site in the semi-arid Southern High Plains region of Texas. Results showed that model simulations using a range of unconstrained literature-based parameter values produce highly uncertain and often misleading recharge rates. Thus, distributional recharge predictions are found using soil and vegetation parameters conditioned on current unsaturated zone soil moisture and chloride concentration observations; assimilation of observations is carried out with an ensemble importance sampling method. Our findings show that the predicted distribution shapes can differ for the various GCM conditions considered, underscoring the importance of probabilistic analysis over deterministic simulations. The recharge predictions indicate that the temporal distribution (over seasons and rain events) of climate change will be particularly critical for groundwater impacts. Overall, changes in recharge amounts and intensity were often more pronounced than changes in annual precipitation and temperature, thus suggesting high susceptibility of groundwater systems to future climate change. Our approach provides a probabilistic sensitivity analysis of recharge under potential climate changes, which will be critical for future management of water resources.

McLaughlin, D.; Ng, G. C.; Entekhabi, D.; Scanlon, B.

2008-12-01

346

How long does it take for aquifer recharge or aquifer discharge processes to reach steady state?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater flow models are usually characterized as being either transient flow models or steady state flow models. Given that steady state groundwater flow conditions arise as a long time asymptotic limit of a particular transient response, it is natural for us to seek a finite estimate of the amount of time required for a particular transient flow problem to effectively reach steady state. Here, we introduce the concept of mean action time (MAT) to address a fundamental question: how long does it take for a groundwater recharge process or discharge processes to effectively reach steady state? This concept relies on identifying a cumulative distribution function, F(t; x), which varies from F(0; x) = 0 to F(t; x) ? 1- as t ? ?, thereby providing us with a measurement of the progress of the system towards steady state. The MAT corresponds to the mean of the associated probability density function f(t; x) = dF/dt, and we demonstrate that this framework provides useful analytical insight by explicitly showing how the MAT depends on the parameters in the model and the geometry of the problem. Additional theoretical results relating to the variance of f(t; x), known as the variance of action time (VAT), are also presented. To test our theoretical predictions we include measurements from a laboratory-scale experiment describing flow through a homogeneous porous medium. The laboratory data confirms that the theoretical MAT predictions are in good agreement with measurements from the physical model.

Simpson, Matthew J.; Jazaei, Farhad; Clement, T. Prabhakar

2013-09-01

347

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis  

E-print Network

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from investigate the hydraulic response to recharge of a fractured aquifer, using a frequency domain approach scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07

349

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

350

Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-10-01

351

Response to recharge variation of thin lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalized lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an analytical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase, and increase of recharge frequency causes decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the center of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-01-01

352

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

1993-11-01

353

Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533?Wh?kg(-1) within 1?h and 348?Wh?kg(-1) within 1?min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10?A?g(-1). Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres. PMID:25359101

Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

2014-01-01

354

Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

2013-01-01

355

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

356

Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533?Wh?kg?1 within 1?h and 348?Wh?kg?1 within 1?min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10?A?g?1. Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres.

Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

2014-10-01

357

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

1993-01-01

358

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte batteries  

SciTech Connect

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte cells by addition of redox shuttle additives to the polymer electrolyte was examined. Shuttle onset potentials and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for 12 redox shuttle species in polyethylene oxide-based electrolytes at 85 C. The four most promising additives were tested in Li/PEO-LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/Li{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 9} cells under normal and severe overcharging conditions. In addition to tricyanobenzene and tetracyanoquinodimethane, two anionic redox shuttle additives, salts of 1,2,4-triazole and imidazole, demonstrated effectiveness in extending cycle life and good compatibility with cell components.

Richardson, T.J.; Ross, P.N. Jr. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1996-12-01

359

Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

DOEpatents

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2007-04-17

360

Palaeo-Recharge Impact on Aquifer Hydrodynamics: Paris Basin Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we investigate the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years. For the purpose of this work, a three-dimensional transient modeling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Paris School of Mine). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (Paris School of Mine), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows estimating of river-valley incision and alpine uptlif. Climate forcing results from palaeoclimate modeling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Pierre Simon Laplace Institute) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyr BP) and the Middle Pliocene (~3 Myr). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (Paris School of Mine) and provides recharge value to aquifer at each time step. We present the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid potentials. The dependence of the boundary-induced transient effects on the hydraulic diffusivity is illustrated by means of a sensitivity study. Time dependant change of recharge induces rapid inversion of leakage orientation through the multilayered aquifers that may induce modification of groundwater quality.

Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guillocheau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.

2007-12-01

361

UNIQUENESS FOR AN ELLIPTIC INVERSE PROBLEM IAN KNOWLES  

E-print Network

(x) w(x, t)] + R(x, t).(1.5) Here w represents the piezometric head, p the hydraulic conductivity (or,q,f, is considered. Key words. uniqueness, elliptic inverse problem, parameter estimation, aquifer AMS subject sometimes, for a two-dimensional aquifer, the transmissivity), R 0 the recharge, and the func- tion S 0

Knowles, Ian W.

362

UNIQUENESS FOR AN ELLIPTIC INVERSE PROBLEM* IAN KNOWLESy  

E-print Network

the piezometric head, p the hydraulic conductivity (or someti* *mes, for a two dimensional aquifer inverse problem, parameter estimation, aquif* *er AMS subject classifications. 35R30, 35J25, 86A22, the transmissivity), R 0 the recharge, and the fun* *ction S 0 the storativity of the aquifer (see, for example

Knowles, Ian W.

363

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of lysimeters at the site show a highly seasonal pattern of percolate and exhibit variability due to both installation factors and hydraulic property heterogeneity. Individual event analysis of well hydrograph data reveals the primary influences on water-table response, namely rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, and initial water-table depth. Spatial and seasonal variability in well response is also evident. A new approach for calculating recharge from continuous water-table elevation records using a master recession curve (MRC) is demonstrated. The recharge estimated by the MRC approach when assuming a constant specific yield is seasonal to a lesser degree than the recharge estimate resulting from the lysimeter analysis. Partial reconciliation of the two recharge estimates is achieved by considering a conceptual model of flow processes in the highly-heterogeneous underlying fractured porous medium. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Heppner, C. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Folmar, G. J.; Gburek, W. J.; Risser, D. W.

