Science.gov

Sample records for fuel storage ready

  1. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  2. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  3. Selecting fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Until the use of underground storage tanks (USTs) for fuel storage was mandated by the 1970 Uniform Fire Code, above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) were widely used. The tanks were relatively crude by today's standards so the technical superiority and fire protection afforded by use of underground tanks soon made USTs the system of choice for almost all uses. As a result, tens of thousands of tanks have been underground for more than 20 years, and at some point, many of them began leaking. Often, the first sign of these leaks appeared when groundwater became contaminated. The EPA responded to this major environmental problem by strictly regulating the use of below-ground tanks to store flammable liquids. These added regulations have had a severe effect on both service stations and private fueling. The removal of underground tanks and the removal and disposal of any contaminated soil is an extremely expensive proposition. Furthermore, new Uniform Fire Code regulations have added to the costs, imposing requirements for double-walled tanks, corrosion protection, electronic leak monitoring, and annual tank testing. These requirements, plus the financial responsibility requirements the EPA imposed on owners and users of below-ground tanks, led directly to a reconsideration of the use of above-ground tanks for some applications.

  4. Spent fuel storage. Facts booklet

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title to and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  5. Spent-fuel storage requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as current licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000.

  6. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

  7. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-689. Unknown Photographer, 1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  10. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  11. SOUTH ELEVATION OF IRRADIATED FUEL STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED IN FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF IRRADIATED FUEL STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED IN FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-15-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. NORTH ELEVATION OF IRRADIATED FUEL STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED IN FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF IRRADIATED FUEL STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED IN FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING SOUTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-16-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L.; Moore, E.N.

    2013-07-01

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage

  14. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  15. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  16. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  17. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  18. ITER fuel storage system conceptual design description

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Muller, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel, in the form of hydrogen isotopes Q{sub 2} (where Q is H, D, or T), is required to be stored and assayed in a safe manner at the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Two subsystems are proposed for this task: Fuel Storage (FS) and Fuel Management (FM). The combined system, Fuel Storage and Management System (FSMS), will provide fuel storage, tritium inventory, gas analysis, transfer pumping, and flow measurements. Presented is a Conceptual Design Description (CDD) of only the FS portion of the FSMS. The proposed FS system permits tritium and its associated isotopes to be stored within ZrCo storage beds, as a solid metal-hydride, or as a gas stored in tanks. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowsell, David Leon

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  20. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  1. Energy Storage Systems Are Coming: Are You Ready

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2015-12-05

    Energy storage systems (batteries) are not a new concept, but the technology being developed and introduced today with an increasing emphasis on energy storage, is new. The increased focus on energy, environmental and economic issues in the built environment is spurring increased application of renewables as well as reduction in peak energy use - both of which create a need for energy storage. This article provides an overview of current and anticipated energy storage technology, focusing on ensuring the safe application and use of energy storage on both the grid and customer side of the utility meter.

  2. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel handling and storage. 1917.156 Section 1917.156 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.156 Fuel handling and storage... and open flames shall be prohibited in areas used for fueling, fuel storage or enclosed storage...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel handling and storage. 1917.156 Section 1917.156 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.156 Fuel handling and storage... and open flames shall be prohibited in areas used for fueling, fuel storage or enclosed storage...

  4. Storage assembly for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, M.E.

    1982-04-27

    A technique for storing spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a housing including a closed inner chamber for containing the fuel rods and a thermally conductive member located partially within the housing chamber and partially outside the housing for transferring heat generated by the fuel rods from the chamber to the ambient surroundings. Particulate material is located within the chamber and surrounds the fuel rods contained therein. This material is selected to serve as a heat transfer media between the contained cells and the heat transferring member and, at the same time, stand ready to fuse into a solid mass around the contained cells if the heat transferring member malfunctions or otherwise fails to transfer the generated heat out of the housing chamber in a predetermined way.

  5. TRIGA spent-fuel storage criticality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnik, M.; Glumac, B.

    1996-06-01

    A criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for spent TRIGA Mark II reactor fuel is presented. Two independent computer codes are applied: the MCNP Monte Carlo code and the WIMS lattice cell code. Two types of fuel elements are considered: standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium concentration and FLIP fuel elements. A parametric study of spent-fuel storage lattice pitch, fuel element burnup, and water density is presented. Normal conditions and postulated accident conditions are analyzed. A strong dependence of the multiplication factor on the distance between the fuel elements and on the effective water density is observed. A multiplication factor <1 may be expected for an infinite array of fuel rods at center-to-center distances >6.5 cm, regardless of the fuel element type and burnup. At shorter distances, the subcriticality can be ensured only by adding absorbers to the array of fuel rods even if the fuel rods were burned to {approximately}20% burnup. The results of both codes agree well for normal conditions. The results show that WIMS may be used as a complement to the Monte Carlo code in some parts of the criticality analysis.

  6. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  7. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimates of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.

  8. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  9. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  10. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  11. Development of a COTS Mass Storage Unit for the Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggin, Karl; Clark, Porter

    1999-01-01

    The technology to develop a Mass Storage Unit (MSU) using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hard drives is an on-going challenge to meet the Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) program requirements. A conceptual view of SPARCLE's laser collecting atmospheric data from the shuttle is shown in Figure 1. The determination to develop this technology required several in depth studies before an actual COTS hard drive was selected to continue this effort. Continuing the development of the MSU can, and will, serve future NASA programs that require larger data storage and more on-board processing.

  12. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  13. 46 CFR 108.237 - Fuel storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel storage facilities. 108.237 Section 108.237... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.237 Fuel storage facilities. (a) Helicopter fuel storage tanks must be installed as far as practicable from— (1) The landing area; and...

  14. 46 CFR 108.237 - Fuel storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel storage facilities. 108.237 Section 108.237... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.237 Fuel storage facilities. (a) Helicopter fuel storage tanks must be installed as far as practicable from— (1) The landing area; and...

  15. 46 CFR 108.237 - Fuel storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel storage facilities. 108.237 Section 108.237... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.237 Fuel storage facilities. (a) Helicopter fuel storage tanks must be installed as far as practicable from— (1) The landing area; and...

  16. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  17. Options for the handling and storage of nuclear vessel spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, O.K.

    2002-04-18

    There are many options for the handling and storage of spent nuclear fuel from naval vessels. This paper summarizes the options that are available and explores the issues that are involved. In many cases choices have been made, not on the basis of which is the best engineering solution or the most cost-effective, but based on the political realities involved. For example, currently it seems that the most prevalent solution for spent fuel interim storage is in dual-purpose (transport-storage) casks. These casks are robust and, politically, they offer the visible evidence that the fuel is ''road-ready'' to be moved from the local area where the fuel is being stored in the interim. However, dual-purpose casks are the most expensive of the storage mediums. Drywell storage (storage in below grade or bermed pipes), on the other hand, the least expensive and most flexible storage option, suffers from an image of permanence (not politically acceptable) and from being improperly implemented in the past. Though these issues are easily resolved from a technical perspective, the option is often not seriously considered because of this past history. It wasn't too many years ago that spent fuel pools were the storage medium of choice. The pools were never intended for long term storage. As the ultimate disposal path for spent nuclear fuel (processing, repository) became bogged down, however, fuel remained stored in the pools for much longer than intended. Strategies (re-racking, consolidation) were employed to lengthen the storage life of the pools. In some cases, inadequate attention was paid to the wet storage and significant fuel degradation occurred. Pools were then unloaded into dual-purpose or storage only casks as required. It seems that decisions on spent fuel historically have been short sighted. It is time that the spent fuel situation needs to be evaluated for the long term from a systems perspective. Criteria for the evaluation must consider technical acceptability

  18. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel handling and storage. 1917.156 Section 1917.156 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.156 Fuel handling and storage. (a) Liquid fuel. (1) Only designated persons shall conduct fueling operations. (2) In case...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel handling and storage. 1917.156 Section 1917.156 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.156 Fuel handling and storage. (a) Liquid fuel. (1) Only designated persons shall conduct fueling operations. (2) In case...

  20. Nuclear reactor spent fuel storage rack

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, O.J.; Flynn, W.M.; Flanders, H.E. Jr.; Booker, L.W.

    1989-04-11

    A fuel rack is described for use in storing nuclear fuel assemblies in a nuclear fuel storage pool having a floor on which an upwardly projecting stud is mounted; the fuel rack comprising: a base structure at the lower end of the fuel rack including base-plate means having flow openings therein, the base-plate means supporting a first network of interlaced beams which form a multiplicity of polygonal openings; a second network of interlaced beams forming polygonal openings positioned in spaced vertical alignment with corresponding polygonal openings in the first network of beams; a plurality of cells, each cell having sides bounded by inner and outer surfaces and being of a size and configuration designed to hold therein a fuel assembly, each cell positioned in a corresponding pair of the aligned polygonal openings, each cell being open at both ends with a guiding funnel at the upper end, and the cells being positioned over the flow openings in the base-plate to permit flow of coolant through the cells; spaced, outwardly directed, projections on the outer surfaces of the sides of the cells near the tops and bottoms of the sides thereof, each cell being sized to be received within a corresponding of the pair of aligned polygonal openings in which the cells are respectively positioned; and means fixedly securing the projections to the beams in the first and second networks of beams thereby to provide a substantially rigid fuel rack of modular design.

  1. FACILITY LAYOUT OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603) SHOWING STORAGE BASINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY LAYOUT OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) SHOWING STORAGE BASINS, FUEL ELEMENT CUTTING FACILITY, AND DRY GRAPHITE STORAGE FACILITY. INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-00-030-056329. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations.

  3. Storage of spent fuel from the nation`s nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the ``spent fuel`` elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  4. Storage of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the spent fuel'' elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  5. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  6. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Electricity Storage and the Hydrogen-Chlorine Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugolo, Jason Steven

    Electricity storage is an essential component of the transforming energy marketplace. Its absence at any significant scale requires that electricity producers sit ready to respond to every flick of a switch, constantly adjusting power production to meet demand. The dispatchable electricity production technologies that currently enable this type of market are growing unpopular because of their carbon emissions. Popular methods to move away from fossil fuels are wind and solar power. These sources also happen to be the least dispatchable. Electricity storage can solve that problem. By overproducing during sunlight to store energy for evening use, or storing during windy periods for delivery in future calm ones, electricity storage has the potential to allow intermittent renewable sources to constitute a large portion of our electricity mix. I investigate the variability of wind in Chapter 2, and show that the variability is not significantly reduced by geographically distributing power production over the entire country of the Netherlands. In Chapter 3, I calculate the required characteristics of a linear-response, constant activity storage technology to map wind and solar production scenarios onto several different supply scenarios for a range of specified system efficiencies. I show that solid electrode batteries have two orders of magnitude too little energy per unit power to be well suited for renewable balancing and emphasize the value of the modular separation between the power and energy components of regenerative fuel cell technologies. In Chapter 4 I introduce the regenerative hydrogen-chlorine fuel cell (rHCFC), which is a specific technology that shows promise for the above applications. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations, we have made and tested 6 different rHCFCs. In order to understand the relative importance of the different inefficiencies in the rHCFC, Chapter 5 introduces a complex temperature and concentration dependent model of the r

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall

  9. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  10. PLOT PLAN OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603) SHOWING STORAGE BASINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLOT PLAN OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) SHOWING STORAGE BASINS AND PROPOSED LOCATION OF FUEL ELEMENT CUTTING FACILITY. INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-00-706-051287. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-C-1287. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  12. Hanford single-pass reactor fuel storage basin demolition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jason A

    2003-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Contractor at the Hanford Site is tasked with removing auxiliary reactor structures and leaving the remaining concrete structure surrounding each reactor core. This is referred to as Interim Safe Storage. Part of placing the F Reactor into Interim Safe Storage is the demolition of the fuel storage basin, which was deactivated in 1970 by placing debris material into the basin prior to back filling with soil. Besides the debris material (wooden floor decking, handrails, and monorail pieces), the fuel storage basin contents included the possibility of spent nuclear fuel, fuel buckets, fuel spacers, process tubes, and tongs. Demolition of the fuel storage basin offered many unique radiological control challenges and innovative approaches to demolition. This paper describes how the total effective dose equivalent and contamination were controlled, how the use of a remote operated excavator was employed to remove high-dose-rate material, and how wireless technology was used to monitor changing radiological conditions. PMID:12564339

  13. Hanford Single-Pass Reactor Fuel Storage Basin Demolition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jason A.

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT The Environmental Restoration Contractor at the Hanford Site is tasked with removing auxiliary reactor structures and leaving the remaining concrete structure surrounding each reactor core. This is referred to as Interim Safe Storage. Part of placing the F Reactor into Interim Safe Storage is the demolition of the fuel storage basin, which was deactivated in 1970 by placing debris material into the basin prior to back filling with soil. Besides the debris material (wooden floor decking, handrails, and monorail pieces), the fuel storage basin contents included the possibility of spent nuclear fuel, fuel buckets, fuel spacers, process tubes, and tongs. Demolition of the fuel storage basin offered many unique radiological control challenges and innovative approaches to demolition. This paper describes how the total effective dose equivalent and contamination were controlled, how the use of a remote operated excavator was employed to remove high-dose-rate material, and how wireless technology was used to monitor changing radiological conditions. PMID:12555029

  14. Bases for extrapolating materials durability in fuel storage pools

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A major body of evidence indicates that zirconium alloys have the most consistent and reliable durability in wet storage, justifying projections of safe wet storage greater than 50 y. Aluminum alloys have the widest range of durabilities in wet storage; systematic control and monitoring of water chemistry have resulted in low corrosion rates for more than two decades on some fuels and components. However, cladding failures have occurred in a few months when important parameters were not controlled. Stainless steel is extremely durable when stress, metallurgical and water chemistry factors are controlled. LWR SS cladding has survived for 25 y in wet storage. However, sensitized, stressed SS fuels and components have seriously degraded in fuel storage pools (FSPs) at {approximately} 30 C. Satisfactory durability of fuel assembly and FSP component materials in extended wet storage requires investments in water quality management and surveillance, including chemical and biological factors. The key aspect of the study is to provide storage facility operators and other decision makers a basis to judge the durability of a given fuel type in wet storage as a prelude to basing other fuel management plans (e.g. dry storage) if wet storage will not be satisfactory through the expected period of interim storage.

  15. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  16. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy. PMID:22712483

  17. Spent fuel storage and management in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    During the past 33 years, fuel of various types have been stored, transported and reprocessed in the United Kingdom. This paper provides an overview of those programs starting from the Magnox stations, through the AGR program and the move to LWR fuel. Throughout this time BNFL has provided services for fuel storage, reprocessing, transportation and the enrichment and fabrication of new fuel. The development of new plants and processes to handle the changing fuel types and the associated waste management schemes will be addressed. A description of future plans for fuel storage and reprocessing is included.

  18. 17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied from a photograph by Thomas S. Bronson, 'Group at Whitney Factory, 5 November 1906,' NHCHSL. The most reliable view of the fuel storage sheds and foundry, together with a view of the forge building. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  20. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kenneth J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities.

  1. Recommissioned German refinery ready to meet tough fuels, emissions specs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-09

    In November and December 1991, Beta Raffinerie-gesellschaft Wilhelmshaven MBH restarted the mothballed refinery at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. The refurbished refinery is sophisticated enough to produce high-grade, low-sulfur fuels and meet stringent emissions specifications, even when processing high-sulfur crudes. Located on Jade Bay in northern Germany near Wilhelmshaven, the Beta facility is the only refinery in Germany on a deep-water port. Refurbishment and recommissioning took only about 1 year. The primary steps were: detailed visual/ultrasonic inspection; reassembly or replacement of all pumps; replacement of much of the piping and installment of new piping to improve tank farm flexibility; disassembly and reassembly of all jetty booms and dredging of the jetty; sandblasting and relining of all tanks, installation of double seals, and replacement of various tank bottoms; conversion or upgrading of several tanks to other uses; strengthening of LPG spheres and covering them with concrete casements; reactivating the Foxboro control system for startup (the system is now being replaced with another system); complete overhauling of all process units, replacement of drawers in towers, rotors, and other equipment, and debottlenecking of process units to achieve higher throughputs; upgrading of al furnaces and heaters, as required, and re-equipping; them with low-NO[sub x] burners; installation of a stack-emissions measurement control system; removal of all asbestos gaskets and replacing them with non asbestos gaskets, and renewal of rail and truck-loading automation and installation of bottom-loading and vapor-recovery systems.

  2. Department of Energy study on spent nuclear fuel storage

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This report defines the needs for storage facilities and identifies possible sites in three regions of the US where such facilities could be located. The three sites are: Barnwell, South Carolina; Morris, Illinois; and West Valley, New York. This report includes consideration of the technical, economic, and regulatory factors associated with providing spent fuel storage in existing or potential at-reactor storage pools, and in AFR storage pools. This determination was based on specific data regarding the storage capacity needed to accommodate spent fuel from reactor pools by January 1, 1985, that the utilities would be unable to provide for themselves.

  3. International status of dry storage of spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Spent fuel from the world`s nuclear power reactors, or the high-level radioactive wastes from reprocessing of the spent fuels, are planned to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories in the respective countries of origin. The plans for most countries with nuclear power call for spent fuel or high-level waste disposal to start between 2010 and about 2050. Although storage in water pools is the primary method for management of spent nuclear fuels for the first few years after discharge from the reactor, dry storage has been implemented in several countries and is being considered in others. Dry storage is generally planned for an interim period (from 10 to as long as 100 years) until the spent fuel is disposed of or until a final decision is made on reprocessing. Dry storage is also being used to supplement wet storage capacity at some nuclear power stations. This paper summarizes the world-wide status of dry spent fuel storage and information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel based on experience, particularly for Zircaloy-clad fuels. The paper also addresses briefly the dry storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes. This paper is based on work carried out for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  4. International status of dry storage of spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Spent fuel from the world's nuclear power reactors, or the high-level radioactive wastes from reprocessing of the spent fuels, are planned to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories in the respective countries of origin. The plans for most countries with nuclear power call for spent fuel or high-level waste disposal to start between 2010 and about 2050. Although storage in water pools is the primary method for management of spent nuclear fuels for the first few years after discharge from the reactor, dry storage has been implemented in several countries and is being considered in others. Dry storage is generally planned for an interim period (from 10 to as long as 100 years) until the spent fuel is disposed of or until a final decision is made on reprocessing. Dry storage is also being used to supplement wet storage capacity at some nuclear power stations. This paper summarizes the world-wide status of dry spent fuel storage and information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel based on experience, particularly for Zircaloy-clad fuels. The paper also addresses briefly the dry storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes. This paper is based on work carried out for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  5. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage

    DOEpatents

    Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2004-03-23

    A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

  7. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage.

  8. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  9. Phenolic profile evolution of different ready-to-eat baby-leaf vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, J; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2014-01-31

    Ready-to-eat baby-leaf vegetables market has been growing and offering to consumers convenient, healthy and appealing products, which may contain interesting bioactive compounds. In this work, the composition and the evolution of the phenolic compounds from different baby-leaf vegetables during refrigerated storage was studied. The phenolic compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the phenolic profile of each sample was analyzed and quantified by using LC-MS and LC-DAD methods, respectively, at the beginning and at the end of a 10-day storage period. The baby-leaf vegetables studied included green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, swiss chard, spinach, pea shoots, watercress, garden cress, mizuna, red mustard, wild rocket and spearmint samples and a total of 203 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The main naturally phenolic compounds identified correspond to glycosylated flavonoids, with exception of green lettuce and spearmint leaves which had a higher content of hydroxycinnamic acids. Quantification of the main compounds showed a 10-fold higher content of total phenolic content of ruby red lettuce (483mgg(-1)) in relation to the other samples, being the lowest values found in the garden cress (12.8mgg(-1)) and wild rocket leaves (8.1mgg(-1)). The total phenolic content only showed a significant change (p<0.05) after storage in the green lettuce (+17.5%), mizuna (+7.8%), red mustard (-23.7%) and spearmint (-13.8%) leaves. Within the different classes of phenolic compounds monitored, the flavonols showed more stable contents than the hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, although the behavior of each compound varied strongly among samples. PMID:24438834

  10. Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2002-07-01

    The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

  11. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of sealed storage cask containing spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitten, P.F.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-08-01

    A PWR spent fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in a instrumented above surface storage cell during December 1978 for thermal testing. Instrumentation provided to measure canister, liner and concrete temperatures consisted of thermocouples which were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and liner and in three radial positions in the concrete. Temperatures from the SSC test assembly have been recorded throughout the past 16 months. Canister and liner temperatures have reached their peak values of 200{sup 0}F and 140{sup 0}F, respectively. Computer predictions of the transient and steady-state temperatures show good agreement with the test data.

  12. Status of Spent Fuel Storage at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bickley, D.W.

    2001-09-14

    As Savannah River Site continues to be the primary receipt and storage facility for Aluminum based research reactor fuel, a number of facility improvements continue to be implemented which enhance the storage facilities while reducing the long term operating cost. The L basin facility improvements include projects which allow handling of the TN7/2 and LWT casks, a new sandfilter, and a project to modernize the cask handling cranes. Also, a project is under construction that will demonstrate the ability of a melt-dilute process to prepare research reactor fuel for disposal in a national repository. In an effort to provide the most cost effective long term storage of material, a project is underway to de-inventory the RBOF storage basin and provide storage for all future research reactor fuels in L basin.

  13. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  14. Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost -- Reactant storage options

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (>20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  15. Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost: Reactant storage options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (greater than 20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  16. Estimating parametric distributions of storage time and temperature of ready-to-eat foods for U.S. households.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Lubran, Meryl B; Cates, Sheryl C; Dennis, Sherri

    2010-02-01

    Home refrigeration temperatures and product storage times are important factors for controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. In 2005, RTI International, in collaboration with Tennessee State University and Kansas State University, conducted a national survey of U.S. adults to characterize consumers' home storage and refrigeration practices for 10 different categories of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. No distributions of storage time or refrigeration temperature were presented in any of the resulting publications. This study used classical parametric survival modeling to derive parametric distributions from the RTI International storage practices data set. Depending on the food category, variability in product storage times was best modeled using either exponential or Weibull distributions. The shape and scale of the distributions varied greatly depending on the food category. Moreover, the results indicated that consumers tend to keep a product that is packaged by a manufacturer for a longer period of time than a product that is packaged at retail. Refrigeration temperatures were comparable to those previously reported, with the variability in temperatures best fit using a Laplace distribution, as an alternative to the empirical distribution. In contrast to previous research, limited support was found for a correlation between storage time and temperature. The distributions provided in this study can be used to better model consumer behavior in future risk assessments. PMID:20132677

  17. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  18. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-03-09

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH.

