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Sample records for fuel shipment risk

  1. Reexamination of spent fuel shipment risk estimates

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,J.R.; SPRUNG,JEREMY L.

    2000-04-25

    The risks associated with the transport of spent nuclear fuel by truck and rail have been reexamined and compared to results published in NUREG-O170 and the Modal Study. The full reexamination considered transport of PWR and BWR spent fuel by truck and rail in four generic Type B spent fuel casks. Because they are typical, this paper presents results only for transport of PWR spent fuel in steel-lead steel casks. Cask and spent fuel response to collision impacts and fires were evaluated by performing three-dimensional finite element and one-dimensional heat transport calculations. Accident release fractions were developed by critical review of literature data. Accident severity fractions were developed from Modal Study truck and rail accident event trees, modified to reflect the frequency of occurrence of hard and soft rock wayside route surfaces as determined by analysis of geographic data. Incident-free population doses and the population dose risks associated with the accidents that might occur during transport were calculated using the RADTRAN 5 transportation risk code. The calculated incident-free doses were compared to those published in NUREG-O170. The calculated accident dose risks were compared to dose risks calculated using NUREG-0170 and Modal Study accident source terms. The comparisons demonstrated that both of these studies made a number of very conservative assumptions about spent fuel and cask response to accident conditions, which caused their estimates of accident source terms, accident frequencies, and accident consequences to also be very conservative. The results of this study and the previous studies demonstrate that the risks associated with the shipment of spent fuel by truck or rail are very small.

  2. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W. ); Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C., Schmid, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This circular provides information on shipment of spent fuel subject to regulation by US NRC. It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirement of general interest, a summary of data for 1979-1995 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.

  4. Regulation of spent nuclear fuel shipment: A state perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R.J.; Sinderbrand, C.; Woodbury, D.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) sought to regulate rail shipments of spent nuclear fuel through the state, because federal regulations did not adequately protect the environmentally sensitive corridor along the route of the shipments. A state interagency working group identified five serious deficiencies in overall federal regulatory scheme: 1) failure to consider the safety or environmental risks associated with selected routes; 2) abscence of route-specific emergency response planning; 3) failure of the NRC to regulate the carrier of spent nuclear fuel or consider its safety record; 4) abscence of requirements for determination of need for, or the propriety of, specific shipments of spent nuclear fuel; and 5) the lack of any opportunity for meaningful public participation with respect to the decision to transport spent nuclear fuel. Pursuant to Wisconsin's hazardous substance statutes, the WDNR issues an order requiring the utility to file a spill prevention and mitigation plan or cease shipping through Wisconsin. A state trial court judge upheld the utility's challenge to Wisconsin's spill plan requirements, based on federal preemption of state authority. The state is now proposing federal legislation which would require: 1) NRC determination of need prior to approval of offsite shipment of spent fuel by the licensees; 2) NRC assessment of the potential environmental impacts of shipments along the proposed route, and comparative evaluation of alternative modes and routes; and 3) NRC approval of a route-specific emergency response and mitigation plan, including local training and periodic exercises. Additionally, the proposed legislation would authorize States and Indian Tribes to establish regulatory programs providing for permits, inspection, contingency plans for monitoring, containments, cleanup and decontamination, surveillance, enforcement and reasonable fees. 15 refs.

  5. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  6. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report presents available historic data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments in the United States from 1964 through 1989. Data include sources of the spent fuel shipped, types of shipping casks used, number of fuel assemblies shipped, and number of shipments made. This report also addresses the shipment of spent research reactor fuel. These shipments have not been documented as well as commercial power reactor spent fuel shipment activity. Available data indicate that the greatest number of research reactor fuel shipments occurred in 1986. The largest campaigns in 1986 were from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brooklyn, New York, to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Tennessee and the Rockwell International Reactor in California to the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. For all years addressed in this report, DOE facilities in Idaho Falls and Savannah River were the major recipients of research reactor spent fuel. In 1989, 10 shipments were received at the Idaho facilities. These originated from universities in California, Michigan, and Missouri. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984.

  9. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Radiological transportation risk assessment of the shipment of sodium-bonded fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-01-31

    This document was written in support of Environmental Assessment: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. It analyzes the potential radiological risks associated with the transportation of sodium-bonded metal alloy and mixed carbide fuel from the FFTF on the Hanford Site in Washington State to the Idaho Engineering Laboratory in Idaho in the T-3 Cask. RADTRAN 4 is used for the analysis which addresses potential risk from normal transportation and hypothetical accident scenarios.

  11. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  12. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  13. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  14. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  15. Fuel shipment experience, fuel movements from the BMI-1 transport cask

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Thomas L.; Krause, Michael G

    1986-07-01

    The University of Texas at Austin received two shipments of irradiated fuel elements from Northrup Aircraft Corporation on April 11 and 16, 1985. A total of 59 elements consisting of standard and instrumented TRIGA fuel were unloaded from the BMI-1 shipping cask. At the time of shipment, the Northrup core burnup was approximately 50 megawatt days with fuel element radiation levels, after a cooling time of three months, of approximately 1.75 rem/hr at 3 feet. In order to facilitate future planning of fuel shipment at the UT facility and other facilities, a summary of the recent transfer process including several factors which contributed to its success are presented. Numerous color slides were made of the process for future reference by UT and others involved in fuel transfer and handling of the BMI-1 cask.

  16. Sealed canister liquid sampling for fuel characterization shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-12

    N-Reactor spent fuel elements will be removed from the sealed fuel storage canisters in the KW Basin and shipped to the 300 Area hot cells for characterization studies. Some of the canisters contain broken fuel elements exposing metallic uranium to the canister water. The exposed uranium surfaces have reacted with the water releasing fission product nuclides to the canister water. The extent of this release is unknown, but large radionuclide inventories could cause significant releases to the basin water. To avoid this, a method is needed to evaluate the magnitude of the canister water radioactivity to help make decisions about which canisters should not be opened for fuel sampling. The objective of this document is to provide a conceptual description of the process for obtaining and evaluating gas and liquid samples from KW fuel canisters in support of fuel characterization shipments. Also described are the decisions regarding the acceptability of a sample, the actions to be taken to obtain an acceptable sample, and the logical leading to decisions about opening canisters for fuel characterization sampling. This document will help guide a safety analysis of the liquid sampling process and the development of detailed procedures for the process. Outside the scope of this document are the processes for opening canisters, selecting fuel samples from opened canisters, shipping fuel samples, and closing canisters.

  17. Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This circular has been prepared to provide information on the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel (spent fuel) subject to regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirements of general interest, a summary of data for 1979--1994 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.

  18. Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel. Revision 12

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This circular has been prepared to provide information on the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel (spent fuel) subject to regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirements of general interest, a summary of data for 1979--1996 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.

  19. Thermal Analysis on the Shipment of Russian Plutonium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A; Carpenter, Robert T

    1995-01-01

    Paper presented at the 12th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion in Albuquerque, NM in January 1995. The Mound 9516 shipping package was designed for the shipment of Plutonium-238 fuel. One of the shipping configurations is the Russian Pu-238 powder can. Computer models using SINDA were created to predict the temperatures of the package under normal conditions of transport (NCT: 38oC ambient temperature), under hypothetical accident conditions (HAC: engulfed in fire for 30 minutes), and inside a standard cargo container. Pressure increases inside the package due to the expansion of the trapped gases and helium gas generation from isotope decay were also analyzed. There is a duplicate copy and also a copy in the ESD Files.

  20. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  2. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  3. Research reactor de-fueling and fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, R.D.; Jawdeh, E.; Strydom, J.

    1998-08-01

    Planning for the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor operations during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games began in early 1995. Before any details could be outlined, several preliminary administrative decisions had to be agreed upon by state, city, and university officials. The two major administrative decisions involving the reactor were (1) the security level and requirements and (2) the fuel status of the reactor. The Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) was a heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor, fueled with high-enriched uranium. The reactor was first licensed in 1964 with an engineered lifetime of thirty years. The reactor was intended for use in research applications and as a teaching facility for nuclear engineering students and reactor operators. Approximately one year prior to the olympics, the Georgia Tech administration decided that the GTRR fuel would be removed. In addition, a heightened, beyond regulatory requirements, security system was to be implemented. This report describes the scheduling, operations, and procedures.

  4. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2012-07-01

    Full-scale physical testing of spent fuel shipping casks has been proposed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2006 report on spent nuclear fuel transportation, and by the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future 2011 draft report. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2005 proposed full-scale testing of a rail cask, and considered 'regulatory limits' testing of both rail and truck casks (SRM SECY-05-0051). The recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, NRC evaluation of extended spent fuel storage (possibly beyond 60-120 years) before transportation, nuclear industry adoption of very large dual-purpose canisters for spent fuel storage and transport, and the deliberations of the BRC, will fundamentally change assumptions about the future spent fuel transportation system, and reopen the debate over shipping cask performance in severe accidents and acts of sabotage. This paper examines possible approaches to full-scale testing for enhancing public confidence in risk analyses, perception of risk, and acceptance of spent fuel shipments. The paper reviews the literature on public perception of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste transportation risks. We review and summarize opinion surveys sponsored by the State of Nevada over the past two decades, which show consistent patterns of concern among Nevada residents about health and safety impacts, and socioeconomic impacts such as reduced property values along likely transportation routes. We also review and summarize the large body of public opinion survey research on transportation concerns at regional and national levels. The paper reviews three past cask testing programs, the way in which these cask testing program results were portrayed in films and videos, and examines public and official responses to these three programs: the 1970's impact and fire testing of spent fuel truck casks at Sandia National Laboratories, the 1980's

  5. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    MASSEY,CHARLES D.; MESSICK,C.E.; MUSTIN,T.

    1999-11-01

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed.