2007-01-01

364

Estimation of natural groundwater recharge in the Karoo aquifers of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-year project, to study the natural groundwater recharge of aquifers in the semi-arid Karoo formations of South Africa, was undertaken. Two typical Karoo aquifers, at Dewetsdorp and De Aar, were selected for study purposes. Data were collected from both the saturated and unsaturated zone. Neutron probe measurements showed that there was no increase in the water content beneath a depth of ˜ 1m below the surface. Even with the exceptionally high rainfall in February 1988, neutron measurements indicated that very little soil matrix flow occurred, which implied that most of the recharge occurred along preferred pathways. A triangular finite element network was used to determine the relative saturated volume fluctuations (SVF) of the aquifers from the observed water-level changes over a period of time, which allowed determination of the storativity S and the recharge. The main advantage of the method lies in determining recharge and storativity which are both unknowns in the water balance equation and which both contribute to the water-level response. The SVF method showed that the recharge in the Karoo formations of South Africa varies between 2 and ˜5% of the annual rainfall. In areas which are overlain by a thick soil cover, the recharge is less than 3%, while recharge in hilly areas with a thin soil cover may be of the order of 5%.

Van Tonder, G. J.; Kirchner, J.

1990-12-01

365

Estimation of natural recharge and its dependency on sub-surface geoelectric parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural groundwater recharge is estimated using the injected tracer technique in the Bairasagara watershed of Kolar district, Karnataka (India) comprising of medium grained granite and granitic gneiss with weathering/fracturing up to 46 m depth. On a macroscopic scale, it is estimated that the weathered granites act as a uniform body having a recharge capacity of about 6-200 mm per annum for an average value of rainfall of 968 mm. Marked differences of infiltration rates (nil to 130 cm/year) were observed under cultivated and dry areas. The water level fluctuation and recharge are found to be minimum in the ayacut area as compared to the catchment area. Studies helped in demarcating recharge and discharge areas. Qualitative correlation studies of estimated natural groundwater recharge have been carried out with depth to basement, resistivity of subsurface layers, and water level fluctuations. An attempt has been made to get empirical relationships between recharge vs. depth to basement, and recharge vs. water level fluctuations. The paper discusses the studies carried out, the result obtained, and the importance of such studies in the evaluation of groundwater resources.

Chand, R.; Chandra, S.; Rao, V. A.; Singh, V. S.; Jain, S. C.

2004-11-01

366

Mechanisms of subglacial groundwater recharge as derived from noble gas, 14C, and stable isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas, stable isotope and 14C data from samples collected along groundwater flow path within a confined Paleozoic aquifer in northeastern Wisconsin, USA are used to deduce the effect of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) on the underlying groundwater and its recharge dynamics. During the last glacial maximum the investigated area was near the center of the Green Bay Lobe of the LIS. 14C ages that extend to 26 k.a. and low ?18O derived temperatures during the time that the LIS was present indicate that aquifer recharge continued when ice covered the area. ?18O values as low as -17.5‰ and ?2H values as low as -127.7‰ indicate that a significant portion of aquifer recharge was derived from glacial meltwater that maintained its glacial isotopic signature during melting and subsequent recharge. Noble gas temperatures that remain above freezing at a constant ~3 °C, unusually high excess air (?Ne) values and noble gas fractionation patterns indicate that recharge occurred across a very dynamic water table located within the ice sheet. This englacial hydrologic system experienced recharge heads of as much as 7.8 m. Evidence for direct recharge of basal meltwater into the aquifer is not seen. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time that noble gas and isotope tracers have been used to deduce the provenance of aquifer water beneath continental ice sheets.

Grundl, Tim; Magnusson, Nathan; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

2013-05-01

367

Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Results from the multiple methods all provided reasonable estimates of groundwater recharge that differed considerably. The estimates of mean annual recharge for the period 1994-2001 ranged from 22.9 to 35.7 cm - about 45% of the mean of all estimates. For individual years, recharge estimates from the multiple methods ranged from 30 to 42% of the mean value during the dry years and 64 to 76% of the mean value during wet years. Comparison of multiple methods was found to be useful for determining the range of plausible recharge rates and highlighting the uncertainty of the estimates. ?? US Government 2008.

Risser, D.W.; Gburek, W.J.; Folmar, G.J.

2009-01-01

368

Interactions of diffuse and focused allogenic recharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer (Florida, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karstic upper Floridan aquifer in north-central Florida (USA) is recharged by both diffuse and allogenic recharge. To understand how recharged water moves within the aquifer, water levels and specific conductivities were monitored and slug tests were conducted in wells installed in the aquifer surrounding the Santa Fe River Sink and Rise. Results indicate that diffuse recharge does not mix rapidly within the aquifer but instead flows horizontally. Stratification may be aided by the high matrix porosity of the eogenetic karst aquifer. Purging wells for sample collection perturbed conductivity for several days, reflecting mixing of the stratified water and rendering collection of representative samples difficult. Interpretive numerical simulations suggest that diffuse recharge impacts the intrusion of allogenic water from the conduit by increasing hydraulic head in the surrounding aquifer and thereby reducing influx to the aquifer from the conduit. In turn, the increase of head within the conduits affects flow paths of diffuse recharge by moving newly recharged water vertically as the water table rises and falls. This movement may result in a broad vertical zone of dissolution at the water table above the conduit system, with thinner and more focused water-table dissolution at greater distance from the conduit.