  19. Foreign experience in extended dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Most countries with nuclear power are planning for spent nuclear fuel (or high-level waste from reprocessing of spent fuel) to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories starting in the time period of about 2010 to 2050. While spent fuel has been stored in water basins for the early years after discharge from the reactors, interim dry storage for extended periods (i.e., several tens of years) is being implemented or considered in an increasing number of countries. Dry storage technology is generally considered to be developed on a world-wide basis, and is being initiated and/ or expanded in a number of countries. This paper presents a summary of status and experience in dry storage of spent fuel in other countries, with emphasis on zirconium-clad fuels. Past activities, current status, future plans, research and development, and experience in dry storage are summarized for Argentina, Canada, France, former West Germany, former East Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. Conclusions from their experience are presented. Their experience to date supports the expectations that proper dry storage should provide for safe extended dry storage of spent fuel.

  20. Minimum criticality dose evaluation for the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    The Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The mission of the facility is to provide safe dry storage for various types of irradiated fuels. Included are fuel elements such as irradiated ATR, EBR, MTR, Fort St. Vrain, TRIGA, and ROVER Parka fuels. Fuels requiring dry storage are received at the IFSF in fuel-shipping casks. At the facility receiving dock, the casks are removed from the transport vehicle, positioned in a cask transport car, and moved into the fuel-handling cave. Several functions are performed in the fuel-handling cave, including transferring fuel from shipping casks to storage canisters, preparing fuel elements for storage and processing. The minimum postulated criticality dose calculations were performed for the cask-receiving and fuel-handling areas to place criticality alarm system (CAS) detectors. The number of fissions for the minimum accident of concern is based on a dose of 20-rad air at 2 m in 1 min. The eigenvalue calculations were first performed to determine the size of the critical source. Then, two sets of fixed-source calculations were followed to calculate contributions from neutron and capture gamma rays and from prompt gamma rays. Two sets of MCNP calculations involved point and spherical critical sources. Validity of the Monte Carlo results was tested against ANISN deterministic calculations. The flux-to-dose conversion factors are based on ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977. All of the MCNP runs used continuous-energy ENDF/B-V cross sections. The BUGLE-80 cross-section library was used for the ANISN calculations.

  1. Hydrogen Storage in Diamond Powder Utilizing Plasma NaF Surface Treatment for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, David A.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Velez, Angel; Prelas, Mark A.; Gosh, Tushar

    2006-12-04

    Hydrogen Fuel Cells offer the vital solution to the world's socio-political dependence on oil. Due to existing difficulty in safe and efficient hydrogen storage for fuel cells, storing the hydrogen in hydrocarbon compounds such as artificial diamond is a realistic solution. By treating the surface of the diamond powder with a Sodium Fluoride plasma exposure, the surface of the diamond is cleaned of unwanted molecules. Due to fluorine's electro negativity, the diamond powder is activated and ready for hydrogen absorption. These diamond powder pellets are then placed on a graphite platform that is heated by conduction in a high voltage circuit made of tungsten wire. Then, the injection of hydrogen gas into chamber allows the storage of the Hydrogen on the surface of the diamond powder. By neutron bombardment in the nuclear reactor, or Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis, the samples are examined for parts per million amounts of hydrogen in the sample. Sodium Fluoride surface treatment allows for higher mass percentage of stored hydrogen in a reliable, resistant structure, such as diamond for fuel cells and permanently alters the diamonds terminal bonds for re-use in the effective storage of hydrogen. The highest stored amount utilizing the NaF plasma surface treatment was 22229 parts per million of hydrogen in the diamond powder which amounts to 2.2229% mass increase.

  2. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EMPLACEMENT STEEL BEAMS FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EMPLACEMENT STEEL BEAMS FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) LOOKING EAST. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-1371. Unknown Photographer, 1/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 82. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE AND TRANSFER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE AND TRANSFER CONTROL SKID (SKID 2) ON SOUTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON SOUTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON. CORNER OF CONTROL SKID VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 11. The work area of a typical fuel storage and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. The work area of a typical fuel storage and transfer basin. The wooden floor was built over the 20-foot deep water-filled basin. Buckets filled with irradiated fuel of dummy slugs in the floor and were hung on trolleys attached to the monorail tracks suspended from the ceiling. 85-H807 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  6. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  7. Safety issues of dry fuel storage at RSWF

    SciTech Connect

    Clarksean, R.L.; Zahn, T.P.

    1995-02-01

    Safety issues associated with the dry storage of EBR-II spent fuel are presented and discussed. The containers for the fuel have been designed to prevent a leak of fission gases to the environment. The storage system has four barriers for the fission gases. These barriers are the fuel cladding, an inner container, an outer container, and the liner at the RSWF. Analysis has shown that the probability of a leak to the environment is much less than 10{sup {minus}6} per year, indicating that such an event is not considered credible. A drop accident, excessive thermal loads, criticality, and possible failure modes of the containers are also addressed.

  8. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  9. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  10. Operational Readiness Review Implementation Plan for the K Basin Fuel Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIES, T.H.

    2002-09-23

    This implementation plan has been prepared to comply with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 425.1A, Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities, and DOE-STD-3006-2000, Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR) (DOE 2002). The scope of the ORR is described in the contractor K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS) Plan of Action (POA), which was prepared by Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project line management and approved by the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) Manager on April 4, 2002 (FH 2002a). While the Project Hanford Management Contractor has been revised to include DOE Order 425.1B, the contractor implementing procedure, ''F-PRO-055, Startup Readiness (Revision 9) has not yet been approved by RL for contractor use. Appendix A provides a crosswalk between the requirements of DOE Order 425.1A and DOE Order 425.1B to show that all requirements of DOE 425.1B are covered by this implementation plan. DOE Order 425.1B indicates that the Secretarial Officer is the Authorization Authority when substantial modifications are made to a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility. This Authorization Authority has been delegated to the RL Manager by memorandum from Jessie Hill Roberson, dated November 20, 2001 (Roberson 2001). The scope of the ORR is described in the RL Plan of Action, K Basin Fuel Transfer System, prepared by DOE project line management and approved by the RL Manager, the designated approval authority, on September 12, 2002 (Schlender 2002). This implementation plan provides the overall approach and guidelines for performance of the DOE ORR. Appendix B contains the Criteria and Review Approach Documents (CRAD), which define the review objectives and criteria as well as the approach for assessing each objective. ORR results will be published in a final report, as discussed in Section 9.4.

  11. Spent fuel storage: Progress with modular vault dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, C.C.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) for spent fuels at the Wylfa nuclear power plant in North Wales and at Fort St Vrain in Colorado. It goes on to discuss Scottish Nuclear`s decision not to proceed with MVDS facilities. It concludes by discussing Paks NPP contract with GEC Alsthom for the design and safety case for MDVS.

  12. Safeguarding spent fuel storage and final disposal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Weh, R.; Wogatzki, E. )

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the Atomic Energy Act provides for the spent fuel generated by nuclear power reactors to be reprocessed, if this is technically safe and economically viable. Thus the major share of used fuel from the German reactors is brought to reprocessing. The fuel recovered in this process is intended to be recycled into suitable reactors. The actual reprocessing is carried out abroad, in preference to a domestic solution, and the residues returned to Germany. This paper describes safeguarding measures for spent fuel storage and final disposal activities that are employed in Germany.

  13. Spent fuel storage and waste management fuel cycle optimization using CAFCA

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, S.; Kazimi, M.

    2013-07-01

    Spent fuel storage modeling is at the intersection of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics and waste management policy. A model that captures the economic parameters affecting used nuclear fuel storage location options, which complements fuel cycle economic assessment has been created using CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycles Assessment) of MIT. Research has also expanded to the study on dependency of used nuclear fuel storage economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Storage options costs can be compared to literature values with simple variation available for sensitivity study. Additionally, a first of a kind optimization scheme for the nuclear fuel cycle analysis is proposed and the applications of such an optimization are discussed. The main tradeoff for fuel cycle optimization was found to be between economics and most of the other identified metrics. (authors)

  14. Storage of fuel in hydrates for natural gas vehicles (NGVs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yevi, G.Y.; Rogers, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    The need for alternative fuels to replace liquid petroleum-based fuels has been accelerated in recent years by environmental concerns, concerns of shortage of imported liquid hydrocarbon, and congressional prompting. The fact is accepted that natural gas is the cheapest, most domestically abundant, and cleanest burning of fossil fuels. However, socio-economical and technical handicaps associated with the safety and efficiency of on-board fuel storage inhibit its practical use in vehicles as an alternative fuel. A concept is presented for safely storing fuel at low pressures in the form of hydrates in natural gas vehicles. Experimental results lead to gas storage capacities of 143 to 159 volumes/volume. Vehicle travel range could be up to 204 mi. Controlled decomposition rate of hydrates is possible for feeding an automotive vehicle. Upon sudden pressure decrease in the event of a vehicle accident, the rate of release of hydrocarbons from the hydrates at constant temperature is 2.63 to 12.50% per min, slow enough to prevent an explosion or a fireball. A model is given for predicting the rates of gas release from hydrates in a vehicle wreck. A storage tank design is proposed and a process is suggested for forming and decomposing hydrates on-board vehicles. A consistent fuel composition is obtained with hydrates.

  15. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  16. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, R.F.

    1995-05-11

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ``hot cell rot``, may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ``Hot cell rot`` refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ``hot cell rot`` phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  19. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-only status and has spent fuel onsite, and for each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72... possession-only status that has spent fuel onsite, and to each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72... storage licenses. 171.15 Section 171.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES...

  20. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-only status and has spent fuel onsite, and for each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72... that has spent fuel onsite, and to each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72 licensee who does... storage licenses. 171.15 Section 171.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES...

  1. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  2. Remote inspection of the IFSF spent fuel storage rack

    SciTech Connect

    Uldrich, E.D.

    1996-05-01

    The Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) is a dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuels located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant; it was constructed in the 1970`s specifically for the Fort Saint Vrain spent reactor fuels. Currently, it is being used for various spent fuels. It was not known if IFSF would met current DOE seismic criteria, so re-analysis was started, with the rack being analyzed first. The rack was inspected to determine the as-built condition. LazrLyne and VideoRuler were used in lieu of using a tape measure with the camera. It was concluded that when a visual inspection shows widely varying weld sizes, the engineer has to use all resources available to determine the most probable specified weld sizes.

  3. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code, which is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent nuclear fuel storage and transportation systems. The decay heat generated by spent fuel in a dry storage cask is removed through a combination of conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. One major advantage of COBRA-SFS is that fluid recirculation within the cask is computed directly by solving the mass and momentum conservation equations. In addition, thermal radiation heat transfer is modeled using detailed radiation exchange factors based on quarter-rod segments. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows are presented, and the semi-implicit solution method is described. COBRA-SFS predictions are compared to temperature data from a spent fuel storage cask test and the effect of different fill media on the cladding temperature distribution is discussed. The effect of spent fuel consolidation on cask thermal performance is also investigated. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. COBRA-SFS. Thermal Analysis Spent Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS is used for steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of spent fuel storage systems as well as other heat transfer and fluid flow problems. It is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions under a wide range of flow conditions, including mixed and natural convection. Two auxiliary programs, RADX1 and RADGEN, generate blackbody view factors and calculate radiation exchange factors for unconsolidated spent fuel assemblies to be supplied as input to COBRA-SFS.

  5. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  6. The shutdown reactor: Optimizing spent fuel storage cost

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have indicated that the most prudent way to store fuel at a shutdown reactor site safely and economically is through the use of a dry storage facility licensed under 10CFR72. While such storage is certainly safe, is it true that the dry ISFSI represents the safest and most economical approach for the utility? While no one is really able to answer that question definitely, as yet, Holtec has studied this issue for some time and believes that both an economic and safety case can be made for an optimization strategy that calls for the use of both wet and dry ISFSI storage of spent fuel at some plants. For the sake of brevity, this paper summarizes some of Holtec`s findings with respect to the economics of maintaining some fuel in wet storage at a shutdown reactor. The safety issue, or more importantly the perception of safety of spent fuel in wet storage, still varies too much with the eye of the beholder, and until a more rigorous presentation of safety analyses can be made in a regulatory setting, it is not practically useful to argue about how many angels can sit on the head of a safety-related pin. Holtec is prepared to present such analyses, but this does not appear to be the proper venue. Thus, this paper simply looks at certain economic elements of a wet ISFSI at a shutdown reactor to make a prima facie case that wet storage has some attractiveness at a shutdown reactor and should not be rejected out of hand. Indeed, an optimization study at certain plants may well show the economic vitality of keeping some fuel in the pool and converting the NRC licensing coverage from 10CFR50 to 10CFR72. If the economics look attractive, then the safety issue may be confronted with a compelling interest.

  7. Operational Readiness Review Final Report for Implementation of an Increased Facility Radioactive Source Inventory Limit & Shippingport Fuel 07/2002

    SciTech Connect

    RICHINS, C.R.

    2002-08-15

    An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for those activities associated with the removal of Shippingport fuel from the 271-T Facility (T Plant) as a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility and the readiness of T Plant to operate within the revised safety basis (SB) inventory limits. The DOE ORR was conducted in two parts in accordance with the T Plant Operational Readiness Review DOE-RL Plan of Action. The DOE team observed the dry run of the Shippingport fuel removal process, in conjunction with the contractor ORR of June 2002. Autonomously, the DOE Team completed the ORR in July 2002 by determining the adequacy of the contractor's final ORR (CORR); conducting a sampling of T Plant procedures and processes to validate the CORR; and, observation of a dry run that demonstrated the ability of T Plant to seal a Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister. The DOE ORR Team has concluded that T Plant has demonstrated an appropriate state of readiness and recommends the RL Manager authorize Fluor Hanford to implement the revised safety basis (SB) inventory limits and begin Shippingport fuel removal operations as a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility. The team further concludes that an adequate level of protection for the worker, public health and safety, and the environment is inherent in the T Plant operations. T Plant has demonstrated an enhanced safety culture. Although there is room for improvement in the T Plant operations as represented by the findings and observations annotated in the body of the report, the overall operation has demonstrated a high degree of professionalism and a discipline of operations that bodes well for the current efforts and future endeavors.

  8. Decontamination of FAST (CPP-666) fuel storage area stainless steel fuel storage racks

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate alternatives for the decontamination of the RSM stainless steel that will be removed from the Idaho Chemical Processing plant (ICPP) fuel storage area (FSA) located in the FAST (CPP-666) building, and to recommend decontamination alternatives for treating this material. Upon the completion of a literature search, the review of the pertinent literature, and based on the review of a variety of chemical, mechanical, and compound (both chemical and mechanical) decontamination techniques, the preliminary results of analyses of FSA critically barrier contaminants, and the data collected during the FSA Reracking project, it was concluded that decontamination and beneficial recycle of the FSA stainless steel produced is technically feasible and likely to be cost effective as compared to burying the material at the RWMC. It is recommended that an organic acid, or commercial product containing an organic acid, be used to decontaminate the FSA stainless steel; however, it is also recommended that other surface decontamination methods be tested in the event that this method proves unsuitable. Among the techniques that should be investigated are mechanical techniques (CO{sub 2} pellet blasting and ultra-high pressure water blasting) and chemical techniques that are compatible with present ICPP waste streams.

  9. REVIEW OF FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) FUEL EXPERIMENTS FOR STORAGE IN INTERIM STORAGE CASKS (ISC)

    SciTech Connect

    CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2005-10-24

    Appendix H, Section H.3.3.10.11 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), provides the limits to be observed for fueled components authorized for storage in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel storage system. Currently, the authorization basis allows standard driver fuel assemblies (DFA), as described in the FSAR Chapter 17, Section 17.5.3.1, to be stored provided decay power per assembly is {le} 250 watts, post-irradiation time is four years minimum, average assembly burn-up is 150,000 MWD/MTHM maximum and the pre-irradiation enrichment is 29.3% maximum (per H.3.3.10.11). In addition, driver evaluation (DE), core characterizer assemblies (CCA), and run-to-cladding-breach (RTCB) assemblies are included based on their similarities to a standard DFA. Ident-69 pin containers with fuel pins from these DFAs can also be stored. Section H.3.3.10.11 states that fuel types outside the specification criteria above will be addressed on a case-by-case basis. There are many different types of fuel and blanket experiments that were irradiated in the FFTF which now require offload to the spent fuel storage system. Two reviews were completed for a portion of these special type fuel components to determine if placement into the Core Component Container (CCC)/Interim Storage Cask (ISC) would require any special considerations or changes to the authorization basis. Project mission priorities coupled with availability of resources and analysts prevented these evaluations from being completed as a single effort. Areas of review have included radiological accident release consequences, radiological shielding adequacy, criticality safety, thermal limits, confinement, and stress. The results of these reviews are available in WHC-SD-FF-RPT-005, Rev. 0 and 1, ''Review of FFTF Fuel Experiments for Storage at ISA'', (Reference I), which subsequently allowed a large portion of these components to be included in the authorization basis (Table H.3.3-21). The report also identified

  10. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in

  11. 16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, c.1918 Photocopied from a photograph in the collection of William F. Applegate, 43 Grandview Avenue, Wallingford, Connecticut. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin.

  13. Successful Deployment of System for the Storage and Retrieval of Spent/Used Nuclear Fuel from Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin-13051

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, Roger; Smith, Sahid; Blackford, Leonard Ty; Johnson, Mike W.; Raymond, Richard; Sullivan, Neal; Sloughter, Jim

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, a system was deployed to remove, transport, and interim store chemically reactive and highly radioactive sludge material from the Hanford Site's 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin that will be managed as spent/used nuclear fuel. The Knockout Pot (KOP) sludge in the 105-K West Basin was a legacy issue resulting from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) washing process applied to 2200 metric tons of highly degraded fuel elements following long-term underwater storage. The washing process removed uranium metal and other non-uranium constituents that could pass through a screen with 0.25-inch openings; larger pieces are, by definition, SNF or fuel scrap. When originally retrieved, KOP sludge contained pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging from 600 microns (μm) to 6350 μm mixed with inert material such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum wire, and graphite in the same size range. In 2011, a system was developed, tested, successfully deployed and operated to pre-treat KOP sludge as part of 105-K West Basin cleanup. The pretreatment process successfully removed the vast majority of inert material from the KOP sludge stream and reduced the remaining volume of material by approximately 65 percent, down to approximately 50 liters of material requiring management as used fuel. The removal of inert material resulted in significant waste minimization and project cost savings because of the reduced number of transportation/storage containers and improvement in worker safety. The improvement in worker safety is a result of shorter operating times and reduced number of remote handled shipments to the site fuel storage facility. Additionally in 2011, technology development, final design, and cold testing was completed on the system to be used in processing and packaging the remaining KOP material for removal from the basin in much the same manner spent fuel was removed. This system was deployed and successfully operated from June through September 2012, to remove and package the last

  14. Cryogenic reactant storage for lunar base regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    1989-01-01

    There are major advantages to be gained by integrating a cryogenic reactant storage system with a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC) to provide on-site electrical power during the lunar night. Although applicable to any power system using hydrogen-oxygen RFC's for energy storage, cryogenic reactant storage offers a significant benefit whenever the sun/shade cycle and energy storage period approach hundreds of hours. For solar power installations on the moon, cryogenic reactant storage reduces overall specific mass and meteoroid vulnerability of the system. In addition, it offers synergistic benefits to on-site users, such as availability of primary fuel cell reactants for surface rover vehicles and cryogenic propellants for OTV's. The integration involves processing and storing the RFC reactant streams as cryogenic liquids rather than pressurized gases, so that reactant containment (tankage per unit mass of reactants) can be greatly reduced. Hydrogen-oxygen alkaline RFC's, GaAs photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and space cryogenic processing/refrigeration technologies are assumed to be available for the conceptual system design. Advantages are demonstrated by comparing the characteristics of two power system concepts: a conventional lunar surface PV/RFC power system using pressurized gas storage in SOA filament wound pressure vessels and, that same system with gas liquefaction and storage replacing the pressurized storage. Comparisons are made at 20 and 250 kWe. Although cryogenic storage adds a processing plant (drying and liquefaction) to the system plus 30 percent more solar array to provide processing power, the approximate order of magnitude reduction in tankage mass, confirmed by this analysis, results in a reduction in overall total system mass of approximately 50 percent.

  15. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Romanato, L.S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  16. Studies on processing, consumer survey and storage stability of a ready-to-reconstitute fish cutlet mix.

    PubMed

    Shaviklo, G Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Pourreza, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    A convenience ready-to-reconstitute cutlet mix containing 30% fish protein powder was developed to improve the nutritional quality of the product. Consumer survey was based on the home use test (HUT) method. The acceptance of the fish cutlet mix (FCM) was studied using a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from 1 (extremely dislike) to 9 (extremely like). Product's characteristics and stability were studied during 6 months of storage at 27 ± 2 °C. The FCM packed in a polyethylene bag and cardboard box was stable during the storage period. There were no changes in colour, moisture gain and water activity, and TBARS values remained low. The FCM was accepted by the consumers in the study (n = 85). The average liking was high (7.5 ± 1.3) and it was influenced by frequency of fish and chicken consumption, educational level and household size. People who ate fish once a week liked the product more than other consumers. Also those with higher educational level and bigger household size. The results in this paper are important information for companies planning to develop ready-to-eat products fortified with fish proteins. The products could be means of increasing fish consumption in countries/areas where there is no tradition of consuming fresh or frozen fish. PMID:24425996

  17. Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, R.H.

    1997-05-30

    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

  18. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks...

  1. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only status and has spent fuel onsite, and each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72 licensee... onsite, and to each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72 licensee who does not hold a 10 CFR... storage licenses. 171.15 Section 171.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES...

  2. 78 FR 40199 - Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests public comment on Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim... Integrity for Continued Storage of High Burnup Fuel Beyond 20 Years.'' The draft SFST-ISG provides...

  3. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.236 Specific requirements for... storage cask, maximum heat designed to be dissipated, maximum spent fuel loading limit, condition of...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. 1304.405 Section 1304.405 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.405 Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. Fuel storage tanks...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. 1304.405 Section 1304.405 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.405 Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. Fuel storage tanks...

