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Sample records for fuertemente las visiones

  1. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... which nothing can be seen) Vision loss and blindness are the most severe vision problems. Causes Vision ... that look faded. The most common cause of blindness in people over age 60. Eye infection, inflammation, ...

  2. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...

  3. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  4. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  5. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  6. Leading Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    2004-01-01

    The current educational landscape makes it imperative that a vision statement become more than a fine-sounding statement that is laminated, hung on the wall, and quickly forgotten. If educators do not have a clear image of the future they wish to create, then someone will be ready to create it for them. But with a clear vision of the future, a…

  7. Learning Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Margaret S.; And Others

    This paper describes LEARNing Visions, a K-12 intervention program for at-risk youth in Jackson County, Tennessee, involving a partnership between the schools, local businesses, Tennessee Technological University, and Visions Five (a private company). Jackson County is characterized by an undereducated population, a high employment rate, and a low…

  8. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  9. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  10. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  11. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dealing with eye emergencies if: You experience partial or complete blindness in one or both eyes, ... a family history of diabetes Eye itching or discharge Vision changes that seem related to medication (DO ...

  12. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  13. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  14. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  15. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  16. Agrarian Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

  17. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  18. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  19. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  20. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  1. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  2. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  3. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  4. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  5. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  6. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  7. Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Retina Treatment Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Mar. 01, 2016 How does a detached or torn retina affect your vision? If a retinal tear is occurring, you may ...

  8. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  9. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  10. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  11. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The future will offer even more solutions. Newer technology for low vision aids While low vision devices ... magnifiers have long been the standard in assistive technology, advances in consumer electronics are also improving quality ...

  12. International computer vision directory

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains information on: computerized automation technologies. State-of-the-art computer vision systems for many areas of industrial use are covered. Other topics discussed include the following automated inspection systems; robot/vision systems; vision process control; cameras (vidicon and solid state); vision peripherals and components; and pattern processor.

  13. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  14. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  15. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  16. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test -- color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  17. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  18. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  19. Programming parallel vision algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Computer vision requires the processing of large volumes of data and requires parallel architectures and algorithms to be useful in real-time, industrial applications. The INSIGHT dataflow language was designed to allow encoding of vision algorithms at all levels of the computer vision paradigm. INSIGHT programs, which are relational in nature, can be translated into a graph structure that represents an architecture for solving a particular vision problem or a configuration of a reconfigurable computational network. The authors consider here INSIGHT programs that produce a parallel net architecture for solving low-, mid-, and high-level vision tasks.

  20. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  1. Mathematical leadership vision.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, Y A

    2000-11-01

    This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision. PMID:11092414

  2. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  3. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  4. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  5. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  6. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral vision. All the lines, both vertical and horizontal, should appear straight and unbroken. They should meet ... You need a well-lit area at least 10 feet long for the distance vision test, and the following: Measuring tape or a ...

  7. Overview of computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  8. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  9. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The Future of Reading and Learning To…

  10. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…

  11. Taking Care of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  12. Clinical Trials in Vision Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people who volunteer. ... about the treatment. How are clinical trials in vision different from other clinical trials? Eyes are one ...

  13. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  14. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  15. (Computer) Vision without Sight.

    PubMed

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  16. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  17. Machine vision is not computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Charlier, Jean-Ray

    1998-10-01

    The identity of Machine Vision as an academic and practical subject of study is asserted. In particular, the distinction between Machine Vision on the one hand and Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence on the other is emphasized. The article demonstrates through four cases studies that the active involvement of a person who is sensitive to the broad aspects of vision system design can avoid disaster and can often achieve a successful machine that would not otherwise have been possible. This article is a transcript of the key- note address presented at the conference. Since the proceedings are prepared and printed before the conference, it is not possible to include a record of the response to this paper made by the delegates during the round-table discussion. It is hoped to collate and disseminate these via the World Wide Web after the event. (A link will be provided at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html.).

  18. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  19. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  20. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  1. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  2. Artificial Vision: Vision of a Newcomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikado, Takashi; Sawai, Hajime; Tano, Yasuo

    The Japanese Consortium for an Artificial Retina has developed a new stimulating method named Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS). Using STS, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were effectively elicited in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats and in rabbits and cats with normal vision, using relatively small stimulus currents, such that the spatial resolution appeared to be adequate for a visual prosthesis. The histological analysis showed no damage to the rabbit retina when electrical currents sufficient to elicit distinct EEPs were applied. It was also shown that transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) to the retina prevented the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). STS, which is less invasive than other retinal prostheses, could be one choice to achieve artificial vision, and the optimal parameters of electrical stimulation may also be effective for the neuroprotection of residual RGCs.

  3. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  4. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  5. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause: With cataracts , vision may be cloudy or fuzzy, and bright light may cause glare With diabetes, ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  6. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap ... Shega JW. Vision loss. In: Wachtel TJ, ed. Geriatric Clinical Advisor: Instant diagnosis and treatment . Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  8. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  9. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  10. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  11. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  12. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  13. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments. PMID:12611210

  14. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients.

  15. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  16. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  17. Integrating National Space Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  18. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  19. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  20. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  1. Low Vision Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.

  2. Machine vision - Automated visual inspection and robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, David

    The subject of machine vision is treated with emphasis on fundamental tools for image acquisition, processing, and analysis. Topics discussed include an introduction to computer vision, illumination and sensors, image acquisition and representation, fundamentals of digital image processing, the segmentation problem, and image analysis. The book also covers techniques for shape description, robot programming and robot vision, and an introduction to image understanding.

  3. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight capable of…

  4. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  5. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  6. Do You Have Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  7. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  8. Unconventional colour vision.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

  9. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  10. What Is Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... clothing? Performing tasks at work or home because lights now seem dimmer ? Reading street and bus signs, or the names of stores? Vision changes like these could be early warning signs of eye disease. Usually, the earlier your problem is diagnosed, ...

  11. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  12. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  13. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms do you have? Do you have unusual stress, anxiety, or a fear of the dark? The eye exam will include: Color vision testing Pupil light reflex Refraction Retinal exam Slit lamp examination Visual acuity Other tests may be done: Electroretinogram ( ...

  14. A Colour Vision Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David; Hore, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The model for color vision put forward by Edwin Land is explained. The aspects of the theory that can be demonstrated within the classroom are described. A random arrangement of straight-edged colored areas mounted on a screen, called a Mondrian, projectors, and a computer are used to calculate reflectance. (KR)

  15. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  16. Vision: The Leadership Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Elise R.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that all types of leaders share four qualities: (1) intensity of vision, (2) ability to communicate agenda, (3) conviction in their beliefs, and (4) positive self-regard. She interviews Warren Bennis, an author on this subject, about the differences between business and volunteer leaders. (CH)

  17. Visions of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is almost a foregone conclusion that the mobile device will become an indispensable tool for learning in the future. That's why "T.H.E. Journal" asked a number of educators to let their imaginations go wild and conjure up visions of the future of the device in the classroom. This paper presents the views of educators who conjure up the mobile…

  18. Vision and the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Joseph N

    2010-02-01

    For nearly 2 millennia, signs of hypothalamic-related vision disorders have been noticed as illustrated by paintings and drawings of that time of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome. It was not until the 1800s, however, that specific connections between the hypothalamus and the vision system were discovered. With a fuller elaboration of the autonomic nervous system in the early to mid 1900s, many more pathways were discovered. The more recently discovered retinohypothalamic tracts show the extent and influence of light stimulation on hypothalamic function and bodily processes. The hypothalamus maintains its myriad connections via neural pathways, such as with the pituitary and pineal glands; the chemical messengers of the peptides, cytokines, and neurotransmitters; and the nitric oxide mechanism. As a result of these connections, the hypothalamus has involvement in many degenerative diseases. A complete feedback mechanism between the eye and hypothalamus is established by the retinohypothalamic tracts and the ciliary nerves innervating the anterior pole of the eye and the retina. A discussion of hypothalamic-related vision disorders includes neurologic syndromes, the lacrimal system, the retina, and ocular inflammation. Tables and figures have been used to aid in the explanation of the many connections and chemicals controlled by the hypothalamus. The understanding of the functions of the hypothalamus will allow the clinician to gain better insight into the many pathologies associated between the vision system and the hypothalamus. In the future, it may be possible that some ocular disease treatments will be via direct action on hypothalamic function. PMID:20152784

  19. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  20. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  1. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  2. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  3. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  4. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > What You Should Know Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  5. Vision Screening For Head Starters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Celia

    To determine which children in the Head Start program may have vision problems, Head Start teachers and staff do vision "screening." This booklet demonstrates how to do the screening using the Snellen "E Chart." Trouble signs that the test administrator should be aware of are listed, and vision scores are explained simply. Amblyopia is defined,…

  6. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

  7. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  8. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Vision Care and the Nation's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Aspects of vision and vision care considered are the following: extent and types of vision defects of American children; importance of vision care in pre-school years, elementary, and secondary school and beyond; and manpower resources in vision care today, the extent of vision testing and care, special problem areas, and governmental support.…

  10. Review of night vision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2015-06-01

    A review of night vision metrology is presented in this paper. A set of reasons that create a rather chaotic metrologic situation on night vision market is presented. It is shown that there has been made a little progress in night vision metrology during last decades in spite of a big progress in night vision technology at the same period of time. It is concluded that such a big discrep- ancy between metrology development level and technology development can be an obstacle in the further development of night vision technology.

  11. Colour vision in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Cronin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Colour vision in the marine environment is on average simpler than in terrestrial environments with simple or no colour vision through monochromacy or dichromacy. Monochromacy is found in marine mammals and elasmobranchs, including whales and sharks, but not some rays. Conversely, there is also a greater diversity of colour vision in the ocean than on land, examples being the polyspectral stomatopods and the many colour vision solutions found among reef fish. Recent advances in sequencing reveal more opsin (visual pigment) types than functionally useful at any one time. This diversity arises through opsin duplication and conversion. Such mechanisms allow pick-and-mix adaptation that tunes colour vision on a variety of very short non-evolutionary timescales. At least some of the diversity in marine colour vision is best explained as unconventional colour vision or as neutral drift. PMID:25725325

  12. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  13. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  14. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  15. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  16. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  17. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  18. Vision without the Image.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  19. Machine vision - Automated visual inspection and robot vision

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The subject of machine vision is treated with emphasis on fundamental tools for image acquisition, processing, and analysis. Topics discussed include an introduction to computer vision, illumination and sensors, image acquisition and representation, fundamentals of digital image processing, the segmentation problem, and image analysis. The book also covers techniques for shape description, robot programming and robot vision, and an introduction to image understanding. 250 refs.