Langston, Abigail L.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Bailly-Comte, Vincent

2012-06-01

369

Artificial Groundwater Recharge Zones Mapping Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study in Indian Punjab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S. N.; Kumar, K. S.; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

2013-07-01

370

Estimation of shallow ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first known integrated study of long-term average ground-water recharge to shallow aquifers (generally less than 100 feet deep) in the United States and Canada for the Great Lakes, upper St. Lawrence, and Ottawa River Basins. The approach used was consistent throughout the study area and allows direct comparison of recharge rates in disparate parts of the study area. Estimates of recharge are based on base-flow estimates for streams throughout the Great Lakes Basin and the assumption that base flow in a given stream is equal to the amount of shallow ground-water recharge to the surrounding watershed, minus losses to evapotranspiration. Base-flow estimates were developed throughout the study area using a single model based on an empirical relation between measured base-flow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations and the surficial-geologic materials, which consist of bedrock, coarse-textured deposits, fine-textured deposits, till, and organic matter, in the surrounding surface-water watershed. Model calibration was performed using base-flow index (BFI) estimates for 959 stations in the U.S. and Canada using a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow record determined using the hydrograph-separation software program PART. Results are presented for watersheds represented by 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC, U.S.) and tertiary (Canada) watersheds. Recharge values were lowest (1.6-4.0 inches/year) in the eastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan; southwest of Green Bay, Wisconsin; in northwestern Ohio; and immediately south of the St. Lawrence River northeast of Lake Ontario. Recharge values were highest (12-16.8 inches/year) in snow shadow areas east and southeast of each Great Lake. Further studies of deep aquifer recharge and the temporal variability of recharge would be needed to gain a more complete understanding of ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes Basin.

Neff, B.P.; Piggott, A.R.; Sheets, R.A.

2006-01-01

371

Chemical and isotopic indicators of point-source recharge to a karst aquifer, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several hundred sinkholes, swamps and open drainage boreholes throughout the semi-arid to sub-humid areas of the southeast of South Australia are potential recharge sites to the upper part of the Gambier Limestone aquifer. This paper presents the results from a hydrochemical (Cl - and carbonate chemistry) and isotopic ( ?2H, S 18O and 36Cl study used to estimate the importance of localised recharge from these point-source features to the karstic groundwater system. Results show that water recharging the groundwater via point-source features is detectable only on a local scale. Chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters more than 150 m from the larger of the point-source features are indistinguishable from regional groundwater compositions. Chloride concentrations, carbonate chemistry, and isotope data show that annual input of water via point sources contributes less than 10% of total recharge, with diffuse recharge providing the remainder to the study area as a whole. Point-source recharge is generally intermittent, and was observed to occur only for a few days at a time and only after a threshold of sustained rainfall had been exceeded (i.e. greater than 2.5 mm day -1 for more than 3 days). The stable isotopic composition of waters recharging via sinkholes tends to be enriched in 2H and 18O relative to regional groundwater and local precipitation. This is probably caused by a small degree of evaporation (less than 596 of water falling within the catchment) occurring during winter at high relative humidity (greater than 9596) before recharge. 36Cl from weapons testing is detectable in groundwaters near sinkholes and indicates significant retardation of Cl - within soils of the respective sub-drainage systems. Recharge has therefore occurred within the past 30 years, but cannot be quantified with any reliable precision from the 36Cl data.

Herczeg, A. L.; Leaney, F. W. J.; Stadler, M. F.; Allan, G. L.; Fifield, L. K.

1997-05-01

372

Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

None

2010-10-01

373

Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-24

374

Difficulties in determining factors that influence effective groundwater recharge in Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a COSI Academy research project, data from a recent statewide analysis of effective groundwater recharge were reexamined by students to further discern relations between recharge and selected environmental characteristics of individual drainage basins: 1) location of the main stem of a river relative to coarse and fine surficial sediments and 2) influence of land use. Lack of sufficiently detailed data was the principal difficulty in most phases of the examination. Other than a potential relation between recharge and the percentages of agricultural and forested land, no relations were found in visual comparisons of mapped and tabulated data.

Ashooh, J.; Liu, J.; Mueller, E.; Sherer, S.; Woggon, N.; Dumouchelle, D.H.; Eberle, M.

2003-01-01

375

Triethanolamine as an additive to the anode to improve the rechargeability of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide batteries use a zinc paste anode which undergoes shape change during charging, effecting its activity. A study on triethanolamine (TEA) as an additive to the zinc anode to control its shape change and retain activity is made. Voltammetric studies showed the potential of TEA in controlling shape change. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide batteries are made in the laboratory and their cycle life characteristics are compared with and without TEA in the anode. An improvement is noticed in the cycle life capacity of the rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide batteries with TEA especially after 12th cycle.

Sharma, Yatendra; Aziz, Madzlan; Yusof, Jamil; Kordesch, Karl

376

Effects of urban storm-runoff control on ground-water recharge in Nassau County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before urban development, most ground-water recharge on Long Island, New York, occurred during the dormant season, when evapotranspiration is low. The use of recharge basins for collection and disposal of urban storm runoff in Nassau County has enabled ground-water recharge to occur also during the growing season. In contrast, the use of storm sewers to route storm runoff to streams and coastal waters has resulted in a decrease in ground-water recharge during the dormant season. The net result of these two forms of urban storm-runoff control has been an increase in annual recharge of about 12 percent in areas served by recharge basins and a decrease of about 10 percent in areas where storm runoff is routed to streams and tidewater. On a countywide basis, annual ground-water recharge has remained nearly the same as under predevelopment conditions, but its distribution pattern has changed. Redistribution resulted in increased recharge in the eastern and central parts of the county, and decreased recharge in the western and nearshore areas. Model simulation of recharge indicates that the water-table altitude has increased by as much as 5 ft above predevelopment levels in areas served by recharge basins and declined by as much as 3 feet in areas where stormwater is discharged to streams and tidewater.