  6. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  7. Historical overview of domestic spent nuclear fuel shipments in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W. ); Hamberger, C.R.; Schmid, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    The information in this paper summarizes historical data on spent nuclear fuel shipments in the United States (US) from the period from 1964 to 1991. Information on shipments has been developed to establish a basis for developing a transportation system in the US for initiating shipments of spent nuclear fuel beginning in 1998. The paper shows that approximately 2700 power reactor spent nuclear fuel rail and truck casks have been shipped within the US during the past 28 years. In total, approximately 2000 metric tonnes of uranium (MTU) have been shipped to date, which compares with projected shipping rates of from 3000 to greater than 6000 MM per year when the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System is in full operation.

  8. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  9. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... in the Federal Register on May 20, 2013 (78 FR 29519) (RIN 3150-AI64), that amended its security... public comment on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67636). The NRC received comments from eight commenters during... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI64 Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel...

  10. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

    2010-10-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  11. HOW MANY DID YOU SAY? HISTORICAL AND PROJECTED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1964 - 2048

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Dilger, Fred

    2003-02-27

    No comprehensive, up-to-date, official database exists for spent nuclear fuel shipments in the United States. The authors review the available data sources, and conclude that the absence of such a database can only be rectified by a major research effort, similar to that carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1990s. Based on a variety of published references, and unpublished data from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the authors estimate cumulative U.S. shipments of commercial spent fuel for the period 1964-2001. The cumulative estimates include quantity shipped, number of cask-shipments, and shipment-miles, by truck and by rail. The authors review previous estimates of future spent fuel shipments, including contractor reports prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and the State of Nevada. The DOE Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain includes projections of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive was te shipments for two inventory disposal scenarios (24 years and 38 years) and two national transportation modal scenarios (''mostly legal-weight truck'' and ''mostly rail''). Commercial spent fuel would compromise about 90 percent of the wastes shipped to the repository. The authors estimate potential shipments to Yucca Mountain over 38 years (2010-2048) for the DOE ''mostly legal-weight truck'' and ''mostly rail'' scenarios, and for an alternative modal mix scenario based on current shipping capabilities of the 72 commercial reactor sites. The cumulative estimates of future spent fuel shipments include quantity shipped, number of cask-shipments, and shipment-miles, by legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, rail and barge.

  12. Are nuclear shipments really safe?

    PubMed

    Brobst, W A

    1975-01-01

    The transportation of nuclear materials is on the increase. Although nuclear shipments are only a very small fraction of the Nation's hazardous materials shipments, they attract a great deal of public attention. Shipments of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes are a particular concern. One of the many fears that people have about nuclear energy is the possibility that a nuclear shipment might somehow go awry and cause a serious public hazard. Primarily, they are worried that a shipment of spent reactor fuel or highly radioactive waste could be involved in serious rail or highway accident and dump its contents all over the countryside. Is that really possible? How safe are those shipments? How many are there? What do they look like? Are the packages tested? These and other questions are answered in this paper. Since public risk is the product of the consequences of an accident and its probability, both aspects are presented so that each of us can make up his own mind whether the risk from nuclear shipments is acceptable. PMID:1193025

  13. Technical Review Report for the Justification for Shipment of Sodium-Bonded Carbide Fuel Pins in the T-3 Cask

    SciTech Connect

    West, M; DiSabatino, A

    2008-01-04

    This report documents the review of the Fluor Submittal (hereafter, the Submittal), prepared by Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRPT) of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), at the request of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office, for the shipment of unirradiated and irradiated sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins. The sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins are currently stored at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) awaiting shipment to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Normally, modified contents are included into the next revision of the SARP. However, the contents, identified to be shipped from FFTF to Idaho National Laboratory, are a one-way shipment of 18 irradiated fuel pins and 7 unirradiated fuel pins, where the irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins are shipped separately, and can be authorized with a letter amendment to the existing Certificate of Compliance (CoC).

  14. Projected Consequence for Potential Sabotage Events Related to Spent Fuel Shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, Lih-Jenn; Neuhauser, Sieglinde; Mills, Scott; Massey, Charles

    1999-08-18

    There is a growing interest in understanding the potential consequences of malevolent acts against shipments of nuclear waste and/or material. Recently, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a study' to evaluate the potential source terms available for release in a sabotage event for spent fuel shipments. Using these source terms, we developed an approach to assess the potential radiological consequences of the hypothesized events and to compare them to consequences of transportation accidents involving the same types of shipments. Our analysis showed that there could be orders of magnitude differences in consequence for urban, suburban, and rural events. Sabotage consequences could be orders of magnitude higher than those of transportation accidents with a probability of 10{sup {minus}12} or higher and be similar to events with a probability less than 10{sup {minus}12}. Also, explosive-induced buoyancy would disperse the source further out than a non-buoyant release in a transportation accident, which, therefore, would have a higher dose near the release point.

  15. Present experience of NRI REZ with preparation of spent nuclear fuel shipment to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Svitak, F.; Broz, V.; Hrehor, M.; Marek, M.; Novosad, P.; Podlaha, J.; Rychecky, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) programme under the US-Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) initiative and started the preparation of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). The transport of 16 SKODA VPVR/M casks with EK-10, IRT-2M 80 %, and IRT-2M 36% fuel types is planned for the autumn of 2007. The paper describes the experience gained so far during the preparatory works for the SNF shipment (facility equipment modification, cask licenses) and the actual preparation of the SNF for transport, in particular its checking, repacking in a hot cell, loading into the VPVR/M casks, drying, manipulation, completion of the transport documentation, etc., including its transport to the SNF storage facility at the NRI before it is shipped to the RF. The paper also briefly describes a regulatory framework for these activities with a focus on legislative and methodological aspects of the return of vitrified waste back to the Czech Republic. (author)

  16. Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R.; Johnson, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Ebert, M.W.; Gallagher D.W.

    1996-08-01

    Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters.

  17. Bounding criticality safety analyses for shipments of unconfigured spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-06-01

    In November 1996, a request was made to the US Department of Energy for a waiver for three shipments of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the US NRC certified BMI-1 cask (CoC 5957). Although the post-irradiation fissile mass (based on chemical assays) in each shipment was less than 800 g, a criticality safety analysis was needed because the pre-irradiation mass exceeded 800 g, the fissile material limit in the CoC. The analyses were performed on SNF consisting of aluminum-clad U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, UAl{sub x}, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates, fragments and pieces that had been irradiated at ORNL during the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program of the 1980s. The highlights of the approach used to analyze this unique SNF and the benefits of the waiver are presented in this paper.

  18. Physical Protection of Spent Fuel Shipments: Resolution of Stakeholder Concerns Through Rulemaking - 12284

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.; Dilger, Fred

    2012-07-01

    In 1999, the State of Nevada brought its concerns about physical protection of current spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments, and future SNF shipments to a federal repository, before the NRC in a 1999 petition for rulemaking (PRM-73-10). In October 2010, the NRC published a rulemaking decision which would significantly strengthen physical protection of SNF in transit. The newest articulation of the rule (10 CFR 73.37) incorporates regulatory clarifications and security enhancements requested in Nevada's 1999 petition for rulemaking, codifies the findings of the Nuclear NRC and DOE consequence analyses into policy guidance documents and brings forward into regulations the agency and licensee experience gained since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although at present DOE SNF shipments would continue to be exempt from these NRC regulations, Nevada considers the rule to constitute a largely satisfactory resolution to stakeholder concerns raised in the original petition and in subsequent comments submitted to the NRC. This paper reviews the process of regulatory changes, assesses the specific improvements contained in the new rules and briefly describes the significance of the new rule in the context of a future national nuclear waste management program. Nevada's petition for rulemaking led to a generally satisfactory resolution of the State's concerns. The decade plus timeframe from petition to rulemaking conclusion saw a sea change in many aspects of the relevant issues - perhaps most importantly the attacks on 9/11 led to the recognition by regulatory bodies that a new threat environment exists wherein shipments of SNF and HLW pose a viable target for human initiated events. The State of Nevada has always considered security a critical concern for the transport of these highly radioactive materials. This was one of the primary reasons for the original rulemaking petition and subsequent advocacy by Nevada on related issues. NRC decisions on the majority of

  19. Time/motion observations of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an oversized truck spent-fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Hostick, C.J.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents actual time/motion data for an oversize truck spent-fuel shipment from its origin, Surry, Virginia to its destination, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These data include the receipt of the empty cask at the reactor, wet-loading the cask, over-the-road or in-transit data, and receipt and dry unloading of the shipping cask at the receiving facility. Occupational doses were recorded at the Surry Power Plant as well as at INEL, and public doses were calculated for the in-transit dose analysis. This shipment was one of a series performed in support of a demonstration and evaluation of dry storage at INEL. The oversized shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask loaded with three 10-yr-old pressurized water reactor assemblies. The total distance traveled was {approx}2800 miles, requiring 62 h including stops. The time required to receive and inspect the empty shipping cask and wet-load and release the shipment at the reactor was {approx}14.1 h, and the time to receive the loaded cask, dry-transfer the spent fuel to the storage cask, and release the empty cask and trailer at the INEL facility was {approx}8.2 h.

  20. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and... § 358.9 Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? The... from the depository institution is at the risk and expense of the depository institution; (b)...

  1. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and... § 358.9 Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? The... from the depository institution is at the risk and expense of the depository institution; (b)...

  2. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and... § 358.9 Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? The... from the depository institution is at the risk and expense of the depository institution; (b)...

  3. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and... § 358.9 Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? The... from the depository institution is at the risk and expense of the depository institution; (b)...