  20. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  1. Review of night vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.

  2. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  3. Conscious vision for action versus unconscious vision for action?

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2011-08-01

    David Milner and Melvyn Goodale's dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related "unconscious" stream and a ventral, perception-related "conscious" stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious vision for action and conscious vision for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. The combination excluded by the tripartite division is the possibility of conscious vision for action. But are there good grounds for concluding that there is no conscious vision for action? There is now overwhelming evidence that illusions and perceived size can have a significant effect on action (Bruno & Franz, 2009; Dassonville & Bala, 2004; Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008; McIntosh & Lashley, 2008). There is also suggestive evidence that any sophisticated visual behavior requires collaboration between the two visual streams at every stage of the process (Schenk & McIntosh, 2010). I nonetheless want to make a case for the tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. My aim here is not to refute the evidence showing that conscious vision can affect action but rather to argue (a) that we cannot gain cognitive access to action-guiding dorsal stream representations, and (b) that these representations do not correlate with phenomenal consciousness. This vindicates the semi-conservative view that the dissociation hypothesis is best understood as a tripartite division. PMID:21790744

  4. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  5. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  6. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  7. Python and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  8. Can machine vision be helped from insights into human vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, Theo

    1992-08-01

    Machine vision has exhibited rather slow progress over the last 25 years compared to other areas of Computer Technology and an interesting question is whether more progress will be made by continuing intensively the current approaches in research or instead by searching for new directions. I will present a thesis that more research along some of the prevailing lines will lead to best to marginal advances. For example, current edge detectors are very good at finding step edges. The problem is that their major objective, finding object outlines, is not equivalent to step edge finding. It seems that people find object outlines by a process of simultaneous interpretation and low level processing of the image. Such integration should be contrasted to one of the prevailing models in machine vision which assumes a linear sequence of a few distinct processes from low level to high level vision. (When researches talk about 'interpretation guide segmentation' they usually refer to the labeling of already obtained features using high level models of the scene.) If the levels interact strongly, then optimizing the processing techniques for each level separately (for example edge detection for low level vision) is not going to be fruitful. Since human vision is the reason that we believe that machine vision is even possible, a deeper examination of the human or animal vision recognition process is essential to the further progress of machine vision.

  9. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision. PMID:26528120

  10. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  11. Towards Measurement of School Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, William D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Draws on Blumberg and Greenfield's studies of effective principals to offer an operational definition of school vision, based on teacher perceptions. The instrument developed consists of three subscales (vision exchange, internalization, and sacrifice). The perceived robustness of the principal's role was significantly correlated with two School…

  12. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of involving the arts, broadcasting…

  13. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  14. VISION Digital Video Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the VISION Digital Library System, a project implemented by the University of Kansas that uses locally developed applications to segment and automatically index video clips. Explains that the focus of VISION is to make possible the gathering and indexing of large amounts of video material, storing material on a database system, and…

  15. Vision Is More than Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzell, Jeffrey H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the burgeoning field of behavioral optometry, which specializes in promoting the use of both vision systems (focal and ambient) so they can work together to produce optimum visual efficiency, and in concentrating much of its work on developing or remediating the ambient vision system. Includes a simple test to determine need for a…

  16. Educational Leadership with a Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Wm. Berry

    2006-01-01

    By answering one fundamental question--"What will success look like?"--an educational institution has begun a process of defining its vision. It is undeniable that an institution will ever be greater than its dream; therefore, what is needed first and foremost is an articulated vision to propel an educational institution into a preferred future.…

  17. Your Child's Vision Is Important.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverstock, Caroline

    Part of a series of booklets designed to provide practical ideas parents can use to help their children become readers, this booklet focuses on children's eyesight. The booklet's seven sections are as follows: (1) How Does Vision Affect Children's Progress in School? (2) What Kinds of Problems Affect These Demands for Vision? (3) How Can I Spot…

  18. Management Matters. Nurture Your Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…

  19. The IT Vision in FM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NeSmith, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Provides a forward-looking vision, including goals, objectives, and principles, of information technology (IT) use within facilities management (FM). This vision includes the evolution of the FM/IT organization from an operational role to a strategic role--from an FM divisional role to an enterprise role. (EV)

  20. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study vision in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of vision to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition

  1. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Mar. 03, 2014 How does non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy affect your vision? Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, also known as background retinopathy, ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... represents a group of conditions that affect the perception of color. Red-green color vision defects are ... two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision ( ...

  3. Exercise for People with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be a Partner Exercise for People with Low Vision People with low vision can be active in many ways! Before you ... your orientation. Learn more about living with low vision from the National Eye Institute on NIH . Find ...

  4. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... are different and so are the types of vision that we have. Understanding how some of us ...

  5. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  6. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  7. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels. PMID:12288265

  8. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  9. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  10. Color vision characteristics of visually impaired children.

    PubMed

    Kalloniatis, M; Johnston, A W

    1990-03-01

    A classroom assessment of color vision characteristics of children with low vision was conducted using a battery of tests. The results showed 75% of the children failed one or more tests, although only 24% had a moderate or severe color vision defect. Comparisons with the low vision clinic color vision assessment showed that many of the children were not identified as being color vision defective. Considering the use of color-coded information in education, greater emphasis on color vision evaluations in routine low vision examinations is recommended. PMID:2320360

  11. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future. PMID:20113117

  12. Fundamental principles of robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    1993-08-01

    Robot vision is a specialty of intelligent machines which describes the interaction between robotic manipulators and machine vision. Early robot vision systems were built to demonstrate that a robot with vision could adapt to changes in its environment. More recently attention is being directed toward machines with expanded adaptation and learning capabilities. The use of robot vision for automatic inspection and recognition of objects for manipulation by an industrial robot or for guidance of a mobile robot are two primary applications. Adaptation and learning characteristics are often lacking in industrial automation and if they can be added successfully, result in a more robust system. Due to a real time requirement, the robot vision methods that have proven most successful have been ones which could be reduced to a simple, fast computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the fundamental concepts in sufficient detail to provide a starting point for the interested engineer or scientist. A detailed example of a camera system viewing an object and for a simple, two dimensional robot vision system is presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further study are presented.

  13. Computer_Vision

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. Thismore » step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to

  14. Computer_Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Doak, LANL

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. This step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to the four

  15. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  16. Social Visions and Educational Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Two conflicting tendencies in society are the superindustrial society and the postindustrial alternative. If we pursue the postindustrial vision, schooling will foster an understanding of the nature of the world. (Author/MLF)

  17. A New View of Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research done on the nature of vision from a neurologic perspective. Proposes a multiplex filter model to explain patterns in the signals transmitted to the brain from the retina. Describes experiments done to test the model. (CW)

  18. Social impact of computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baetjer, Howard

    1997-02-01

    From the viewpoint of the economic growth theorist, the broad social impact of improving computer vision should be to improve people's material well-being. Developing computer vision entails building knowledge of perception and interpretation into new devices which enhance the scope and depth of human capability. Some worry that saving lives and replacing tedious jobs through computer vision will burden society with increasing population and unemployment; such worries are unjustified because humans are 'the ultimate resource.' Because development of computer vision has costs as well as benefits, developers who wish to have a positive social impact should pursue projects that promise to pay off in the open market, and should seek private instead of government funding as much as possible.

  19. 46 CFR 10.305 - Vision requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision requirements. 10.305 Section 10.305 Shipping... CREDENTIAL Medical Certification § 10.305 Vision requirements. (a) Deck standard. (1) A mariner must have correctable vision to at least 20/40 in one eye and uncorrected vision of at least 20/200 in the same eye....

  20. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  1. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  2. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  3. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes. PMID:15850814

  4. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  5. 77 FR 2342 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/Synthetic Vision Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/ Synthetic Vision... meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS)....

  6. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  7. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a λmax of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision. PMID:19805066

  8. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended. PMID:27479624

  9. 77 FR 56254 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twentieth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  10. 77 FR 36331 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the nineteenth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  11. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  12. Molecular basis for color vision.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Amino acid sequences of four kinds of chicken cone pigments and two kinds of nocturnal gecko visual pigment were determined. Calculations of amino acid identities indicate that gecko pigments should be cone pigments. A phylogenetic tree of visual pigments constructed demonstrated that cone pigments evolved earlier than rod pigments (rhodopsins), indicating that daylight vision including color vision appeared earlier than twilight vision. The divergence of cone pigments to rhodopsins would be caused by replacing basic amino acid residues to acidic ones according to net charge calculations. A comparison between chicken rhodopsin and cone pigments (chicken green and red) displayed that the cone pigments are faster in regeneration from 11-cis retinal and opsin, faster in formation of meta II-intermediate and shorter in lifetime of meta II-intermediate than rhodopsin. These facts would partly explain the rapid dark adaptation, the rapid light response and the low photosensitivity of cones compared with rods. In comparison with di- and tri-chromatic color visions, chicken tetra-chromatic vision was discussed on the basis of both absorption spectra of cone pigments and filtering effect of oil droplets. PMID:8011932

  13. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems such as tracking in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is a hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent', and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  14. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues. PMID:18064965

  15. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  16. Older adults coping with vision loss.

    PubMed

    Weber, Joseph A; Wong, Karen B

    2010-07-01

    Age-related vision loss is one of the most commonly cited disabling impairments of adult life. Stressors presented by vision loss can create barriers, threatening the well-being of the individual. This qualitative study of 30 older adults (65 to 95 years of age) investigated vision loss and coping strategies. All participants experienced unexpected sight loss during their adult years. The Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL) Scale was used in this study to examine psychosocial adaptation to vision impairment. The coping strategies of vision impairment were assessed by collecting self-reported reflections toward vision loss and how the change impacted the participant's life. Given the correct balance of support, confidence, and acceptance, older adults can confront the existing barriers and focus on the ability to optimize function with vision loss. Health care service providers and practitioners can provide needed assistance and a helpful guide to assist older adults in successfully coping with vision impairment. PMID:20845173

  17. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  18. Coherent laser vision system (CLVS)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of the CLVS research project is to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System suitable for DOE`s EM Robotics program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update geometric data on the order of once per second. The CLVS project plan required implementation in two phases of the contract, a Base Contract and a continuance option. This is the Base Program Interim Phase Topical Report presenting the results of Phase 1 of the CLVS research project. Test results and demonstration results provide a proof-of-concept for a system providing three-dimensional (3D) vision with the performance capability required to update geometric data on the order of once per second.