Ku, Henry; Hagelin, Nathan; Buxton, Herbert

1992-01-01

377

Field experiments and numerical simulations of confined aquifer response to multi-cycle recharge-recovery process through a well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryShanghai is one of the cities suffering from land subsidence in China. Land subsidence has caused serious financial losses. Thus, artificial recharge measures have been adopted to compensate the drawdown in shallow, confined aquifers and thereby control land subsidence. In this study, a multi-cycle recharge-recovery field experiment was performed to investigate the response of a shallow, confined aquifer to artificial recharge through a well. In the experiment, a series of recharge-recovery cycles with different recharge volumes and durations, with and without artificial pressure, were performed. The water levels monitored in the recharge and observation wells indicated the response of the aquifer to the multi-cycle recharge-recovery process. Meanwhile, a finite-difference method (FDM) numerical model was established, and its parameters were obtained via a reversed numerical analysis on the experimental data. The responses of the shallow, confined aquifer to the multi-cycle recharge-recovery process were simulated in detail using the model. The calculation results showed that the water level dropped significantly when the recharge ended. Moreover, the efficiency of a multi-cycle recharge was found to be higher than that of a concentrated one under the same recharge volume and time. The relationship between recharge frequency and efficiency, expressed as H = 0.29498 f0.40163 and R2 = 0.97264, respectively, was obtained through the FDM numerical simulation. In the recharge intervals, the optimal recharge efficiency was achieved when the water level rose to 40% of the peak.

Wang, Jianxiu; Wu, Yuanbin; Zhang, Xingsheng; Liu, Yan; Yang, Tianliang; Feng, Bo

2012-09-01

378

Indigo carmine: An organic crystal as a positive-electrode material for rechargeable sodium batteries  

PubMed Central

Using sodium, instead of lithium, in rechargeable batteries is a way to circumvent the lithium's resource problem. The challenge is to find an electrode material that can reversibly undergo redox reactions in a sodium-electrolyte at the desired electrochemical potential. We proved that indigo carmine (IC, 5,5?-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt) can work as a positive-electrode material in not only a lithium-, but also a sodium-electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the IC-electrode was ~100?mAh g?1 with a good cycle stability in either the Na or Li electrolyte, in which the average voltage was 1.8?V vs. Na+/Na and 2.2?V vs. Li+/Li, respectively. Two Na ions per IC are stored in the electrode during the discharge, testifying to the two-electron redox reaction. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a layer structure for the IC powder and the DFT calculation suggested the formation of a band-like structure in the crystal. PMID:24413423

Yao, Masaru; Kuratani, Kentaro; Kojima, Toshikatsu; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Senoh, Hiroshi; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

2014-01-01

379

Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

SciTech Connect

In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

2004-10-21

380

Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

2009-01-01

381

The calibration of frequency-domain electromagnetic induction meters and their possible use in recharge studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published models of soil conductivity are used to develop a calibration for frequency-domain electromagnetic induction meters. The calibration is portable, requiring only a knowledge of certain soil properties. One critical soil property is the impedance factor, a function of the soil water content. We select an impedance factor from the literature which, when incorporated in the calibration, provides the best fit to measured apparent electrical conductivity. The calibration derived is used to test the ability of frequency-domain electromagnetic induction meters to estimate groundwater recharge rates in a semi-arid area of South Australia. Two analytical models relating total (or cumulative) recharge to soil solute profiles are used to derive theoretical relationships between electrical conductivity and total recharge. These modelled relationships provide a good fit to field data, suggesting that electromagnetic techniques have value in recharge studies.

Cook, P. G.; Hughes, M. W.; Walker, G. R.; Allison, G. B.

1989-05-01

382

Hydrologic and hydraulic assessment of artificial recharge in the Sparta Aquifer of Union County, Arkansas  

E-print Network

Groundwater pumping from the Sparta aquifer in Union County, Arkansas, has long exceeded natural recharge, threatening the regional water supply. An alternative water-supply project, completed in 2004, now provides treated ...

Sowby, Robert B

2013-01-01

383

U.S. Geological Survey Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings, April 2-4, 2002,  

E-print Network

Overview of Hydrologic Studies of Artificial Recharge in the U. S. Geological Survey by E.P. Weeks 5 by Jennifer Roberts Rogers 54 Fate And Transport of Bacterial, Viral, and Protozoan Pathogens During ASR

384

Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

385

Experimental study of artificial recharge alternatives in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive water withdrawal from the Floridan aquifer in the urban Tampa Bay area has induced leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer adversely effecting the water table and lake levels. Artificial recharge could reduce the impact of these effects. Four experiments were conducted to investigate possible recharge alternatives; sinkhole recharge, water-spreading, connector wells, and subsurface-tile drainage to a deep well. Experiments indicate that all four methods can be effective. However, the sink-hole recharge experiment moved the greatest volume of water into the Floridan aquifer. The drain-tile experiment indicated greatest potential for draining the surficial aquifer. Combinations of the four methods could be used where potential exists for downward movement of water and sufficient unsaturated aquifer for water storage. (Woodard-USGS)

Sinclair, William C.

1977-01-01

386

Testing an automated method to estimate ground-water recharge from streamflow records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer program, RORA, allows automated analysis of streamflow hydrographs to estimate ground-water recharge. Output from the program, which is based on the recession-curve-displacement method (often referred to as the Rorabaugh method, for whom the program is named), was compared to estimates of recharge obtained from a manual analysis of 156 years of streamflow record from 15 streamflow-gaging stations in the eastern United States. Statistical tests showed that there was no significant difference between paired estimates of annual recharge by the two methods. Tests of results produced by the four workers who performed the manual method showed that results can differ significantly between workers. Twenty-two percent of the variation between manual and automated estimates could be attributed to having different workers perform the manual method. The program RORA will produce estimates of recharge equivalent to estimates produced manually, greatly increase the speed od analysis, and reduce the subjectivity inherent in manual analysis.

Rutledge, A. T.; Daniel, C. C.

1994-01-01

387

Simulation of the recharging method of implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source.  

PubMed

Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed and simulated. Firstly, we develop a model of the incoherent light source and a multi-layer model of skin tissue. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated and tested experimentally, whereby some important conclusions have been reached. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method for implantable biosensors, which should promote the application of implantable electronics. PMID:25372616

Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Kong, Xianyue; Hu, Lanxin; Cao, Jie; Gao, Tianxin

2014-01-01

388

Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assisted CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., (CHG) by providing estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The IDF will be located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site and will receive several types of waste including immobilized low-activity waste. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the IDF PA Project and from modeling studies conducted for the project. Recharge estimates were provided for three specific site features (the surface barrier; possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). CHG plans to conduct a performance assessment of the latest IDF design and call it the IDF 2005 PA; this recharge data package supports the upcoming IDF 2005 PA.