  4. Environmental assessment for the manufacture and shipment of nuclear reactor fuel from the United States to Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has declared 41.9 tons (38 metric tons) of weapons-usable plutonium surplus to the United States` defense needs. A DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement analyzed strategies for plutonium storage and dispositioning. In one alternative, plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel would be irradiated (burned) in a reengineered heavy-water-moderated reactor, such as the Canadian CANDU design. In an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE proposes to fabricate and transport to Canada a limited amount of MOX fuel as part of the Parallex (parallel experiment) Project. MOX fuel from the US and Russia would be used by Canada to conduct performance tests at Chalk River Laboratories. MOX fuel would be fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory and transported in approved container(s) to a Canadian port(s) of entry on one to three approved routes. The EA analyzes the environmental and human health effects from MOX fuel fabrication and transportation. Under the Proposed Action, MOX fuel fabrication would not result in adverse effects to the involved workers or public. Analysis showed that the shipment(s) of MOX fuel would not adversely affect the public, truck crew, and environment along the transportation routes.

  5. Examining Supply Chain Resilience for the Intermodal Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High Level Waste (HLW) in the United States, including shipments entering the country from locations outside U.S borders. In any shipment of SNF/HLW, there are multiple chains; a jurisdictional chain as the material moves between jurisdictions (state, federal, tribal, administrative), a physical supply chain (which mode), as well as a custody chain (which stakeholder is in charge/possession) of the materials being transported. Given these interconnected networks, there lies vulnerabilities, whether in lack of communication between interested stakeholders or physical vulnerabilities such as interdiction. By identifying key links and nodes as well as administrative weaknesses, decisions can be made to harden the physical network and improve communication between stakeholders. This paper examines the parallel chains of oversight and custody as well as the chain of stakeholder interests for the shipments of SNF/HLW and the potential impacts on systemic resiliency. Using the Crystal River shutdown location as well as a hypothetical international shipment brought into the United States, this paper illustrates the parallel chains and maps them out visually.

  6. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? 358.9 Section 358.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS...

  7. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  8. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  9. Comparison and Analysis of Regulatory and Derived Requirements for Certain DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments; Lessons Learned for Future Spent Fuel Transportation Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, George L., Ph.D.; Fawcett, Rick L.; Rieke, Philip C.

    2003-02-27

    Radioactive materials transportation is stringently regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to protect the public and the environment. As a Federal agency, however, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must seek State, Tribal and local input on safety issues for certain transportation activities. This interaction has invariably resulted in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements, greatly increasing transportation costs and delaying schedules while not significantly enhancing the level of safety. This paper discusses the results an analysis of the regulatory and negotiated requirements established for a July 1998 shipment of spent nuclear fuel from foreign countries through the west coast to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Staff from the INEEL Nuclear Materials Engineering and Disposition Department undertook the analysis in partnership with HMTC, to discover if there were instances where requirements derived from stakeholder interactions duplicate, contradict, or otherwise overlap with regulatory requirements. The study exhaustively lists and classifies applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. These are then compared with a similarly classified list of requirements from the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and those developed during stakeholder negotiations. Comparison and analysis reveals numerous attempts to reduce transportation risk by imposing more stringent safety measures than those required by DOT and NRC. These usually took the form of additional inspection, notification and planning requirements. There are also many instances of overlap with, and duplication of regulations. Participants will gain a greater appreciation for the need to understand the risk-oriented basis of the radioactive materials regulations and their effectiveness in ensuring safety when negotiating extra-regulatory requirements.

  10. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  11. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  12. Characteristics of fuel crud and its impact on storage, handling, and shipment of spent fuel. [Fuel crud

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-09-01

    Corrosion products, called ''crud,'' form on out-of-reactor surfaces of nuclear reactor systems and are transported by reactor coolant to the core, where they deposit on external fuel-rod cladding surfaces and are activated by nuclear reactions. After discharge of spent fuel from a reactor, spallation of radioactive crud from the fuel rods could impact wet or dry storage operations, handling (including rod consolidation), and shipping. It is the purpose of this report to review earlier (1970s) and more recent (1980s) literature relating to crud, its characteristics, and any impact it has had on actual operations. Crud characteristics vary from reactor type to reactor type, reactor to reactor, fuel assembly to fuel assembly in a reactor, circumferentially and axially in an assembly, and from cycle to cycle for a specific facility. To characterize crud of pressurized-water (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs), published information was reviewed on appearance, chemical composition, areal density and thickness, structure, adhesive strength, particle size, and radioactivity. Information was also collected on experience with crud during spent fuel wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage. From experience with wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage, it appears crud spallation can be managed effectively, posing no significant radiological problems. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  14. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  15. 75 FR 67636 - Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... rule was published on October 13, 2010 (75 FR 62695), and the public comment period runs through... ``irradiated reactor fuel'' and ``spent nuclear fuel'' (SNF) are used interchangeably). The NRC has prepared...

  16. Preparation of the Second Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu Rez (UJV Rez), a.s., Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing - 13478

    SciTech Connect

    Trtilek, Radek; Podlaha, Josef

    2013-07-01

    After more than 50 years of operation of the LVR-15 research reactor operated by the UJV Rez, a. s. (formerly Nuclear Research Institute - NRI), a large amount of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005 UJV Rez, a. s. jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the United States (US) - Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). In 2007 the first shipment of SNF was realized. In 2011, preparation of the second shipment of spent fuel from the Czech Republic started. The experience obtained from the first shipment will be widely used, but some differences must be taken into the account. The second shipment will be realized in 2013 and will conclude the return transport of all, both fresh and spent, high-enriched nuclear fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. After the shipment is completed, there will be only low-enriched nuclear fuel on the territory of the Czech Republic, containing maximum of 20% of U-235, which is the conventionally recognized limit between the low- and high-enriched nuclear materials. The experience (technical, organizational, administrative, logistic) obtained from the each SNF shipment as from the Czech Republic as from other countries using the Russian type research reactors are evaluated and projected onto preparation of next shipment of high enriched nuclear fuel back to the Russian Federation. The results shown all shipments provided by the UJV Rez, a. s. in the frame of the GTRI Program have been performed successfully and safely. It is expected the experience and results will be applied to preparation and completing of the Chinese Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSR) Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation in the near future. (authors)

  17. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for the N Reactor/single pass reactor fuel characterization shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-10-13

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the ChemNuclear CNS 1-13G packaging to ship samples of irradiated fuel elements from the 100 K East and 100 K West basins to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in support of the spent nuclear fuel characterization effort. It also authorizes the return of the fuel element samples to the 100 K East facility using the same packaging. The CNS 1-13G cask has been-chosen to transport the fuel because it has a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transporting irradiated oxide and metal fuel in commerce. It is capable of being loaded and offloaded underwater and may be shipped with water in the payload compartment.

  18. Analysis of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-09-01

    This report uses risk analyses to analyze the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel for commercial rail shipping systems. The rail systems analyzed are those expected to be used in the United States when the total electricity-generating capacity by nuclear reactors is 100 GW in the late 1980s. Risk as used in this report is the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. The analysis includes risks in terms of expected fatalities from release of radioactive materials due to transportation accidents involving PWR spent fuel shipped in rail casks. The expected total risk from such shipments is 1.3 x 10/sup -4/ fatalities per year. Risk spectrums are developed for shipments of spent fuel that are 180 days and 4 years out-of-reactor. The risk from transporting spent fuel by train is much less (by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude) than the risk to society from other man-caused events such as dam failure.

  19. Projected Source Terms for Potential Sabotage Events Related to Spent Fuel Shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Vigil, M.G.

    1999-06-01

    Two major studies, one sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, were conducted in the late 1970s and early 1980s to provide information and source terms for an optimally successful act of sabotage on spent fuel casks typical of those available for use. This report applies the results of those studies and additional analysis to derive potential source terms for certain classes of sabotage events on spent fuel casks and spent fuel typical of those which could be shipped in the early decades of the 21st century. In addition to updating the cask and spent fuel characteristics used in the analysis, two release mechanisms not included in the earlier works were identified and evaluated. As would be expected, inclusion of these additional release mechanisms resulted in a somewhat higher total release from the postulated sabotage events. Although health effects from estimated releases were addressed in the earlier study conducted for U.S. Department of Energy, they have not been addressed in this report. The results from this report maybe used to estimate health effects.

  20. Evaluation of Simplified Models for Estimating Public Dose from Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Kevin J.; Radulescu, Georgeta

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dose rate as a function of distance from a representative high-capacity SNF rail-type transportation cask. It uses the SCALE suite of radiation transport modeling and simulation codes to determine neutron and gamma radiation dose rates. The SCALE calculated dose rate is compared with simplified analytical methods historically used for these calculations. The SCALE dose rate calculation presented in this paper employs a very detailed transportation cask model (e.g., pin-by-pin modeling of fuel assembly) and a new hybrid computational transport method. Because it includes pin-level heterogeneity and models ample air and soil outside the cask to simulate scattering of gamma and neutron radiation, this detailed SCALE model is expected to yield more accurate results than previously used models which made more simplistic assumptions (e.g., fuel assembly treated as a point or line source, simple 1-D model of environment outside of cask). The results in this paper are preliminary and, as progress is made on developing and validating improved models, results may be subject to change as models and estimates become more refined and better information leads to more accurate assumptions.

  1. Specimen shipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Procedures for shipping specimens vary with different disease diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, it is important to contact the receiving laboratory and obtain specific instructions. This will facilitate processing of specimens when they reach the laboratory and assure that the quality of the specimens is not compromised. Time spent on field investigation, specimen collection, and obtaining an adequate history will be of little clue is specimens become contaminated, decomposed, or otherwise spoiled enroute to the diagnostic laboratory. There are five bases of proper specimen shipment: (1) prevent cross-contamination from specimen to specimen, (2) prevent decomposition of the specimen, (3) prevent leakage of fluids, (4) preserve individual specimen identity, and (5) properly label the package. Basic supplies needed for specimen shipment are shown in Fig. 3.1.

  2. Idaho, Navy, DOE agree on shipments to, from INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, B.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes aspects of a legal agreement between the U.S. Navy, the state of Idaho, and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) regarding shipments of radioactive wastes. The agreement will allow for the shipment of 244 spent fuel shipments from the Fort St Vrain facility in Colorado, if a repository or interim storage facility outside Idaho is open and accepting spent fuel from INEL. The number of shipments to the INEL will be limited to 1133, instead of the 1940 originally planned. The Navy will be allowed 575 total shipments through the year 2035.