  19. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.

  20. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  1. Robotic vision. [process control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. S.; Wilf, J. M.; Cunningham, R. T.; Eskenazi, R.

    1979-01-01

    Robotic vision, involving the use of a vision system to control a process, is discussed. Design and selection of active sensors employing radiation of radio waves, sound waves, and laser light, respectively, to light up unobservable features in the scene are considered, as are design and selection of passive sensors, which rely on external sources of illumination. The segmentation technique by which an image is separated into different collections of contiguous picture elements having such common characteristics as color, brightness, or texture is examined, with emphasis on the edge detection technique. The IMFEX (image feature extractor) system performing edge detection and thresholding at 30 frames/sec television frame rates is described. The template matching and discrimination approach to recognize objects are noted. Applications of robotic vision in industry for tasks too monotonous or too dangerous for the workers are mentioned.

  2. Vision theory guiding Web communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Stark, Lawrence W.; Ho, Yuek F.; Weinberger, Adam; Azzariti, Michela; Siminou, Kamran

    2000-12-01

    Eye movements, EMs, are one important component of vision: only specific regions of the visual input are fixated and processed by the brain at high resolution. The rest of the image is viewed at lower and coarser resolution by the retina, but the image is still perceived and recognized uniformly and clearly. We embodied this sampling characteristic of human vision within a computational model, A*, based on a collection of image processing algorithms that are able to predict regions of visual interest. Several web-related applications are presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Precise calibration of binocular vision system used for vision measurement.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Zhou, Fuqiang; Wang, Yexin; Liu, Liu; Gao, He

    2014-04-21

    Binocular vision calibration is of great importance in 3D machine vision measurement. With respect to binocular vision calibration, the nonlinear optimization technique is a crucial step to improve the accuracy. The existing optimization methods mostly aim at minimizing the sum of reprojection errors for two cameras based on respective 2D image pixels coordinate. However, the subsequent measurement process is conducted in 3D coordinate system which is not consistent with the optimization coordinate system. Moreover, the error criterion with respect to optimization and measurement is different. The equal pixel distance error in 2D image plane leads to diverse 3D metric distance error at different position before the camera. To address these issues, we propose a precise calibration method for binocular vision system which is devoted to minimizing the metric distance error between the reconstructed point through optimal triangulation and the ground truth in 3D measurement coordinate system. In addition, the inherent epipolar constraint and constant distance constraint are combined to enhance the optimization process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, both simulative and real experiments have been carried out and the results show that the proposed method is reliable and efficient to improve measurement accuracy compared with conventional method. PMID:24787804

  4. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  5. Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Sandra Ward, Ed.; And Others

    This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in…

  6. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  7. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Infants & Children Page Content ​Eye exams ... treated successfully. What are warning signs of a vision problem? Babies up to 1 year of age: ...

  8. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. However, 20/20 does not necessarily mean perfect vision. There are other important vision skills, including ... a variety of styles and can correct a number of problems at once. Refractive surgery reshapes the ...

  9. Vision Problems: How Teachers Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Joyce

    1999-01-01

    Describes common vision problems in young children such as myopia, strabismus, and amblyopia. Presents suggestions for helping children with vision problems in the early childhood classroom and in outdoor activities. Lists related resources and children's books. (KB)

  10. A Clear Vision for Equity and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Marge Christensen; Gould, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Describes undetected and uncorrected vision problems for children in poverty associated with juvenile delinquency and poor academic performance. Discusses success of a project offering vision screening and free glasses for at-risk students in Tucson, Arizona. (PKP)

  11. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160136.html Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  12. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  13. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  14. SLA: Global Visions, Local Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan S.

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Special Libraries Association (SLA) conference summarizes keynote addresses on the competitive role of special librarians and on international libraries around the Pacific Rim, the report of the SLA president, the inaugural address of the new president on a vision of the future, and conference exhibits. (MES)

  15. Institutional Vision and Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelman, Robert; Molina, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    Quality academic advising in higher education is the product of a multitude of elements not the least of which is institutional vision. By recognizing and embracing an institution's concept of its capabilities and the kinds of educated human beings it is attempting to cultivate, advisors gain an invaluable apparatus to guide the provision of…

  16. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  17. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  18. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269604

  19. Neural architectures for stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269604

  20. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  1. Vision Loss With Sexual Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michele D; Odel, Jeffrey G; Rudich, Danielle S; Ritch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old white man presented with multiple episodes of transient painless unilateral vision loss precipitated by sexual intercourse. Examination was significant for closed angles bilaterally. His visual symptoms completely resolved following treatment with laser peripheral iridotomies. PMID:25265010

  2. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  3. The Gray-Hobbs Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.; Newbrough, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Susan Gray and Nicholas Hobbs were influential in the development of the Kennedy Center at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, which was designed to include an emphasis on research and training in education and human development. This paper describes Gray's and Hobbs' work and explains how their vision extended to the creation of the Kennedy…

  4. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes on intelligence and explains how intellectual performance may be improved by attempting to compensate for vision loss. Suggests that vision factors can't be ignored when assessing intellectual changes and may account for a large portion of mental impairment previously ascribed to other factors. (JAC)

  5. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  6. The Impact of Vision in Spatial Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the performance in coding and representing of near-space in relation to vision status (blindness vs. normal vision) and sensory modality (touch vs. vision). Forty-eight children and teenagers participated. Sixteen of the participants were totally blind or had only light perception, 16 were blindfolded sighted…

  7. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  8. The Development of Low Vision Therapist Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Quillman, R. Dee; Flax, Marshall; Gerritsen, Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the low-vision-therapist certification through the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Credentials for professionals in low vision are described, along with required written examination, and the role of the low-vision therapist. (CR)

  9. What Aspects of Vision Facilitate Haptic Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how vision affects haptic performance when task-relevant visual cues are reduced or excluded. The task was to remember the spatial location of six landmarks that were explored by touch in a tactile map. Here, we use specially designed spectacles that simulate residual peripheral vision, tunnel vision, diffuse light perception, and…

  10. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  11. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  12. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  13. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  14. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome. PMID:25606136

  15. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  16. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision, announced by President Bush in January 2004, will extend humanity's presence across the solar system, starting with a return to the moon by the end of the next decade, followed by journeys to Mars and beyond. Building on the best of Apollo and shuttle technology, NASA's 21st century exploration system will be affordable, reliable, versatile and safe. The exploratory voyages of the next few decades have the potential, in this lifetime, to answer age-old questions about how life begins, whether life exists elsewhere, and how the inevitable discoveries along the way will help better our lives here on Earth. Over the next century, the Vision for Space Exploration will set in motion activities to improve our understanding of age-old questions, and inspire new generations to pursue math and science. We'll see new industries and technologies evolve and discoveries that will benefit all.

  17. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  18. Cepstral methods in computational vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandari, Esfandiar; Little, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Many computational vision routines can be regarded as recognition and retrieval of echoes in space or time. Cepstral analysis is a powerful nonlinear adaptive signal processing methodology widely used in many areas such as: echo retrieval and removal, speech processing and phoneme chunking, radar and sonar processing, seismology, medicine, image deblurring and restoration, and signal recovery. The aim of this paper is: (1) To provide a brief mathematical and historical review of cepstral techniques. (2) To introduce computational and performance improvements to power and differential cepstrum for use in detection of echoes; and to provide a comparison between these methods and the traditional cepstral techniques. (3) To apply cepstrum to visual tasks such as motion analysis and trinocular vision. And (4) to draw a brief comparison between cepstrum and other matching techniques. The computational and performance improvements introduced in this paper can e applied in other areas that frequently utilize cepstrum.

  19. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  20. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  1. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  2. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  3. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  4. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  5. AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled. PMID:26466433

  6. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  7. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

  8. Spatial linear navigation: is vision necessary?

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Capelli, A; Priot, A-E; Giannopulu, I

    2013-10-25

    In order to analyze spatial linear navigation through a task of self-controlled reproduction, healthy participants were passively transported on a mobile robot at constant velocity, and then had to reproduce the imposed distance of 2-8m in two conditions: "with vision" and "without vision". Our hypothesis was that the reproduction of distances would be longer with than without visual information. Indeed, with visual information the reproduction of all distances was overshot. In the "without vision" condition the reproduced distances were quite close to the imposed ones, but only for the shortest distances (2 and 4m) as the longest ones were clearly undershot. With vision the reproduction error was less than 10% for all distances; however the error could be smaller without vision at short distances, and therefore vision was not necessary. PMID:24021798

  9. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  10. Model-Based Vision Using Relational Summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiyuan; Shapiro, Linda G.

    1989-03-01

    A CAD-to-vision system is a computer system that inputs a CAD model of an object and outputs a vision model and matching procedure by which that object can be recognized and/or its position and orientation determined. CAD-model-based systems are extremely useful for industrial vision tasks where a number of different manufactured parts must be automatically manipulated and/or inspected. Another area where vision systems based on CAD models is becoming important is in the United States space program. Since the space station and space vehicles are recent or even current designs, we can expect to have CAD models of these objects to work with. Vision tasks in space such as docking and tracking of vehicles, guided assembly tasks, and inspection of the space station itself for cracks and other problems can rely on model-directed vision techniques.

  11. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  12. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  13. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back. PMID:19227409

  14. Expert system modeling of a vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihani, Kamran; Thompson, Wiley E.

    1992-05-01

    The proposed artificial intelligence-based vision model incorporates natural recognition processes depicted as a visual pyramid and hierarchical representation of objects in the database. The visual pyramid, with based and apex representing pixels and image, respectively, is used as an analogy for a vision system. This paper provides an overview of recognition activities and states in the framework of an inductive model. Also, it presents a natural vision system and a counterpart expert system model that incorporates the described operations.

  15. Quaternions in computer vision and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Pervin, E.; Webb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer vision and robotics suffer from not having good tools for manipulating three-dimensional objects. Vectors, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry all have deficiencies. Quaternions can be used to solve many of these problems. Many properties of quaternions that are relevant to computer vision and robotics are developed. Examples are given showing how quaternions can be used to simplify derivations in computer vision and robotics.