Fayer, Michael J.; Szecsody, Jim E.

2004-06-30

389

The aqueous and non-aqueous electrochemistry of polyacetylene: Application in high power density rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyacetylene can be doped either chemically or electrochemically in aqueous solution to the metallic regime. The characteristics of selected rechargeable batteries employing (CH) x electrodes in non-aqueous electrolytes are described.

MacDiarmid, A. G.; Kaner, R. B.; Mammone, R. J.; Heeger, A. J.

1983-01-01

390

Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction  

E-print Network

Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade ...

Pinson, Matthew Bede

391

Institutional innovation in water management : the case of Mexico City's recharge wells  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the difference in adoption patterns of water recharge well technology in Mexico City both by local entities and the central city government. The research finds that this technology, originally designed ...

Correa Ibargüengoitia, José Antonio

2010-01-01

392

Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

A 23-site monitoring well network located in the Trinity Aquifer region of Central Texas, with all wells penetrating the Middle Trinity Aquifer, was used with available values of aquifer storativity and specific yield to estimate recharge...

Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

393

78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the nickel-cadmium and lead-acid rechargeable batteries currently approved for installation...airworthiness standard for lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries...Unlike nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, some types of...

2013-12-19

394

Commercialization of a direct methanol fuel cell system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a major breakthrough in energy technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that can be used in a wide variety of portable, remote and transportation applications without polluting the environment. The status, performance, and design considerations of the JPL non-polluting, Direct Methanol, Fuel Cell system for consumer equipment and transportation applications are reported herein. This new fuel cell technology utilizes the direct oxidation of a 3% aqueous liquid methanol solution as the fuel and air (O2) as the oxidant. The only products are CO2 and water. Therefore, because recharging can be accomplished by refueling with methanol, vehicles can enjoy unlimited range and extended use compared to battery operated devices requiring recharge time and power accessibility.

Halpert, G.; Narayanan, S. R.; Frank, H.; Kindler, A.; Valdez, T.; Chun, W.; Surampudi, S.

1997-01-01

395

Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in alluvial basins in arid central Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIt is necessary to define the role of various sources of recharge in the surficial alluvial aquifer system in arid Alice Springs in central Australia, for future management of water resources in the region. Multiple sources of natural recharge include infiltration from ephemeral stream flow in the Todd River; groundwater throughflow between connected alluvial basins; regional groundwater flow from the underlying Tertiary aquifer; and diffuse recharge. In addition treatment, storage and irrigation reuse of Alice Springs' waste water has resulted in additional recharge of effluent, via infiltration. Water resource management plans for the region include effluent reuse through Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) within one of the connected alluvial basins, with the purpose of managing the excess waste water overflows while also supplementing groundwater resources for irrigation and protecting their quality. Hydrogeochemical tracers, chloride and the stable isotopes of water, were used in a three-member mixing model to define and quantify the major recharge sources. The mixing model was not sensitive enough to quantify minor contributions from effluent in groundwater that were identified only by an evaporated isotopic signature. The contribution of the multiple recharge sources varied spatially with proximity to the recharge source; with Todd River, effluent and Town Basin throughflow contributing to the Inner Farm Basin groundwater. The Outer Farm Basin was largely influenced by the Todd River, the Inner Farm Basin throughflow and the older Tertiary aquifer. While Inner Farm groundwater throughflow contains an effluent component, only Outer Farm Basin groundwater near the interface between the two basins clearly illustrated an effluent signature. Aside from this, effluent recharge was not evident in the Outer Farm Basin, indicating that past unmanaged recharge practices will not mask signs of Managed Aquifer Recharge through the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) operation. The long-term impact of effluent recharge is a shift from sodium and calcium as co-dominant cations in the groundwater, as evident in the Outer Farm Basin, to dominance by sodium alone, as typical for the Inner Farm Basin.

Vanderzalm, J. L.; Jeuken, B. M.; Wischusen, J. D. H.; Pavelic, P.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Knapton, A.; Dillon, P. J.

2011-01-01

396

Tracking River Recharge in the Central Valley of California Using Chemical and Isotopic Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge to alluvial aquifers along the major rivers of the Central Valley of California is influenced by human activity in adjacent urban areas and groundwater basins. Intense pumping of Central Valley aquifers may induce recharge, while slurry walls, emplaced for flood control in densely populated areas, are intended to protect levees by preventing shallow recharge. These large rivers carry distinct chemical and isotopic signatures that allow recent recharge to be traced in adjacent wells. In particular, stable isotopes of oxygen delineate areas where river water, carrying a depleted isotopic signature from Sierra Nevada precipitation (-11 to -15 per mil), is recharging groundwater aquifers where local precipitation is significantly heavier (-7 per mil). Trace anthropogenic compounds present in river water, such as MtBE (from precipitation and recreational boating on watershed reservoirs), are also useful for identifying areas where river water has recently infiltrated. Analysis of groundwater age, using the tritium-helium method allows estimation of the time since recharge, and evaluation of the effect of human activity on the natural groundwater recharge and flow patterns. Results from a detailed study along the American River in Sacramento, where a slurry wall is in place, show areas of recent recharge, as evidenced by relatively high MtBE concentrations (matching river concentrations) and young groundwater ages in shallow wells. In other wells, older ages and very low MtBE concentrations delineate areas where active recharge is not taking place. These results are interpreted in the context of basin-wide analyses for the Sacramento urban area, where most groundwater sampled from municipal wells is devoid of tritium, and therefore recharged more than about 50 years ago. These data are collected for the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program, sponsored by the CA State Water Resources Control Board. Oxygen isotopes indicate that American River water has recharged a large portion of this basin, with wells showing decreasing fractions of isotopically depleted water moving away from the river to the north. A similar pattern is observed in other areas of intense pumping in groundwater basins along the major rivers in the Central Valley. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

Moran, J. E.; Hudson, B.; Evans, D.; Horner, T.; Leif, R.; Eaton, G. F.