  3. A TRANSPORTATION RISK ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ANALYZING THE TRANSPORT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TO THE PROPOSED YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2001-02-15

    The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis addressed the potential for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 origins for 34 types of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, and 10,911 rail shipments. The analysis evaluated transportation over 59,250 unique shipment links for travel outside Nevada (shipment segments in urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 links in Nevada. In addition, the analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The analysis also used mode-specific accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. This complex mix of data and information required an innovative approach to assess the transportation impacts. The approach employed a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database tool that incorporated data from many sources, including unit risk factors calculated using the RADTRAN IV transportation risk assessment computer program. Using Microsoft{reg_sign} Access, the analysts organized data (such as state-specific accident and fatality rates) into tables and developed queries to obtain the overall transportation impacts. Queries are instructions to the database describing how to use data contained in the database tables. While a query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one sequence of queries that is used to calculate a particular transportation impact. For example, the incident-free dose to off-link populations in a state is calculated by a query that uses route segment lengths for each route in a state that could be used by shipments, populations for each segment, number of shipments on each segment, and an incident-free unit risk factor calculated using RADTRAN IV. In addition to providing a method for using large volumes of data in the calculations, the

  4. Recent experience in planning, packaging and preparing non-commercial spent fuel for shipment within the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Shappert, L.B.; Turner, D.W.

    1996-06-01

    US DOE orders dictate that the aluminium clad fuels now stored at ORNL will be shipped to the Savannah River Site. A number of activities had to be carried out in order to ready the fuel for shipping, including choosing a cask capable of transporting the fuel, repackaging the fuel, developing a transportation plan, identifying the appropriate routes, and carrying out a readiness self assessment. These tasks have been successfully completed and are discussed herein.

  5. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel and canister sludge shipment from K East Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1996-03-22

    The K East Basin contains open-top canisters with up to fourteen N Reactor fuel assemblies distributed between the two barrels of each canister. Each fuel assembly generally consists of inner and outer concentric elements fabricated from uranium metal with zirconium alloy cladding. The canisters also contain varying amounts of accumulated sludge. Retrieval of sample fuel elements and associated sludge for examination is scheduled to occur in the near future. The purpose of this document is to specify particular canisters and elements of interest as candidate sources of fuel and sludge to be shipped to laboratories.

  6. TRANSCOM: The US Department of Energy (DOE) system for tracking shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, K.S.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Thomas, T.M.; Lester, P.B.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (TMD) has developed a system which allows communications with and near real-time tracking of high-visibility shipments of hazardous materials. This system, which is known as TRANSCOM (Transportation Tracking and Communications System), is currently in operation. This paper summarizes the current status of TRANSCOM, its history, the experience associated with its use, and the future plans for its growth and enhancement. during the first half of fiscal year (FY) 1994, 38 shipments were tracked by the TRANSCOM system. These shipments included two Mark-42 spent fuel shipments, one BUSS cask shipment, and one waterway shipment (the Seawolf shipment).

  7. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  8. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men: Study But similar link not seen for women ... drinking may fuel the risk of suicide among men when the economy is sinking, new research suggests. ...

  9. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  11. 19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and... the importer's risk and expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which... detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's risk and expense, in...

  12. 19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and... the importer's risk and expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which... detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's risk and expense, in...

  13. 19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and... the importer's risk and expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which... detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's risk and expense, in...

  14. 19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and... the importer's risk and expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which... detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's risk and expense, in...

  15. 46 CFR 308.542 - Warranty re thirty-day shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warranty re thirty-day shipments. 308.542 Section 308.542 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... shipments. If, after an effective binding of war risk insurance on a shipment of cargo, the assured...

  16. Radiation Doses to the Public From the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R. E.; Maheras, S. J.; Ross, S. S.; Weiner, R.

    2003-02-25

    This paper reviews issues that have been raised concerning radiological risks and safety of the public exposed to shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to a Yucca Mountain repository. It presents and analyzes the contrasting viewpoints of opponents and proponents, presents facts about radiological exposures and risks, and provides perspective from which to observe the degree of risk that would devolve from the shipments. The paper concludes that the risks to the public's health and safety from being exposed to radiation from the shipments will not be discernable.

  17. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., shall: 4 For purposes of 10 CFR 73.72, the terms “irradiated reactor fuel” as described in 10 CFR 73.37... description of the shipment: (A) For a shipment other than irradiated fuel, the elements, isotopes,...

  18. 27 CFR 19.734 - Consignor for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.734 Consignor for in-bond shipments. A proprietor that ships distilled spirits in bond to another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignor” of the shipment....

  19. 27 CFR 19.734 - Consignor for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.734 Consignor for in-bond shipments. A proprietor that ships distilled spirits in bond to another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignor” of the shipment. When... the alcohol fuel plant that will receive the spirits; and (5) The serial numbers of seals, locks,...

  20. 27 CFR 19.734 - Consignor for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.734 Consignor for in-bond shipments. A proprietor that ships distilled spirits in bond to another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignor” of the shipment....

  1. 27 CFR 19.734 - Consignor for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.734 Consignor for in-bond shipments. A proprietor that ships distilled spirits in bond to another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignor” of the shipment. When... the alcohol fuel plant that will receive the spirits; and (5) The serial numbers of seals, locks,...

  2. 27 CFR 19.736 - Consignee for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.736 Consignee for in-bond shipments. (a) General. A proprietor that receives spirits in bond from another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignee” of the shipment... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consignee for...

  3. 27 CFR 19.736 - Consignee for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.736 Consignee for in-bond shipments. (a) General. A proprietor that receives spirits in bond from another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignee” of the shipment... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consignee for...

  4. Risk analysis of spent fuel transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the kinds of judgments that must go into a technical analysis of risk and moves on to the sociopolitical aspects of risk analysis where the same set of facts can be honestly but differently interpreted. Also outlines options available in risk management and reviews courts' involvement with risk analysis.

  5. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, G.E.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR){sup 1} and Integral Fast Reactor (IF){sup 2} technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle.

  6. RELATIVE PROLIFERATION RISKS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING ARRANGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    CHENG,L.Y.; YUE, M.; BARI, R.A.

    2007-10-01

    The present study demonstrates a probabilistic approach to quantify the proliferation risks of fuel leasing and recycling. A Markov model approach is applied to evaluate the probability of proliferation success by diversion or theft. Proliferation risk is calculated as a product of the probability of success and the corresponding consequences.

  7. 46 CFR 308.542 - Warranty re thirty-day shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warranty re thirty-day shipments. 308.542 Section 308.542 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.542 Warranty re thirty-day shipments. If, after an effective binding...

  8. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy. 308.512 Section 308.512 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512 Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy....

  9. 46 CFR 308.542 - Warranty regarding thirty-day shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warranty regarding thirty-day shipments. 308.542 Section 308.542 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.542 Warranty regarding thirty-day shipments. If, after an...

  10. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy. 308.512 Section 308.512 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512 Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy....

  11. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  12. The highway and railroad operating environments for hazardous shipments in the U.S.-safer in the '90s?

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Tompkins, M. M.

    2000-04-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the status of transportation safety and risk for large-quantity shipments of spent commercial reactor fuel and mixed and hazardous wastes by examining road and rail accident and vehicular travel data from the mid-1990s. Of special interest are the effect of speed limit changes on controlled-access expressways (chiefly the Interstate Highway System) and the possible effect of season-to-season climatic variation on road transport. We found that improvements in railroad technology and infrastructure have created a safer overall operating environment for railroad freight shipments. We also found recent evidence of an increase in accident rates of heavy combination trucks in states that have raised highway speed limits. Finally, cold weather increases road transport risk, while conditions associated with higher ambient temperatures do not. This last finding is in contrast to rail transport, for which the literature associates both hot and cold temperature extremes with higher accident rates.

  13. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.; George, W.; Petrasek, A.; Stump, R.C.; Patterson, J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper will report on preparations being made for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) foreign research reactor (FRR) spent fuel from South Korea and Indonesia to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The roles of US Department of Energy, INEEL, and NAC International in implementing a safe shipment are provided. Special preparations necessitated by making a shipment through a west coast port of the US to the INEEL will be explained. The institutional planning and actions needed to meet the unique political and operational environment for making a shipment from Asia to INEEL will be discussed. Facility preparation at both the INEEL and the FRRs is discussed. Cask analysis needed to properly characterize the various TRIGA configurations, compositions, and enrichments is discussed. Shipping preparations will include an explanation of the integrated team of spent fuel transportation specialists, and shipping resources needed to retrieve the fuel from foreign research reactor sites and deliver it to the INEEL.

  14. Fuel oil cleaning as a risk reduction strategy for utility units firing residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) ushered in a new era in the regulatory battle to achieve the clean air goals of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Title III of the CAAA addresses the new air toxic emissions program approach applicable to a wide range and variety of sources, including utility boilers firing residual fuel oils (RFO), while Title IX of the CAAA addresses the implementation of the pollution prevention program. Utilities which burn RFO may be interested in the concept of fuel cleaning as a means to reduce the emission of several fuel related toxics. Such a concept would clearly qualify as a pollution prevention technique. The concept of fuel cleaning has generated some interest with respect to the removal of a number of toxic and/or carcinogenic fuel bound metals. Fuel cleaning would shift the focus of the utilities from the need to employ flue gas treatment and removal technologies on large volumes of combustion exhaust gases, to fuel cleaning technologies applicable to a much smaller volume of fuel oil. The removal of fuel-bound metals prior to combustion would obviously lessen the emission of such metals and reduce the associated risk of such emissions to the surrounding population. This paper presents a very preliminary and general evaluation of the risks associated with RFO combustion for a baseline fuel case as well as a number of cases in which various metals are removed from the baseline oil. The risks are based on a conservative approach to both dispersion modeling and health risk impact assessment.