  16. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  17. Attitude measurement by artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.

  18. Vision inspection system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor); Williams, Rick A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical vision inspection system (4) and method for multiplexed illuminating, viewing, analyzing and recording a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface (7) with first and second alternating optical subsystems (20, 21) illuminating and sensing successive frames of the same material surface patch. To detect the different kinds of surface features including abrupt as well as gradual surface variations, correspondingly different kinds of lighting are applied in time-multiplexed fashion to the common surface area patches under observation.

  19. Ethics in Darwin's melancholy vision.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryson

    2011-03-01

    Darwinian natural selection draws on Malthus' harsh vision of human society to explain how organisms come to be adapted to their environments. Natural selection produces the appearance of teleology, but requires only efficient causal processes: undirected, heritable variation combined with effects of the variations on survival and reproduction. This paper draws a sharp distinction between the resulting form of backwards-directed teleology and the future-directed teleology we ascribe to intentional human activity. Rather than dismiss teleology as mere illusion, the paper concludes with an account of how future-directed teleology came to be a justifiable part of how we understand ourselves. PMID:21300312

  20. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  1. 77 FR 16890 - Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight... public of the eighteenth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions...

  2. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  3. Optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision. Topics included the following; computer vision in industry; mathematical models of human vision for machines; laser light for machine vision illuminations; illumination methods for machine vision; supercomputers and interferometry; and, computers and depth perception.

  4. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  5. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  6. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  7. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  8. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg(-1) of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg(-1) and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg(-1). PMID:26912998

  9. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  10. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  11. From Academic Vision to Physical Manifestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan; Becker, William E.

    2004-01-01

    This community college-based case study describes and analyzes how a new mission and vision adopted by the college trustees was translated into a facility master plan. The vision is designed to serve the needs of the community and facilitate economic development, especially in the areas of health occupations, biotechnology and…

  12. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  13. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a teacher…

  14. Reading by Children with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gompel, Marjolein; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Schreuder, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study of the reading of text found that despite their lower reading speed on a reading-comprehension task, the children with low vision comprehended texts at least as well as did the sighted children. Children with low vision need more time to read and comprehend a text, but they seem to use this time with enough efficiency to process the…

  15. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  16. Protocols for Choosing Low Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This consensus statement on best practices for choosing low-vision devices is a product of a 10-member expert panel which brought together a variety of disciplines as well as consumers for the purpose of synthesizing available scientific information to improve services to people with low vision. After an introductory section, the remaining…

  17. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership Inaugural Issue, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "Customizable Content" (Walter Koetke);…

  18. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  19. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  20. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  1. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  2. Social Work in a Low Vision Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, William A.; McClelland, Gus

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs VICTORS (Vision Impairment Center To Optimize Remaining Sight) Program emphasizes individual independence through the use of low vision devices and training. The social worker's role combines traditional counseling with administrative responsibilities, such as interviewing the patient to identify needs and…

  3. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  4. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  5. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  6. A vision for modernizing environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...

  7. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  8. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  9. A Strategic Vision for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher…

  10. Keep Your Vision Healthy: Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Vision Healthy Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams People ... should have their eyesight tested to keep their vision at its best. Children usually have vision screening ...

  11. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > Helping a Loved One Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  12. 76 FR 25763 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  13. 75 FR 22175 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  14. 78 FR 76394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  15. 77 FR 12361 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  16. 76 FR 69793 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  17. Applying Machine Vision To Robotic Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay

    1987-10-01

    Machine vision is an integral part in industry automation. This paper will discuss the 3-D vision technology and its applications. A brief description of several turkey automation systems developed and being developed that using 3-D vision technology in the fields of inspection and robotic guidance&control will be presented. The applications range from advanced robotic technology in automotive car production to sophisticated robotic system for U.S. Navy and Air force. This 3-D vision measuring capability has proved to the versatile key to successfully implementing adaptively controlled robot motion and robot path. Other extension of the technology to provide 3-D volumetric sensing and research effort in integrating 3-D vision with CAD/CAM system are examined.

  18. Developing organisational vision in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    al-Shehri, A; Stanley, I; Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    Vision is a fashionable but ill defined term in management circles. Nevertheless, it embodies a significant concept related to guiding an organisation from present realities, through opportunities and hazards, to a viable future. Until recently a typical general practice could assume a stable external environment, but now it is caught up in the uncertainties stemming from the NHS reforms. For such a practice to undertake effective strategic planning it will have to develop a vision connecting the present with aspirations for the future. While vision is usually considered to be an individual talent, it is possible to develop a collective organisational vision within a general practice, and the small size of general practices makes this relatively easy. The vision needs to be broad; it needs to be continuous; and its capacity to predict the future needs to be monitored. PMID:8343704

  19. Wavefront technology for vision and ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junzhong

    2003-07-01

    Wavefront technology promises to change the way vision care will be conducted. Wavefront-sensing optometers provide instant, accurate measurement of the total wave aberration of the eye, and that one measurement contains all the information needed for refractive vision diagnosis and refractive vision correction. Wavefront optometers are now being used to create individualized laser vision correction based, not on the coventional sphero-cylindrical correction, but rather on the total wavefront errors in patients' eyes. Comprehensive vision diagnosis based on the wave aberration and the image quality derived from it is far different from the conventional test of visual acuity. Wavefront technology has made it possible to image microscopic features as small as the photoreceptors and to improve resolution of retinal imaging techniques for early diagnosis of retinal diseases. This article is a review covering the hsitory and progress being made in the development of the wavefront technologies.

  20. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-10-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  1. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  2. Yarbus, eye movements, and vision

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Wade, Nicholas J; Kwan, Hoi; Findlay, John M; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus. PMID:23396904

  3. New Media Vision for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  4. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  5. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  6. Refractory neural nets and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Thomas C.

    2014-02-01

    Biological understandings have served as the basis for new computational approaches. A prime example is artificial neural nets which are based on the biological understanding of the trainability of neural synapses. In this paper, we will investigate features of the biological vision system to see if they can also be exploited. These features are 1) the neuron's refractory period - the period of time after the neuron fires before it can fire again and 2) the ocular microtremor which moves the retinal neural array relative to the image. The short term memory due to the refractory period allows the before and after movement views to be compared. This paper will discuss the investigation of the implications of these two features.

  7. Bioinspired vision sensors with hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2011-04-01

    Musca domestica, the common house fly, possesses a powerful vision system that exhibits features such as fast, analog, parallel operation and motion hyperacuity -- the ability to detect the movement of objects at far better resolution than predicted by their photoreceptor spacing. Researchers at the Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics (WISPR) Laboratory have investigated these features for over a decade to develop an analog sensor inspired by the fly. Research efforts have been divided into electrophysiology; mathematical, optical and MATLAB based sensor modeling; physical sensor development; and applications. This paper will provide an in depth review of recent key results in some of these areas including development of a multiple, light adapting cartridge based sensor constructed on both a planar and co-planar surface using off-the-shelf components. Both a photodiode-based approach and a fiber based sensor will be discussed. Applications in UAV obstacle avoidance, long term building monitoring and autonomous robot navigation are also discussed.

  8. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  9. Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2006-06-01

    Low vision rehabilitation is a new emerging subspecialty drawing from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on our customary concepts of research, education, and services for the visually impaired patient. A multidisciplinary approach and coordinated effort are necessary to take advantage of new scientific advances and achieve optimal results for the patient. Accordingly, the intent of this paper is to outline the principles and details of a modern low vision rehabilitation service. All rehabilitation attempts must start with a first hand interview (the intake) for assessing functionality and priority tasks for rehabilitation, as well as assessing the patient's all-important cognitive skills. The assessment of residual visual functions follows the intake and offers a unique opportunity to measure, evaluate, and document accurately the extent of functional loss sustained by the patient from disease. An accurate assessment of residual visual functions includes assessment of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, binocularity, refractive errors, perimetry, oculomotor functions, cortical visual integration, and light characteristics affecting visual functions. Functional vision assessment in low vision rehabilitation measures how well one uses residual visual functions to perform routine tasks, using different items under various conditions, throughout the day. Of the many functional vision skills known, reading skills is an obligatory item for all low vision rehabilitation assessments. Results of assessment guide rehabilitation professionals in developing rehabilitation plans for the individual and recommending appropriate low vision devices. The outcome from assessing residual visual functions is detection of visual functions that can be improved with the use of optical devices. Methods for prescribing devices such as image relocation with prisms to a preferred retinal locus, field

  10. Visions and psychopathology in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1982-01-01

    Descriptions of visionary experience from written medieval sources are examined from a cross-cultural perspective. The mental states of the persons having the visions range from terminal illnesses, states of starvation, stress-related syndromes, dreams and hypnagogic states, and seemingly unremarkable mental states. Although a few of the visions elicited some skepticism on the part of contemporaries, most reports of visions were accepted at face value as bona fide visions, with no discernible differentiation between starvation visions, dreams, deliria of illnesses, and possible mental illness. Only four of the visions appeared causally related, by today's standards, to mentally illnesses. These persons were not recognized as mentally ill by their contemporaries. Since there was a recognition of mental illness in the Middle Ages, it would appear that such recognition was based on symptoms other than visions or hallucinations. It is also possible that hallucinations, as culturally supported phenomena, were not as available as forms of expression of psychoses in the Middle Ages as they are today. Such a possibility has interesting implications regarding the role of a culture in shaping the forms by which mental illnesses are expressed, recognized, and labeled. PMID:7033474

  11. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision. PMID:19720656

  12. Perceptual Annotation: Measuring Human Vision to Improve Computer Vision.

    PubMed

    Scheirer, Walter J; Anthony, Samuel E; Nakayama, Ken; Cox, David D

    2014-08-01

    For many problems in computer vision, human learners are considerably better than machines. Humans possess highly accurate internal recognition and learning mechanisms that are not yet understood, and they frequently have access to more extensive training data through a lifetime of unbiased experience with the visual world. We propose to use visual psychophysics to directly leverage the abilities of human subjects to build better machine learning systems. First, we use an advanced online psychometric testing platform to make new kinds of annotation data available for learning. Second, we develop a technique for harnessing these new kinds of information-"perceptual annotations"-for support vector machines. A key intuition for this approach is that while it may remain infeasible to dramatically increase the amount of data and high-quality labels available for the training of a given system, measuring the exemplar-by-exemplar difficulty and pattern of errors of human annotators can provide important information for regularizing the solution of the system at hand. A case study for the problem face detection demonstrates that this approach yields state-of-the-art results on the challenging FDDB data set. PMID:26353347