2003-12-01

397

Fueling systems  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with concepts of the Tiber II tokamak reactor fueling systems. Contained in this report are the fuel injection requirement data, startup fueling requirements, intermediate range fueling requirements, power range fueling requirements and research and development considerations. (LSR)

Gorker, G.E.

1987-01-01

398

A computer program for predicting recharge with a master recession curve  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) principle, which states that recharge is equal to the product of the water-table rise and the specific yield of the subsurface porous medium. The water-table rise, however, must be expressed relative to the water level that would have occurred in the absence of recharge. This requires a means for estimating the recession pattern of the water-table at the site. For a given site there is often a characteristic relation between the water-table elevation and the water-table decline rate following a recharge event. A computer program was written which extracts the relation between decline rate and water-table elevation from well hydrograph data and uses it to construct a master recession curve (MRC). The MRC is a characteristic water-table recession hydrograph, representing the average behavior for a declining water-table at that site. The program then calculates recharge using the WTF method by comparing the measured well hydrograph with the hydrograph predicted by the MRC and multiplying the difference at each time step by the specific yield. This approach can be used to estimate recharge in a continuous fashion from long-term well records. Presented here is a description of the code including the WTF theory and instructions for running it to estimate recharge with continuous well hydrograph data.

Heppner, Christopher S.; Nimmo, John R.

2005-01-01

399

Mesoporous ?-MnO 2\\/Pd catalyst air electrode for rechargeable lithium–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium–air battery is studied using Pd\\/mesoporous ?-MnO2 air composite electrode. In the present work, we have studied the preparation and electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous ?-MnO2 as a cathode catalyst for rechargeable Li–air batteries. ?-MnO2 was prepared by reduction of KMnO4 solution in acidic aqueous solution followed by successive proton and alkali-ion exchange method. ?-MnO2 with high surface area

Arjun Kumar Thapa; Tatsumi Ishihara

2011-01-01

400

Evidence for dilution of deep, confined ground water by vertical recharge of isotopically heavy Pleistocene water  

Microsoft Academic Search

New analyses of the isotopic composition of water, 14-dating of dissolved inorganic carbon, and order-of-magnitude Darcy calculations suggest that a dilute body of water, trending north-south in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Iowa, was emplaced as vertical recharge of Pleistocene-age water from the base of the Des Moines lobe of late Wisconsin time. The recharge occurred through more than 300 m

D. I. Siegel

1991-01-01

401

Artificial groundwater recharge in ephemeral river systems - a modelling system for assessment and prognosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving groundwater recharge is of high importance for a sustainable water resources management in many dryland regions. Ephemeral rivers, which are quite common for those regions, contribute to groundwater recharge due to infiltration through permeable river beds. In numerous countries, this infiltration is artificially increased by means of dams in order to promote groundwater recharge of local aquifers. Such dams retain flood flow and support a decelerated release of water, which leads to higher infiltration opportunity times in the downstream river sections. Therefore, flow dynamics are significantly influenced by dam operation, i.e., process dynamics can get weak and standing/receding wave effects may occur. For the adequate portrayal of such flow processes, we develop a modeling system for flow routing in ephemeral rivers with groundwater recharge dams. The system is based on a process-oriented description of flow, infiltration, and evaporation under dam operation and allows for a robust application under limited data situations. It consists of three sub-models: a kinematic wave model for flood routing in the upstream reaches, a model for simulating the nonlinear flood retention in a groundwater recharge dam inclusive evaporation, and a combined zero-inertia/kinematic wave model for dam release flow. The routing models are each coupled with an infiltration model for the quantification of potential groundwater recharge rates. The proposed system is applied for Wadi Ma'awil, Northern Sultanate of Oman, where flow is controlled by a large groundwater recharge dam. The application results show that the modeling system can serve as a valuable and robust tool for the quantification of realistic groundwater recharge rates, which is of high importance for a sound water resources assessment and prognosis in the study area.

Grundmann, Jens; Philipp, Andy

2013-04-01

402

Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M. and Perry, C.A., 1984. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: assessment of recent advances in instrumentation. J. Hydrol., 70: 369--382. To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south- central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data micro- loggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored

MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; CHARLES A. PERRY

1984-01-01

403

Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

404

Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 197 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

405

Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 170 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

406

Effect of sediment concentration on artificial well recharge in a fine sand aquifer  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION ON ARTIFICIAL WELL RECHARGE IN A FINE SAND AQUIFER A Thesis By MD. ATAUR RAHMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering EFFECT OF SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION ON ARTIFICIAL WELL RECHARGE IN A FINE SAND AqUIFER A Thesis By MD. ATAUR RAHMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of ommitt ) ( a o...

Rahman, Mohammed Ataur

2012-06-07

407

Sensitivity of groundwater recharge using climatic analogues and HYDRUS-1D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of groundwater recharge to different climate conditions was simulated using the approach of climatic analogue stations, i.e. stations presently experiencing climatic conditions corresponding to a possible future climate state. The study was conducted in the context of a safety assessment of a future near-surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste in Belgium; this includes estimation of groundwater recharge for the next millennia. Groundwater recharge was simulated using the Richards based soil water balance model HYDRUS-1D and meteorological time series from analogue stations. This study used four analogue stations for a warmer subtropical climate with changes of average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration from -42% to +5% and from +8% to +82%, respectively, compared to the present-day climate. Resulting water balance calculations yielded a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 72% to an increase of 3% for the four different analogue stations. The Gijon analogue station (Northern Spain), considered as the most representative for the near future climate state in the study area, shows an increase of 3% of groundwater recharge for a 5% increase of annual precipitation. Calculations for a colder (tundra) climate showed a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 97% to an increase of 32% for four different analogue stations, with an annual precipitation change from -69% to -14% compared to the present-day climate.

Leterme, B.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.