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-10-18

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  7. Quality changes of ready-to-eat ginseng chicken porridge during storage at 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Keun Taik

    2012-12-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken porridge was heated in a retort with an F-value of 4.0 after being packaged in a gas-tight plastic tray (PP/EVOH/PP) with top film (PET/PA/CPP). Various quality changes were investigated during the storage for 28 weeks at 25 °C. Over the storage period, microorganisms were not detected above 1.0 log cfu/cm² (detection limit). The viscosity increased sharply from 775 to 2025 cp for initial 4 weeks and increased steadily until 16 weeks, with a slight reduction thereafter. During the 28 weeks of storage, the ratio of residual oxygen and pH decreased from 10.8% and 6.49 to 5.7% and 6.05, while retrogradation degree increased from 0% to 55.9%. Hunter L*, b*, and ΔE values increased until 20 weeks and remained for the rest of storage. Based on sensory, microbiological and physicochemical evaluations, the RTE ginseng chicken porridge could be marketable for at least 24 weeks at 25 °C. PMID:22717223

  8. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  9. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage-Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupta, Ian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy-density regenerative fuel cell systems that are used for energy storage require novel approaches to integrating components in order to preserve mass and volume. A lightweight unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) energy storage system concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system minimizes mass by using the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes, which are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different-sized commercial-grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage tank-radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. In the future, the results will be incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, spacerated carbon composite tanks.

  10. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, D.R.

    1993-03-23

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  11. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  12. Fail-safe storage rack for fuel rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.R.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses a fail-safe storage rack which is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  13. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  14. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  15. Characteristics of fuel crud and its impact on storage, handling, and shipment of spent fuel. [Fuel crud

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-09-01

    Corrosion products, called ''crud,'' form on out-of-reactor surfaces of nuclear reactor systems and are transported by reactor coolant to the core, where they deposit on external fuel-rod cladding surfaces and are activated by nuclear reactions. After discharge of spent fuel from a reactor, spallation of radioactive crud from the fuel rods could impact wet or dry storage operations, handling (including rod consolidation), and shipping. It is the purpose of this report to review earlier (1970s) and more recent (1980s) literature relating to crud, its characteristics, and any impact it has had on actual operations. Crud characteristics vary from reactor type to reactor type, reactor to reactor, fuel assembly to fuel assembly in a reactor, circumferentially and axially in an assembly, and from cycle to cycle for a specific facility. To characterize crud of pressurized-water (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs), published information was reviewed on appearance, chemical composition, areal density and thickness, structure, adhesive strength, particle size, and radioactivity. Information was also collected on experience with crud during spent fuel wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage. From experience with wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage, it appears crud spallation can be managed effectively, posing no significant radiological problems. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  17. Dosimetry at an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Králík, M; Kulich, V; Studeny, J; Pokorny, P

    2007-01-01

    The Czech nuclear power plant Dukovany started its operation in 1985. All fuel spent from 1985 up to the end of 2005 is stored at a dry interim storage, which was designed for 60 CASTOR-440/84 casks. Each of these casks can accommodate 84 fuel assemblies from VVER 440 reactors. Neutron-photon mixed fields around the casks were characterized in terms of ambient dose equivalent measured by standard area dosemeters. Except this, neutron spectra were measured by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, and the measured spectra were used to derive the corresponding ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons. PMID:17526479

  18. Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; DeLoach, V.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report.

  19. Changing the Rules on Fuel Export at Sellafield's First Fuel Storage Pond - 12065

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1949/50 to receive, store and de-can fuel and isotopes from the Windscale Piles. Following closure of the Piles in 1957, plant operations were scaled down until fuel processing eventually ceased in 1962. The facility has held an inventory of metal fuel both from the Piles and from other programmes since that time. The pond is currently undergoing remediation and removal of the fuel is a key step in that process, unfortunately the fuel export infrastructure on the plant is no longer functional and due to the size and limited lifting capability, the plant is not compatible with today's large volume heavy export flasks. The baseline scheme for the plant is to package fuel into a small capacity flask and transfer it to another facility for treatment and repackaging into a flask compatible with other facilities on site. Due to programme priorities the repackaging facility is not available to do this work for several years causing a delay to the work. In an effort accelerate the programme the Metal Fuel Pilot Project (MFPP) was initiated to challenge the norms for fuel transfer and develop a new methodology for transferring the fuel. In developing a transfer scheme the team had to overcome challenges associated with unknown fuel condition, transfers outside of bulk containment, pyro-phoricity and oxidisation hazards as well as developing remote control and recovery systems for equipment not designed for this purpose. A combination of novel engineering and enhanced operational controls were developed which resulted in the successful export of the first fuel to leave the Pile Fuel Storage Pond in over 40 years. The learning from the pilot project is now being considered by the main project team to see how the new methodology can be applied to the full inventory of the pond. (author)

  20. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  1. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  3. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  4. Effect of processing by hydrostatic high pressure of two ready to heat vegetable meals and stability after refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Masegosa, Rosa; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Sánchez-Íñiguez, Francisco; Ramírez, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400 and 600 MPa for 1 and 5 min) and the stability during storage were studied in two ready to heat vegetable meals: meal A, mainly composed by pumpkin and broccoli, and meal B, mainly composed by eggplant, zucchini, chard and spinach. The treatment at 600 MPa/5 min was the most effective to reduce the initial microbial loads of the meals and maintained better the microbial safety during storage. HPP had no effect on the physico-chemical and sensory properties. HPP at 600 MPa increased the antioxidant activity of the meal A. In contrast HPP reduced the antioxidant activity of the meal B, although in general high levels of antioxidants were maintained after processing and during storage. In conclusion, treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min were the most suitable to increase the shelf-life of the meals without affecting their physico-chemical, antioxidant and sensory properties. PMID:23908392

  5. 77 FR 20438 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    .... (TN) NUHOMS HD Storage System (HD-32PTH) dry storage casks, under the Certificate of Compliance (CoC...: The CoC is the NRC approved design for each dry storage cask system. The proposed action would grant... specifically require storage of spent nuclear fuel under a general license in dry storage casks approved...

  6. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  7. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General License for Storage of Spent...

  8. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  9. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Deuri, Deepshikha; Hazarika, Pragati; Singh, Tarun Pal; Chhangte, Lalchamliani; Singh, Parminder; Talukder, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C) for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min), T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min). Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05) for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05) among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost. PMID:27397981

  10. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  11. Effects of Sucrose Stearate Addition on the Quality Improvement of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang During Storage at 25℃

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of sucrose stearate at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%, w/v) on the physico-chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang were investigated during storage at 25℃ for 12 mon. Over the storage duration, the addition of sucrose stearate had no significant effects on the proximate composition of Samgyetang, including meat, broth, and porridge, or the hardness and spreadability of the porridge, although it resulted in significantly higher CIE L* values for the porridge. The CIE L* values of Samgyetang porridge with added sucrose stearate increased until 9 mon, while the control decreased until 6 mon, and the values for both changed insignificantly thereafter. The breast meat of Samgyetang treated with sucrose stearate showed higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid after 3 mon and lower percentages of monounsaturated fatty acid after 6 mon compared to the control (p<0.05), while no significant differences were observed with the different sucrose stearate concentrations (p>0.05). The overall sensory acceptability scores were higher at sucrose stearate concentrations of 0.2% or 0.3% after 6 mon and at 0.1% after 9 mon compared to those of the control. PMID:26761503

  12. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230 Section 72.230 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel...

  13. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  14. 78 FR 66858 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... storage of spent nuclear fuel beyond a reactor's licensed life for operation and prior to ultimate... generically addresses the environmental impacts of continued storage of spent nuclear fuel beyond the licensed... fuel beyond a reactor's licensed life for operation and prior to ultimate disposal. (78 FR 56776)....

  15. Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, N.S.

    1998-03-19

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition.

  16. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  17. Compact approach to monitored retrievable storage of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    Recent federal waste-management legislation has raised national interest in monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of unprocessed spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants. We have reviewed the current MRS design approaches, and we have examined an alternative concept that is extremely compact in terms of total land use. This approach may offer substantial advantages in the areas of monitoring and in safeguards against theft, as well as in reducing the chances of groundwater contamination. Total facility costs are roughly estimated and found to be generally competitive with other MRS concepts. 4 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Stability of ready-to-use temsirolimus infusion solution (100mg/L) in polypropylene containers under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Poujol, S; Bressolle, F; Solassol, I; Pinguet, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stability of ready-to-use temsirolimus infusion solutions under different storage conditions. Solutions were prepared in polypropylene containers by adding temsirolimus injection to 0.9% sodium chloride infusion to reach a final concentration of 100mg/L. The following storage conditions were tested: (i) 4(o)C in the refrigerator; (ii) 20(o)C under room light exposure and light protection; and (iii) outdoor temperature with sunlight exposure. Moreover, stress testing was performed on drug substance at 20(o)C under ultraviolet (UV) radiation (365 nm). A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for this analysis. Precision was below 4% and accuracy ranged from 97 to 102%. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1mg/L. The degradation products produced after UV light exposure were detected upon further analysis by mass spectrometry detection. The stability of temsirolimus is light and temperature dependent. After storage at 20(o)C with room light exposure, the rate of degradation was around 0.25%/h; after 1 day, 92.5% of the initial temsirolimus concentration was recovered. When protected from light, at 4 and 20(o)C, losses were decelerated; the decrease in drug concentration was 1.0 and 1.56% per day, respectively. Under daylight exposure, a substantial decrease in drug concentration was observed; after 1h, losses were higher than 10%. Exposed to UV light, half of the drug was lost after 45 min. In conclusion, temsirolimus 100mg/L in infusion polypropylene bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride was chemically stable when protected from light for 4 and 3 days at 4 and 20(o)C, respectively. PMID:22655583

  19. Replacement of tritiated water from irradiated fuel storage bay

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Kennedy, B.; Minichilli, A.; Mitchell, T.

    2015-03-15

    Recently, AECL developed a novel method to reduce tritium emissions (to groundwater) and personnel doses at the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor irradiated fuel storage bay (also known as rod or spent fuel bay) through a water swap process. The light water in the fuel bay had built up tritium that had been transferred from the heavy water moderator through normal fuel transfers. The major advantage of the thermal stratification method was that a very effective tritium reduction could be achieved by swapping a minimal volume of bay water and warm tritiated water would be skimmed off the bay surface. A demonstration of the method was done that involved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the swap process and a test program that showed excellent agreement with model prediction for the effective removal of almost all the tritium with a minimal water volume. Building on the successful demonstration, AECL fabricated, installed, commissioned and operated a full-scale system to perform a water swap. This full-scale water swap operation achieved a tritium removal efficiency of about 96%.

  20. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  1. Stabilization of reactor fuel storage pool-TTP

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.

    1994-10-01

    The proposed work includes evaluating standard and improved technologies an designing an integrated demonstration system to clean the water and sludge the fuel storage pools. The water released would meet drinking water standards and tritium standards. The volume of radioactive sludge would be reduced by partial separation of the sludge and radionuclides and eventual solidification of the hazardous and radioactive waste. The scope of the wo includes a survey of needs and applicable technologies, system engineering evaluation, conceptual design, detailed design, fabrication of the integrat demonstration system, and testing of the system. The survey task will locate potential specific customers within the DOE complex, and outside of the DOE complex throughout the United States, that be able to utilize the narrowly focused technology to stabilize/shutdown reactor fuel storage pools, responsible parties will be located and asked respond to a survey about their specific process requirements. Literature searches will be run through technical and scientific databases to locate technologies that may be an improvement over the standard baselined technol for cleanup of radioactively-contaminated pools. Systems engineering will provide decision analysis support for the development, evaluation, design, test functions of the treatment of pool water and sludge.

  2. Extended Storage for Research and Test Reactor Spent Fuel for 2006 and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, William Lon; Moore, K.M.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Mizia, Ronald Eugene

    1999-10-01

    This paper will examine issues associated with extended storage of a variety of spent nuclear fuels. Recent experiences at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Hanford sites will be described. Particular attention will be given to storage of damaged or degraded fuel. The first section will address a survey of corrosion experience regarding wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. The second section will examine issues associated with movement from wet to dry storage. This paper also examines technology development needs to support storage and ultimate disposition.

  3. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603) LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-50-895. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. CONSTRUCTION VIEW FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603) LOOKING EAST SHOWING ASBESTOS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION VIEW FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) LOOKING EAST SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-1543. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Shipping and storage cask data for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.R.; Notz, K.J.

    1988-11-01

    This document is a compilation of data on casks used for the storage and/or transport of commercially generated spent fuel in the US based on publicly available information. In using the information contained in the following data sheets, it should be understood that the data have been assembled from published information, which in some instances was not internally consistent. Moreover, it was sometimes necessary to calculate or infer the values of some attributes from available information. Nor was there always a uniform method of reporting the values of some attributes; for example, an outside surface dose of the loaded cask was sometimes reported to be the maximum acceptable by NRC, while in other cases the maximum actual dose rate expected was reported, and in still other cases the expected average dose rate was reported. A summary comparison of the principal attributes of storage and transportable storage casks is provided and a similar comparison for shipping casks is also shown. References to source data are provided on the individual data sheets for each cask.

  6. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rizeq, George; West, Janice; Frydman, Arnaldo; Subia, Raul; Kumar, Ravi; Zamansky, Vladimir; Das, Kamalendu

    2001-11-06

    Electricity produced from hydrogen in fuel cells can be highly efficient relative to competing technologies and has the potential to be virtually pollution free. Thus, fuel cells may become an ideal solution to this nation's energy needs if one has a satisfactory process for producing hydrogen from available energy resources such as coal, and low-cost alternative feedstocks such as biomass. GE EER is developing an innovative fuel-flexible advanced gasification-combustion (AGC) technology for production of hydrogen for fuel cells or combustion turbines, and a separate stream of sequestration-ready CO2. The AGC module can be integrated into a number of Vision- 21 power systems. It offers increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems and near-zero pollution. The R&D on the AGC technology is being conducted under a Vision-21 award from the U.S. DOE NETL with co-funding from GE EER, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). The AGC technology converts coal and air into three separate streams of pure hydrogen, sequestration-ready CO2, and high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The three-year program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. Process and kinetic modeling studies as well as an economic assessment will also be performed. This paper provides an overview of the program and its objectives, and discusses first-year R&D activities, including design of experimental facilities and results from initial tests and modeling studies. In particular, the paper describes the design of the bench-scale facility and initial process modeling data. In addition, a process flow diagram is shown for a complete plant incorporating the AGC module with other Vision-21 plant components to maximize hydrogen production and process efficiency.

  7. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  8. Research on Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation in CRIEPI (Part 2 Concrete Cask Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Koji Shirai; Jyunichi Tani; Taku Arai; Masumi Watatu; Hirofumi Takeda; Toshiari Saegusa; Philip L. Winston

    2008-10-01

    Concrete cask storage has been implemented in the world. At a later stage of storage period, the containment of the canister may deteriorate due to stress corrosion cracking phenomena in a salty air environment. High resistant stainless steels against SCC have been tested as compared with normal stainless steel. Taking account of the limited time-length of environment with certain level of humidity and temperature range, the high resistant stainless steels will survive from SCC damage. In addition, the adhesion of salt from salty environment on the canister surface will be further limited with respect to the canister temperature and angle of the canister surface against the salty air flow in the concrete cask. Optional countermeasure against SCC with respect to salty air environment has been studied. Devices consisting of various water trays to trap salty particles from the salty air were designed to be attached at the air inlet for natural cooling of the cask storage building. Efficiency for trapping salty particles was evaluated. Inspection of canister surface was carried out using an optical camera inserted from the air outlet through the annulus of a concrete cask that has stored real spent fuel for more than 15 years. The camera image revealed no gross degradation on the surface of the canister. Seismic response of a full-scale concrete cask with simulated spent fuel assemblies has been demonstrated. The cask did not tip over, but laterally moved by the earthquake motion. Stress generated on the surface of the spent fuel assemblies during the earthquake motion were within the elastic region.

  9. Fuel savings in the heavy trucking industry through cool storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, P.

    1991-09-15

    Overnight idling wastes considerable amounts of fuel, contributes to noise and air pollution and adds significantly to trucker's operating costs. Costs are increased because of both the fuel wasted and the additional maintenance required on the engine as a result of extended idling. In winter, idling not only allows a resting driver to keep warm but prevents cold weather battery, fuel gelling and engine starting problems. In the summer, however, the only reason for overnight idling is to keep the sleeper compartment habitable for the resting driver and diesel engine idling to accomplish this is a massive overkill. A novel, patented, cool storage system has been developed by the Instatherm Company. This system allows comfortable summer resting conditions for the driver without having to idle the engine or having to start or run any other auxiliary engine. The operating principle is very straightforward -- store cool'' from the truck air conditioning system, while the vehicle is driven on the highway and to use this stored cool'' to air condition the sleeper compartment while the driver rests. 17 figs.

  10. An Investigation to Advance the Technology Readiness Level of the Centaur Derived On-orbit Propellant Storage and Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvernail, Nathan L.

    This research was carried out in collaboration with the United Launch Alliance (ULA), to advance an innovative Centaur-based on-orbit propellant storage and transfer system that takes advantage of rotational settling to simplify Fluid Management (FM), specifically enabling settled fluid transfer between two tanks and settled pressure control. This research consists of two specific objectives: (1) technique and process validation and (2) computational model development. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this technology, the corresponding FM techniques and processes must be validated in a series of experimental tests, including: laboratory/ground testing, microgravity flight testing, suborbital flight testing, and orbital testing. Researchers from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) have joined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) team to develop a prototype FM system for operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Testing of the integrated system in a representative environment will raise the FM system to TRL 6. The tests will demonstrate the FM system and provide unique data pertaining to the vehicle's rotational dynamics while undergoing fluid transfer operations. These data sets provide insight into the behavior and physical tendencies of the on-orbit refueling system. Furthermore, they provide a baseline for comparison against the data produced by various computational models; thus verifying the accuracy of the models output and validating the modeling approach. Once these preliminary models have been validated, the parameters defined by them will provide the basis of development for accurate simulations of full scale, on-orbit systems. The completion of this project and the models being developed will accelerate the commercialization of on-orbit propellant storage and transfer technologies as well as all in

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  12. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract

  13. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  14. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.

  15. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fourteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program

  16. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2002-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  17. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; K. Mondal; L. Stonawski; Krzysztof Piotrowski; T. Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program has determined the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrated experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is

  18. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26

  19. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  20. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2002-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the second annual technical progress report for the Vision 21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1

  1. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

    2001-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE-EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE-EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R and D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the 1st quarterly progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  2. Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent fuel storage installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwick, J.D.

    1982-11-01

    A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly.

  3. Borated stainless steel application in spent-fuel storage racks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.; Loomis, G.W.; Deltete, C.P.

    1992-06-01

    EPRI is continuing to investigate the application of borated stainless steel products within the commercial nuclear power industry through participation in code development and material testing. This effort provides documentation of the material properties of interest in design applications utilizing the borated stainless steel products as structural elements as well as serving as neutron absorbers. The properties of most concern in the design of spent fuel storage racks, shipping casks, and other containment type applications are the materials' ductility, tensile strength, corrosion resistance and resistance to degradation due to radiation and temperature. The data presented in this report indicate that practical designs can be achieved utilizing borated stainless steels and that the materials can be cost effectively applied.

  4. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  5. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. 1304.405 Section 1304.405 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks at marine service stations. (d) Fuel handling on...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. 1304.405 Section 1304.405 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks at marine service stations. (d) Fuel handling on...

  7. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication. 72.236 Section 72.236 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  8. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for each power reactor holding a 10 CFR part 50 license that is in a decommissioning or possession-only status and has spent fuel onsite, and for each independent spent fuel storage 10 CFR part 72... storage licenses. 171.15 Section 171.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES...

  9. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  10. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230 Section 72.230 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  11. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  12. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication. 72.236 Section 72.236 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  13. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication. 72.236 Section 72.236 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  14. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  15. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230 Section 72.230 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  16. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  17. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication. 72.236 Section 72.236 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  18. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230 Section 72.230 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  19. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230 Section 72.230 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  20. 76 FR 70331 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR ® System, Revision 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... part 72, entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181... spent fuel storage cask designs. The NRC subsequently issued a final rule on November 21, 2008 (73 FR... 3, 1997 (62 FR 46517), this rule is classified as Compatibility Category ``NRC.'' Compatibility...

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603) LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603) LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING STORAGE BASIN IN FOREGROUND, TRANSFER CRANE AND UNLOADER TO LEFT OF NORTH SIDE OF HOT CELL. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-58-157. J. Anderson, Photographer, 1/15/1958 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  3. Radiation induced corrosion of copper for spent nuclear fuel storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkbacka, Åsa; Hosseinpour, Saman; Johnson, Magnus; Leygraf, Christofer; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-11-01

    The long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste is one of the main concerns for countries utilizing nuclear power. The integrity of engineered and natural barriers in such repositories must be carefully evaluated in order to minimize the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. One of the most developed concepts of long term storage of spent nuclear fuel is the Swedish KBS-3 method. According to this method, the spent fuel will be sealed inside copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and placed 500 m down in stable bedrock. Despite the importance of the process of radiation induced corrosion of copper, relatively few studies have been reported. In this work the effect of the total gamma dose on radiation induced corrosion of copper in anoxic pure water has been studied experimentally. Copper samples submerged in water were exposed to a series of total doses using three different dose rates. Unirradiated samples were used as reference samples throughout. The copper surfaces were examined qualitatively using IRAS and XPS and quantitatively using cathodic reduction. The concentration of copper in solution after irradiation was measured using ICP-AES. The influence of aqueous radiation chemistry on the corrosion process was evaluated based on numerical simulations. The experiments show that the dissolution as well as the oxide layer thickness increase upon radiation. Interestingly, the evaluation using numerical simulations indicates that aqueous radiation chemistry is not the only process driving the corrosion of copper in these systems.

  4. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup

  5. 77 FR 9591 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8... the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 dry cask storage system listing within the ``List of Approved... other aspects of the HI-STORM 100 dry storage cask system. Because the NRC considers this...

  6. 75 FR 25120 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its spent fuel storage cask regulations by revising the Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), NUHOMS[supreg] HD System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include Amendment No. 1 to Certificate of Compliance (CoC) Number 1030. Amendment No. 1 would modify the CoC to add Combustion Engineering 16x16 class fuel......