  13. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  14. Designing vision systems for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent robotic systems utilize sensory information to perceive the nature of their work environment. Of the many sensor modalities, vision is recognized as one of the most important and cost-effective sensors utilized in practical systems. In this paper, we address the problem of designing vision systems to perform a variety of robotic inspection and manipulation tasks. We describe the nature and characteristics of the robotic task domain and discuss the computational hierarchy governing the process of scene interpretation. We also present a case study illustrating the design of a specific vision system developed for performing inspection and manipulation tasks associated with a control panel. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Our goal is to systematically review the literature on telerehabilitation’s effectiveness for improving vision-related quality of life and/ or reading speed compared to face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) low vision rehabilitation services in patients with low vision or visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, VAE device abandonment rates, and/or patient satisfaction ratings in the same studies. PMID:25152693

  16. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  17. Computer vision based room interior design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  18. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the

  19. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  20. Space environment robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Eichhorn, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype twin-camera stereo vision system for autonomous robots has been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. Standard charge coupled device (CCD) imagers are interfaced with commercial frame buffers and direct memory access to a computer. The overlapping portions of the images are analyzed using photogrammetric techniques to obtain information about the position and orientation of objects in the scene. The camera head consists of two 510 x 492 x 8-bit CCD cameras mounted on individually adjustable mounts. The 16 mm efl lenses are designed for minimum geometric distortion. The cameras can be rotated in the pitch, roll, and yaw (pan angle) directions with respect to their optical axes. Calibration routines have been developed which automatically determine the lens focal lengths and pan angle between the two cameras. The calibration utilizes observations of a calibration structure with known geometry. Test results show the precision attainable is plus or minus 0.8 mm in range at 2 m distance using a camera separation of 171 mm. To demonstrate a task needed on Space Station Freedom, a target structure with a movable I beam was built. The camera head can autonomously direct actuators to dock the I-beam to another one so that they could be bolted together.

  1. Adaptive optics for peripheral vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, R.; Lundström, L.; Unsbo, P.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding peripheral optical errors and their impact on vision is important for various applications, e.g. research on myopia development and optical correction of patients with central visual field loss. In this study, we investigated whether correction of higher order aberrations with adaptive optics (AO) improve resolution beyond what is achieved with best peripheral refractive correction. A laboratory AO system was constructed for correcting peripheral aberrations. The peripheral low contrast grating resolution acuity in the 20° nasal visual field of the right eye was evaluated for 12 subjects using three types of correction: refractive correction of sphere and cylinder, static closed loop AO correction and continuous closed loop AO correction. Running AO in continuous closed loop improved acuity compared to refractive correction for most subjects (maximum benefit 0.15 logMAR). The visual improvement from aberration correction was highly correlated with the subject's initial amount of higher order aberrations (p = 0.001, R 2 = 0.72). There was, however, no acuity improvement from static AO correction. In conclusion, correction of peripheral higher order aberrations can improve low contrast resolution, provided refractive errors are corrected and the system runs in continuous closed loop.

  2. CFIT Prevention Using Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot s ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach - departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  3. Vision-based force measurement.

    PubMed

    Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to visually measure the force distribution applied to a linearly elastic object using the contour data in an image. The force measurement is accomplished by making use of the result from linear elasticity that the displacement field of the contour of a linearly elastic object is sufficient to completely recover the force distribution applied to the object. This result leads naturally to a deformable template matching approach where the template is deformed according to the governing equations of linear elasticity. An energy minimization method is used to match the template to the contour data in the image. This technique of visually measuring forces we refer to as vision-based force measurement (VBFM). VBFM has the potential to increase the robustness and reliability of micromanipulation and biomanipulation tasks where force sensing is essential for success. The effectiveness of VBFM is demonstrated for both a microcantilever beam and a microgripper. A sensor resolution of less than +/- 3 nN for the microcantilever and +/- 3 mN for the microgripper was achieved using VBFM. Performance optimizations for the energy minimization problem are also discussed that make this algorithm feasible for real-time applications. PMID:15376877

  4. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  5. CFIT prevention using synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-09-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30 percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot's ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach / departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  6. Machine vision and the OMV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  7. Progress in color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  8. Retinoblastoma: One World, One Vision

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Wilson, Mathew W.; Chantada, Guillermo; Fu, Ligia; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Antonelli, Célia; Leal-Leal, Carlos; Sharma, Tarum; Barnoya, Margarita; Epelman, Sidnei; Pizzarello, Louis; Kane, Javier R.; Barfield, Ray; Merchant, Thomas E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Murphree, A. Linn; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Dyer, Michael A.; O′Brien, Joan; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Hungerford, John; Helveston, Eugene M.; Haik, Barrett G.; Wilimas, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is curable when diagnosed early and treated appropriately; however, the prognosis is dismal when the basic elements in diagnosis and treatment are lacking. In developing countries, poor education, lower socioeconomic conditions, and inefficient health care systems result in delayed diagnosis and suboptimal care. Furthermore, the complexity of multidisciplinary care required is seldom possible. While ocular salvage is a priority in the Western world, death from retinoblastoma is still a major problem in developing countries. To bring the two ends of this spectrum together and provide a forum for discussion, the One World, One Vision symposium was organized, where clinicians and researchers from various cultural, geographic, and socioeconomic backgrounds converged to discuss their experiences. Strategies for early diagnosis in developing countries were discussed. Elements in the development of retinoblastoma centers in developing countries were discussed, and examples of successful programs were highlighted. An important component in this process is twinning between centers in developing countries and mentor institutions in high-income countries. Global initiatives by nongovernmental organizations such as the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research, Orbis International, and the International Agency for Prevention of Blindness were presented. Treatment of retinoblastoma in developing countries remains a challenge. However, it is possible to coordinate efforts at multiple levels, including public administrations and nonprofit organizations, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma and to improve the outcome for these children. PMID:18762512

  9. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users

    PubMed Central

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2014-01-01

    Background Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population in order to evaluate the impact of new vision restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional vision ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. Methods The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional vision tasks for observation of performance, and a case narrative summary. Results were analyzed to determine whether the interview questions and functional vision tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, twenty-six subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. Results All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 functional vision tasks were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options -- impossible (33%), difficult (23%), moderate (24%) and easy (19%) -- were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with vision only occurring 75% on average with the System ON, and 29% with the System OFF. Conclusion The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as a functional vision and well-being assessment tool. PMID:25675964

  10. Vision in our three-dimensional world.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J

    2016-06-19

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595

  11. Integration of vision and robotic workcell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossieux, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the incorporation of vision into a robotic cell to obtain cell status information and use this information to influence the robot operation. It discusses both mechanical and informational solutions to the operational issues which are present. The cell uses a machine vision system to determine information about part presence in the shipping tray, part location in the tray, and tray orientation. The vision system's edge detector algorithm is used to identify the orientation of the packing trays. In addition, different vision tools are used to determine if parts are present in the trays based on the unique configuration of the individual parts. The mechanical solutions discuss the handling of medium weight (10 - 25 lb.) parts at an average cycle time of 3.1 seconds per part. The robot gripper must handle 33 different models, three identical parts at a time. This is accomplished by using stacks of rotary actuators and slides between the stacks.

  12. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  13. The Secretary's Vision of the Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Paul

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses the Secretary of Energy's vision of the cleanup program. Topics include development a new plan to swiftly clean up serious problems at sites and reduce the risks to human health, safety and the environment.

  14. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  15. Color Vision Defects: What Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of color vision defects as they relate to reading instruction. Suggests ways that teachers can adapt instruction to help provide maximal learning opportunities for the color deficient child. (RS)

  16. Facilitating Shared Vision in the Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigeles, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Offers a structured method, the management summit, to help administrators generate a true mission and vision and implement them in the organization. The method includes understanding needs, building futures scenarios, pointing out hurdles, and deciding on action items. (JOW)

  17. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  18. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes commonly associated with aging (e.g., cataract, presbyopia, pupil changes) and examines their relationship to intellectual performance. Discusses variables related to intellectual functioning including motivation, education, test anxiety, and fatigue. (LLL)

  19. Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

    2013-12-01

    In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

  20. Tips for Living with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... have low vision. A number of agencies and organizations across the country can provide information about support and rehabilitation services, as well as other resources. Call Prevent Blindness America at ...

  1. Light source design for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, Eric J.; Harding, Kevin G.

    1992-03-01

    There is a lack of commercially available white light sources for machine vision applications. Current commercial sources are typically expensive and primarily designed for workbench use. Because of their benchtop design, these light sources cannot be easily integrated into the inspection system. In most cases a light source must be custom designed and built to suit the needs of the particular machine vision application. The materials being inspected can vary from highly specular to highly diffuse, thus requiring a broad range of illumination levels. Other issues important in machine vision light sources include efficiency, light divergence, spectral content, source size, and packaging. This paper discusses the issues that must be overcome when designing a light source for machine vision applications, and describes the work done by ITI to produce an efficient white light source with computer controlled illumination level.

  2. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  3. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  4. Robot vision and sensory controls, V

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

  5. Compact Through-The-Torch Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in gas/tungsten-arc welding torch equipped with through-the-torch vision system make it smaller and more resistant to welding environment. Vision subsystem produces image of higher quality, flow of gas enhanced, and parts replaced quicker and easier. Coaxial series of lenses and optical components provides overhead view of joint and weld puddle real-time control. Designed around miniature high-resolution video camera. Smaller size enables torch to weld joints formerly inaccessible.

  6. COHERENT LASER VISION SYSTEM (CLVS) OPTION PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Clark

    1999-11-18

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) suitable for DOE's EM Robotic program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update the dimensional spatial data on the order of once per second. The system has total immunity to ambient lighting conditions.

  7. Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.

    2014-06-01

    One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

  8. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  9. Robotic Vision With Enhanced Detection Of Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. L.; Shawaga, L.; Walsh, P.; Kambies, K.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision subsystem provides enhanced detection of edges as it preprocesses image of target moving in six degrees of freedom. Subsystem designed to filter out high (spatial) frequency components in image, with frequency response tuned to size of object detected. Blurring and background noise reduced to avoid false detection of moving target. Image produced used by another vision subsystem guiding robot to mate with target. Produces less noise and operates more reliably.