  15. Overweight truck shipments to nuclear waste repositories: legal, political, administrative and operational considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This report, prepared for the Chicago Operations Office and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), identifies and analyzes legal, political, administrative, and operational issues that could affect an OCRWM decision to develop an overweight truck cask fleet for the commercial nuclear waste repository program. It also provides information required by DOE on vehicle size-and-weight administration and regulation, pertinent to nuclear waste shipments. Current legal-weight truck casks have a payload of one pressurized-water reactor spent fuel element or two boiling-water reactor spent fuel elements (1 PWR/2 BWR). For the requirements of the 1960s and 1970s, casks were designed with massive shielding to accommodate 6-month-old spent fuel; the gross vehicle weight was limited to 73,280 pounds. Spent fuel to be moved in the 1990s will have aged five years or more. Gross vehicle weight limitation for the Interstate highway system has been increased to 80,000 pounds. These changes allow the design of 25-ton legal-weight truck casks with payloads of 2 PWR/5 BWR. These changes may also allow the development of a 40-ton overweight truck cask with a payload of 4 PWR/10 BWR. Such overweight casks will result in significantly fewer highway shipments compared with legal-weight casks, with potential reductions in transport-related repository risks and costs. These advantages must be weighed against a number of institutional issues surrounding such overweight shipments before a substantial commitment is made to develop an overweight truck cask fleet. This report discusses these issues in detail and provides recommended actions to DOE.

  16. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, D.S.; Feltus, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels.

  17. A rationale for maintaining the double containment requirement for plutonium shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, James K.; Anastas, George

    2003-12-31

    Current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) transportation regulations (10 CFR 71.63 (b)) require that all shipments containing more than 20 curies of plutonium must be transported in packages that provide double containment. On April 30, 2002 the NRC issued a proposed rule that would eliminate §71.63(b) and the double containment requirement. NRC’s reasons for proposing elimination of §71.63(b) are: (1) compatibility with International Atomic Energy Agency Transportation Safety Standards (which do not have the requirement); (2) the current rule is inconsistent with the A1/A2 system since it applies only to plutonium; (3) double containment causes a heavier package and results in higher transportation costs; (4) the separate inner containment results in additional radiation exposure; and (5) while there would be additional protection from a separate inner container in an accident; this type of approach is not “risk informed nor performance based.” The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has been a proponent of the double containment requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipments for twenty years. This requirement affects shipments to WIPP much more than any other current or planned shipping campaign because reactor fuel elements, metal or metal alloy, and vitrified high-level waste are exempt from §71.63(b). EEG submitted comments on the Proposed Rule on July 26, 2002 (Appendix C). This report is an update and expansion of the July 26, 2002 comments. Actual WIPP experience with shipments in the double contained TRUPACT-II package is used to respond to NRC arguments for deletion of §71.63(b) and offers a rationale for maintaining the current requirement.

  18. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.12 Domestic shipments. Domestic shipments means shipments to...

  19. Time and dose assessment of barge shipment and at-reactor handling of a CASTOR V/21 spent fuel storage cask

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J. ); Lavender, J.C. ); Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the results of a time/motion analysis and a radiation dose assessment made during the receipt from barge transport and the loading of CAst iron cask for Storage and Transport Of Radioactive material (CASTOR) V/21 storage casks with spent nuclear fuel at the Surry Power Station in Virginia during 1987. The study was a cooperative effort between Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power), and was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Program Office. In this study, cask handling activities were tracked at the Surry Power Station, tracing the transfer of the empty spent fuel storage cask from an ocean-going vessel to a barge for river transport through the activities required to place the loaded storage cask at an at-reactor storage location.

  20. Risks associated with waste-fuel use in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, T.W.; Murphy, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    Risks from lead emissions in kiln dust, released of materials including dioxins during upset conditions, and transportation related accidents are described for a cement kiln burning waste fuels. The disposition of the lead fed to the kiln may be deduced both from prior cement-kiln test burns of hazardous wastes and from studies of municipal refuse incinerators. Cement-kiln test data on the disposition of lead is included.

  1. Prospectives on the risks of alternative fuel cycles.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D H; Kastenberg, W E; Griesmeyer, J M

    1981-01-01

    A commentary is provided on the uncertainties in the data and in qualifying the phenomena relating to the risks imposed by the various steps involved in the use of coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear fuels for the generation of electricity. Uncertainties appear to be extremely large for hydropower which exhibits both large scale ecological impacts and the potential for high consequence, moderate frequency events at specific sites. Major risk-related uncertainties with the use of nuclear fuels include those surrounding nuclear weapons proliferation and reactor accident frequencies and consequences. Uncertainties for coal and oil include specification of the damage function of air transported sulfates and the effects of atmospheric CO2 buildup, acid rain, and groundwater contamination from mine water runoff. Compounding these problems is the potential impact of the growing global competition for a diminishing supply of oil. In the studies reviewed herein, the assessed risks of the nuclear fuel cycle are no greater than those of the primary alternatives. Prudence suggests that we do not totally reject any particular option at this time on the basis of health effects alone; similarly, no option is an undisputed choice. PMID:7270773

  2. Prospectives on the risks of alternative fuel cycles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D H; Kastenberg, W E; Griesmeyer, J M

    1981-09-01

    A commentary is provided on the uncertainties in the data and in qualifying the phenomena relating to the risks imposed by the various steps involved in the use of coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear fuels for the generation of electricity. Uncertainties appear to be extremely large for hydropower which exhibits both large scale ecological impacts and the potential for high consequence, moderate frequency events at specific sites. Major risk-related uncertainties with the use of nuclear fuels include those surrounding nuclear weapons proliferation and reactor accident frequencies and consequences. Uncertainties for coal and oil include specification of the damage function of air transported sulfates and the effects of atmospheric CO2 buildup, acid rain, and groundwater contamination from mine water runoff. Compounding these problems is the potential impact of the growing global competition for a diminishing supply of oil. In the studies reviewed herein, the assessed risks of the nuclear fuel cycle are no greater than those of the primary alternatives. Prudence suggests that we do not totally reject any particular option at this time on the basis of health effects alone; similarly, no option is an undisputed choice. PMID:7270773

  3. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  4. Risk and cooperation: managing hazardous fuel in mixed ownership landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A Paige; Charnley, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions that cross ownership boundaries. Cooperation depends on people's beliefs and norms about reciprocity and perceptions of the risks and benefits of interacting with others. Using logistic regression tests on mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interviews with landowners, we examined the relationship between perceived wildfire risk and cooperation in the management of hazardous fuel by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Oregon. We found that NIPF owners who perceived a risk of wildfire to their properties, and perceived that conditions on nearby public forestlands contributed to this risk, were more likely to have cooperated with public agencies in the past to reduce fire risk than owners who did not perceive a risk of wildfire to their properties. Wildfire risk perception was not associated with past cooperation among NIPF owners. The greater social barriers to private-private cooperation than to private-public cooperation, and perceptions of more hazardous conditions on public compared with private forestlands may explain this difference. Owners expressed a strong willingness to cooperate with others in future cross-boundary efforts to reduce fire risk, however. We explore barriers to cooperative forest management across ownerships, and identify models of cooperation that hold potential for future collective action to reduce wildfire risk. PMID:22525987

  5. 27 CFR 19.736 - Consignee for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.736 Consignee for in-bond shipments. (a) General. A proprietor that receives spirits in bond from another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignee” of the...

  6. 27 CFR 19.736 - Consignee for in-bond shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.736 Consignee for in-bond shipments. (a) General. A proprietor that receives spirits in bond from another alcohol fuel plant is the “consignee” of the...

  7. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.72 Requirement for advance notice of... telephone number(s) of the shipper, receiver, and carrier(s); (ii) A physical description of the shipment...) For a shipment of irradiated fuel, the physical form, quantity, type of reactor, and...

  8. Synthetic-fuel plants: potential tumor risks to public health.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, P D; Morris, S C; Fischer, H; Thode, H C; Hamilton, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article quantifies potential public health risks from tumor-producing pollutants emitted from two synthetic-fuel plants (direct liquefaction--Exxon Donor Solvent: and indirect liquefaction--Lurgi Fischer-Tropsch) located at a representative site in the eastern United States. In these analyses gaseous and aqueous waste streams were characterized; exposures via inhalation, terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and drinking water supplies were modeled. Analysis suggested that emissions of "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," "aromatic amines," "neutral N, O, S heterocyclics," "nitriles," and "other trace elements" pose the largest quantifiable risks to public health. Data and analysis for these pollutant categories should be refined to more accurately match compound-specific estimated exposure levels with tumorigenic potency estimates. Before these results are used for regulatory purposes, more detailed analysis for selected pollutant classes are needed, and more sophisticated aquatic exposure models must be developed. Also, differences in geographic scales among the environmental transport models used need to be rectified. PMID:3843682

  9. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents.

  10. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  13. 36 CFR 10.4 - Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shipment. 10.4 Section 10.4... CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.4 Shipment. (a) Elk, buffaloes, and bears may be obtained at the Park and be... shipment in less than carload lots. Bears must be crated individually regardless of the number furnished...

  14. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  17. Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.

  18. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  19. Nuclear material shipment study

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Material Transport Assessment Study is expected to provide a flexible set of capabilities and useful information to the public, industry and government users by using a system design to assure obtaining high quality data from selected industry sources at acceptable cost. It is expected that the shipping record approach coupled with an efficient sampling strategy will accomplish this. The study is also designed to yield analytical capabilities and statistical output to serve public, industry and government users. The information provided by the study will make a valuable contribution to environmental and accident risk assessment, policy development and operational planning and management activities.