  7. 76 FR 2277 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is proposing to amend its spent fuel storage cask regulations by revising the Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) NUHOMS[supreg] HD System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include Amendment No. 1 to Certificate of Compliance (CoC) Number 1030. Amendment No. 1 would revise the definitions for Damaged Fuel......

  8. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is described. The reactants are stored as gases in lightweight insulated pressure vessels. The product water is stored as a liquid in saturated equilibrium with the fuel gas. The system functions as a secondary battery and is applicable to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics.

  9. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  10. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  11. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  12. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  13. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1902 - Underground diesel fuel storage-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage-general... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1902 Underground diesel fuel storage—general requirements. (a) All diesel fuel must be...

  15. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  16. COBRA-SFS thermal analysis of a sealed storage cask for the Monitored Retrievable Storage of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code was used to predict temperature distributions in a concrete Sealed Storage Cask (SSC). This cask was designed for the Department of Energy in the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) program for storage of spent fuel from commercial power operations. Analytical results were obtained for nominal operation of the SSC with spent fuel from 36 PWR fuel assemblies consolidated in 12 cylindrical canisters. Each canister generates 1650 W of thermal power. A parametric study was performed to assess the effects on cask thermal performance of thermal conductivity of the concrete, the fin material, and the amount of radial reinforcing steel bars (rebar). Seven different cases were modeled. The results of the COBRA-SFS analysis of the current cask design predict that the peak fuel cladding temperature in the SSC will not exceed the 37/sup 0/C design limit for the maximum spent fuel load of 19.8 kW and a maximum expected ambient temperature of 37.8/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F). The results of the parametric analyses illustrate the importance of material selection and design optimization with regard to the SSC thermal performance.

  17. Stability of carotenoids and tocopherols in ready-to-eat baby-leaf lettuce and salad rocket during low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Shang, Xiao Min; Ko, Eun Young; Choi, Jeong Hee; Keum, Young-Soo

    2015-08-01

    Minimally processed ready-to-eat baby-leaf vegetables (BLVs) are the most convenient source to include the health beneficial bioactive in the daily diet. In the present study, the visual quality and storage stability of carotenoids, tocopherols were investigated in lettuce (green and red romaine) and salad rocket BLVs. The commercially packed samples of BLVs were stored at 0 °C and 4 °C in dark conditions and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 days of storage. All the studied samples were found in better visual quality up to eight days of storage at both the temperatures. In most cases, the quality was correlated with the chlorophyll contents. The highest significant (p < 0.05) positive changes in total carotenoids and tocopherols were observed in samples stored at 4 °C. Also, carotenoids and tocopherols are maximum stable in green and red romaine lettuce, respectively. PMID:27075434

  18. Tape extensometer sensitivity and reliability. [Climax fuel storage at NTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Wilder, D.G.

    1981-09-21

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax is a test of retrievable storage in granite of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The rock has been instrumented to measure temperatures, stress changes, and displacements. Periodic tape extensometer readings provide test drift convergence data. Vertical and horizontal tape readings are made at five locations in each of two 3.4m x 3.4m (11 ft x 11 ft) drifts and six locations in a 4.6m x 6.2m (15 ft x 20.5 ft) drift. The sensitivity of the readings to temperature effects, errors in temperature corrections, change of steel tape, and change of operator has been examined. Calculated corrections for temperature-induced changes in distance range from 0.001 in. to 0.003 in.//sup 0/C. A tape changeout evidenced both a systematic error apparently due to slight changes in tape registration during punching and to nonidentical location of punched holes in the two tapes and a random error due to variability of reading and punching operations. These errors were corrected by making duplicate measurements for the tapes. Tape readings by the same operator have been repeatable within +-0.001 in. in the smaller drifts and +-0.002 in. in the larger. Different operators have been able to repeat readings to within +-0.004 in. (usually within +-0.002 in.) with generally consistent direction of offset between operators. Corrections of readings and review of plotted data show the tape extensometer to be a reliable instrument for tunnel convergence measurements.

  19. Technical basis for extending storage of the UK's advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.I.

    2013-07-01

    The UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency has recently declared a date for cessation of reprocessing of oxide fuel from the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs). This will fundamentally change the management of AGR fuel: from short term storage followed by reprocessing to long term fuel storage followed, in all likelihood, by geological disposal. In terms of infrastructure, the UK has an existing, modern wet storage asset that can be adapted for centralised long term storage of dismantled AGR fuel under the required pond water chemistry. No AGR dry stores exist, although small quantities of fuel have been stored dry as part of experimental programmes in the past. These experimental programmes have shown concerns about corrosion rates.

  20. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J.; Brey, R.F.; Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  1. Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.F.; Moore, F.W.

    1997-07-11

    The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan.

  2. Effect of pre-cooking methods on the chemical and sensory deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties during chilled storage and microwave reheating.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Madruga, Marta S; Hernández-López, Silvia H; Silva, Fábio A P; Ventanas, Sonia; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pre-cooking methods, namely, boiling (BL), roasting (RT) and grilling (GR), refrigerated storage (14 days/+4 °C) and microwave reheating on chicken patties were studied. Physical, chemical and sensory parameters were evaluated in order to correlate the chemical deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties with the acceptance of the odor. Chemical deterioration was evaluated through the chemical composition, Maillard compounds, Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles. Sensory deterioration (odor liking) was performed by an acceptance test with hedonic scale. According to the TBARS values and volatile compounds generated in the head space during the examined stages, the pre-cooking method and the storage time had a significant effect on lipid oxidation, whereas reheating in a microwave had a negligible impact. At each succeeding processing stage, panelists gave lower odor scores to all samples and no significant differences were found between treatments at any stage. RT and GR patties showed less intense chemical changes and presented higher acceptation scores by the sensory panel than BL patties. Thus, the choice of pre-cooking method and control of storage conditions plays a key role in the inhibition of oxidative changes in ready-to-eat chicken patties. PMID:27478232

  3. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to

  4. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  5. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be

  6. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  7. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  8. Basis for assessing the movement of spent nuclear fuels from wet to dry storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Johnson, A.B.; Lund, A.L.; Pednekar, S.P.; Windes, W.E.

    1994-12-01

    An assessment of the possible material interactions arising from the movement of previously wet stored spent nuclear fuel (SNF) into long-term dry interim storage has been conducted for selected fuels in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Three main classes of fuels are addressed: aluminum (Al) clad, stainless steel (SS) clad, and unclad Uranium-Zirconium Hydride (UZrHx) fuel types. Degradation issues for the cladding, fuel matrix material, and storage canister in both wet and dry storage environments are assessed. Possible conditioning techniques to stabilize the fuel and optimum dry environment conditions during storage are also addressed.

  9. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage System, Linear underground system extending from North Road to Icarus Way, Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Electrochemical Orbital Energy Storage (ECOES) technology program. [regenerative fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1980-01-01

    The versatility and flexibility of a regenerative fuel cell power and energy storage system is considered. The principal elements of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System combine the fuel cell and electrolysis cell with a photovoltaic solar cell array, along with fluid storage and transfer equipment. The power output of the array (for LEO) must be roughly triple the load requirements of the vehicle since the electrolyzers must receive about double the fuel cell output power in order to regenerate the reactants (2/3 of the array power) while 1/3 of the array power supplies the vehicle base load. The working fluids are essentially recycled indefinitely. Any resupply requirements necessitated by leakage or inefficient reclamation is water - an ideal material to handle and transport. Any variation in energy storage capacity impacts only the fluid storage portion, and the system is insensitive to use of reserve reactant capacity.

  12. FINAL REPORT (PART 1). RADIOLYTIC AND THERMAL PROCESSES RELEVANT TO DRY STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The scientific and engineering demands of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management tasks are enormous. For example, several thousand metric tons of metallic uranium spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remain in water storage awaiting disposition. Of this...

  13. Design Verification Report Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA Fuel Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2002-01-31

    This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed during the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) Training, Research and Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) fuel storage system design and fabrication.

  14. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an exemption in response to a request submitted by Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (ENO) on June 20, 2012, for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

  15. Evaluation and optimization of fuel storage system using computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Viljoen, C.F.; Van Staden, M.P.

    2004-07-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is one of the leading new generation nuclear power plants to be commercialised in the near future. As in the past, nuclear waste in the form of spent fuel, which is generated by nuclear power plants, is always a contentious issue in terms of safety. At present the PBMR design proposes to make use of spent fuel storage tanks located in the building to store the spent fuel that is used during the 40 years of operation and also to safely store the used fuel during maintenance. The heat load generated by the decay heat in the fuel has a significant impact on the safety and therefore impacts on the tank design. While ensuring that the spent and used fuel remains sub critical at all times, the fuel temperatures and storage tank structure should not exceed the prescribed maximum temperatures. It is further envisaged that the fuel storage system, should under upset events, be able to operate utilising only passive means of heat removal. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and analyses work that has been performed to evaluate and optimise the proposed fuel storage system for the PBMR plant. Analyses have been performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Simulation results are presented for active and passive operation. A comparative simulation is also performed using a different CFD code in order qualitatively assess and compare the CFD results. (authors)

  16. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA{reg_sign} reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations.

  17. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  18. Realization of the German Concept for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - Current Situation and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomauske, B. R.

    2003-02-25

    The German government has determined a phase out of nuclear power. With respect to the management of spent fuel it was decided to terminate transports to reprocessing plants by 2005 and to set up interim storage facilities on power plant sites. This paper gives an overview of the German concept for spent fuel management focused on the new on-site interim storage concept and the applied interim storage facilities. Since the end of the year 1998, the utilities have applied for permission of on-site interim storage in 13 storage facilities and 5 storage areas; one application for the interim storage facility Stade was withdrawn due to the planned final shut down of Stade nuclear power plant in autumn 2003. In 2001 and 2002, 3 on-site storage areas and 2 on-site storage facilities for spent fuel were licensed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). A main task in 2002 and 2003 has been the examination of the safety and security of the planned interim storage facilities and the verification of the licensing prerequisites. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, BfS has also examined the attack with a big passenger airplane. Up to now, these aircraft crash analyses have been performed for three on-site interim storage facilities; the fundamental results will be presented. It is the objective of BfS to conclude the licensing procedures for the applied on-site interim storage facilities in 2003. With an assumed construction period for the storage buildings of about two years, the on-site interim storage facilities could then be available in the year 2005.

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of ready-to-eat meat products processed by drying, fermentation, and/or smoking.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Steven C; Buege, Dennis R; Dropp, Brenda K; Losinski, Jill A

    2004-12-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated on 15 ready-to-eat meat products made using drying, fermentation, and/or smoking. The products were obtained from six processors and included summer sausage, smoked cured beef, beef jerky, snack stick, and pork rind and crackling products. The water activity of the products ranged from 0.27 (pork rinds and cracklings) to 0.98 (smoked cured beef slices). Products were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, repackaged under either vacuum or air, and then stored either at room temperature (21degrees C) or under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 4 to 11 weeks. Numbers of L. monocytogenes fell for all products during storage, ranging from a decrease of 0.8 log CFU on smoked cured beef slices during 11 weeks under vacuum at 5 degrees C to a decrease of 3.3 log CFU on a pork rind product stored 5 weeks under air at 21degrees C. All of the products tested could be produced under alternative 2 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations mandating control of L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. For many of the products, 1 week of postprocessing storage prior to shipment would act as an effective postlethality treatment and would allow processors to operate under alternative I of these regulations. PMID:15633674

  20. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Raul Subia; Arnaldo Frydman; Parag Kulkarni; Jennifer Schwerman; Valadimir Zamansky; John Reinker; Kanchan Mondal; Lubor Stonawski; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2005-02-28

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy technology for coal gasification with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into three separate streams of hydrogen-rich gas, sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in gas turbines. This is the draft final report for the first stage of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program. The UFP technology development program encompassed lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP concept. Modeling and economic assessments were also key parts of this program. The chemical and mechanical feasibility were established via lab and bench-scale testing, and a pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated, demonstrating the major UFP features. Experimental and preliminary modeling results showed that 80% H{sub 2} purity could be achieved, and that a UFP-based energy plant is projected to meet DOE efficiency targets. Future work will include additional pilot plant testing to optimize performance and reduce environmental, operability and combined cycle integration risks. Results obtained to date have confirmed that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  2. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses. 171.15 Section 171.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES FOR REACTOR LICENSES AND FUEL CYCLE LICENSES AND MATERIALS LICENSES, INCLUDING HOLDERS OF CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE, REGISTRATIONS, AND...

  3. OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING SOUTHEAST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-14-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH ELEVATION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH ELEVATION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING SOUTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-14-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 0BLIQUE PHOTO OF EAST ELEVATION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    0BLIQUE PHOTO OF EAST ELEVATION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING WEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-15-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 75 FR 42339 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... closure ring for redundant closure into the Transportable Storage Canister (TSC) design; modification of the TSC and basket design to accommodate up to 68 La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel... pattern)) that may contain undamaged Exxon fuel assemblies and damaged Exxon and Allis Chalmers...

  7. RADIOLYTIC AND THERMAL PROCESSES RELEVANT TO DRY STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of tons of metallic uranium spent-nuclear-fuel (SNF) remain in water storage across the Department of Energy complex. For example, the Hanford Site K-Basins hold 2300 metric tons of spent fuel, much of it severely corroded. Similar situations exist elsewhere in the DOE ...

  8. 76 FR 9381 - Notice of Availability of Interim Staff Guidance Documents for Spent Fuel Storage Casks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Gordon, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation... ISG-23 should be directed to Matthew Gordon, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of.... Michele Sampson, Acting Chief, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of Spent Fuel...

  9. 76 FR 30980 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... a modification to License No. SNM-2514 at its Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel...

  10. VIEW OF FECF HOT CELL OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP603). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FECF HOT CELL OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORHTWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-18-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with

  12. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  13. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  14. Technical assessment of continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Franklin, E.M.; Ebner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    A technical assessment of the continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel has been made. Previous experience has shown that in-basin cladding failure occurs by intergranular attack of sensitized cladding, likely assisted by basin water chlorides. Subsequent fuel oxidation is rapid and leads to loss of configuration and release of fission products. The current inventory of EBR-II fuel stored in the ICPP basins is at risk from similar corrosion reactions.

  15. Spent fuel handling system for a geologic storage test at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.E.; House, P.A.; Wright, G.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a test of the geologic storage of encapsulated spent commercial reactor fuel assemblies in a granitic rock at the Nevada Test Site. The test, known as the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), is sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. Eleven pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies are stored retrievably for three to five years in a linear array in the Climax stock at a depth of 420 m.

  16. Creep deformation of an unirradiated zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tube under dry storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Onchi, Takeo

    1990-05-01

    Measurements of creep deformation were made on an internally gas pressurized tubular Zircaloy-4 specimen with plugs welded to its ends. Creep tests were conducted at temperatures between 577 and 693 K for holding times of up to 26640 ks, to formulate the creep equation needed for predicting creep strain during dry storage of spent fuel. Discussion was also given to the difference of creep behaviour between irradiated and unirradiated fuel cladding, indicating that the equation derived is applicable for predicting creep strain of spent fuel cladding during dry storage.

  17. The corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel in wet basin storage

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.P.; Burke, S.D.

    1996-02-20

    Large quantities of Defense related spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water basins around the United States. Under the non-proliferation policy, there has been no processing since the late 1980`s and these fuels are caught in the pipeline awaiting stabilization or other disposition. At the Savannah River Site, over 200 metric tons of aluminum clad fuel are being stored in four water filled basins. Some of this fuel has experienced visible pitting corrosion. An intensive effort is underway at SRS to understand the corrosion problems and to improve the basin storage conditions for extended storage requirements. Significant improvements have been accomplished during 1993-1996. This paper presents a discussion of the fundamentals of aluminum alloy corrosion as it pertains to the wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. It examines the effects of variables on corrosion in the storage environment and presents the results of corrosion surveillance testing activities at SRS, as well as discussions of fuel storage basins at other production sites of the Department of Energy.

  18. COBRA-SFS (Spent-Fuel Storage) thermal-hydraulic analyses of the CASTOR-1C and REA 2023 BWR storage casks containing consolidated spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1986-12-01

    Consolidation of spent nuclear fuel rods is being considered as one option for more efficient and compact storage of reactor spent fuel assemblies. In this concept, rods from two disassembled spent fuel assemblies will be consolidated in a space originally intended to store a single unconsolidated assembly. The thermal performance of consolidated fuel rods in dry storage, especially in multiassembly storage systems, is one of the major issues that must be addressed prior to implementation. In this study, Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers performed thermal-hydraulic analyses for both the REA 2023 cask and the CASTOR-1C cask containing either unconsolidated or consolidated BWR spent fuel assemblies. The objective was to determine the effect of consolidating spent fuel assemblies on the temperature distributions within both types of casks. Two major conclusions resulted from this study. First, a lumping technique (combining rods and flow channels), which reduces the number of computational nodes required to model complex multiassembly geometries, could be used for both unconsolidated and consolidated rods with negligible effect on prediction accuracies. Second, with a relatively high thermal conductivity backfill gas (e.g., helium), the predicted peak fuel rod temperature in a canister of consolidated rods generating the same amount of heat as an unconsolidated assembly is essentially the same as the peak temperature in the unconsolidated assembly. In contrast, with a relatively low thermal conductivity backfill gas (e.g., nitrogen), the opposite is true and the predicted peak temperature in a consolidated canister is significantly higher than in an unconsolidated assembly. Therefore, when rods are consolidated, selection of the backfill gas is important in maintaining peak rod temperatures below allowable values for rods with relatively high decay heat generation rates.

  19. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen

  20. Operational experience of ultrasonic sealing bolts for safeguard containment of multi-element bottles in British Nuclear Fuel`s THORP spent fuel storage ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, C.D.; Reynolds, A.F.; Jeffrey, A.; DeTourbet, P.; D`Agraives, B.; Toornvliet, J.; Wilt, B.

    1995-12-31

    Following verification of the presence of Light Water Reactor fuel stored in multi-element bottles (MEBs), in British Nuclear Fuel`s (BNFL), Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) fuel storage pond by Euratom and the IAEA, one lid bolt is replaced by an Ultrasonic Sealing Bolt. This safeguards seal, developed by Euratom`s Joint Research Centre at Ispra, Italy, has been field tested at Sellafield over several years and applied.in volume since 1994. The use of sealing bolts and video surveillance provides dual containment/surveillance on the THORP storage ponds, and brings significant savings in time and hence cost to the operator at the annual inventory verification. Time savings of up to 80% are achievable compared to fuel verification using a collimated gamma detector.

  1. Retention property of deuterium for fuel recovery in divertor by using hydrogen storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, Saori; Tonegawa, Akira; Matsumura, Yoshihito; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic confinement fusion reactor by using Deuterium and Tritium of hydrogen isotope as fuels is suggested as one of the future energy source. Most fuels don't react and are exhausted out of fusion reactor. Especially, Tritium is radioisotope and rarely exists in nature, so fuels recovery is necessary. This poster presentation will explain about research new fuel recovery method by using hydrogen storage materials in divertor simulator TPD-Sheet IV. Samples are tungsten coated with titanium; tungsten of various thickness, and titanium films deposited by ion plating on tungsten substrates. The sample surface temperature is measured by radiation thermometer. Retention property of deuterium after deuterium plasma irradiation was examined with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). As a result, the TDS measurement shows that deuterium is retained in titanium. Therefore, Titanium as a hydrogen storage material expects to be possible to use separating and recovering fuel particles in divertor.

  2. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits. PMID:26435043

  3. MCO Pressurization analysis of spent nuclear fuel transporation and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, D.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    A series of analysis were performed to evaluate the pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) during the stages of transport, processing and storage for expected operational and off normal events. The study examined both MCO sealing and venting issues. Computer models were developed for the MCO and its transport and storage environments using the GOTH and COBRA-TF computer codes. These thermal- hydraulic models included chemical corrosion and ranged in complexity from simple scoping models to full three-dimensional models. Results of the evaluation indicate that overpressurization of the MCO can occur within hours given the bounding reaction surface area and 3.0 Kg of residual water during shipping or 2.5 Kg of residual water during storage. Overpressurization can be prevented during shipping if the MCO reaction surface area is shown to be less than 80,000 cm{sup 2}. During storage the overpressurization can be prevented by limiting the available water.

  4. Safety of interim storage solutions of used nuclear fuel during extended term

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, C.; Bader, S.; Issard, H.; Arslan, M.

    2013-07-01

    In 2013, the total amount of stored used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the world will reach 225,000 T HM. The UNF inventory in wet storage will take up over 80% of the available total spent fuel pool (SFP) capacity. Interim storage solutions are needed. They give flexibility to the nuclear operators and ensure that nuclear reactors continue to operate. However, we need to keep in mind that they are also an easy way to differ final decision and implementation of a UNF management approach (recycling or final disposal). In term of public perception, they can have a negative impact overtime as it may appear that nuclear industry may have significant issues to resolve. In countries lacking an integrated UNF management approach, the UNF are being discharged from the SFPs to interim storage (mostly to dry storage) at the same rate as UNF is being discharged from reactors, as the SFPs at the reactor sites are becoming full. This is now the case in USA, Taiwan, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa and Germany. For interim storage, AREVA has developed different solutions in order to allow the continued operation of reactors while meeting the current requirements of Safety Authorities: -) Dry storage canisters on pads, -) Dual-purpose casks (dry storage and transportation), -) Vault dry storage, and -) Centralized pool storage.