  10. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  11. Office of the CIO: Setting the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldi, James J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the vision of the Office of JPL's Chief Information Officer for future of information technology (IT) at JPL. This includes a strong working relation with industry to provide cost efficient and effective IT services. This includes a vision of taking desktop to the next level and the process to achieve it and ensuring that JPL becomes a world class IT provider.

  12. NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  13. Computational models of human vision with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Perceptual problems in aeronautics were studied. The mechanism by which color constancy is achieved in human vision was examined. A computable algorithm was developed to model the arrangement of retinal cones in spatial vision. The spatial frequency spectra are similar to the spectra of actual cone mosaics. The Hartley transform as a tool of image processing was evaluated and it is suggested that it could be used in signal processing applications, GR image processing.

  14. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder and vision.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Joseph N

    2010-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be defined as a memory linked with an unpleasant emotion that results in a spectrum of psychological and physical signs and symptoms. With the expectation of at least 300,000 postdeployment veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan having PTSD, optometrists will be faced with these patients' vision problems. Complicating the diagnosis of PTSD is some overlap with patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The estimated range of patients with TBI having PTSD varies from 17% to 40%, which has recently led the Federal government to fund research to better ascertain their relationship and differences. As a result of the sensory vision system's interconnections with the structures of the limbic system, blurry vision is a common symptom in PTSD patients. A detailed explanation is presented tracing the sensory vision pathways from the retina to the lateral geniculate body, visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and the hypothalamus. The pathways from the superior colliculus and the limbic system to the eye are also described. Combining the understanding of the afferent and efferent fibers reveal both feedforward and feedback mechanisms mediated by nerve pathways and the neuropolypeptides. The role of the peptides in blurry vision is elaborated to provide an explanation as to the signs and symptoms of patients with PTSD. Although optometrists are not on the front line of mental health professionals to treat PTSD, they can provide the PTSD patients with an effective treatment for their vision disorders. PMID:20435270

  16. Volumetric imaging system for the ionosphere (VISION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, Kenneth F.; Budzien, Scott A.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; Fortna, Clyde B.

    2002-01-01

    The Volumetric Imaging System for the Ionosphere (VISION) is designed to use limb and nadir images to reconstruct the three-dimensional distribution of electrons over a 1000 km wide by 500 km high slab beneath the satellite with 10 km x 10 km x 10 km voxels. The primary goal of the VISION is to map and monitor global and mesoscale (> 10 km) electron density structures, such as the Appleton anomalies and field-aligned irregularity structures. The VISION consists of three UV limb imagers, two UV nadir imagers, a dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and a coherently emitting three frequency radio beacon. The limb imagers will observe the O II 83.4 nm line (daytime electron density), O I 135.6 nm line (nighttime electron density and daytime O density), and the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands near 143.0 nm (daytime N2 density). The nadir imagers will observe the O I 135.6 nm line (nighttime electron density and daytime O density) and the N2 LBH bands near 143.0 nm (daytime N2 density). The GPS receiver will monitor the total electron content between the satellite containing the VISION and the GPS constellation. The three frequency radio beacon will be used with ground-based receiver chains to perform computerized radio tomography below the satellite containing the VISION. The measurements made using the two radio frequency instruments will be used to validate the VISION UV measurements.

  17. On the architecture of the micro machine vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zong, Guanghua

    2006-01-01

    Micro machine vision system is an important part of a micromanipulating system which has been used widely in many fields. As the research activities on the micromanipulating system go deeper, micro machine vision system catches more attention. In this paper, micro machine vision system is treated as a kind of machine vision system with constrains and characteristics introduced by specific application environment. Unlike the traditional machine vision system, a micro machine vision system usually does not aim at the reconstruction of the scene. It is introduced to obtain expected position information so that the manipulation can be accomplished accurately. The architecture of the micro machine vision system is proposed. The key issues related to a micro machine vision system such as system layout, optical imaging device and vision system calibration are discussed to explain the proposed architecture further. A task-oriented micro machine vision system for biological micromanipulating system is shown as an example, which is in compliance with the proposed architecture.

  18. 75 FR 60478 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Corporation of Mountain View, California (collectively ``complainants''). 74 FR 34589-90 (July 16, 2009). The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing... importation of certain machine vision software, machine vision systems, or products containing same by...

  19. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  20. Stochastic neural nets and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Thomas C.

    1991-03-01

    A stochastic neural net shares with the normally defined neural nets the concept that information is processed by a system consisting of a set of nodes (neurons) connected by weighted links (axons). The normal neural net takes in inputs on an initial layer of neurons which fire appropriately; a neuron of the next layer fires depending on the sum of weights of the axons leading to it from fired neurons of the first layer. The stochastic neural net differs in that the neurons are more complex and that the vision activity is a dynamic process. The first layer (viewing layer) of neurons fires stochastically based on the average brightness of the area it sees and then has a refractory period. The viewing layer looks at the image for several clock cycles. The effect is like those photo sensitive sunglasses that darken in bright light. The neurons over the bright areas are most likely in a refractory period (and this can't fire) and the neurons over the dark areas are not. Now if we move the sensing layer with respect to the image so that a portion of the neurons formerly over the dark are now over the bright, they will likely all fire on that first cycle. Thus, on that cycle, one would see a flash from that portion significantly stronger than surrounding regions. Movement the other direction would produce a patch that is darker, but this effect is not as noticeable. These effects are collected in a collection layer. This paper will discuss the use of the stochastic neural net for edge detection and segmentation of some simple images.

  1. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  2. Photochemical approaches to vision restoration.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-06-01

    Photoswitches are traditional pharmacologic agonists, antagonists, or channel blockers that are covalently modified with an azobenzene derivative. Azobenzene undergoes wavelength-dependent isomerization between cis and trans conformation. For some photoswitches, only one of these configurations is biologically active, resulting in light-dependent activation or inhibition of function. Photoswitches that feature a quaternary ammonium coupled to the azobenzene moiety cause light-dependent neuronal depolarization due to blockage of voltage-gated potassium channels. Two photoswitch strategies have been pursued. In the one-component strategy, the photoswitch is applied to native receptors; in the two-component strategy, the photoswitch is combined with virally-mediated expression of a genetically modified receptor, to which the photoswitch may covalently bind. The former approach is simpler but the latter allows precise anatomic targeting of photoswitch activity. Acrylamide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (AAQ) is the prototypical first-generation one-component photoswitch. When applied to retinas with outer retinal degeneration, ganglion cell firing occurs in response to blue light, and is abrogated by green light. In vivo, AAQ restored pupillary light responses and behavioral light responses in blind animals. DENAQ is a prototypical second generation one-component photoswitch. It features spontaneous thermal relaxation so cell firing ceases in dark, and features a red-shifted activation spectrum. Interestingly, DENAQ only photoswitches in retinas with outer retinal degeneration. MAG is a photoswitched glutamate analog which covalently binds to a modified ionotropic glutamate receptor, LiGluR. When applied together, MAG and LiGluR also rescue physiologic and behavioral light responses in blind mice. Together, photoswitch compounds offer a potentially useful approach to restoration of vision in outer retinal degeneration. PMID:25680758

  3. Photochemical approaches to vision restoration

    PubMed Central

    Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2015-01-01

    Photoswitches are traditional pharmacologic agonists, antagonists, or channel blockers that are covalently modified with an azobenzene derivative. Azobenzene undergoes wavelength-dependent isomerization between cis and trans conformation. For some photoswitches, only one of these configurations is biologically active, resulting in light-dependent activation or inhibition of function. Photoswitches that feature a quaternary ammonium coupled to the azobenzene moiety cause light-dependent neuronal depolarization due to blockage of voltage-gated potassium channels. Two photoswitch strategies have been pursued. In the one-component strategy, the photoswitch is applied to native receptors; in the two-component strategy, the photoswitch is combined with virally-mediated expression of a genetically modified receptor, to which the photoswitch may covalently bind. The former approach is simpler but the latter allows precise anatomic targeting of photoswitch activity. Acrylamide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (AAQ) is the prototypical first-generation one-component photoswitch. When applied to retinas with outer retinal degeneration, ganglion cell firing occurs in response to blue light, and is abrogated by green light. In vivo, AAQ restored pupillary light responses and behavioral light responses in blind animals. DENAQ is a prototypical second generation one-component photoswitch. It features spontaneous thermal relaxation so cell firing ceases in dark, and features a red-shifted activation spectrum. Interestingly, DENAQ only photoswitches in retinas with outer retinal degeneration. MAG is a photoswitched glutamate analog which covalently binds to a modified ionotropic glutamate receptor, LiGluR. When applied together, MAG and LiGluR also rescue physiologic and behavioral light responses in blind mice. Together, photoswitch compounds offer a potentially useful approach to restoration of vision in outer retinal degeneration. PMID:25680758

  4. Beyond W3C: TruVision--Enhanced Online Learning for People Blind or Vision Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; Oliver, Ron

    This paper describes the design and development of TruVision, an online learning environment designed to enable blind and vision impaired students to develop skills and expertise in elementary and advanced information processing strategies to enable them to seek full-time employment within industry in such positions as administrative assistants,…

  5. The Effect of an On-Site Vision Examination on Adherence to Vision Screening Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Raymond; Huang, Kristine; Barnhardt, Carmen; Chen, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Vision screenings are intended to efficiently identify students with possible visual impairment and initiate a referral for diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, at-risk students do not access the recommended care or experience delays in receiving care. The purpose of this article is to report the effect on adherence to vision screening…

  6. Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Version 4.1 of LAS provides flexible framework for algorithm development and processing and analysis of image data. Over 500,000 lines of code enable image repair, clustering, classification, film processing, geometric registration, radiometric correction, and manipulation of image statistics.