  20. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy. 308.512 Section 308.512 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  1. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy. 308.512 Section 308.512 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  2. 46 CFR 308.542 - Warranty re thirty-day shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranty re thirty-day shipments. 308.542 Section 308.542 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.542 Warranty re...

  3. The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    McSweeney; Thomas; Winnard; Ross; Steven B.; Best; Ralph E.

    2001-02-06

    Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database was created. In the Microsoft{reg_sign} Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation

  4. 7 CFR 982.66 - Shipment reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipment reports. 982.66 Section 982.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Records and Reports § 982.66 Shipment reports. Each handler shall...

  5. 19 CFR 12.13 - Unclaimed shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unclaimed shipments. 12.13 Section 12.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.13 Unclaimed shipments. (a) If plants...

  6. 19 CFR 132.25 - Undeliverable shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undeliverable shipment. 132.25 Section 132.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Mail Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.25 Undeliverable shipment. If within...

  7. 49 CFR 175.30 - Inspecting shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting shipments. 175.30 Section 175.30... Information and Regulations § 175.30 Inspecting shipments. (a) No person may accept a hazardous material for... certified on a shipping paper prepared in duplicate in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or...

  8. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Truck shipments. 966.140 Section 966.140 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations Inspection § 966.140 Truck shipments. In case of the transportation by truck outside of...

  9. 49 CFR 175.30 - Inspecting shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting shipments. 175.30 Section 175.30... Information and Regulations § 175.30 Inspecting shipments. (a) No person may accept a hazardous material for... certified on a shipping paper prepared in duplicate in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or...

  10. Preliminary assessment of costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by barge

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, R.L.; Meshkov, N.K.; Jones, R.H.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the costs and risks associated with transporting spent fuel by barge. The barge movements would be made in combination with rail movements to transport spent fuel from plants to a repository. For the purpose of this analysis, three candidate repository sites are analyzed: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington. This report complements a report prepared by Sandia National Laboratories in 1984 that analyzes the costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by rail and by truck to nine candidate repository sites.

  11. Scientists warn of 'trillion-dollar' spent-fuel risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A study by two Princeton University physicists suggests that a major fire in the spent nuclear fuel stored on the sites of US nuclear reactors could “dwarf the horrific consequences of the Fukushima accident”.

  12. 40 CFR 273.61 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... destination facility rejects a shipment or a portion of a shipment, he must contact the shipper to notify him... facility must: (1) Send the shipment back to the original shipper, or (2) If agreed to by both the shipper... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-site shipments. 273.61 Section...

  13. 31 CFR 560.702 - Detention of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detention of shipments. 560.702... Penalties § 560.702 Detention of shipments. Import shipments into the United States of Iranian-origin goods in violation of § 560.201 and export shipments from the United States of goods destined for Iran...

  14. 27 CFR 28.246 - Delivery for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery for shipment. 28..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Consignment § 28.246 Delivery for shipment. The proprietor or exporter may deliver the shipment directly to...

  15. Submerged demineralizer system vessel shipment report

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G J; Henrie, J O; Greenborg, J

    1984-06-01

    Vessels containing zeolites and absorbed fission products from processing accident-generated water at Three Mile Island through the Submerged Demineralizer System were found to generate radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen gases. In some vessels with high curie contents, gas generation during shipment could have resulted in flammable gas concentrations exceeding federal limits for radioactive material shipments. Tests of a catalyst bed in the vessel demonstrated that recombination of the gases back into water would permit safe shipment of the sealed vessels. Catalyst was loaded into an available screen assembly in each vessel. Vessel pressure monitoring ensured that net gas generation had stopped and that hydrogen and oxygen concentrations were kept below flammable limits. All shipments complied with federal regulations.

  16. 7 CFR 35.6 - Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... species table grapes shipped or offered for shipment by any one person in a single conveyance to a...

  17. 7 CFR 35.6 - Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... species table grapes shipped or offered for shipment by any one person in a single conveyance to a...

  18. 36 CFR 10.4 - Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.4 Shipment. (a) Elk, buffaloes, and bears may be obtained at the Park and be removed by truck. Elk and buffaloes, when not transported by truck, must be crated individually for...

  19. Risks involved in commercialization of multiple hearth furnaces for sludge disposal using refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the risks involved in attempts to implement a new application of the sludge disposal concept that uses multiple hearth furnaces and refuse-derived fuel as a primary fuel source. In order to perform this risk analysis a case study examination has been made of a codisposal and energy recovery project proposed by the City of Memphis. General problems which have been experienced in the past have been briefly described above and are presented in more detail in Appendix A. The framework for the analysis of risks associated with the Memphis project is presented in Chapter II. The risk analysis itself is presented in Chapter III. The effects of these risks are described in Chapter IV.

  20. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... link between increased suicide risk among Americans and economic downturns. So, investigators from the University of California, ... drinking increases, particularly among people affected by the economic downturn, said study author Mark Kaplan, a professor ...

  1. Hallam fuel decladding. Program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, W.F.

    1980-04-01

    This report summarizes the program of decladding the 150 Hallam fuel assemblies, removal of the sodium, and the packaging and shipment of the recovered fuel to Savannah River for eventual reprocessing.

  2. Wildfires, fuel treatment and risk mitigation in Australian eucalypt forests: insights from landscape-scale simulation.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, R A; Cary, G J; Davies, I; Lindenmayer, D B; Price, O F; Williams, R J

    2012-08-30

    Wildfires pose significant risks to people and human infrastructure worldwide. The treatment of fuel in landscapes may alter these risks but the magnitude of this effect on risk is poorly understood. Evidence from Australian Eucalyptus forests suggests that mitigation of risk using prescribed burning as a fuel treatment is partial because weather and fuel dynamics are conducive to regular high intensity fires. We further examine the response of risk to treatment in eucalypt forests using landscape simulation modelling. We model how five key measures of wildfire activity that govern risk to people and property may respond to variations in rate and spatial pattern of prescribed fire. We then model effects of predicted climate change (2050 scenarios) to determine how the response of risk to treatment is likely to be altered in the future. The results indicate that a halving of risk to people and property in these forests is likely to require treatment rates of 7-10% of the area of the landscape per annum. Projections of 2050 weather conditions under climate change further substantially diminished the effect of rate of treatment. A large increase in rates of treatment (i.e. circa. 50% over current levels) would be required to counteract these effects of climate change. Such levels of prescribed burning are unlikely to be financially feasible across eucalypt dominated vegetation in south eastern Australia. Despite policy imperatives to expand fuel treatment, a reduction rather than an elimination of risk will result. Multi-faceted strategies will therefore be required for the management of risk. PMID:22531752

  3. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  4. A risk evaluation for the fuel retrieval sub-project

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, B.S.

    1996-10-11

    This study reviews the technical, schedule and budget baselines of the sub-project to assure all significant issues have been identified on the sub-project issues management list. The issue resolution dates are identified and resolution plans established. Those issues that could adversely impact procurement activities have been uniquely identified on the list and a risk assessment completed.

  5. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  6. A long term radiological risk model for plutonium-fueled and fission reactor space nuclear system

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Dougherty, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the optimization of the RISK III mathematical model, which provides risk assessment for the use of a plutonium-fueled, fission reactor in space systems. The report discusses possible scenarios leading to radiation releases on the ground; distinctions are made for an intact reactor and a dispersed reactor. Also included are projected dose equivalents for various accident situations. 54 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs. (TEM)

  7. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

    2001-08-17

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as

  8. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  9. Estimation of wildfire size and risk changes due to fuels treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, M.A.; Moran, C.J.; Wimberly, M.C.; Baer, A.D.; Finney, M.A.; Beckendorf, K.L.; Eidenshink, J.; Zhu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human land use practices, altered climates, and shifting forest and fire management policies have increased the frequency of large wildfires several-fold. Mitigation of potential fire behaviour and fire severity have increasingly been attempted through pre-fire alteration of wildland fuels using mechanical treatments and prescribed fires. Despite annual treatment of more than a million hectares of land, quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of existing fuel treatments at reducing the size of actual wildfires or how they might alter the risk of burning across landscapes are currently lacking. Here, we present a method for estimating spatial probabilities of burning as a function of extant fuels treatments for any wildland fire-affected landscape. We examined the landscape effects of more than 72 000 ha of wildland fuel treatments involved in 14 large wildfires that burned 314 000 ha of forests in nine US states between 2002 and 2010. Fuels treatments altered the probability of fire occurrence both positively and negatively across landscapes, effectively redistributing fire risk by changing surface fire spread rates and reducing the likelihood of crowning behaviour. Trade offs are created between formation of large areas with low probabilities of increased burning and smaller, well-defined regions with reduced fire risk.

  10. Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Kitabata, Takuya; Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.

  11. Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.

  12. The Bayou Choctaw Oil Shipment Test

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.

    1994-05-01

    In early October of 1993, an oil shipment of about 1 million barrels was made from the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility to St. James Terminal. During the shipment, oil temperatures and soil temperatures along the pipeline were recorded. The field data were used to make estimations of soil thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat. These data were also used to validate and calibrate a heat transfer code, OILPIP, which has been used to calculate pipeline cooling of oil during a drawdown.

  13. Radiotoxicity and Risk Reduction of TRU Elements from Spent Fuel by Transmutation in the Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Necas, Vladimir; Sebian, Vladimir; Kociskova, Karolina; Darilek, Petr

    2005-05-24

    A conventional PWR of type VVER-440 operating in a sustainable advanced fuel cycle mode with complete recycling of TRU elements in an Inert Matrix Combined Fuel Assembly (IMC-FA) in the same reactor was investigated. A preliminary assessment with the differences between various nuclear fuel cycles in terms of the risk analysis and its indicators has been conducted. The results indicate that the sustainable advanced fuel cycle option can, for the same amount of energy generation, significantly reduces both the amounts and radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel in comparison with the conventional once-through UO2 or MOX fuel cycles.