  5. Fuel cell systems for First Lunar Outpost-reactant storage option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    The office of Space, DOE, appointed a Lunar Surface Power Working Group to review candidate systems for the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for a total of five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the candidate involving a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases was the most attractive for this application. Most of the volume (97 percent) and weight (63 percent) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. Therefore, in my work for the Group, and in this report, I have concentrated on finding ways to reduce these volumes and weights. Three options were considered: (1) the baseline case considered in the preliminary system design, that of separate high pressure (200 bar) storage tanks; (2) the use of two of the descent storage propellant tanks wrapped with graphite fibers to increase the pressure capability; and (3) the use of cryogenic storage of reactants in the propellant tanks. The first option results in high storage tank mass and volume. The second option saves 90 percent of the volume by making use of the propellant tanks, but it has little if any weight advantages; the weight saved by not providing extra tanks for reactant storage is nearly entirely added back by the weight of the additional material (graphite fibers) to strengthen the propellant tanks. Use of the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids requires a gas liquefaction system. The weight of this system is expected to be less than that of the storage tanks but it would require development and testing to prove its reliability. The solar array would have to be 40 percent larger and the heat projection range would be 170 percent larger than for storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (greater than 20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  6. Fuel cell systems for First Lunar Outpost-reactant storage option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1995-04-01

    The office of Space, DOE, appointed a Lunar Surface Power Working Group to review candidate systems for the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for a total of five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the candidate involving a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases was the most attractive for this application. Most of the volume (97 percent) and weight (63 percent) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. Therefore, in my work for the Group, and in this report, I have concentrated on finding ways to reduce these volumes and weights. Three options were considered: (1) the baseline case considered in the preliminary system design, that of separate high pressure (200 bar) storage tanks; (2) the use of two of the descent storage propellant tanks wrapped with graphite fibers to increase the pressure capability; and (3) the use of cryogenic storage of reactants in the propellant tanks. The first option results in high storage tank mass and volume. The second option saves 90 percent of the volume by making use of the propellant tanks, but it has little if any weight advantages; the weight saved by not providing extra tanks for reactant storage is nearly entirely added back by the weight of the additional material (graphite fibers) to strengthen the propellant tanks. Use of the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids requires a gas liquefaction system. The weight of this system is expected to be less than that of the storage tanks but it would require development and testing to prove its reliability. The solar array would have to be 40 percent larger and the heat projection range would be 170 percent larger than for storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (greater than 20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  7. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada; Hirofumi Narutaki

    2006-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the

  8. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

  9. Assessment of nitrogen as an atmosphere for dry storage of spent LWR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Knox, C.A.; White, G.D.

    1985-09-01

    Interim dry storage of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel is being developed as a licensed technology in the United States. Because it is anticipated that license agreements will specify dry storage atmospheres, the behavior of spent LWR fuel in a nitrogen atmosphere during dry storage was investigated. In particular, the thermodynamics of reaction of nitrogen compounds (expected to form in the cover gas during dry storage) and residual impurities (such as moisture and oxygen) with Zircaloy cladding and with spent fuel at sites of cladding breaches were examined. The kinetics of reaction were not considered it was assumed that the 20 to 40 years of interim dry storage would be sufficient for reactions to proceed to completion. The primary thermodynamics reactants were found to be NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/. The evaluation revealed that the limited inventories of these reactants produced by the source terms in hermetically sealed dry storage systems would be too low to cause significant spent fuel degradation. Furthermore, the oxidation of spent fuel to degrading O/U ratios is unlikely because the oxidation potential in moist nitrogen limits O/U ratios to values less than UO/sub 2.006/ (the equilibrium stoichiometric form in equilibrium with moist nitrogen). Tests were performed with bare spent UO/sub 2/ fuel and nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets (with no Zircaloy cladding) in a nitrogen atmosphere containing moisture concentrations greater than encountered under dry storage conditions. These tests were performed for at least 1100 h at temperatures as high as 380/sup 0/C, where oxidation reactions proceed in a matter of minutes. No visible degradation was detected, and weight changes were negligible.

  10. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. The potential pyrophoricity of BMI-SPEC and aluminum plate spent fuels retrieved from underwater storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ebner, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Physical/chemical factors in U metal and hydride combustion, particularly pyrophoricity in ambient environment, were evaluated for BMI-SPEC and UAl{sub x} plate fuels. Some metal fuels may be highly reactive (spontaneously igniting in air) due to high specific surface area, high decay heat, or a high U hydride content from corrosion during underwater storage. However, for the BMI-SPEC and the aluminum plate fuels, this reactivity is too low to present a realistic threat of uncontrolled spontaneous combustion at ambient conditions. While residual U hydride is expected in these corroded fuels, the hydride levels are expected to be too low and the configuration too unfavorable to ignite the fuel meat when the fuels are retrieved from the basin and dried. Furthermore the composition and microstructure of the UAl{sub x} fuels further mitigate that risk.

  12. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  13. Optimization of a Dry, Mixed Nuclear Fuel Storage Array for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranko, Benjamin T.

    A dry storage array of used nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory contains a mixture of more than twenty different research and test reactor fuel types in up to 636 fuel storage canisters. New analysis demonstrates that the current arrangement of the different fuel-type canisters does not minimize the system neutron multiplication factor (keff), and that the entire facility storage capacity cannot be utilized without exceeding the subcritical limit (ksafe) for ensuring nuclear criticality safety. This work determines a more optimal arrangement of the stored fuels with a goal to minimize the system keff, but with a minimum of potential fuel canister relocation movements. The solution to this multiple-objective optimization problem will allow for both an improvement in the facility utilization while also offering an enhancement in the safety margin. The solution method applies stochastic approximation and a Tabu search metaheuristic to an empirical model developed from supporting MCNP calculations. The results establish an optimal relocation of between four to sixty canisters, which will allow the current thirty-one empty canisters to be used for storage while reducing the array keff by up to 0.018 +/- 0.003 relative to the current arrangement.

  14. Interim storage technology of spent fuel and high-level waste in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Geiser, H.; Schroder, J.

    2007-07-01

    The idea of using casks for interim storage of spent fuel arose at GNS after a very controversial political discussion in 1978, when total passive safety features (including aircraft crash conditions) were required for an above ground spent fuel storage facility. In the meantime, GNS has loaded more than 1000 casks at 25 different storage sites in Germany. GNS cask technology is used in 13 countries. Spent fuel assemblies of PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high level waste containers are stored in full metal casks of the CASTOR{sup R} type. Also MOX fuel of PWR and BWR has been stored. More than two decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements (safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropriate heat transfer) have been fulfilled in any case - during normal operation and in case of severe accidents, including aircraft crash. There is no indication of problems arising in the future. Of course, the experience of more than 20 years has resulted in improvements of the cask design. The CASTOR{sup R} casks have been thoroughly investigated by many experiments. There have been approx. 50 full and half scale drop tests and a significant number of fire tests, simulations of aircraft crash, investigations with anti tank weapons, and an explosion of a railway tank with liquid gas neighbouring a loaded CASTOR{sup R} cask. According to customer and site specific demands, different types of storage facilities are realized in Germany. Firstly, there are facilities for long-term storage, such as large ventilated central storage buildings away from reactor or ventilated storage buildings at the reactor site, ventilated underground tunnels or concrete platforms outside a building. Secondly, there are facilities for temporary storage, where casks have been positioned in horizontal orientation under a ventilated shielding cover outside a building. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of burnup credit for fuel storage analysis -- Experience in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    1995-04-01

    Several Spanish light water reactor commercial nuclear power plants are close to maximum spent-fuel pool storage capacity. The utilities are working on the implementation of state-of-the-art methods to increase the storage capacity, including both changes in the pool design (recracking) and the implementation of new analysis approaches with reduced conservation (burnup credit). Burnup credit criticality safety analyses have been approved for two pressurized water reactor plants (four units) and one boiling water reactor (BWR); an other BWR storage analysis is being developed at this moment. The elimination of the ``fresh fuel assumption`` increases the complexity of the criticality analysis to be performed, sometimes putting into question the capability of the analytic tools to properly describe this new situation and increasing the scope of the scenarios to be analyzed. From a regulatory perspective, the reactivity reduction associated with burnup of the fuel can be given credit only if the exposure of each fuel bundle can be known with enough accuracy. Subcriticality of spent-fuel storage depends mainly on the initial fuel enrichment, storage geometry, fuel exposure history, and cooling time. The last two aspects introduced new uncertainties in the criticality analysis that should be quantified in an adequate way. In addition, each and every fuel bundle has its own specific exposure history, so that strong assumptions and simplified calculational schemes have to be developed to undertake the analysis. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Spanish regulatory authority on the matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection, plays an active role in the development of analysis methods to support burnup credit, making proposals that may be beneficial in terms of risk and cost while keeping the widest safety margins possible.

  16. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  17. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Liquid fuel dispensing devices, such as pumps, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or be... shall be shielded against direct heat radiation. (v) Container installation shall provide the...

  18. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  19. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  20. Examination of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel after extended pool storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.R.; Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lowry, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results from metallurgical examinations of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods from two bundles (0551 and 0074) of Shippingport PWR Core 1 blanket fuel after extended water storage. Both bundles were exposed to water in the reactor from late 1957 until discharge. The estimated average burnups were 346 GJ/kgU (4000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0551 and 1550 GJ/kgU (18,000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0074. Fuel rods from bundle 0551 were stored in deionized water for nearly 21 yr prior to examination in 1980, representing the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel. Bundle 0074 has been stored in deionized water since reactor discharge in 1964. Data from the current metallurgical examinations enable a direct assessment of extended pool storage effects because the metallurgical condition of similar fuel rods was investigated and documented soon after reactor discharge. Data from current and past examinations were compared, and no significant degradation of the Zircaloy cladding was indicated after almost 21 yr in water storage. The cladding dimensions and mechanical properties, fission gas release, hydrogen contents of the cladding, and external oxide film thicknesses that were measured during the current examinations were all within the range of measurements made on fuel bundles soon after reactor discharge. The appearance of the external surfaces and the microstructures of the fuel and cladding were also similar to those reported previously. In addition, no evidence of accelerated corrosion or hydride redistribution in the cladding was observed.

  1. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  2. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high level waste storage canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two and three dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters.

  3. Radiolysis Model Sensitivity Analysis for a Used Fuel Storage Canister

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-09-20

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone (M3FT-13PN0810027) to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible 300-year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value. This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for 111 reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air.

  4. Status of Spent Fuel Storage at Savannah River Site (October 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Andes, T. C.

    2003-10-01

    The Savannah River Site continues to be the U.S. Department of Energy's primary receipt and storage location for aluminum based research reactor fuel. A number of initiatives have been implemented which enhance the site's storage capabilities while reducing the long term operating cost. The L-Basin facility improvements include projects that allow handling of the TN7/2 and LWT casks, improved basin chemistry, modernized the cask handling cranes, and increased basin capacity. In an effort to provide the most cost-effective long-term storage of material, the project to de-inventory the RBOF storage basin and consolidate spent nuclear fuel at L-Basin is nearly complete.

  5. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  6. BIOVENTING TO TREAT FUEL SPILLS FROM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioventilation is a procedure to cleanse soil gas of volatile hydrocarbons originating from storage tank leaks. he rate of vapor degradation is a controlling parameter in the design of a bioventing system. aboratory microcosm procedure using sandy soil from an aviation gasoline s...

  7. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. 20 figs.

  8. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  9. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  10. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest.

  11. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  12. Criteria for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel in Interim Wet Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.P.

    1999-09-14

    Storage of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other locations in the U. S. and around the world has been a concern over the past decade because of the long time interim storage requirements in water. Pitting corrosion of production aluminum-clad fuel in the early 1990''s at SRS was attributed to less than optimum quality water and corrective action taken has resulted in no new pitting since 1994. The knowledge gained from the corrosion surveillance testing and other investigations at SRS over the past 8 years has provided an insight into factors affecting the corrosion of aluminum in relatively high purity water. This paper reviews some of the early corrosion issues related to aluminum-clad spent fuel at SRS, including fundamentals for corrosion of aluminum alloys. It updates and summarizes the corrosion surveillance activities supporting the future storage of over 15,000 research reactor fuel assemblies from countries over the world during the next 15-20 years. Criteria are presented for providing corrosion protection for aluminum-clad spent fuel in interim storage during the next few decades while plans are developed for a more permanent disposition.

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  14. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments.

  15. Conceptual design report for the ICPP spent nuclear fuel dry storage project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a facility to transfer spent nuclear fuel from shipping casks to dry storage containers, and to safely store those containers at ICPP at INEL. The spent fuels to be handled at the new facility are identified and overall design and operating criteria established. Physical configuration of the facility and the systems used to handle the SNF are described. Detailed cost estimate for design and construction of the facility is presented.

  16. The Ontario Hydro dry irradiated fuel storage program and concrete integrated container demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.J.; Grande, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The practicality of loading irradiated fuel into a concrete cask underwater in an existing pool facility has been successfully demonstrated. The cask holds about 7.7 metric-tons-uranium. Special design features allow the cask to be used for dry storage, for transportation, and for disposal without re-handling the fuel. The cask, called the concrete integrated container, or CIC, has been developed. This paper describes the loading, monitoring, and IAEA-based transportation certification of testing of the CIC.

  17. Structural design of concrete storage pads for spent-fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Y.R.; Nickell, R.E.; James, R.J. )

    1993-04-01

    The loading experienced by spent fuel dry storage casks and storage pads due to potential drop or tip-over accidents is evaluated using state-of-the-art concrete structural analysis methodology. The purpose of this analysis is to provide simple design charts and formulas so that design adequacy of storage pads and dry storage casks can be demonstrated. The analysis covers a wide range of slab-design parameters, e.g., reinforcement ratio, slab thickness, concrete compressive strength, and sub-base soil compaction, as well as variations in drop orientation and drop height. The results are presented in the form of curves, giving the force on the cask as a function of storage pad hardness for various drop heights. In addition, force-displacement curves, deformed shapes, crack patterns, stresses and strains are given for various slab-design conditions and drop events. The utility of the results in design are illustrated through examples.

  18. Modeling the Effect of Storage Temperatures on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Ham and Sausage.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke; Hong, Sung-Sam; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat ham and sausage at different temperatures (4 to 35°C). The observed data fitted well with four primary models (Baranyi, modified Gompertz, logistic, and Huang) with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98) at all measured temperatures. After the mean square error (0.009 to 0.051), bias factors (0.99 to1.06), and accuracy factors (1.01 to 1.09) were obtained in all models, the square root and the natural logarithm model were employed to describe the relation between temperature and specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) derived from the primary models. These models were validated against the independent data observed from additional experiments using the acceptable prediction zone method and the proportion of the standard error of prediction. All secondary models based on each of the four primary models were acceptable to describe the growth of the pathogen in the two samples. The validation results indicate that the optimal primary model for estimating the SGR was the Baranyi model, and the optimal primary model for estimating LT was the logistic model in ready-to-eat (RTE) ham. The Baranyi model was also the optimal model to estimate the SGR and LT in RTE sausage. These results could be used to standardize predictive models, which are commonly used to identify critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems or for the quantitative microbial risk assessment to improve the food safety of RTE meat products. PMID:26319721

  19. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm (12 in).

  20. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  1. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  2. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  3. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  4. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no significant environmental impact. 51.23 Section 51.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures § 51.23 Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation—generic...

  5. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no significant environmental impact. 51.23 Section 51.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures § 51.23 Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation—generic...

  6. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no significant environmental impact. 51.23 Section 51.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures § 51.23 Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation—generic...

  7. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no significant environmental impact. 51.23 Section 51.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures § 51.23 Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation—generic...

  8. 76 FR 17037 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI... regulations to add the HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks... 13, 2011. SAR Submitted by: Holtec International, Inc. SAR Title: Safety Analysis Report on the...

  9. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-12-20

    As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

  11. Energy storage using high pressure electrolysis and methods for reconversion. [in automobile fuel synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on high pressure electrolysis producing hydrogen and oxygen for energy storage and reconversion are reported. Moderate temperature, high pressure hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells with nickel electrodes are investigated for effects of pressure, temperature, and membrane porosity. Test results from an aphodid burner turbine generator combination obtained 40 percent kilowatt hours out of the fuel cell divided by kilowatt hours into the electrolyzer. It is concluded that high pressure hydrogenation of organic materials can be used to synthesize hydrozenes and methanes for making synthetic vehicular fuels.

  12. Hydrogen storage by boron-nitrogen heterocycles: a simple route for spent fuel regeneration.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Grant, Daniel J; Dixon, David A; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2010-03-17

    We describe a new hydrogen storage platform based on well-defined BN heterocyle materials. Specifically, we demonstrate that regeneration of the spent fuel back to the charged fuel can be accomplished using molecular H(2) and H(-)/H(+) sources. Crystallographic characterization of intermediates along the regeneration pathway confirms our structural assignments and reveals unique bonding changes associated with increasing hydrogen content on boron and nitrogen. Synthetic access to the fully charged BN cyclohexane fuels will now enable investigations of these materials in hydrogen desorption studies. PMID:20214402

  13. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-06-15

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results

  14. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  15. 75 FR 36449 - Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    .... 1025 on May 10, 2007 (72 FR 26535), with an effective date of July 24, 2007 (72 FR 38468, July 13, 2007... (72 FR 26535, 26537, May 10, 2007). Further, NRC has evaluated the impact to public safety that would... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance...

  16. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections...

  17. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections...

  18. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT... affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  19. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public...

  20. Data compliation report: K West Basin fuel storage canister liquid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-12-21

    Sample analysis data from the 222-S Laboratory are reported. The data are for liquid samples taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the 105 K West Basin during March 1995. An analysis and data report from the Special Analytical Studies group of Westinghouse Hanford Company regarding these samples is also included. Data analysis is not included herein.

  1. 77 FR 4203 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR® System, Revision 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... confirmed for this direct final rule published November 14, 2011 at 76 FR 70331. ADDRESSES: You can access... (76 FR 70331), the NRC published a direct final rule amending its regulations at Title 10 of the Code... 3150-AI91 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR System, Revision 2 AGENCY:...

  2. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  3. Dry spent fuel storage in Germany status in 1995 and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Janberg, K.; Malrnstroem, H.; Rittscher, D.; Willax, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    The German back-end policy until mid `94 was primarily based on reprocessing. Direct disposal was an acceptable alternative only when reprocessing was not available or economically not feasible. However, a law was passed in 1994 by Parliament which lifts these conditions applied to the choice of the final disposal route. For the THTR (Thorium High Temperature Reactor) fuel there was no reprocessing available and therefore the decommissioning of this reactor required the unloading of its fuel into dry storage casks. At the beginning of Nov `94 more than 260 CASTOR casks are already stored at the Ahaus site. The other storage facility at Gorleben was intended to be opened in July `94 with the CASTOR IIa, containing 4.5 t of HM. However, though the cask was loaded it is in early `95 waiting for its transport approval. The AVR-Reactor at the Juelich Research Center has been shut down and its fuel is also stored in casks. In early `95 around 50 are already loaded and transferred into the on-site storage facility. At the same time at the Greifswald site in former GDR a big storage facility is under construction. This facility has to receive all the wastes resulting from the decommissioning of the WWER 440 Voronesh-type reactors and the spent fuel also to be stored in casks.

  4. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Model Number: CASTOR V/21 Certificate Number: 1002 SAR Submitted by: Nuclear Assurance Corporation SAR... Fuel Storage Installation Docket Number: 72-1002 Certification Expiration Date: August 17, 2010 Model...: August 17, 2010 Model Number: NAC-C28 S/T Certificate Number: 1004. Initial Certificate Effective...

  5. Radioactive Release from Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Basin Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-10-21

    The report provides an evaluation of: (1) the release rate of radionuclides through minor cladding penetrations (breaches) on aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (AL SNF), and (2) the consequences of direct storage of breached AL SNF relative to the authorization basis for SRS basin operation.

  6. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  7. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

  10. 78 FR 63375 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: Transnuclear, Inc. Standardized NUHOMS® Cask System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also established a... issued a final rule on December 22,1994 (59 FR 65898), that approved the Standardized NUHOMS Cask System... 3, 1997 (62 FR 46517), this rule is classified as Compatibility ] Category ``NRC.'' Compatibility...

  11. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  12. 77 FR 9515 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    .... On May 1, 2000 (65 FR 25241), the NRC issued an amendment to 10 CFR part 72 that approved the HI... Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also established a... issued a final rule on May 1, 2000 (65 FR 25241), that approved the Holtec International cask design...

  13. 77 FR 24585 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... February 17, 2012, at 77 FR 9515, is confirmed as May 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 17, 2012 (77 FR 9515), the NRC published a direct final rule amending its... 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY:...

  14. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 14, 2010 (75 FR 2163). Pursuant to 10 CFR 72.46(b)(2), on... promulgated on August 28, 2007 (72 FR 49139). All documents filed in NRC adjudicatory proceedings, including... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice...

  15. 78 FR 16601 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR® System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also... subsequently issued a final rule on November 21, 2008 (73 FR 70587), that approved the MAGNASTOR Cask System..., 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR 46517), this rule is...

  16. Ion Exchange Resins for Long-Term Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rideaux, J.

    1999-03-08

    This paper will specifically address the use and life cycle of ion exchange resins as they relate to the SRS Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins. This paper also chronicles the use of two types of ion exchange resins and their affect on basin water quality from the sixties until today.

  17. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is revising its generic determination on the environmental impacts of storage of spent fuel at, or away from, reactor sites after the expiration of reactor operating licenses. The revisions reflect findings that the Commission has reached in an update and supplement to the 1990 Waste Confidence rulemaking proceeding published elsewhere......

  18. 75 FR 24786 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are..., entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990... cask designs. The NRC subsequently issued a final rule on December 11, 2006 (71 FR 71463),...

  19. 75 FR 42292 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... on the State. Plain Language The Presidential Memorandum, ``Plain Language in Government Writing... for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also... subsequently issued a final rule on March 9, 2000 (65 FR 12444), that approved the NAC-MPC cask design...

  20. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. NPF-86, which...

  1. 78 FR 56947 - Prairie Island; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals... COMMISSION Prairie Island; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of...

  2. 114. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building details of fuel storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building details of fuel storage pit in plan and section. Spaces shown for 20 elements. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-S-4. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-60-613-102752. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities. 1304.405 Section 1304.405 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND...

  4. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  5. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  6. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  8. Estimates of Zircaloy integrity during dry storage of spent nuclear fuel: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.K.; Brooks, M.; Cheung, T.Y.; Tasooji, A.; Wood, J.C.; Kelm, J.R.; Surette, B.A.; Frost, C.R.