2012-08-01

408

Modelling climate-change impacts on groundwater recharge in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is presented for assessing the average changes in groundwater recharge under a future climate. The method is applied to the 1,060,000 km2 Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia. Climate sequences were developed based upon three scenarios for a 2030 climate relative to a 1990 climate from the outputs of 15 global climate models. Dryland diffuse groundwater recharge was modelled in WAVES using these 45 climate scenarios and fitted to a Pearson Type III probability distribution to condense the 45 scenarios down to three: a wet future, a median future and a dry future. The use of a probability distribution allowed the significance of any change in recharge to be assessed. This study found that for the median future, climate recharge is projected to increase on average by 5% across the MDB but this is not spatially uniform. In the wet and dry future scenarios the recharge is projected to increase by 32% and decrease by 12% on average across the MDB, respectively. The differences between the climate sequences generated by the 15 different global climate models makes it difficult to project the direction of the change in recharge for a 2030 climate, let alone the magnitude.

Crosbie, Russell S.; McCallum, James L.; Walker, Glen R.; Chiew, Francis H. S.

2010-11-01

409

Artificial recharge in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, San Bernardino County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a study of the feasibility of recharging, in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, imported water from northern California by way of the State Water Project beginning in 1972. The feasibility of recharging 30,000 acre-feet of water a year in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area will depend on the effectiveness of fault K as a barrier to ground-water movement near the land surface. The results of test drilling and an infiltration test indicate that the subsurface material at the spreading grounds is permeable enough to allow recharged water to percolate to the water table. The data indicate that fault K extends into the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area and may impede the lateral movement of recharged water. Fault K has no known surface expression and therefore probably does not affect the highly permeable younger alluvium. If that is so, fault K will be less effective as a barrier to ground-water movement as the recharge mound rises. Monitoring of the observation wells near the spreading grounds as the planned recharge operation proceeds should provide data about the hydrologic effects of fault K near the land surface.

Warner, J. W.; Moreland, J. A.

1973-01-01

410

A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons per day, which is 50 percent of mean annual rainfall, and is 42 percent greater than the recharge estimate of Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982). For the northern aquifer sectors defined in Mink (1991), which encompass most of the northern half of the island, mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 238.0 million gallons per day, which is 51 percent of mean annual rainfall, and is about 6 percent lower than the recharge estimate of Mink (1991). For the drought simulation performed in this study, recharge for the entire island is 259.3 million gallons per day, which is 34 percent lower than recharge computed for baseline conditions. For all aquifer sectors defined by Mink (1991), total recharge during drought conditions is 32 percent lower than mean baseline recharge. For the future land-cover water-budget simulation, which represents potential land-cover changes owing to the military relocation and population growth, estimated recharge for the entire island is nearly equal to the baseline recharge estimate that was based on 2004 land cover. Using the water-budget model, estimated recharge in the northern half of the island is most sensitive to crop coefficients and net precipitation rates—two of the water-budget parameters used in the estimation of total evapotranspiration. Estimated recharge in the southern half of the island is most sensitive to crop coefficients, net precipitation rate, and runoff-to-rainfall ratios. During March 2010 to May 2011, bulk-deposition samples from five rainfall stations on Guam were collected and analyzed for chloride. Additionally, samples from five groundwater sites were collected and analyzed for chloride. Results were used to estimate groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method. Recharge estimates using this method at three bulk-deposition stations on the northern limestone plateau range from about 25 to 48 percent of rainfall. These recharge estimates are similar to the estimate of Ayers (1981) who also used this method. Recharge estimates at each bulk-deposition station, however, are lower

Johnson, Adam G.

2012-01-01

411

A single flow zinc//polyaniline suspension rechargeable battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the electrochemical activity and the energy density of polyaniline (PANI) microparticles suspensions are enhanced by using the compact PANI powder, which is synthesized galvanostatically with 4,4?-diaminobiphenyl as additive. A Zn//PANI suspension rechargeable flow battery system is proposed, in which the flowable PANI suspension is used as cathode electroactive material, zinc plate as anode. A microporous membrane is used as separator to prevent PANI particles from getting into the anode compartment. Results obtained from the small laboratory battery show that the discharge capacity density gradually decreases with number of cycles and the average of discharge capacity loss during 32 cycles is about 0.07% per cycle. However, an average coulombic efficiency of 97% has been achieved at the current density of 20 mA cm-2 and the value of coulombic efficiency shows no significant change during 32 charge/discharge cycles. The flow-through mode for PANI cathode material enables the PANI-based battery to operate at a higher current density in comparison with the conventional Zn-PANI film batteries, and the present findings can mark a new route to improve the performance of conductive polymer-based energy storage devices.

Zhao, Yongfu; Si, Shihui; Liao, Cui

2013-11-01

412

Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

Hudak, Nicholas S.

2013-12-01

413

Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively. In contrast, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 fibers can be pressed and sintered to form a cathode, without need for a binder or a conductive additive. The inter-grain contacts of the fibers are stronger and have fewer defects than do those of powder particles. These characteristics translate to increased flexibility and greater resilience on cycling and, consequently, to reduced loss of capacity from cycle to cycle. Moreover, in comparison with a powder-based cathode, a fiber-based cathode is expected to exhibit significantly greater ionic and electronic conduction along the axes of the fibers. Results of preliminary charge/discharge-cycling tests suggest that energy densities of LiCoO2- and LiNiO2-fiber cathodes are approximately double those of the corresponding powder-based cathodes.

Rice, Catherine E.; Welker, Mark F.

2008-01-01

414

Long life, low cost, rechargeable AgZn battery  

SciTech Connect

Of the rechargeable (secondary) battery systems with mature technology, the silver oxide/zinc system (AgZn) safely offers the highest power and energy (watts and watt hours) per unit of volume and mass. As a result they have long been used for aerospace and defense applications where they have also proven their high reliability. In the past, the expense associated with the cost of silver and the resulting low production volume have limited their commercial application. However, the relative low cost of silver now make this system feasible in many applications where high energy and reliability are required. One area of commercial potential is power for a new generation of sophisticated, portable medical equipment. AgZn batteries have recently proven ``enabling technology`` for power-critical, advanced medical devices. By extending the cycle and calendar life of the system (offers both improved performance and lower operating cost), a combination is achieved which may enable a wide range of future medical devices. The preliminary clinical study for one of these advanced medical devices has been completed (results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine, 329:762-768, September 9, 1993) and it is projected the device may save an additional 50,000 lives a year in the US alone.