  7. Vision Voice: A Multimedia Exploration of Diabetes and Vision Loss in East Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Brett; Nedelman, Michael; Redwood, Charysse; Ramos, Michelle A.; Hughson-Andrade, Jessica; Hernandez, Evelyn; Jordan, Dioris; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background East Harlem, New York, is a community actively struggling with diabetes and its complications, including vision-related conditions that can affect many aspects of daily life. Objectives Vision Voice was a qualitative community-based participatory research (CBPR) study that intended to better understand the needs and experiences of people living with diabetes, other comorbid chronic illnesses, and vision loss in East Harlem. Methods Using photovoice methodology, four participants took photographs, convened to review their photographs, and determined overarching themes for the group’s collective body of work. Lessons Learned Identified themes included effect of decreased vision function on personal independence/mobility and self-management of chronic conditions and the importance of informing community members and health care providers about these issues. The team next created a documentary film that further develops the narratives of the photovoice participants. Conclusions The Vision Voice photovoice project was an effective tool to assess community needs, educate and raise awareness. PMID:26548784

  8. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  9. The effect of an on-site vision examination on adherence to vision screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Raymond; Huang, Kristine; Barnhardt, Carmen; Chen, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Vision screenings are intended to efficiently identify students with possible visual impairment and initiate a referral for diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, at-risk students do not access the recommended care or experience delays in receiving care. The purpose of this article is to report the effect on adherence to vision screening recommendations by providing the eye examination at the students' school and at no cost. Of the 1,306 students screened, 382 (29.2%) were identified with possible visual impairment. Parental consent for examination was obtained for 198 (51.8%) students. Our vision screening and examination program yielded similar adherence to follow-up as stand-alone vision screening programs. Future program considerations should address perceptual barriers that may be contributing to parental nonadherence to vision screening recommendations. PMID:24574183

  10. [Current views on vision of mammals].

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, T V

    2012-01-01

    In the review, research data are presented on mammals' vision including visual pigments, color and contrast vision, and visual behaviour in different species. It is shown that in course of evolution mammals were gradually losing the elements of daylight cone vision system that are typical of other vertebrates. In monotremes, visual pigments SWS2 (cone blue-sensitive 2) and MWS/LWS (green/red-sensitive) are still present, as well as rod RH1. Theria, except some primates, also have two cone visual pigments: SWS1 (ultraviolet/violet or blue-sensitive 1) and MWS/LWS along with rod RH1. Humans and some other higher primates evolved the new visual pigment, MWS, and acquired trichromatic vision. Marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and some species of other orders have lost also the visual pigment SWS1, probably due to specificity of processing the information received by these cones. Current view on mammals' vision with two cone pigments and rods is presented. Data on maximum spectral sensitivity of visual pigments in different species and orders are given along with data on spatial contrast sensation. High visual acuity has been acquired by ungulates, artiodactyls, and primates, while the highest one--by humans with their specialized fovea. PMID:23330397

  11. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  12. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  13. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  14. Generic motion platform for active vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Vincze, Markus

    1996-10-01

    The term 'active vision' was first used by Bajcsy at a NATO workshop in 1982 to describe an emerging field of robot vision which departed sharply from traditional paradigms of image understanding and machine vision. The new approach embeds a moving camera platform as an in-the-loop component of robotic navigation or hand-eye coordination. Visually served steering of the focus of attention supercedes the traditional functions of recognition and gaging. Custom active vision platforms soon proliferated in research laboratories in Europe and North America. In 1990 the National Science Foundation funded the design of a common platform to promote cooperation and reduce cost in active vision research. This paper describes the resulting platform. The design was driven by payload requirements for binocular motorized C-mount lenses on a platform whose performance and articulation emulate those of the human eye- head system. The result was a 4-DOF mechanisms driven by servo controlled DC brush motors. A crossbeam supports two independent worm-gear driven camera vergence mounts at speeds up to 1,000 degrees per second over a range of +/- 90 degrees from dead ahead. This crossbeam is supported by a pan-tilt mount whose horizontal axis intersects the vergence axes for translation-free camera rotation about these axes at speeds up to 500 degrees per second.

  15. Visions 2025 and Linkage to NEXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the progress to date on creating a science-driven vision for the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) in the post-2010 period. This effort began in the Fall of 2001 by organizing five science workgroups with representatives from NASA, academia and other agencies: Long-Term Climate, Medium-Term Climate, Extreme Weather, Biosphere & Ecosystems, and Solid Earth, Ice Sheets, & Sea Level. Each workgroup was directed to scope out one Big Question, including not just the science but the observational and modeling requirements, the information system requirements, and the applications and benefits to society. This first set of five Big Questions is now in hand and has been presented to the ESE Director. It includes: water resources, intraseasonal predictability, tropical cyclogenesis, invasive species, and sea level. Each of these topics will be discussed briefly. How this effort fits into the NEXT vision exercise and into Administrator O'Keefe's new vision for NASA will also be discussed.

  16. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  17. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Matthies, Larry H.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  18. Coevolution of active vision and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Kato, Toshifumi; Marocco, Davide; Sauser, Eric

    2004-03-01

    We show that complex visual tasks, such as position- and size-invariant shape recognition and navigation in the environment, can be tackled with simple architectures generated by a coevolutionary process of active vision and feature selection. Behavioral machines equipped with primitive vision systems and direct pathways between visual and motor neurons are evolved while they freely interact with their environments. We describe the application of this methodology in three sets of experiments, namely, shape discrimination, car driving, and robot navigation. We show that these systems develop sensitivity to a number of oriented, retinotopic, visual-feature-oriented edges, corners, height, and a behavioral repertoire to locate, bring, and keep these features in sensitive regions of the vision system, resembling strategies observed in simple insects. PMID:15052484

  19. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  20. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

  1. Computation and parallel implementation for early vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. Anthony

    1990-01-01

    The problem of early vision is to transform one or more retinal illuminance images-pixel arrays-to image representations built out of such primitive visual features such as edges, regions, disparities, and clusters. These transformed representations form the input to later vision stages that perform higher level vision tasks including matching and recognition. Researchers developed algorithms for: (1) edge finding in the scale space formulation; (2) correlation methods for computing matches between pairs of images; and (3) clustering of data by neural networks. These algorithms are formulated for parallel implementation of SIMD machines, such as the Massively Parallel Processor, a 128 x 128 array processor with 1024 bits of local memory per processor. For some cases, researchers can show speedups of three orders of magnitude over serial implementations.

  2. Visual training improves underwater vision in children.

    PubMed

    Gislén, Anna; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2006-10-01

    Children in a tribe of sea-gypsies from South-East Asia have been found to have superior underwater vision compared to European children. In this study, we show that the improved underwater vision of these Moken children is not due to better contrast sensitivity in general. We also show that European children can achieve the same underwater acuity as the Moken children. After 1 month of underwater training (11 sessions) followed by 4 months with no underwater activities, European children showed improved underwater vision and distinct bursts of pupil constriction. When tested 8 months after the last training session in an outdoor pool in bright sunlight-comparable to light environments in South-East Asia-the children had attained the same underwater acuity as the sea-gypsy children. The achieved performance can be explained by the combined effect of pupil constriction and strong accommodation. PMID:16806388

  3. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  4. Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, William D.

    1983-12-01

    Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.

  5. A computational model for dynamic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Weymouth, Terry E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a novel computational model for dynamic vision which promises to be both powerful and robust. Furthermore the paradigm is ideal for an active vision system where camera vergence changes dynamically. Its basis is the retinotopically indexed object-centered encoding of the early visual information. Specifically, the relative distances of objects to a set of referents is encoded in image registered maps. To illustrate the efficacy of the method, it is applied to the problem of dynamic stereo vision. Integration of depth information over multiple frames obtained by a moving robot generally requires precise information about the relative camera position from frame to frame. Usually, this information can only be approximated. The method facilitates the integration of depth information without direct use or knowledge of camera motion.

  6. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  7. Approach to constructing reconfigurable computer vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yongping

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to constructing reconfigurable vision system. We found that timely and efficient execution of early tasks can significantly enhance the performance of whole computer vision tasks, and abstract out a set of basic, computationally intensive stream operations that may be performed in parallel and embodies them in a series of specific front-end processors. These processors which based on FPGAs (Field programmable gate arrays) can be re-programmable to permit a range of different types of feature maps, such as edge detection & linking, image filtering. Front-end processors and a powerful DSP constitute a computing platform which can perform many CV tasks. Additionally we adopt the focus-of-attention technologies to reduce the I/O and computational demands by performing early vision processing only within a particular region of interest. Then we implement a multi-page, dual-ported image memory interface between the image input and computing platform (including front-end processors, DSP). Early vision features were loaded into banks of dual-ported image memory arrays, which are continually raster scan updated at high speed from the input image or video data stream. Moreover, the computing platform can be complete asynchronous, random access to the image data or any other early vision feature maps through the dual-ported memory banks. In this way, the computing platform resources can be properly allocated to a region of interest and decoupled from the task of dealing with a high speed serial raster scan input. Finally, we choose PCI Bus as the main channel between the PC and computing platform. Consequently, front-end processors' control registers and DSP's program memory were mapped into the PC's memory space, which provides user access to reconfigure the system at any time. We also present test result of a computer vision application based on the system.

  8. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Bok, Michael J.; Marshall, N. Justin; Caldwell, Roy L.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red. PMID:24395960

  9. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Marshall, N Justin; Caldwell, Roy L

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red. PMID:24395960

  10. Development Of A Vision Guided Robot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfeh-Isfahani, Mohammad; Yeung, Kim F.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent vision guided system through the integration of a vision system into a robot. Systems like the one described in this paper are able to work alone. They can be used in many automated assembly operations. Such systems can do repetitive tasks more efficiently and accurately than human operators because of the immunity of machines to human factors such as boredom, fatigue, and stress. In order to better understand the capabilities of such systems, this paper will highlight what can be accomplished by such systems by detailing the development of such a system. This system is already built and functional.

  11. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  12. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  13. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  14. The vision of a smart city

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Bowerman, B.; Braverman, J.; Taylor, J.; Todosow, H.; Von Wimmersperg, U.

    2000-09-28

    The vision of ''Smart Cities'' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced, integrated materials, sensors, electronics, and networks which are interfaced with computerized systems comprised of databases, tracking, and decision-making algorithms. This paper discusses a current initiative being led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory to create a research, development and deployment agenda that advances this vision. This is anchored in the application of new technology to current urban center issues while looking 20 years into the future and conceptualizing a city framework that may exist.

  15. Corneal Transplant Improves Vision and Daily Life for Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... 01, 2011 Rare, but Effective: Corneal Transplant Improves Vision, Life for Some Children SAN FRANCISCO— Teens, children, ... Transplants were considered successful if they significantly improved vision and the new corneas remained healthy over 10 ...