    1989-05-01

    The analytical and experimental work described in this report is intended to predict the integrity of light-water reactor (LWR) fuel rods when the fuel rods are stored dry. The analytical portion considered all failure mechanisms that could be expected to operate under dry storage conditions, including creep rupture, external oxidation stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue, and clad splitting by UO/sub 2/ oxidation. Existing physically based models were used to predict the probability that LWR fuel rod cladding will fail in 100 years, as a function of the temperature at which the rods are stored. In the experimental portion, SCC tests were conducted on irradiated Zircaloy cladding to determine characteristics under conditions relevant to dry storage. ''Precracked'' and ''smooth'' (with only small naturally occurring flaws) specimens of irradiated cladding were subjected to ''split ring'' tests at initial stresses on the order of the yield stress in a variety of atmospheres containing iodine or cesium/cadmium. Most precracked specimens failed by SCC, and about one-third of smooth specimens irradiated to fluence above 2.5 /times/ 10/sup 24/ n/m/sup 2/ also failed. However, the stresses present in these tests were much higher than those expected in stored fuel cladding; therefore, the experimental results do not necessarily indicate likely SCC problems in dry-storage fuel. 68 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Timothy J.; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Zheng, Jennie O.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol-1, and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  10. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain. PMID:24755597

  11. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  12. Computing Q-D Relationships for Storage of Rocket Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The Quantity Distance Measurement Tool is a GIS BASEP computer program that aids safety engineers by calculating quantity-distance (Q-D) relationships for vessels that contain explosive chemicals used in testing rocket engines. (Q-D relationships are standard relationships between specified quantities of specified explosive materials and minimum distances by which they must be separated from persons, objects, and other explosives to obtain specified types and degrees of protection.) The program uses customized geographic-information-system (GIS) software and calculates Q-D relationships in accordance with NASA's Safety Standard For Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics. Displays generated by the program enable the identification of hazards, showing the relationships of propellant-storage-vessel safety buffers to inhabited facilities and public roads. Current Q-D information is calculated and maintained in graphical form for all vessels that contain propellants or other chemicals, the explosiveness of which is expressed in TNT equivalents [amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT) having equivalent explosive effects]. The program is useful in the acquisition, siting, construction, and/or modification of storage vessels and other facilities in the development of an improved test-facility safety program.

  13. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND RE

    2011-12-27

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is

  14. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  15. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: Report of consolidated thermal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, W. L.

    1980-09-01

    A drywell/sealed cask technique for spent fuel storage is discussed. Experiments indicate that PWR fuel with decay heat levels in excess of 2 kW could be stored in isolated drywells in Nevada test site soil without exceeding the current fuel clad temperature limit (715 F). The ability to thermally analyze near surface drywells and above ground storage casks is assessed. It is concluded that the required analysis procedures, computer programs, etc., are already developed and available. Soil thermal conductivity requires additional study to better understand the soil drying mechanism and effects of moisture. Work is also required to develop an internal canister subchannel model. In addition, the ability of the overall drywell thermal model to accommodate thermal interaction effects between adjacent drywells should be confirmed.

  16. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask`s primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives.

  17. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  18. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K R

    1993-01-01

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal.

  19. Legacy Waste Retrieval from Cladding Hulls and Fuel Hardware Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wattecamps, J.B.; Hubert, N.; Zanife, T.

    2007-07-01

    Waste generated during nuclear fuel shearing and dissolution operations from 1976 to 1998 at the UP2-400 plant at La Hague, has been stored in bulk in a silo and in metal canisters. The waste has to be retrieved and conditioned before the implementation of the shutdown program. This paper gives a general presentation of the project to retrieve and condition this waste stored in the High Activity Oxide (HAO) facility. The topics discussed include a presentation of scenarios and technical solutions as well as a presentation of AREVA NC's approach to meet schedule commitment and to minimize overall project cost. (authors)

  20. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  1. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  2. Development of a conditioning system for the dual-purpose transport and storage cask for spent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T.

    2007-07-01

    'Mayak' for reprocessing. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the U.S. DOD Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR), and the DOE's ORNL, along with the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, worked closely with the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (RF) to develop an improved integrated management system for interim storage of military SNF in Russia. The initial Project activities included: (1) development of a prototype dual-purpose, metal-concrete 40-ton cask for both the transport and interim storage of RF SNF, and (2) development of the first transshipment/interim storage facility for these casks in Murmansk. The U.S. has continued support to the project by assisting the RF with the development of the first mobile system that provides internal conditioning for the TUK-108/1 casks to allow them to be stored for longer than the current licensing period of two years. Development of the prototype TUK-108/1 cask was completed in December 2000 under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. This was the first metal-concrete cask developed, licensed, and produced in the RF for both the transportation and storage of SNF from decommissioned submarines. These casks are currently being serially produced in NW Russia and 108 casks have been produced to date. Russia is using these casks for the transport and interim storage of military SNF from decommissioned nuclear submarines at naval installations in the Arctic and Far East in conformance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II). The design, construction, and commissioning of the first transshipment/interim storage facility in the RF was completed and ready for full operation in September 2003. Because of the RF government reorganization and changing regulations for spent fuel storage facilities, the storage facility at Murmansk was not fully licensed for operation until December 2005. The RF has reported that

  3. Cladding stress during extended storage of high burnup spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, Patrick A. C.; Einziger, Robert E.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to assess the potential for low temperature creep and delayed hydride cracking failures in high burnup spent fuel cladding during extended dry storage, the U.S. NRC analytical fuel performance tools were used to predict cladding stress during a 300 year dry storage period for UO2 fuel burned up to 65 GWd/MTU. Fuel swelling correlations were developed and used along with decay gas production and release fractions to produce circumferential average cladding stress predictions with the FRAPCON-3.5 fuel performance code. The resulting stresses did not result in cladding creep failures. The maximum creep strains accumulated were on the order of 0.54-1.04%, but creep failures are not expected below at least 2% strain. The potential for delayed hydride cracking was assessed by calculating the critical flaw size required to trigger this failure mechanism. The critical flaw size far exceeded any realistic flaw expected in spent fuel at end of reactor life.

  4. Corrosion surveillance for research reactor spent nuclear fuel in wet basin storage

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Foreign and domestic test and research reactor fuel is currently being shipped from locations over the world for storage in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The fuel was provided to many of the foreign countries as a part of the ``Atoms for Peace'' program in the early 1950's. In support of the wet storage of this fuel at the research reactor sites and at SRS, corrosion surveillance programs have been initiated. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1996 on ``Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water'' and scientists from ten countries worldwide were invited to participate. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the IAEA sponsored CRP and provides the updated results from corrosion surveillance activities at SRS. In May 1998, a number of news articles around the world reported stories that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was active on the aluminum-clad spent fuel stored in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) at SRS. This assessment was found to be in error with details presented in this paper. A biofilm was found on aluminum coupons, but resulted in no corrosion. Cracks seen on the surface were not caused by corrosion, but by stresses from the volume expansion of the oxide formed during pre-conditioning autoclaving. There has been no pitting caused by MIC or any other corrosion mechanism seen in the RBOF basin since initiation of the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program in 1993.

  5. Slurry-Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy; Simmons, Kevin L.; Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2014-05-30

    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  6. Slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage systems for automotive fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy A.; Simmons, Kevin L.; van Hassel, Bart

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80-kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE-developed set of system-level targets for onboard storage. While most DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry accounts for the majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance-of-plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  7. Hanford`s progress toward dry interim storage of K basin`s spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-09

    This paper highlights the progress made toward removing the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) approximately 2, 100 metric tons of metallic spent nuclear fuel from two outdated K Basins on the banks of the Columbia River and placing it in safe, economic interim dry storage beginning in December 1997. A new way of doing business at the Hanford Site and within DOE is being used to achieve the fast-track schedule, , cost savings, and public cooperation needed for success. In February 1994, the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project was formed to solve serious safety and environmental problems associated with corroding metallic spent fuel stored in 1950`s vintage, leak-prone, water- filled concrete basins located within 365 meters (400 yards) of the last remaining unspoiled section of the Columbia River. Working together, the integrated project team focused on quickly getting the fuel out of the basins and into safe, dry storage. The team involved the public, government, regulators, and other stakeholders and forged a common understanding. The DOE transferred authority to the field to shorten approval times, and Site contractors reengineered processes to improve efficiency. Within nine months of creating the project, a plan was recommended to the DOE. It was approved on February 14, 1995. Further refinement, during the following six months, shortened the schedule even more and reduced costs by $350 million. The SNF Project is on a fast track. The K Basins Environmental Impact Statement was completed in only 11 months for only $1.3 million. Fuel and sludge samples were obtained from both basins and were sent to the laboratory for characterization and testing. The partially constructed Canister Storage Building (CSB), selected as the fuel storage facility, was redesigned, and construction was restarted saving over $17 million and cutting a year off the project schedule. With fuel removal beginning in December 1997, the SNF Project will have the fuel out of the K Basins and into

  8. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  9. Regenerative fuel cell systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems are the leading energy storage candidates for Space Station. Key design features are the advanced state of technology readiness and high degree of system level design flexibility. Technology readiness was demonstrated through testing at the single cell, cell stack, mechanical ancillary component, subsystem, and breadboard levels. Design flexibility characteristics include independent sizing of power and energy storage portions of the system, integration of common reactants with other space station systems, and a wide range of various maintenance approaches. The design features led to selection of a RFC system as the sole electrochemical energy storage technology option for the space station advanced development program.

  10. Environmental safety aspects of the new spent nuclear fuel management and storage system at Ignalina NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.; Adomaitis, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) a new Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) will be built in the existing sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of INPP. In addition to the ISFSF, the new spent nuclear fuel management activity will include all necessary spent nuclear fuel retrieval and packaging operations at the Reactor Units, transfer of storage casks to the ISFSF, and other activities appropriate to the chosen design solution and required for the safe removal of the existing spent nuclear fuel from storage pools and insertion into the new ISFSF. The Republic of Lithuania regulations require that the average annual dose to the critical group members of population due to operation of nuclear facility shall not exceed dose constraint. If several nuclear facilities are located in the same SPZ, the same dose constraint shall envelope radiological impacts from all operating and planned nuclear facilities. The paper discusses radiological safety assessment aspects as relevant for the new nuclear activity to be implemented in the SPZ of INPP considering specificity of Lithuanian regulatory requirements. The safety assessment methodology aspects, results and conclusions as concern public exposure are outlined and discussed. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  13. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  14. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL & TREATMENT & DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-09

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel.

  15. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  16. A Critical Review of Practice of Equating the Reactivity of Spent Fuel to Fresh Fuel in Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Parks, C.V.

    2000-09-01

    This research examines the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to that of fresh fuel for the purpose of performing burnup credit criticality safety analyses for PWR spent fuel pool (SFP) storage conditions. The investigation consists of comparing k{sub inf} estimates based on reactivity equivalent fresh fuel enrichment (REFFE) to k{sub inf} estimates using the actual spent fuel isotopics. Analyses of selected storage configurations common in PWR SFPs show that this practice yields nonconservative results (on the order of a few tenths of a percent) in configurations in which the spent fuel is adjacent to higher-reactivity assemblies (e.g., fresh or lower-burned assemblies) and yields conservative results in configurations in which spent fuel is adjacent to lower-reactivity assemblies (e.g., higher-burned fuel or empty cells). When the REFFE is determined based on unborated water moderation, analyses for storage conditions with soluble boron present reveal significant nonconservative results associated with the use of the REFFE. This observation is considered to be important, especially considering the recent allowance of credit for soluble boron up to 5% in reactivity. Finally, it is shown that the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to fresh fuel is acceptable, provided the conditions for which the REFFE was determined remain unchanged. Determination of the REFFE for a reference configuration and subsequent use of the REFFE for different configurations violates the basis used for the determination of the REFFE and, thus, may lead to inaccurate, and possibly, nonconservative estimates of reactivity. A significant concentration ({approximately}2000 ppm) of soluble boron is typically (but not necessarily required to be) present in PWR SFPs, of which only a portion ({le} 500 ppm) may be credited in safety analyses. Thus, a large subcritical margin currently exists that more than accounts for errors or uncertainties associated with the use of

  17. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  18. Corrosion Surveillance for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in Wet Basin Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.P.

    1998-10-16

    Foreign and domestic test and research reactor fuel is currently being shipped from locations over the world for storage in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The fuel was provided to many of the foreign countries as a part of the "Atoms for Peace" program in the early 1950's. In support of the wet storage of this fuel at the research reactor sites and at SRS, corrosion surveillance programs have been initiated. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1996 on "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" and scientists from ten countries worldwide were invited to participate. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the IAEA sponsored CRP and provides the updated results from corrosion surveillance activities at SRS. In May 1998, a number of news articles around the world reported stories that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was active on the aluminum-clad spent fuel stored in the RBOF basin at SRS. This assessment was found to be in error with details presented in this paper. A biofilm was found on aluminum coupons, but resulted in no corrosion. Cracks seen on the surface were not caused by corrosion, but by stresses from the volume expansion of the oxide formed during pre-conditioning autoclaving. There has been no pitting caused by MIC or any other corrosion mechanism seen in the RBOF basin since initiation of the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program in 1993.

  19. Container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    A single canister process container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies comprising zirconium-based cladding and fuel, which process container comprises a collapsible container, having side walls that are made of a high temperature alloy and an array of collapsible support means wherein the container is capable of withstanding temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding and having sufficient ductility to maintain integrity when collapsed under pressure. The support means is also capable of maintaining their integrity at temperature necessary to oxide the zirconium-based cladding. The process container also has means to introduce and remove fluids to and from the container.

  20. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  1. An information management system for a spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, Robert J.; Chiu, Hsien-Lang; Giles, Todd; Horak, Karl Emanuel; Jow, Hong-Nian

    2010-12-01

    We describe an integrated information management system for an independent spent fuel dry-storage installation (ISFSI) that can provide for (1) secure and authenticated data collection, (2) data analysis, (3) dissemination of information to appropriate stakeholders via a secure network, and (4) increased public confidence and support of the facility licensing and operation through increased transparency. This information management system is part of a collaborative project between Sandia National Laboratories, Taiwan Power Co., and the Fuel Cycle Materials Administration of Taiwan's Atomic Energy Council, which is investigating how to implement this concept.

  2. Issues relating to spent nuclear fuel storage on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.A.; Turner, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    Currently, about 2,800 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in the US, 1,000 kg of SNF (or about 0.03% of the nation`s total) are stored at the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. However small the total quantity of material stored at Oak Ridge, some of the material is quite singular in character and, thus, poses unique management concerns. The various types of SNF stored at Oak Ridge will be discussed including: (1) High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and future Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuels; (2) Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuels, including Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) fuels; (3) Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel; (4) Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) fuel; (5) Miscellaneous SNF stored in Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs); (6) SNF stored in the Y-12 Plant 9720-5 Warehouse including Health. Physics Reactor (HPRR), Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-) 10A, and DOE Demonstration Reactor fuels.

  3. Test storage of spent reactor fuel in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.

    1980-02-13

    A test of retrievable dry geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor is underway at the Nevada Test Site. This generic test is located 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock. Eleven canisters of spent fuel approximately 2.3 years out of reactor core (about 2 kW/canister thermal output) will be emplaced in a storage drift along with 6 electrical simulator canisters and their effects will be compared. Two adjacent drifts will contain electrical heaters, which will be operated to simulate within the test array the thermal field of a large repository. The test objectives, technical concepts and rationale, and details of the test are stated and discussed.

  4. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  5. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  6. A&M. TAN607. Detail of fuel storage pool under construction. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Detail of fuel storage pool under construction. Camera is on berm and facing northwest. Note depth of excavation. Formwork underway for floor and concrete walls of pool; wall between pool and vestibule. At center left of view, foundation for liquid waste treatment plant is poured. Date: August 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 8541 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  8. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995).

  9. Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

  10. Analysis of dose consequences arising from the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry storage casks.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The resulting dose consequences from releases of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) residing in a dry storage casks are examined parametrically. The dose consequences are characterized by developing dose versus distance curves using simplified bounding assumptions. The dispersion calculations are performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2) code. Constant weather and generic system parameters were chosen to ensure that the results in this report are comparable with each other and to determine the relative impact on dose of each variable. Actual analyses of site releases would need to accommodate local weather and geographic data. These calculations assume a range of fuel burnups, release fractions (RFs), three exposure scenarios (2 hrs and evacuate, 2 hrs and shelter, and 24 hrs exposure), two meteorological conditions (D-4 and F-2), and three release heights (ground level - 1 meter (m), 10 m, and 100 m). This information was developed to support a policy paper being developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff on an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) security rulemaking.

  11. Mass minimization of a discrete regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for on-board energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojin; Xiao, Yu; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    RFC combined with solar photovoltaic (PV) array is the advanced technologic solution for on-board energy storage, e.g. land, sky, stratosphere and aerospace applications, due to its potential of achieving high specific energy. This paper focuses on mass modeling and calculation for a RFC system consisting of discrete electrochemical cell stacks (fuel cell and electrolyzer), together with fuel storage, a PV array, and a radiator. A nonlinear constrained optimization procedure is used to minimize the entire system mass, as well as to study the effect of operating conditions (e.g. current densities of fuel cell and electrolyzer) on the system mass. According to the state-of-the-art specific power of both electrochemical stacks, an energy storage system has been designed for the conditions of stratosphere applications and a rated power output of 12 kW. The calculation results show that the optimization of the current density of both stacks is of importance in designing the light weight on-board energy system.

  12. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  13. An Electrical Energy Storage System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, T.; Shao, L.; Qian, J. Q.; Wang, S. R.; Zhan, Z. L.

    2013-07-01

    This work studies a proof-of-concept integrated electrical energy storage system of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by using Fe as original fuel and Ca(OH)2 as additive. The design and operation of this cell are based on a conventional anode-supported tubular SOFC, with Ni-SSZ, SSZ, and SSZ-LSM as anode, electrolyte and cathode, respectively. In this design, Fe reacts with H2O generated from the decomposition of Ca(OH)2 at high temperature, as a result, H2 is produced in situ as SOFC fuel. The charging process is realized by electrolysis of water in the SOEC mode along with the reduction of Fe3O4 by the generated H2. It is demonstrated that the open circuit voltage (OCV) for the Fe-Fe3O4 system is above 1.0V at 1073K. By using such fuel, the maximum power density of 124 mW cm-2 has been achieved. Two stable charge/discharge cycles have been tested. Combined with the advantages of environmental friendliness, sustainability promise and excellent performance, the novel SOFC system will be a new choice of grid-scale energy storage.

  14. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. ); Knoll, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Detection of diesel fuel leakage from underground storage tank using time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Daniel A.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established regulations concerning the construction and maintenance of an underground storage tank (UST) system. These regulations also define the means and methods required to detect potential leaks. Leak detection methods defined as "other methods" can be used if specific requirements are achieved. We find in our study time domain reflectometry (TDR) can be used to detect leaks from an UST. The magnitudes of reflections measured by the TDR technique are used to calculate electrical properties of the soil. We find the introduction of diesel fuel, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), into the soil alters the physical and chemical properties of the soil and subsequently the electrical properties. We demonstrate the measured variance of electrical properties can be correlated to the changes of diesel fuel concentration. We find diesel fuel can be detected and changes of concentration can be measured using TDR.

  16. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  17. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  18. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    SciTech Connect

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Habel

    2008-03-18

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils. The rectangular-shaped concrete basin on the south side of the 105-F Reactor building served as an underwater collection, storage, and transfer facility for irradiated fuel elements discharged from the reactor.

  20. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment. PMID:16381764

  1. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  2. Compact fuel cell system utilizing a combination of hydrogen storage materials for optimized performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Jennifer P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Gross, Karl J.; Ng, Greg L.

    2004-12-01

    An entirely new class of light-weight reversible hydrides was recently discovered (the Ti-doped alanates)[1]. These NaAIH{sub 4}-based materials have demonstrated reversible hydrogen storage capacities of up to 5 wt%, nearly 4 times the gravimetrically density of commercial metal hydrides. For this reason, they have been considered a breakthrough for hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles. This project is the first to publish the use of alanates for the generation of electrical power and the first demonstration of a hydride-fueled elevated-temperature PEM Fuel Cell. Because the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release by the alanate improves with elevated temperatures, novel concepts were tested for the purpose of developing a highly efficient stand-alone power system. A major focus of this work was on the modeling, design, construction and testing of an integrated fuel cell stack and hydrogen storage system that eliminates the need of complicated heat transfer systems and media. After extensive modeling efforts, a proof-of-concept system was built that employs an integrated fuel cell stack and hydride beds that balancing the generation of fuel cell waste heat with the endothermic release of hydrogen from the alanates. Our demonstration unit was capable of greater than one hour of operation on a single charge of hydrogen from the integrated 173 gram alanate bed. In addition, composite hydride materials with synergistic reaction heats were evaluated and tested to enhance the operational performance of the alanates. The composites provide a unique opportunity to utilize the heat produced from hydriding classic metal hydrides to improve both absorption and desorption rates of the alanates. A particular focus of the mixed storage materials work was to balance the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydrides for start-up conditions. Modeling of the sorption properties proved invaluable in evaluating the optimum composition of hydrides. The modeling efforts were followed

  3. Thermal analysis for a spent reactor fuel storage test in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Montan, D.N.

    1980-09-01

    A test is conducted in which spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear power reactor are emplaced in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site. In this generic test, 11 canisters of spent PWR fuel are emplaced vertically along with 6 electrical simulator canisters on 3 m centers, 4 m below the floor of a storage drift which is 420 m below the surface. Two adjacent parallel drifts contain electrical heaters, operated to simulate (in the vicinity of the storage drift) the temperature fields of a large repository. This test, planned for up to five years duration, uses fairly young fuel (2.5 years out of core) so that the thermal peak will occur during the time frame of the test and will not exceed the peak that would not occur until about 40 years of storage had older fuel (5 to 15 years out of core) been used. This paper describes the calculational techniques and summarizes the results of a large number of thermal calculations used in the concept, basic design and final design of the spent fuel test. The results of the preliminary calculations show the effects of spacing and spent fuel age. Either radiation or convection is sufficient to make the drifts much better thermal conductors than the rock that was removed to create them. The combination of radiation and convection causes the drift surfaces to be nearly isothermal even though the heat source is below the floor. With a nominal ventilation rate of 2 m{sup 3}/s and an ambient rock temperature of 23{sup 0}C, the maximum calculated rock temperature (near the center of the heat source) is about 100{sup 0}C while the maximum air temperature in the drift is around 40{sup 0}C. This ventilation (1 m{sup 3}/s through the main drift and 1/2 m{sup 3}/s through each of the side drifts) will remove about 1/3 of the heat generated during the first five years of storage.