Brown, C.C. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

415

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

Graham, R.W. (ed.)

1980-01-01

416

Probabilistic analysis of maintenance and operation of artificial recharge ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer artificial recharge from surface infiltration ponds is often conducted to replenish depleted aquifers in arid and semi-arid zones. Physical and bio-geochemical clogging decreases the host soil's infiltration capacity, which has to be restored with periodic maintenance activities. We develop a probabilistic modeling framework that quantifies the risk of a pond's infiltration capacity falling below its target value due to soil heterogeneity and clogging. This framework can act as a tool to aid managers in optimally selecting and designing maintenance strategies. Our model enables one to account for a variety of maintenance strategies that target different clogging mechanisms. The framework is applied to an existing pond in Barcelona, Spain as well as to several synthetic infiltration ponds with varying statistical distributions of initial infiltration capacity. We find that physical clogging mechanisms induce the greatest uncertainty and that maintenance targeted at these can yield optimal results. However, considering the fundamental role of the spatial variability in the initial properties, we conclude that an adequate initial characterization of the surface infiltration ponds is crucial to determining the degree of uncertainty of different maintenance solutions and thus to making cost-effective and reliable decisions.

Pedretti, Daniele; Barahona-Palomo, Marco; Bolster, Diogo; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

2012-02-01

417

Virus fate and transport during artificial recharge with recycled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] A field-scale experiment was conducted at a research site using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human viruses, bromide as a conservative tracer, and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) to investigate the fate and transport of viruses during artificial recharge. Observed virus concentrations were fitted using a mathematical model that simulates virus transport in one-dimensional, homogeneous, water-saturated porous media accounting for virus sorption (or filtration), virus inactivation, and time-dependent source concentration. The fitted time-dependent clogging rate constants were used to estimate the collision efficiencies for bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1 during vertical fully saturated flow. Furthermore, the corresponding time-dependent collision efficiencies for both bacteriophage asymptotically reached similar values at the various sampling locations. These results can be used to develop an optimal management scenario to maximize the amount of recycled water that can be applied to the spreading grounds while still maintaining favorable attachment conditions for virus removal. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C.V.

2005-01-01

418

Anticandidal Activity and Biocompatibility of a Rechargeable Antifungal Denture Material  

PubMed Central

Objectives Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a recurrent and debilitating oral mucosal disease. Development of anticandidal denture materials represents a promising strategy to manage this condition. We have previously shown that miconazole incorporated in methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymerized diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) denture materials has long-term anticandidal activity. In this study, we examined the ability of culture medium conditioned with drug-free- or miconazole-MAA-UDMA discs to prevent Candida infection in an in vitro oral epithelial cell/Candida albicans co-culture system. Material and Methods Candida albicans (C. albicans) induced OKF6/TERT-2 cell damage was quantified by the release of lactate dehydrogenase from epithelial cells, cytokine production was quantified using protein cytokine arrays, and the expression of C. albicans genes was measured by RT-qPCR. Results C. albicans had limited growth with altered expression levels of secreted aspartyl proteinase-2 and -5 in culture medium conditioned by miconazole-MAA-UDMA discs. Significantly, the ability of C. albicans to induce oral epithelial cell damage and trigger epithelial proinflammatory cytokine production was also inhibited by miconazole disc conditioned media. Conclusion Miconazole released from MAA-UDMA denture materials effectively prevents the development of candidal infection in an in vitro oral epithelial system. Further characterization of this drug-rechargeable denture material is warranted. PMID:22957799

Villar, Cristina C.; Lin, Alan L.; Cao, Zhengbing; Zhao, Xiang-Ru; Wu, Li-An; Chen, Shuo; Sun, Yuyu; Yeh, Chih-Ko

2013-01-01

419

Recharging the battery of implantable biomedical devices by light.  

PubMed

This article describes a new powering system for implantable medical devices that could significantly increase their lifetime. The idea is based on the substitution of the usual implantable device battery for an electric accumulator (rechargeable battery), which is fed by the electric power generated by a photovoltaic converter inside the implantable device. Light impinges on the photovoltaic device through an optical fiber going from the photovoltaic device to just beneath the patient's epidermis. Light can enter the optical fiber by passing through the skin. A complete power-by-light system has been developed and tested with a real implantable pulse generator for spinal cord stimulation. The feasibility of the proposed system has been evaluated theoretically. For example, after 13 h/week of laser exposure, the lifetime of the implantable device would increase by 50%. Other combinations resulting in lifetime increases of more than 100% are also possible. So, the proposed system is now ready to take a further step forward: in vivo animal testing. PMID:19624580

Algora, Carlos; Peña, Rafael

2009-10-01

420

Indian Ocean dipole interpreted in terms of recharge oscillator theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use sea surface height (SSH) derived from satellite altimetry and an analytical linear equatorial wave model to interpret the evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in the framework of recharge oscillator theory. The specific question we address is whether heat content in the equatorial band, for which SSH is a proxy, is a predictor of IOD development as it is for El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific. We find that, as in the Pacific, there are zonally coherent changes in heat content along the equator prior to the onset of IOD events. These changes in heat content are modulated by wind-forced westward propagating Rossby waves in the latitude band 5°-10°S, which at the western boundary reflect into Kelvin waves trapped to the equator. The biennial character of the IOD is affected by this cycling of wave energy between 5° and 10°S and the equator. Heat content changes are a weaker leading indicator of IOD sea surface temperature anomaly development than is the case for ENSO in the Pacific though because other factors are at work in generating IOD variability, one of which is ENSO forcing itself through changes in the Walker Circulation.

McPhaden, Michael J.; Nagura, Motoki

2014-03-01

421

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

Doughty, D.H.

1995-07-01

422

Lithiated manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithiated manganese oxide Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} prepared at the low temperature of 400--450 C exhibited significantly different electrochemical properties than the spinel phase, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}