  14. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  15. 15 CFR 740.3 - Shipments of limited value (LVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments of limited value (LVS). 740... EXCEPTIONS § 740.3 Shipments of limited value (LVS). (a) Scope. License Exception LVS authorizes the export and reexport in a single shipment of eligible commodities as identified by “LVS - $(value limit)”...

  16. 15 CFR 740.3 - Shipments of limited value (LVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments of limited value (LVS). 740... EXCEPTIONS § 740.3 Shipments of limited value (LVS). (a) Scope. License Exception LVS authorizes the export and reexport in a single shipment of eligible commodities as identified by “LVS - $(value limit)”...

  17. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  18. 22 CFR 211.4 - Availability and shipment of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Availability and shipment of commodities. 211.4 Section 211.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.4 Availability and shipment of commodities. (a) Shipment,...

  19. 19 CFR 141.81 - Invoice for each shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invoice for each shipment. 141.81 Section 141.81... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.81 Invoice for each shipment. A commercial invoice... for in § 141.82, an invoice shall not represent more than one distinct shipment of merchandise by...

  20. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  1. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  2. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  3. 50 CFR 14.14 - In-transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false In-transit shipments. 14.14 Section 14.14....14 In-transit shipments. (a) Wildlife destined for a point within the United States may be imported into the United States at any port if such wildlife proceeds as an in-transit shipment under...

  4. 50 CFR 14.14 - In-transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false In-transit shipments. 14.14 Section 14.14....14 In-transit shipments. (a) Wildlife destined for a point within the United States may be imported into the United States at any port if such wildlife proceeds as an in-transit shipment under...

  5. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  6. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  7. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  8. 44 CFR 402.1 - Shipments from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipments from the United States. 402.1 Section 402.1 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.1 Shipments from the United States. Transportation Order...

  9. 44 CFR 402.1 - Shipments from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipments from the United States. 402.1 Section 402.1 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.1 Shipments from the United States. Transportation Order...

  10. 40 CFR 273.19 - Tracking universal waste shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tracking universal waste shipments... Universal Waste § 273.19 Tracking universal waste shipments. A small quantity handler of universal waste is not required to keep records of shipments of universal waste....

  11. 7 CFR 946.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 946.54 Section 946... POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.54 Shipments for specified purposes... part in order to facilitate shipments of potatoes for the following purposes: (1) Livestock feed;...

  12. 49 CFR 174.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 174.3... General Requirements § 174.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. No person may accept for transportation or transport by rail any shipment of hazardous material that is not in conformance with...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-18 - Multiple Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple Shipments. 52.247... Multiple Shipments. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(i), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts for transportation or for transportation-related services when multiple shipments are tendered...

  14. 49 CFR 176.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 176.3... General § 176.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. (a) A carrier may not transport by vessel any shipment of a hazardous material that is not prepared for transportation in accordance with parts 172...

  15. 49 CFR 174.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 174.3... General Requirements § 174.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. No person may accept for transportation or transport by rail any shipment of hazardous material that is not in conformance with...

  16. 19 CFR 12.38 - Labeling requirements; shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements; shipments. 12.38 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Liquors § 12.38 Labeling requirements; shipments. All shipments of liquor not labeled as required by 18 U.S.C. 1263 and any vessel or vehicle, other than a...

  17. 49 CFR 175.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 175.3... General Information and Regulations § 175.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. A hazardous material that is not prepared for shipment in accordance with this subchapter may not be offered...

  18. 19 CFR 12.113 - Arrival of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrival of shipment. 12.113 Section 12.113 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.113 Arrival of shipment. (a) Notice of arrival presented. Upon the arrival of a shipment of pesticides or devices, the importer or his agent shall...

  19. 7 CFR 905.145 - Certification of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of certain shipments. 905.145 Section... Certification of certain shipments. Whenever a regulation pursuant to § 905.52 restricts the shipment of a portion of a specified grade or size of a variety, each handler shipping such variety during...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-68 - Report of Shipment (REPSHIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of Shipment... Clauses 52.247-68 Report of Shipment (REPSHIP). As prescribed in 47.208-2, insert the following clause: Report of Shipment (REPSHIP) (FEB 2006) (a) Definition. Domestic destination, as used in this...

  1. 49 CFR 175.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 175.3... General Information and Regulations § 175.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. A hazardous material that is not prepared for shipment in accordance with this subchapter may not be offered...

  2. 50 CFR 14.14 - In-transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In-transit shipments. 14.14 Section 14.14....14 In-transit shipments. (a) Wildlife destined for a point within the United States may be imported into the United States at any port if such wildlife proceeds as an in-transit shipment under...

  3. 7 CFR 945.53 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 945.53 Section 945... Handling Regulations § 945.53 Shipments for specified purposes. Whenever the Secretary finds, upon the... order to facilitate shipments of potatoes for the following purposes: (a) Export; (b) Relief or...

  4. 19 CFR 10.174 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Preferences § 10.174 Evidence of direct shipment. (a) Documents constituting evidence of direct shipment. The port director may require that appropriate shipping papers, invoices, or other documents be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.174 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 947.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 947.54 Section 947... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 947.54 Shipments for specified purposes. (a) Whenever the... shipments of potatoes for the following purposes: (1) Livestock feed; (2) Charity; (3) Export; (4) Seed;...

  6. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194... Evidence of direct shipment. (a) Documents constituting evidence of direct shipment. The port director may require that appropriate shipping papers, invoices, or other documents be submitted within 60 days of...

  7. 7 CFR 905.145 - Certification of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of certain shipments. 905.145 Section... Certification of certain shipments. Whenever a regulation pursuant to § 905.52 restricts the shipment of a portion of a specified grade or size of a variety, each handler shipping such variety during...

  8. 49 CFR 176.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 176.3... General § 176.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. (a) A carrier may not transport by vessel any shipment of a hazardous material that is not prepared for transportation in accordance with parts 172...

  9. 19 CFR 12.5 - Shipment to other ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Dangerous Caustic Or Corrosive Substances § 12.5 Shipment to other ports. When imported merchandise, the subject of § 12.1, is shipped to another port for reconditioning or exportation, such shipment shall be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to other ports. 12.5 Section 12.5...

  10. 48 CFR 252.247-7017 - Erroneous shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Erroneous shipments. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7017 Erroneous shipments. As prescribed in 247.270-3(l), use the following clause: Erroneous Shipments (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall— (1) Forward to the rightful...

  11. 27 CFR 28.230 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.230 Section 28.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Drawback Consignment, Shipment, and Delivery § 28.230 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of taxpaid beer removed under this subpart shall be made under the provisions...

  12. 27 CFR 28.145 - Consignment, shipment and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment, shipment and delivery. 28.145 Section 28.145 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...-Trade Zone § 28.145 Consignment, shipment and delivery. The consignment, shipment and delivery of...

  13. 27 CFR 28.217 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment, shipment, and delivery. 28.217 Section 28.217 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Drawback § 28.217 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of...

  14. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  15. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  16. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  17. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  18. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  19. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  20. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  1. Department of Energy Spent Fuel Shipping Campaigns: Comparisons of Transportation Plans and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, Judith A.; Thrower, Alex W.; Antizzo, Karen

    2003-02-27

    Over the last 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has successfully and safely transported shipments of spent nuclear fuel over America's highways and railroads. During that time, an exemplary safety record has been established with no identifiable fatalities, injuries, or environmental damage caused by the radioactive nature of the shipments. This paper evaluates some rail and truck shipping campaigns, planning processes, and selected transportation plans to identify lessons learned in terms of planning and programmatic activities. The intent of this evaluation is to document best practices from current processes and previous plans for DOE programs preparing or considering future plans. DOE's National Transportation Program (NTP) reviewed 13 plans, beginning with core debris shipments from Three Mile Island to current, ongoing fuel campaigns. This paper describes lessons learned in the areas of: emergency planning, planning information, security, shipment prenotification, emergency notification/response, terrorism/sabotage risk, and recovery and cleanup, as well as routing, security, carrier/driver requirements, transportation operational contingencies, tracking, inspections and safe parking.

  2. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  3. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  4. 46 CFR 148.55 - International shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International shipments. 148.55 Section 148.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.55 International...

  5. 46 CFR 148.55 - International shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International shipments. 148.55 Section 148.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.55 International...

  6. 46 CFR 148.55 - International shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International shipments. 148.55 Section 148.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.55 International...

  7. 46 CFR 148.55 - International shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International shipments. 148.55 Section 148.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.55 International...

  8. 49 CFR 175.30 - Inspecting shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting shipments. 175.30 Section 175.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.30...

  9. 49 CFR 175.30 - Inspecting shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting shipments. 175.30 Section 175.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.30...

  10. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  11. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  12. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  13. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  14. 19 CFR 12.13 - Unclaimed shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.13 Unclaimed shipments. (a) If plants or plant products enterable into the United States under the rules and regulations promulgated by...

  15. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  16. 27 CFR 20.182 - Bulk shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk shipments. 20.182 Section 20.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Operations by Dealers...

  17. Lessons learned from the Shoreham fuel shipping experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R H

    1995-01-01

    The shipment of slightly exposed nuclear fuel from the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station to the Limerick Generating Station serves as a model for future shipments of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Many lessons were learned from this experience both general and specific. This paper presents a sampling of these lessons and suggests that future SNF campaigns can benefit from studying this and other relevant projects.