  4. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  5. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  6. Development and validation of a slurry model for chemical hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE's Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. PNNL developed models to simulate the performance and suitability of slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and an endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete, the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The system design parameters were adjusted to allow the model to successfully meet a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, a cold-start cycle, and a hot drive cycle. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction >11 kJ mol-1 H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of >11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  7. Energy storage characterization for a direct methanol fuel cell hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, J.; Janßen, H.; Mergel, J.; Stolten, D.

    This paper describes the energy storage characterization for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) hybrid system for light traction applications. In a first step, the DMFC stack and the energy storage were dimensioned. To dimension the energy storage, the required energy density and power density were calculated. These are influenced by the operating states of the vehicle as well as the highly fluctuating load profile. For this kind of application a high energy density as well as a high power density is needed. Therefore, super capacitors are not the energy storage of choice. As an alternative, suitable batteries were analyzed in terms of their behavior in the DMFC hybrid system. Therefore, a characterization procedure was developed consisting of five different tests. These tests were developed adapted to the requirements of the application. They help to characterize the battery in terms of energy content, high power capability during charge and discharge, thermal behavior and lifetime. The tests showed that all batteries have to be operated on a partial state of charge (pSOC) and a thermal management is very important. Especially lead-acid battery show an decrease in lifetime under a pSOC operation. Therefore, a lithium battery was identified as the suitable energy storage for the considered application.

  8. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    PubMed

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell. PMID:22318367

  9. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  10. Older Adult Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Reported Storage Practices of Ready-to-Eat Food Products and Risks Associated with Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer implementation of recommended food safety practices, specifically relating to time and temperature control of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products associated with listeriosis are crucial. This is particularly the case for at-risk consumers such as older adults, given the increased listeriosis incidence reported internationally among adults aged ≥60 years. However, data detailing older adults' cognitive risk factors associated with listeriosis are lacking. Combining data about knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes can achieve a cumulative multilayered in-depth understanding of consumer food safety behavior and cognition. This study aims to ascertain older adults' cognition and behavior in relation to domestic food handling and storage practices that may increase the risks associated with L. monocytogenes. Older adults (≥60 years) (n = 100) participated in an interview and questionnaire to determine knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes toward recommended practices. Although the majority (79%) had positive attitudes toward refrigeration, 84% were unaware of recommended temperatures (5°C) and 65% self-reported "never" checking their refrigerator temperature. Although most (72%) knew that "use-by" dates indicate food safety and 62% reported "always" taking note, neutral attitudes were held, with 67% believing it was safe to eat food beyond use-by dates and 57% reporting doing so. Attitudes toward consuming foods within the recommended 2 days of opening were neutral, with 55% aware of recommendations and , 84% reporting that they consume RTE foods beyond recommendations. Although knowledgeable of some key practices, older adults self-reported potentially unsafe practices when storing RTE foods at home, which may increase risks associated with L. monocytogenes. This study has determined that older adults' food safety cognition may affect their behaviors; understanding consumer food safety cognition is essential for developing targeted

  11. Understanding and Managing Aging of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Facility Components in Wet Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A. Burton

    2007-07-01

    Storage of nuclear fuel after it has been discharged from reactors has become the leading spent fuel management option. Many storage facilities are being required to operate longer than originally anticipated. Aging is a term that has emerged to focus attention on the consequences of extended operation on systems, structures, and components that comprise the storage facilities. The key to mitigation of age-related degradation in storage facilities is to implement effective strategies to understand and manage aging of the facility materials. A systematic approach to preclude serious effects of age-related degradation is addressed in this paper, directed principally to smaller facilities (test and research reactors). The first need is to assess the materials that comprise the facility and the environments that they are subject to. Access to historical data on facility design, fabrication, and operation can facilitate assessment of expected materials performance. Methods to assess the current condition of facility materials are summarized in the paper. Each facility needs an aging management plan to define the scope of the management program, involving identification of the materials that need specific actions to manage age-related degradation. For each material identified, one or more aging management programs are developed and become part of the plan Several national and international organizations have invested in development of comprehensive and systematic approaches to aging management. A method developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommended as a concise template to organize measures to effectively manage age-related degradation of storage facility materials, including the scope of inspection, surveillance, and maintenance that is needed to assure successful operation of the facility over its required life. Important to effective aging management is a staff that is alert for evidence of materials degradation and committed to carry out the aging

  12. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 3, Validation assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N.J.; Cuta, J.M.; Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents the results of the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code validation effort. COBRA-SFS, while refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses, is a lumped-volume thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code that predicts temperature and velocity distributions in a wide variety of systems. Through comparisons of code predictions with spent fuel storage system test data, the code's mathematical, physical, and mechanistic models are assessed, and empirical relations defined. The six test cases used to validate the code and code models include single-assembly and multiassembly storage systems under a variety of fill media and system orientations and include unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. In its entirety, the test matrix investigates the contributions of convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer in spent fuel storage systems. To demonstrate the code's performance for a wide variety of storage systems and conditions, comparisons of code predictions with data are made for 14 runs from the experimental data base. The cases selected exercise the important code models and code logic pathways and are representative of the types of simulations required for spent fuel storage system design and licensing safety analyses. For each test, a test description, a summary of the COBRA-SFS computational model, assumptions, and correlations employed are presented. For the cases selected, axial and radial temperature profile comparisons of code predictions with test data are provided, and conclusions drawn concerning the code models and the ability to predict the data and data trends. Comparisons of code predictions with test data demonstrate the ability of COBRA-SFS to successfully predict temperature distributions in unconsolidated or consolidated single and multiassembly spent fuel storage systems.

  13. 76 FR 12825 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Confirmation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2243). This direct final rule amended the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations at...: Gregory.Trussell@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2243), the NRC published... reconstituted fuel assemblies; add requirements to qualify metal matrix composite neutron absorbers...

  14. Eddy Current for Sizing Cracks in Canisters for Dry Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in dry canister storage systems (DCSSs) at Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI) sites is a temporary measure to accommodate UNF inventory until it can be reprocessed or transferred to a repository for permanent disposal. Policy uncertainty surrounding the long-term management of UNF indicates that DCSSs will need to store UNF for much longer periods than originally envisioned. Meanwhile, the structural and leak-tight integrity of DCSSs must not be compromised. The eddy current technique is presented as a potential tool for inspecting the outer surfaces of DCSS canisters for degradation, particularly atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Results are presented that demonstrate that eddy current can detect flaws that cannot be detected reliably using standard visual techniques. In addition, simulations are performed to explore the best parameters of a pancake coil probe for sizing of SCC flaws in DCSS canisters and to identify features in frequency sweep curves that may potentially be useful for facilitating accurate depth sizing of atmospheric SCC flaws from eddy current measurements.

  15. CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    The CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) has been constructed to describe the activities required for the relocation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the CPP-603 facility. These activities are the only Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) actions identified in the Implementation Plan developed to meet the requirements of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 to the Secretary of Energy regarding an improved schedule for remediation in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Complex. As described in the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan, issued February 28, 1995, an INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan is currently under development to direct the placement of SNF currently in existing INEL facilities into interim storage, and to address the coordination of intrasite SNF movements with new receipts and intersite transfers that were identified in the DOE SNF Programmatic and INEL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Record, of Decision. This SISMP will be a subset of the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and the activities described are being coordinated with other INEL SNF management activities. The CPP-603 relocation activities have been assigned a high priority so that established milestones will be meet, but there will be some cases where other activities will take precedence in utilization of available resources. The Draft INEL Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), INEL-94/0279, Draft Rev. 2, dated March 10, 1995, is being superseded by the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and this CPP-603 specific SISMP.

  16. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T; Hemingway, Michael A; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-09-01

    There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips. PMID:27030057

  17. Evaluation of Effect of Fuel Assembly Loading Patterns on Thermal and Shielding Performance of a Spent Fuel Storage/Transportation Cask

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Jenquin, Urban P.; McKinnon, Mikal A.

    2001-11-20

    The licensing of spent fuel storage casks is generally based on conservative analyses that assume a storage system being uniformly loaded with design basis fuel. The design basis fuel typically assumes a maximum assembly enrichment, maximum burn up, and minimum cooling time. These conditions set the maximum decay heat loads and radioactive source terms for the design. Recognizing that reactor spent fuel pools hold spent fuel with an array of initial enrichments, burners, and cooling times, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of load pattern on peak cladding temperature and cask surface dose rate. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that load patterns could be used to reduce peak cladding temperatures in a cask without adversely impacting the surface dose rates.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  19. Decommissioning of the 105-F and 105-H fuel storage basin in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.W.

    1991-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns the eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The fuel storage basins at the 105-F and 105-H reactors were filled with equipment, associated with the operation of the basins and clean fill in 1970. This was done to stabilize the residual sediment and a few feet of water in the reactors' fuel storage basins. This project investigates the subject basins to locate and remove overlooked fuel elements left in the basins.

  20. Operational experience with ultrasonic bolt seals for safeguards containment of multielement bottles in THORP spent-fuel storage ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, C.D.; Reynolds, A.F.; Jeffrey, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the operational experience gained by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) at the THORP spent-fuel storage facility in the application and verification of ultra-sonic bolt seals to light water reactor fuel containers and multielement bottles while in the storage ponds. Additionally, it discusses BNFL`s cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Euratom, and Joint Research Council-Ispra to facilitate the development and design modifications of the remote-handling tools used. Finally, it summarizes the benefits, from an operator`s point of view, of using the bolt seals as a safeguards/containment device.

  1. Storage of comminuted forest biomass and its effect on fuel quality.

    SciTech Connect

    Afzal, M; Bedane, A.H.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mahmood, W.

    2009-11-01

    White birch was stored in the form of bundles, wood chips and loose slash for a period of one year to examine the change in biomass fuel properties. The samples were collected at regular quarterly intervals to measure the moisture content, CNS content, ash content and calorific value. Data loggers were also placed into the woody biomass to measure the temperature change inside the piles. After the first quarter of the storage period and continuing into the next three months of storage, the moisture content showed most significant change. The moisture content of the biomass bundles increased from 29 % to above 80 % (db). The moisture content of the pile of wood chips covered with a tarp decreased from 51% to 26% and showed a continuous decline in moisture content to the end of storage period. However, the moisture content of uncovered wood chip piles were observed to continuously increase throughout the storage period resulting in more than double in magnitude from 59% to 160% (db). The dry matter loss was higher in wood chip piles (8-27%) than in bundles (~3%). Among the other properties, there was slightly higher loss of calorific value in wood chips (~1.6%) as compared to bundles (~0.7%) at the end of one year. Other changes in woody biomass properties were also discussed. The proposed two-dimensional mathematical model predicted the moisture content and temperature profile in the woody biomass pile closely to the experimental data.

  2. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. Environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this fuel. The objective of the project is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. Work this quarter entailed: obtaining all of the test coals including 10 lbs of Illinois No. 6 cleaned by the LICADO process. Installation of the test system for the Residential Storage Tank including piping and the components required to recycle the ultrafine coal. Completion of the design of the scale model test of the Industrial/Commercial Storage System. Piping and supports for the porous fluidization plates in the floor of the tanks have been completed. Preliminary results with the Illinois No. 6 coal cleaned by the Bechtel heptane/asphalt process indicate that this material is cohesive and difficult to fluidize. Studies of dune formation have been made with the Illinois No. 6 coal. These data provide information on the minimum velocity which will transport the particles. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2011-10-05

    A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

  4. Factor of explosiveness of pulverized fuel as a basis for classification of natural solid fuels with respect to their storageability in open coal depots

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Tolchinskii; A.Yu. Lavrent'ev

    2003-01-15

    Existing methods for estimating the storageability of fuel in open coal depots are analyzed. It is inferred that the capacity of coals for oxidation and spontaneous combustion cannot be unambiguously associated with the name of the coal basin, deposit, or grade. Methods for calculating a generalized parameter reflecting a fuel group are suggested. It is shown that the explosiveness factor Kf of solid fuels calculated from the data on technical and elemental compositions can be used as a generalized characteristic for classifying fuels according to their resistance to oxidation and spontaneous combustion.

  5. High Performance COPVs for In-Space Storage of High Pressure Cryogenic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Dyess, Mark; Hastings, Chad; Wang, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) provide an attractive material system to support developing commercial launch business and alternate fuel ventures. However to be able to design with these materials, the mechanical behavior of the materials must be understood with regards to processing, performance, damage tolerance, and environment. For the storage of cryogenic propellants, it is important to evaluate the materials performance and impact damage resistance at cryogenic temperatures in order to minimize weight and to ensure safety and reliability. As part of this study, material tests of candidate fiber and resin systems were used as the basis for the selection of the material combinations for evaluation in a COPV at cryogenic conditions. This comprehensive approach has also been expanded to address issues with impact damage tolerance and material degradation due to environmental factors. KEY WORDS: Cryogenic testing, evaluation and applications for pressure vessels, COPVs, tanks, or storage vessels.

  6. Standard format and content for the safety analysis report for an independent spent fuel storage installation or monitored retrievable storage installation (dry storage): Revision 1, Task CE 406-4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations specifies the information to be supplied in applications for licenses to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation. However, Part 72 does not specify the format for presentation of the safety analysis report (SAR). Guidance on the content of the SAR will vary, depending on the type of installation that is planned. This guide represents a Standard Format that is acceptable to the NRC staff for the SAR required for the license application. Conformance with this Standard Format, however, is not mandatory. License applications with differing SAF formats will be acceptable to the staff if they provide an adequate basis for the findings required for the issuance of a license.

  7. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:21799983

  8. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  9. As-Built Verification Plan Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building MCO Handling Machine

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-10-19

    This as-built verification plan outlines the methodology and responsibilities that will be implemented during the as-built field verification activity for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) MCO HANDLING MACHINE (MHM). This as-built verification plan covers THE ELECTRICAL PORTION of the CONSTRUCTION PERFORMED BY POWER CITY UNDER CONTRACT TO MOWAT. The as-built verifications will be performed in accordance Administrative Procedure AP 6-012-00, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project As-Built Verification Plan Development Process, revision I. The results of the verification walkdown will be documented in a verification walkdown completion package, approved by the Design Authority (DA), and maintained in the CSB project files.

  10. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    BAZINET, G.D.

    2000-11-03

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted

  11. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Activities for Cleanout of the 105 F Fuel Storage Basin at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M. R.; Rodovsky, T. J.; Day, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Clean-out of the F Reactor fuel storage basin (FSB) by the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is an element of the FSB decontamination and decommissioning and is required to complete interim safe storage (ISS) of the F Reactor. Following reactor shutdown and in preparation for a deactivation layaway action in 1970, the water level in the F Reactor FSB was reduced to approximately 0.6 m (2 ft) over the floor. Basin components and other miscellaneous items were left or placed in the FSB. The item placement was performed with a sense of finality, and no attempt was made to place the items in an orderly manner. The F Reactor FSB was then filled to grade level with 6 m (20 ft) of local surface material (essentially a fine sand). The reactor FSB backfill cleanout involves the potential removal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that may have been left in the basin unintentionally. Based on previous cleanout of four water-filled FSBs with similar designs (i.e., the B, C, D, and DR FSBs in the 1980s), it was estimated that up to five SNF elements could be discovered in the F Reactor FSB (1). In reality, a total of 10 SNF elements have been found in the first 25% of the F Reactor FSB excavation. This paper discusses the technical and programmatic challenges of performing this decommissioning effort with some of the controls needed for SNF management. The paper also highlights how many various technologies were married into a complete package to address the issue at hand and show how no one tool could be used to complete the job; but by combining the use of multiple tools, progress is being made.

  12. Container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-03-24

    A single canister process container is described for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies comprising zirconium-based cladding and fuel, which process container comprises a collapsible container, having side walls that are made of a high temperature alloy and an array of collapsible support means wherein the container is capable of withstanding temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding and having sufficient ductility to maintain integrity when collapsed under pressure. The support means is also capable of maintaining its integrity at a temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding. The process container also has means to introduce and remove fluids to and from the container. 10 figs.

  13. Isolation and identification of cobalt- and caesium-resistant bacteria from a nuclear fuel storage pond.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Linda; Osborne, Thomas H; Santini, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    One of the issues facing the nuclear power industry is how to store spent nuclear fuel which is contaminated with radionuclides produced during nuclear fission, including caesium ((134)Cs(+), (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+)) and cobalt ((60)Co(2+)). In this study, we have isolated Co(2+)- and Cs(+)-resistant bacteria from water collected from a nuclear fuel storage pond. The most resistant Cs(+) and Co(2+) isolates grew in the presence of 500 mM CsCl and 3 mM CoCl2. Strain Cs67-2 is resistant to fourfold more Cs(+) than Cupriavidus metallidurans str. CH34 making it the most Cs(+)-resistant strain identified to date. The Cs(+)-resistant isolates were closely related to bacteria in the Serratia and Yersinia genera, while the Co(2+)-resistant isolates were closely related to the Curvibacter and Tardiphaga genera. These new isolates could be used for bioremediation. PMID:25091383

  14. Monthly away-from-reactor spent fuel storage report: AFR program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This monthly away-from-reactor (AFR) report on spent fuel storage covers the following areas: planning and management; facility acquisition; legislative requirements; technical support; transportation, and international activity. The planning and management section provides a general statement of monthly activities which are itemized under that applicable program area. Specific program objectives, associated project activity and cost and milestone charts are provided. Some of the highlights of this report are: under facility acquisition, a reinforced concrete buttress outside of the basin wall has been selected as the best method for supporting the south wall in the event of add-on pool construction at the Morris operation; under legislative requirements, a formal draft of the fee report for Congress, Department of Energy Fee and Cost Studies of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Disposal has been issued and is being reviewed internally; under technical support, the Technical Data Summary for AFR safeguards and non-proliferation concerns has been issued, and John Hopkins University is continuing work on streamlining computer programs and developing and testing methods to address timing and capacity considerations in the AFR site selection; under transportation, Sandia Laboratories conducted high-velocity impact tests on spent fuel to determine released product dispersion, and has developed a computer model to evaluate the thermal transient inside a spent fuel cask during and after an accident; and under international activity, a US proposal for a work plan and allocation of tasks for the Pacific Basin feasibility study has been transmitted to the Japanese team to prepare for the initial joint working level meeting in October.

  15. Extended Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Martinez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    [Full Text] Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and depleted fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date, investigating some aspects of extended BUC, and it also describes the plan to complete the evaluations. The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper. Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC, including investigation of the axial void profile effect and the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of an operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. While a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to use to determine the primary effects and identify conservative modeling approaches. Using data resulting from a single cycle, the axial void profile is studied by first determining the temporal fidelity necessary in depletion modeling, and then using multiple void profiles to examine the effect of the void profile on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied is control blade exposure. Control blades

  16. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Renewable Fuel Utilization in a Cogeneration Arrangement with Hydrate Storage Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naing, Soe; Yamada, Takanobu; Nakanishi, Kimio

    According to the third conference of parties (COP3), Japan has set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% by the year 2010. Many believe that the bulk utilization of fossil fuel influences to the damaging environmental effect. The objective of this paper is to propose an effective method for this goad which is possible to clarify a noticeable utilization of renewable fuel in a micro gas turbine cogeneration system in cold region. Moreover, analysis of renewable fuel, biogas production indicates that production amount becomes largest in hot season, while the total heat energy demand is lowest on during three years. Biogas storage is also adapted for the delay between peak energy supply and demand. Biogas hydrate formation is examined by resource from laboratory experiments and simulation of integration into an existing cogeneration arrangement. The proposed system can be successfully supported the use and reuse of renewable fuel for providing to substantial emission and clean development mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Storage Project Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Design Development Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    Acceptance testing of the SNF Fuel Basket Lift Grapple was accomplished to verify the design adequacy. This report shows the results affirming the design. The test was successful in demonstrating the adequacy of the grapple assembly's inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls for in loads excess of design basis loads (3200 pounds), 3X design basis loads (9600 pounds), and 5X design basis loads (16,000 pounds). The test data showed that no appreciable yielding for the inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls at loads in excess of 5X Design Basis loads. The test data also showed the grapple assembly and components to be fully functional after loads in excess of 5X Design Basis were applied and maintained for over 10 minutes. Following testing, each actuator shaft (Item 7) was liquid penetrant inspected per ASME Section 111, Division 1 1989 and accepted per requirements of NF-5350. This examination was performed to insure that no cracking had occurred. The test indicated that no cracking had occurred. The examination reports are included as Appendix C to this document. From this test, it is concluded that the design configuration meets or exceeds the requirements specified in ANSI N 14 6 for Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More.

  19. Maintenance and storage of fuel oil for residential heating systems: A guide for residential heating system maintenance personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of No. 2 fuel affects the performance of the heating system and is an important parameter in the proper and efficient operation of an oil-burning system. The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel can affect the flow, atomization and combustion processes, all of which help to define and limit the overall performance of the heating system. The use of chemical additives by fuel oil marketershas become more common as a method of improving the quality of the fuel, especially for handling and storage. Numerous types of additives are available, but reliable information on their effectiveness and proper use is limited. This makes selecting an additive difficult in many situations. Common types of problems that contribute to poor fuel quality and how they affect residential heating equipment are identified inof this booklet. It covers the key items that are needed in an effective fuel quality monitoring program, such as what to look for when evaluating the quality of fuel as it is received from a supplier, or how to assess fuel problems associated with poor storage conditions. References to standard procedures and brief descriptions of the procedures also are given. Approaches for correcting a fuel-related problem, including the potential uses of chemical additives are discussed. Different types of additives are described to help users understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Tips on how to select andeffectively use additives also are included. Finally, the importance of preventative maintenance in any fuel monitoring program is emphasized.

  20. Job Ready.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults of Washington, Seattle.

    Intended for use by employers for assessing how "job-ready" their particular business environment may be, the booklet provides information illustrating what physical changes could be made to allow persons with mobility limitations to enter and conduct business independently in a particular building. Illustrations along with brief explanations are…

  1. Readiness Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortia for Bilingual Education, Fort Worth, TX.

    The Readiness Checklist is a 69-item instrument that provides a measure of the psychomotor development of children. It covers seven main areas: general health, movement patterns and muscular coordination, auditory skills, visual skills, speech and language, personal independence, and social adjustment. The checklist is designed to measure a…

  2. College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapa, Marisa; Galvan-De Leon, Vanessa; Solis, Judith; Mundy, Marie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    During the 79th Texas Legislature, the bill "Advancement of College Readiness in Curriculum" was passed (THECB). As a response to this, high schools and colleges have combined forming an early college high school. The result of this union was a program that condensed the time it took to complete both the high school diploma and up to two…

  3. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  4. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James; Pawel, Steven J

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  6. Mechanical and thermomechanical calculations related to the storage of spent nuclear-fuel assemblies in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1981-08-01

    A generic test of the geologic storage of spent-fuel assemblies from an operating nuclear reactor is being made by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site. The spent-fuel assemblies were emplaced at a depth of 420 m (1370 ft) below the surface in a typical granite and will be retrieved at a later time. The early time, close-in thermal history of this type of repository is being simulated with spent-fuel and electrically heated canisters in a central drift, with auxiliary heaters in two parallel side drifts. Prior to emplacement of the spent-fuel canisters, preliminary calculations were made using a pair of existing finite-element codes. Calculational modeling of a spent-fuel repository requires a code with a multiple capability. The effects of both the mining operation and the thermal load on the existing stress fields and the resultant displacements of the rock around the repository must be calculated. The thermal loading for each point in the rock is affected by heat tranfer through conduction, radiation, and normal convection, as well as by ventilation of the drifts. Both the ADINA stress code and the compatible ADINAT heat-flow code were used to perform the calculations because they satisfied the requirements of this project. ADINAT was adapted to calculate radiative and convective heat transfer across the drifts and to model the effects of ventilation in the drifts, while the existing isotropic elastic model was used with the ADINA code. The results of the calculation are intended to provide a base with which to compare temperature, stress, and displacement data taken during the planned 5-y duration of the test. In this way, it will be possible to determine how the existing jointing in the rock influences the results as compared with a homogeneous, isotropic rock mass. Later, new models will be introduced into ADINA to account for the effects of jointing.

  7. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  8. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  9. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  10. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert

    2013-07-01

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  11. NRC Technical Research Program to Evaluate Extended Storage and Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12547

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Compton, K.; Gordon, M.; Ahn, T.; Gonzales, H.; Pan, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Any new direction proposed for the back-end of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cycle will require storage of SNF beyond the current licensing periods. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a technical research program to determine if any changes in the 10 CFR part 71, and 72 requirements, and associated guidance might be necessary to regulate the safety of anticipated extended storage, and subsequent transport of SNF. This three part program of: 1) analysis of knowledge gaps in the potential degradation of materials, 2) short-term research and modeling, and 3) long-term demonstration of systems, will allow the NRC to make informed regulatory changes, and determine when and if additional monitoring and inspection of the systems is necessary. The NRC has started a research program to obtain data necessary to determine if the current regulatory guidance is sufficient if interim dry storage has to be extended beyond the currently approved licensing periods. The three-phased approach consists of: - the identification and prioritization of potential degradation of the components related to the safe operation of a dry cask storage system, - short-term research to determine if the initial analysis was correct, and - a long-term prototypic demonstration project to confirm the models and results obtained in the short-term research. The gap analysis has identified issues with the SCC of the stainless steel canisters, and SNF behavior. Issues impacting the SNF and canister internal performance such as high and low temperature distributions, and drying have also been identified. Research to evaluate these issues is underway. Evaluations have been conducted to determine the relative values that various types of long-term demonstration projects might provide. These projects or follow-on work is expected to continue over the next five years. (authors)

  12. Best Practices for Finite Element Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transfer, Storage, and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Fort, James A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2010-08-11

    Storage casks and transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are designed to confine SNF in sealed canisters or casks, provide structural integrity during accidents, and remove decay through a storage or transportation overpack. The transfer, storage, and transportation of SNF in dry storage casks and transport packages is regulated under 10 CFR Part 72 and 10 CFR Part 71, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used with increasing frequency in Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory technical evaluations related to SNF casks and packages and their associated systems. Advances in computing power have made increasingly sophisticated FEA models more feasible, and as a result, the need for careful review of such models has also increased. This paper identifies best practice recommendations that stem from recent NRC review experience. The scope covers issues common to all commercially available FEA software, and the recommendations are applicable to any FEA software package. Three specific topics are addressed: general FEA practices, issues specific to thermal analyses, and issues specific to structural analyses. General FEA practices covers appropriate documentation of the model and results, which is important for an efficient review process. The thermal analysis best practices are related to cask analysis for steady state conditions and transient scenarios. The structural analysis best practices are related to the analysis of casks and associated payload during standard handling and drop scenarios. The best practices described in this paper are intended to identify FEA modeling issues and provide insights that can help minimize associated uncertainties and errors, in order to facilitate the NRC licensing review process.

  13. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  14. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  15. Discussion of Available Methods to Support Reviews of Spent Fuel Storage Installation Cask Drop Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, M.

    2000-03-28

    Applicants seeking a Certificate of Compliance for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) cask must evaluate the consequences of a handling accident resulting in a drop or tip-over of the cask onto a concrete storage pad. As a result, analytical modeling approaches that might be used to evaluate the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads are needed. One such approach, described and benchmarked in NUREG/CR-6608,{sup 1} consists of a dynamic finite element analysis using a concrete material model available in DYNA3D{sup 2} and in LS-DYNA,{sup 3} together with a method for post-processing the analysis results to calculate the deceleration of a solid steel billet when subjected to a drop or tip-over onto a concrete storage pad. The analysis approach described in NUREG/CR-6608 gives a good correlation of analysis and test results. The material model used for the concrete in the analyses in NUREG/CR-6608 is, however, somewhat troublesome to use, requiring a number of material constants which are difficult to obtain. Because of this a simpler approach, which adequately evaluates the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads, is sought. Since finite element modeling of metals, and in particular carbon and stainless steel, is routinely and accurately accomplished with a number of finite element codes, the current task involves a literature search for and a discussion of available concrete models used in finite element codes. The goal is to find a balance between a concrete material model with a limited number of required material parameters which are readily obtainable, and a more complex model which is capable of accurately representing the complex behavior of the concrete storage pad under impact conditions. The purpose of this effort is to find the simplest possible way to analytically represent the storage cask deceleration during a cask tip-over or a cask drop onto a concrete storage pad. This report is divided into three sections

  16. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  17. Assessment of the integrity of spent fuel assemblies used in dry storage demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Dobbins, J.C.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1987-07-01

    This report summarizes the histories of 17 Zircaloy-clad spent fuel assemblies used in dry storage tests and demonstrations at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) and Climax facilities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 18th assembly was shipped to the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) and remained there for extensive characterization and as a source of specimens for whole-rod and rod-segment dry storage tests. The report traces the history of the assemblies after discharge from the Turkey Point Unit 3 pressurized-water reactor (1975 and 1977) through shipment (first arrival at EMAD in December 1978), dry storage tests and demonstrations, and shipment by truck cask from EMAD to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in May/June 1986. The principal objectives of this report are to assess and document the integrity of the fuel during the extensive dry storage activities at NTS and BCL, and to briefly summarize the dry storage technologies and procedures demonstrated in this program. The dry storage tests and demonstrations involved the following concepts and facilities: (1) surface drywells (EMAD); (2) deep drywells (425 m underground in the Climax granite formation); (3) concrete silo (EMAD); (4) air-cooled vault (EMAD); (5) electrically-heated module for fuel assembly thermal calibration and testing (EMAD/FAITM). 20 refs., 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  19. Borated stainless steel application in spent-fuel storage racks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.; Loomis, G.W.; Deltete, C.P.

    1992-06-01

    EPRI is continuing to investigate the application of borated stainless steel products within the commercial nuclear power industry through participation in code development and material testing. This effort provides documentation of the material properties of interest in design applications utilizing the borated stainless steel products as structural elements as well as serving as neutron absorbers. The properties of most concern in the design of spent fuel storage racks, shipping casks, and other containment type applications are the materials` ductility, tensile strength, corrosion resistance and resistance to degradation due to radiation and temperature. The data presented in this report indicate that practical designs can be achieved utilizing borated stainless steels and that the materials can be cost effectively applied.

  20. Measurements for the JASPER program In-Vessel Fuel Storage experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The In-Vessel-Fuel-Storage (IVFS) experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the first nine months of 1991 as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) that was started in 1986. This is the fourth in a series of eight experiments that were planned, all of which are intended to provide support in the development of current reactor shield designs proposed for liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems both in Japan and the United States. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation (PNC). This document provides a description of the instrumentation and experimental configuration, test data, and data analysis.

  1. Study on Hydride Reorientation in Zry-2 Fuel Claddings during Interim Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, K.; Matsuoka, H.; Takagi, A.; Kashibe, S.

    2007-07-01

    The hydride reorientation during the interim dry storage was examined by hydride reorientation test using unirradiated recrystallized Zry-2 fuel claddings (Zr-lined). In the case of high hydrogen concentration (above 200 ppm), no measurable hydride reorientation was observed under the condition examined. On the other hand, for low hydrogen concentration (30 - 80 ppm), a significant hydride reorientation was observed above 618 K. The effects of thermal cycling and cooling rate were also examined. The mechanical property of the hydride-reoriented specimens was evaluated at room temperature by the ring-tensile test, which showed no degradation of hoop strength and ductility when temperature and hoop stress were not greater than 573 K and 70 MPa, even if the effects of cooling rate and thermal cycling were taken into account. (authors)

  2. Review of Drying Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Large, W.S.

    1999-10-21

    SRTC is developing technology for direct disposal of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The development program includes analyses and tests to support design and safe operation of a facility for ''road ready'' dry storage of SNF-filled canisters. The current technology development plan includes review of available SNF drying methods and recommendation of a drying method for aluminum SNF.

  3. Retrieval Success from a 1950's UK Fuel Storage Pond: Blazing a Trail for Early Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, S.

    2006-07-01

    Work has begun to tackle one of the biggest challenges in the UK nuclear cleanup program: the retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond at Sellafield. The UK Government regulatory body, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) considers this pond to be the country's highest priority in terms of Hazard Reduction, a view supported by the facility owner, UK Government's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Remotely operated submersible vehicles (ROV's) were used by British Nuclear Group to assess the condition of stored fuel in First Generation Magnox Storage Ponds (1945-60's build). The ROV survey showed fuel condition was better than expected, and engineers were able to prototype retrieval on a selected skip (container) of fuel. The retrieval and subsequent export to the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) was executed in November 2005 and was completely successful. The next stage is to reprocess the fuel using the Magnox Reprocessing Plant. If this is successful the prototype retrieval will have demonstrated that: - British Nuclear Group can safely retrieve fuel from its legacy ponds; - British Nuclear Group can safely transport retrieved legacy fuel between facilities; - British Nuclear Group can eliminate the hazard presented by this legacy fuel by use of existing on-site reprocessing facilities. This in turn enables the option to commence larger-scale fuel retrievals from these legacy ponds years ahead of the current plan which assumes new plants to be available to handle all arisings from the legacy ponds in 2015. This hazard reduction could commence as early as 2008. (authors)

  4. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  5. The Feasibility of Cask "Fingerprinting" as a Spent-Fuel, Dry-Storage Cask Safeguards Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Vanier, P; Forman, L; Caffrey, G; Wharton, J; Lebrun, A

    2005-07-27

    This report documents a week-long measurement campaign conducted on six, dry-storage, spent-nuclear-fuel storage casks at the Idaho National Laboratory. A gamma-ray imager, a thermal-neutron imager and a germanium spectrometer were used to collect data on the casks. The campaign was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the cask radiation signatures as unique identifiers for individual casks as part of a safeguards regime. The results clearly show different morphologies for the various cask types although the signatures are deemed insufficient to uniquely identify individual casks of the same type. Based on results with the germanium spectrometer and differences between thermal neutron images and neutron-dose meters, this result is thought to be due to the limitations of the extant imagers used, rather than of the basic concept. Results indicate that measurements with improved imagers could contain significantly more information. Follow-on measurements with new imagers either currently available as laboratory prototypes or under development are recommended.

  6. Modified-Collins cryocooler for zero-boiloff storage of cryogenic fuels in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, Charles L.; Krass, Brady; Hogan, Jake; Brisson, John

    2012-06-01

    Future lunar and planetary explorations will require the storage of cryogenic propellants, particularly liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2), in low earth orbit (LEO) for periods of time ranging from days to months, and possibly longer. Without careful thermal management, significant quantities of stored liquid cryogens can be lost due to boil-off. Boil-off can be minimized by a variety of passive means including insulation, sun shades and passive radiational cooling. However, it has been shown that active cooling using space cryocoolers has the potential to result in Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) and the launch-mass savings using active cooling exceeds that of passive cooling of LOX for mission durations in LEO of less than 1 week, and for LH2 after about 2 months in LEO. Large-scale DC-flow cryogenic refrigeration systems operate at a fraction of the specific power levels required by small-scale AC-flow cryocoolers. The efficiency advantage of DC-flow cryogenic cycles motivates the current development of a cryocooler based on a modification of the Collins Cycle. The modified Collins cycle design employs piston type expanders that support high operating pressure ratios, electromagnetic valves that enable "floating pistons", and recuperative heat transfer. This paper will describe the design of a prototype Modified-Collins cryocooler for ZBO storage of cryogenic fuels in space.

  7. Possibility of experimental validation of criticality safety methodology in support of underground fuel storage efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, M.N.; Briggs, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    Critical systems which might be formed in geologic repositories as a result of long-term degradation of the storage media, leaching of plutonium from the storage media, and the redistribution of low concentrations of plutonium into underground sand layers or lenses can be characterized by positive reactivity feedback. Formation of such a systems can not be excluded when considering the burial of high enriched uranium or plutonium contaminated wastes or spent nuclear fuels. Although the probability of formation of a critical systems under such conditions is very low, the reliable prediction of neutron multiplication properties appears to be of great interest from a criticality safety view point. At the present time, all estimations of criticality are based only on evaluated neutron data because critical experiments are not available for large systems containing small quantities plutonium distributed throughout a typically encountered matrix material such as silicon dioxide. The possibility of providing such an experiment using the large Russian critical assemblies, BFS-1 or BFS-2, is considered. It is shown that critical systems containing small amounts of hydrogenous material (polyethylene) with positive reactivity feedback can by modeled in the BFS Facility.

  8. Is Your School Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2005-01-01

    The Ready School, a concept endorsed by the National Education Goals Panel, focuses on getting schools ready for children to supplement the traditional approach of getting children ready for school. The author cites 10 qualities associated with Ready Schools and describes the eight-dimension Ready School Assessment project now being tested by the…

  9. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no significant environmental impact. 51.23 Section 51.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  10. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 63.984 Section 63.984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  11. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 65.144 Section 65.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed...

  12. 75 FR 18242 - Florida Power and Light, St. Lucie Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power and Light, St. Lucie Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of an Environmental Assessment...

  13. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License... Waste'' (Ref. 1), Subpart B, ``License Application, Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information...

  14. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 63.984 Section 63.984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  15. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 63.984 Section 63.984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  16. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world. PMID:22455059

  17. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 65.144 Section 65.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed...

  18. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 65.144 Section 65.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed...

  19. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... was published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019). This direct final rule amended....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019), the NRC published a direct final... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY:...

  20. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... part 72, entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181..., 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR 46517), this rule is classified... June 10, 1998 (63 FR 31883), directed that the Government's documents be in clear and...

  1. 78 FR 73379 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment No. 9

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... issued a final rule (65 FR 25241; May 1, 2000) that approved the HI-STORM 100 Cask System design and... Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also established a... 3, 1997 (62 FR 46517), this direct final rule is classified as Compatibility Category...

  2. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 65.144 Section 65.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed...

  3. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 65.144 Section 65.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed...

  4. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 63.984 Section 63.984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  5. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed. 63.984 Section 63.984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  6. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  7. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  8. Utilization of a finite element model to verify spent nuclear fuel storage rack welds

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1998-07-01

    Elastic and plastic finite element analyses were performed for the inner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack designed for installation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The model was specifically developed to verify the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for this task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the inner tie welds when the rack was subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as defined by the rack`s designer. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The results confirm that the welds joining the inner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. The analysis results verified that the inner tie block welds should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  9. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian northwest.

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Smith, G M; Kiselev, M F; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia. PMID:19029594

  10. COBRA-SFS: A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks

    SciTech Connect

    Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Dodge, R.E.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    COBRA-SFS is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code for prediction of material temperatures and fluid conditions in a wide variety of systems. The code has been validated for analysis of spent fuel storage systems, as part of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program of the US Department of Energy. The code solves finite volume equations representing the conservation equations for mass, moment, and energy for an incompressible single-phase heat transfer fluid. The fluid solution is coupled to a finite volume solution of the conduction equation in the solid structure of the system. This document presents a complete description of Cycle 2 of COBRA-SFS, and consists of three main parts. Part 1 describes the conservation equations, constitutive models, and solution methods used in the code. Part 2 presents the User Manual, with guidance on code applications, and complete input instructions. This part also includes a detailed description of the auxiliary code RADGEN, used to generate grey body view factors required as input for radiative heat transfer modeling in the code. Part 3 describes the code structure, platform dependent coding, and program hierarchy. Installation instructions are also given for the various platform versions of the code that are available.

  11. High temperature postirradiation materials performance of spent pressurized water reactor fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Stellrecht, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Postirradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well-characterized pressurized water reactor rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510, and 571/sup 0/C in limited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding, which decreases the internal rod pressure. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal fuel-cladding chemical interaction layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized alpha-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress corrosion cracking, or fuel pellet degradation. If irradiation hardening does not reduce the stress rupture properties of Zircaloy, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C based on a stress-rupture mechanism is recommended to ensure a 1000-yr cladding lifetime.

  12. Integrated monitoring and reviewing systems for the Rokkasho Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yuji

    1998-12-31

    The Rokkasho Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (RSFS) Facility at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) in Japan is expected to begin operations in 1998. Effective safeguarding by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Bureau (JAEB) inspectors requires monitoring the time of transfer, direction of movement, and number of spent fuel assemblies transferred. At peak throughput, up to 1,000 spent fuel assemblies will be accepted by the facility in a 90-day period. In order for the safeguards inspector to efficiently review the resulting large amounts of inspection information, an unattended monitoring system was developed that integrates containment and surveillance (C/S) video with radiation monitors. This allows for an integrated review of the facility`s radiation data, C/S video, and operator declaration data. This paper presents an outline of the integrated unattended monitoring hardware and associated data reviewing software. The hardware consists of a multicamera optical surveillance (MOS) system radiation monitoring gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRAND) electronics, and an intelligent local operating network (ILON). The ILON was used for time synchronization and MOS video triggers. The new software consists of a suite of tools, each one specific to a single data type: radiation data, surveillance video, and operator declarations. Each tool can be used in a stand-alone mode as a separate ion application or configured to communicate and match time-synchronized data with any of the other tools. A data summary and comparison application (Integrated Review System [IRS]) coordinates the use of all of the data-specific review tools under a single-user interface. It therefore automates and simplifies the importation of data and the data-specific analyses.

  13. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  14. Initial measurements of BN-350 spent fuel in dry storage casks using the dual slab verification detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo; Browne, Michael C; Freeman, Corey R; Parker, Robert F; Williams, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    The Dual Slab Verification Detector (DSVD) has been developed, built, and characterized by Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of the dry storage safeguards system for the spent fuel from the BN-350 fast reactor. The detector consists of two rows of 3He tubes embedded in a slab of polyethylene which has been designed to be placed on the outer surface of the dry storage cask. By performing DSVD measurements at several different locations around the outer surface of the DUC, a signature 'fingerprint' can be established for each DUC based on the neutron flux emanating from inside the dry storage cask. The neutron fingerprint for each individual DUC will be dependent upon the spatial distribution of nuclear material within the cask, thus making it sensitive to the removal of a certain amount of material from the cask. An initial set of DSVD measurements have been performed on the first set of dry storage casks that have been loaded with canisters of spent fuel and moved onto the dry storage pad to both establish an initial fingerprint for these casks as well as to quantify systematic uncertainties associated with these measurements. The results from these measurements will be presented and compared with the expected results that were determined based on MCNPX simulations of the dry storage facility. The ability to safeguard spent nuclear fuel is strongly dependent on the technical capabilities of establishing and maintaining continuity of knowledge (COK) of the spent fuel as it is released from the reactor core and either reprocessed or packaged and stored at a storage facility. While the maintenance of COK is often done using continuous containment and surveillance (C/S) on the spent fuel, it is important that the measurement capabilities exist to re-establish the COK in the event of a significant gap in the continuous CIS by performing measurements that independently confirm the presence and content

  15. Control of degradation of spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel during dry storage in an inert atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Allemann, R.T.; Levy, I.S.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-10-01

    Dry storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gas (referred to as inerted dry storage or IDS) is being developed as an alternative to water pool storage of spent fuel. The objectives of the activities described in this report are to identify potential Zircaloy degradation mechanisms and evaluate their applicability to cladding breach during IDS, develop models of the dominant Zircaloy degradation mechanisms, and recommend cladding temperature limits during IDS to control Zircaloy degradation. The principal potential Zircaloy cladding breach mechanisms during IDS have been identified as creep rupture, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and delayed hydride cracking (DHC). Creep rupture is concluded to be the primary cladding breach mechanism during IDS. Deformation and fracture maps based on creep rupture were developed for Zircaloy. These maps were then used as the basis for developing spent fuel cladding temperature limits that would prevent cladding breach during a 40-year IDS period. The probability of cladding breach for spent fuel stored at the temperature limit is less than 0.5% per spent fuel rod. 52 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One such package would store lightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97{degree}C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350{degree}C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97{degree}C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350{degree}C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep-related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97{degree}C for the full 1000-yr analysis period.

  17. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations; however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume contains the input instructions for COBRA-SFS and an auxiliary radiation exchange factor code, RADX-1. It is intended to aid the user in becoming familiar with the capabilities and modeling conventions of the code.

  18. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 1, Mathematical models and solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations: however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume describes the finite-volume equations and the method used to solve these equations. It is directed toward the user who is interested in gaining a more complete understanding of these methods.

  19. Spent fuel test-climax: a test of geologic storage of high-level waste in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Patrick, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A test of retrievable geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor is underway at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) of the US Department of Energy. This generic test is located 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock. Eleven canisters of spent fuel approximately 2.5 years out of reactor core (about 1.6 kW/canister thermal output) were emplaced in a storage drift along with 6 electrical simulator canisters. Two adjacent drifts contain electrical heaters, which are operated to simulate within the test array the thermal field of a large repository. Fuel was loaded during April to May 1980 and initial results of the test will be presented.

  20. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, John R.; Halbig, James K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Klosterbuer, Shirley F.

    1985-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.