  18. Solid fuel smoke exposure and risk of obstructive airways disease.

    PubMed

    Qorbani, Mostafa; Yunesian, Masud

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between Obstructive Airways Disease (OAD) and indoor exposure to baking home-made bread smoke (BHBS) in ground oven at home. In this hospital-based case-control study, 83 patients with OAD (cases) were compared with 72 patients without any known pulmonary diseases from the surgical ward (controls) who were frequently matched with cases on age. The interview was performed using the modified questionnaire recommended by the "American Thoracic Society". The questionnaire comprised of demographic information, occupational history, cigarette smoking and indoor exposure to BHBS in ground oven at home. The exposure to BHBS was considered both as a dichotomous and quantitative variable (number of years being exposed to smoke) and the population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated due to BHBS exposure. The percentage of indoor exposure to BHBS was measured as 51.8% and 30.6% in the cases and the controls, respectively. The average years of exposure to BHBS was 20.46 years (SD: 11.60) for the cases and 15.38 years (SD: 13.20) for the controls. The univariate analysis comparing the cases and the controls showed that exposure to BHBS (as a binary variable) and occupational exposure to dust was significantly associated with OAD. In the multivariate model, only exposure to BHBS was associated with OAD (OR=2.22, 95%CI = 1.14-4.35). Duration of exposure to BHBS (as a quantitative variable) was significantly associated with OAD in the univariate model. In the multivariate model, only the duration of exposure to BHBS (years) showed a significant association with OAD (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08). Population attributable risk due to BHBS exposure was equal to 28.5%. PMID:23369551

  19. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material, special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel. 73.72 Section 73.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  20. 10 CFR 70.20b - General license for carriers of transient shipments of formula quantities of strategic special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for carriers of transient shipments of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material, special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance, special nuclear material of low strategic significance, and irradiated reactor fuel. 70.20b Section 70.20b Energy NUCLEAR...

  1. Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, L.A.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1998-09-01

    This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated.

  2. Assessing risks to fish populations near a proposed disposal facility for used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.; Miesenheimer, P.; Hull, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of used nuclear fuel disposal in the Canadian Shield is currently undergoing a federal environmental assessment review process. As part of this review, potential risks to brook trout populations in the vicinity of such an underground repository were considered. Chemical fate, transport and exposure models have been utilized to estimate the dose rates from released radionuclides and other fuel constituents, and these likely will not be sufficient to harm fish in nearby streams. However, other stressors such as habitat alteration (e.g., loss of upwelling) and/or fishing pressure associated with increased public access could have significant population impacts if the site is located in a pristine northern region. Population models are utilized to explore the risks of local population reduction for different combinations of fishing pressure and habitat degradation.

  3. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. PMID:27389459

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  5. Human islet viability and function is maintained during high density shipment in silicone rubber membrane vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Pepper, Andrew R; Lopez, Boris G; Pawlick, Rena; Kin, Tatsuya; O’Gorman, Doug; Mueller, Kathryn R; Gruessner, Angelika C; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Karatzas, Theodore; Szot, Greg L; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Wilson, John R; Shapiro, AM; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    The shipment of human islets from processing centers to distant laboratories is beneficial for both research and clinical applications. The maintenance of islet viability and function in transit is critically important. Gas-permeable silicone rubber membrane (SRM) vessels reduce the risk of hypoxia-induced death or dysfunction during high-density islet culture or shipment. SRM vessels may offer additional advantages: they are cost-effective (fewer flasks, less labor needed), safer (lower contamination risk), and simpler (culture vessel can also be used for shipment). Human islets(IE) were isolated from two manufacturing centers and shipped in 10cm2 surface area SRM vessels in temperature and pressure controlled containers to a distant center following at least two days of culture (n = 6). Three conditions were examined: low density (LD), high density (HD), and a micro centrifuge tube negative control (NC). LD was designed to mimic the standard culture density for human islet preparations (200 IE/cm2), while HD was designed to have a 20-fold higher tissue density, which would enable the culture of an entire human isolation in 1–3 vessels. Upon receipt, islets were assessed for viability, measured by oxygen consumption rate normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), and quantity, measured by DNA, and, when possible, potency and function with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) measurements and transplants in immunodeficient B6 rag mice. Post-shipment OCR/DNA was not reduced in HD versus LD, and was substantially reduced in the NC condition. HD islets exhibited normal function post-shipment. Based on the data we conclude that entire islet isolations (up to 400,000 IE) may be shipped using a single, larger SRM vessel with no negative effect on viability and ex vivo and in vivo function. PMID:25131090

  6. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  7. Nuclear-fuel-cycle risk assessment: descriptions of representative non-reactor facilities. Sections 1-14

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program was initiated to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. This report, the first from the program, defines and describes fuel cycle elements that are being considered in the program. One type of facility (and in some cases two) is described that is representative of each element of the fuel cycle. The descriptions are based on real industrial-scale facilities that are current state-of-the-art, or on conceptual facilities where none now exist. Each representative fuel cycle facility is assumed to be located on the appropriate one of four hypothetical but representative sites described. The fuel cycles considered are for Light Water Reactors with once-through flow of spent fuel, and with plutonium and uranium recycle. Representative facilities for the following fuel cycle elements are described for uranium (or uranium plus plutonium where appropriate): mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, mixed-oxide fuel refabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, high-level waste storage, transuranic waste storage, spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste disposal, low-level and intermediate-level waste disposal, and transportation. For each representative facility the description includes: mainline process, effluent processing and waste management, facility and hardware description, safety-related information and potential alternative concepts for that fuel cycle element. The emphasis of the descriptive material is on safety-related information. This includes: operating and maintenance requirements, input/output of major materials, identification and inventories of hazardous materials (particularly radioactive materials), unit operations involved, potential accident driving forces, containment and shielding, and degree of hands-on operation.

  8. 49 CFR 375.509 - How must I determine the weight of a shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I determine the weight of a shipment? 375... of Shipments of Household Goods Weighing the Shipment § 375.509 How must I determine the weight of a shipment? (a) You must weigh the shipment by using one of the following two methods: (1) First...

  9. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

  10. Shipment of radioactive materials by the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This brochure provides notification of, and information on, the general types of radioactive material shipments being transported for or on behalf of DOE in commerce across state and other jurisdictional boundaries. This brochure addresses: packaging and material types, shipment identification, modes of transport/materials shipped, DOE policy for routing and oversize/overweight shipments, DOE policy for notification and cargo security, training, emergency assistance, compensation for nuclear accidents, safety record, and principal DOE contact.

  11. 9 CFR 2.79 - C.O.D. shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., on the shipping document and on the copy of the shipping document accompanying the C.O.D. shipment... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false C.O.D. shipments. 2.79 Section 2.79... WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.79 C.O.D. shipments. (a) No carrier or intermediate handler shall...

  12. Blood and Oil: Vehicle Characteristics in Relation to Fatality Risk and Fuel Economy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Leon S.

    2006-01-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999–2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

  13. 49 CFR 173.312 - Requirements for shipment of MEGCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.312 Requirements.... (2) The MEGC must conform to the design, construction, inspection and testing requirements...

  14. An analysis of the consequences of accidents involving shipments of multiple Type A radioactive material (RAM) packages

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, N.C.; McClure, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Wangler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Comparing the results of the RADTRANIII calculations with a normalized set of results, both for incident-free transport and vehicular accident cases, the calculated consequences in the current analysis are lower. Even for the High-Activity Shipment, the total expected population dose from either incident-free transport or vehicular accidents is small, and smaller than that estimated in USNRC 1977. The results of the simulation in which parameters were varied randomly and independently indicate that, regardless of the input values assumed, the maximum total population dose from the High-Activity Shipment and the simultaneous occurrence of the least conservative value for each input parameter might be as high as 300 person-rem for a single shipment. The values for either of the other shipments (DOT Exemption or Common Carrier) would be significantly lower. The potential average individual radiation doses from accidents involving multiple Type A package shipments are comparable to the increase in the normal background radiation dose of 0.09 rem/person/year (90 mrem) that an individual would receive by moving from sea level to 5000 ft elevation. The maximum dose to an individual (one very near the accident scene) for the High Activity Shipment would be approximately 0.3 rem (300 mrem) in a maximum severity accident. This is within the individual dose guidelines outlined by NCRP (0.5 rem). Even at the high levels postulated for multiple package shipments under DOT controlled exemptions, the potential risks to the public in terms of expected population dose in the current analysis are below those already found to be acceptable. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  16. 75 FR 59103 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    .... Background DoD published an interim rule at 74 FR 37652 on July 29, 2009, to implement section 884 of the... the person, corporation, or entity that directly bears the cost of fuel for shipment(s) transported... to the person, corporation, or entity that directly bears the cost of fuel for...

  17. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... present in the United States in cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment... cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment, transportation, receipt,...

  18. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... present in the United States in cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment... cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment, transportation, receipt,...

  19. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... present in the United States in cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment... cooperation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and the shipment, transportation, receipt,...

  20. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  1. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  2. 15 CFR 740.3 - Shipments of limited value (LVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... current market price of the commodity, the value of containers in which the commodity is being exported... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments of limited value (LVS). 740... EXCEPTIONS § 740.3 Shipments of limited value (LVS). (a) Scope. License Exception LVS authorizes the...

  3. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123... EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and... value of the export does not exceed the aggregate monetary value (not quantity) stated on the license...

  4. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123... EXPORT AND TEMPORARY IMPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U... license when the total value of the export does not exceed the aggregate monetary value (not...

  5. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10...

  6. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipment of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.3 Shipment of experimental biological products. Except as provided in this section, no person shall ship or deliver...

  7. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipment of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.3 Shipment of experimental biological products. Except as provided in this section, no person shall ship or deliver...

  8. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipment of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.3 Shipment of experimental biological products. Except as provided in this section, no person shall ship or deliver...

  9. 27 CFR 26.294 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the... total quantity in wine gallons; (4) For industrial spirits— (i) The package identification numbers of containers, and (ii) The total quantity in proof gallons. (b) The record of shipment shall be made...

  10. 27 CFR 26.294 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the... total quantity in wine gallons; (4) For industrial spirits— (i) The package identification numbers of containers, and (ii) The total quantity in proof gallons. (b) The record of shipment shall be made...