  16. 25 Million Americans Will Struggle with Vision Problems by 2050

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158934.html 25 Million Americans Will Struggle With Vision Problems by 2050 Aging ... News) -- As baby boomers age, the number of Americans with vision problems and blindness is expected to ...

  17. 25 Million Americans Will Struggle with Vision Problems by 2050

    MedlinePlus

    ... html 25 Million Americans Will Struggle With Vision Problems by 2050 Aging boomers will trigger a doubling ... boomers age, the number of Americans with vision problems and blindness is expected to double over the ...

  18. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Vision screening for seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... transcript042516.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Vision screening for seniors : 04/25/2016 To use ... do not need to be screened routinely for vision problems by a primary care physician, finds a ...

  19. 78 FR 47818 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine M. Papp, Chief, Medical Programs Division, (202... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable...

  20. Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159863.html Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss Older people and those who ... half of people with no new symptoms or vision problems receive new prescriptions or treatment changes as ...

  1. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  2. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  3. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  4. Toward a Rhetorical Vision for Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavitsky, Alan G.

    Critics contend American public television has failed to realize the potential envisioned by the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television. Using Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy theme analysis as a framework to examine public TV reveals that American public television has been unable to develop a coherent rhetorical vision or a clear…

  5. Stereo Vision By Pyramidal Bli Graph Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Castan, Serge; Zhao, Jian

    1988-04-01

    We propose the pyramidal BLI (Binary Laplacian Image) graph matching method for stereo vision, which uses the local as well as the global similarities to assure a good precision of matching results and to eliminate the ambiguities. Because the BLI is detected by DRF method which has a fast realization and matching between graphs is fast, a pseudo-real time system is possible.

  6. A New Fast Algorithm of Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Castan, Serge

    1986-06-01

    In this paper, the DRF (Difference of Recursive Filters) method is proposed for stereo vision. One obtains the BLI's (Binary Laplacian Image) of the stereopair images by DRF method and the disparities are found by the correlation between the BLI's. Some experimental results are presented also.

  7. Building a Vision for Education in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanhanzo, Joseph; Odushin, David E.; Bibi-Adelakoun, Alice

    2006-01-01

    For the first time in Benin, the education sector has built its own vision. In the past, there were general policy laws, which provided a framework for education policy. The current building experience, arising in a particular context, is the result of a political decision to include in one document all the replies to the questions raised by the…

  8. A (Super) Heroic Vision of Leader Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Genie Bingham

    2011-01-01

    This study leads the reader on a learning journey with the heroic metaphors derived from heroic myths of today's pop culture to the views shared by aspiring administrators. Viewing the students' leadership vision of self as hero provided insight to guiding students in their personal leadership journey. By naming and describing self as hero, future…

  9. Vision Research for Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Whitman, Ed.; Dismukes, Key, Ed.

    Based on a workshop on vision research issues in flight-training simulators held in June 1980, this report focuses on approaches for the conduct of research on what visual information is needed for simulation and how it can best be presented. An introduction gives an overview of the workshop and describes the contents of the report. Section 1…

  10. The Unique American Vision of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ali; Debelak, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes "the unique American vision of childhood" (UAVC) as a phenomenon undermining high academic expectations and good work ethics, and in turn, contributing to the generally low academic achievement of U.S. students compared to their counterparts in other advanced countries. It starts with a definition of UAVC, followed…

  11. One vision of academic nursing centers.

    PubMed

    Esperat, M Christina; Green, Alexia; Acton, Cindy

    2004-01-01

    Reconciling vision, mission, and financial realities into a successful socially responsive endeavor is a challenge for academic nursing centers. A financially viable faculty practice enterprise is a response to this challenge. Entrepreneurial management and strategy assist in establishing financial sustainability. PMID:15651588

  12. Topical meeting on machine vision (summaries)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on image processing and pattern recognition. Topics considered at the conference included the system architecture of a SIMD image processor, pattern recognition using quantum-limited images, VLSI patterns, automatic shape parameterization in machine vision, holography, pyramid networks, determining three-dimensional transformation parameters from images, and real-time object recognition.

  13. Medical informatics and telemedicine: A vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmer, Terry P.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of medical informatics is to improve care. This requires the commitment and harmonious collaboration between the computer scientists and clinicians and an integrated database. The vision described is how medical information systems are going to impact the way medical care is delivered in the future.

  14. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    LeCun, Yann

    2011-02-23

    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  15. Prediction of Low Vision Aid Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaglstein, A.; Rapaport, S.

    1991-01-01

    Use of 11 kinds of visual aids by 458 clients of an Israel low vision clinic was evaluated by age, sex, work status, participation in a rehabilitation program, academic status, number of visual aids in use, and number of diagnosed eye diseases. Usage prediction was found to be complex and highly differentiated. (Author/JDD)

  16. Computer vision for autonomous robotics in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andrew K. C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system being developed at the Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI) Lab of the University of Waterloo and at the Vision, Intelligence and Robotics Technologies Corporation (VIRTEK) in support of the Canadian Space Autonomous Robotics Project. This system was originally developed for flexible manufacturing and guidance of autonomous roving vehicles. In the last few years, it has been engineered to support the operations of the Mobile Service System (MSS) (or its equivalence) for the Space Station Project. In the near term, this vision system will provide vision capability for the recognition, location and tracking of payloads as well as for relating the spatial information to the manipulator for capturing, manipulating and berthing payloads. In the long term, it will serve in the role of inspection, surveillance and servicing of the Station. Its technologies will be continually expanded and upgraded to meet the demand as the needs of the Space Station evolve and grow. Its spin-off technologies will benefit the industrial sectors as well.

  17. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  18. Vision and Education: Arguments, Counterarguments, Rejoinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekarsky, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This article explains the nature of vision-guided educational practice, makes the case for it, and appraises objections to this approach to education. The discussion is grounded in a critique of the rhetoric and practice associated with American education, a critique that emphasizes the continuing failure to think about educational challenges and…

  19. Image Control In Automatic Welding Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).

  20. Low Vision Aids for Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…

  1. Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational development and Malaysia's sociopolitical and economic context. Under the Vision 2020 rubric, liberalized educational policies are leading to a more democratic, privatized, and decentralized educational system. Curricular revisions stressing basic skills, moral values, and individual development are…

  2. Photochemistry: A coherent picture of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathies, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Vision is initiated by photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal in the visual pigment rhodopsin -- a fast and efficient process. Spectroscopic studies now demonstrate that the transition from the reactant photoexcited-state to the ground-state photoproduct, which mediates this important reaction, occurs on a sub-50-fs timescale and is vibrationally coherent.

  3. Esther Dyson's Vision of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Andy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a vision of the future based on Esther Dyson's views of the proliferation of the Internet. Topics include the Internet as a communication medium; electronic commerce; the role of education, including the role of teachers; intellectual property rights; and friction freedom in a new digital economy relating to pricing. (LRW)

  4. Distance Learning Librarians: Their Shared Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Shared vision is a component of leadership that fosters innovation through buy-in at all levels of the organization. At times, people see a need for innovation but do not have the power to make changes on their own. Many librarians in academic institutions that were early adopters of distance learning envisioned a need for new services that were…

  5. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  6. New Methods for Testing Infant Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwiazda, Jane; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Based on studies and clinical findings, two techniques for testing infant vision are described: near-retinoscopy (used to assess the refractive state of infants and young children) and a fast preferential looking procedure (used to assess the acuity of infants up to one year of age). (DLS)

  7. Living Headship: Voices, Values and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Harry, Ed.; Gunter, Helen, Ed.; Smith, Pauline, Ed.

    This book presents the accounts of successful headteachers (principals) in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales. It contains the following 14 articles: "Strategic Management in an Infant School" (Angela Bird; Les Bell); "Building the Vision: A TQM Approach" (Gwenn Brockley; Ray Moorcroft); "The Culture of Counseling as an Engine for…

  8. 2020 Vision Project Summary: FY99

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Gordon; K.P. Scott

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998-99 school year, students from participating schools completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on U.S. national security. This report summarizes the student's views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's four years.

  9. Educational Futures: Dominant and Contesting Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevic, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an overview and analysis of current tensions, debates and key issues within OECD nations, particularly Australia, the USA, Canada and the UK, with regard to where education is and should be going. Using a broad historical analysis, it investigates ideas and visions about the future that are increasingly evoked to support…

  10. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Jannika E.; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  11. What is stereoscopic vision good for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.

  12. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  13. The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually interface…

  14. Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiro, Michael Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a description of the major curriculum philosophies that have influenced educators and schooling over the last century. The author analyzes four educational visions (Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction) to enable readers to reflect on their own educational beliefs and allow them to…

  15. Low Vision: Assessment and Training for Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Allan G.; Davis, Denis P.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a battery of tasks to predict and improve mobility performance, a series of functional vision tasks (texural shearing, degraded images, embedded figures, and parafoveal attention) were generated by a microcomputer. Sixty visually impaired subjects given either computerized task training or real-life training improved their low vision…

  16. Wilderness Vision Quest: A Journey of Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    The Wilderness Vision Quest is an outdoor retreat which helps participants touch, explore, and develop important latent human resources such as imagination, intuition, creativity, inspiration, and insight. Through the careful and focused use of techniques such as deep relaxation, reflective writing, visualization, guided imagery, symbolic drawing,…

  17. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented. PMID:21395003

  18. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  19. Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision…

  20. A New Vision for Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Randy L.; Ross, Leah Ewing

    2016-01-01

    A new vision for institutional research is urgently needed if colleges and universities are to achieve their institutional missions, goals, and purposes. The authors advocate for a move away from the traditional service model of institutional research to an institutional research function via a federated network model or matrix network model. When…

  1. Vision Stations: Addressing Corrective Vision Needs With Low-cost Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Frutiger, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeglasses, required for functional vision by nearly half the world's population, are still needed by more than a billion people. There are a number of constraints on the provision of eyeglasses: product cost, durability, and appearance; traditional approaches to evaluating refraction; and sustainably scaling potential distribution methods. We offer our experience with an immigrant population in a US urban setting using a “Vision Station.” The station allowed for immediate provision of adjustable glasses using self-refraction, ordering of custom lenses from a low-cost website, and referral to primary and eye care physicians for those with medical eye concerns. As with models in development by other groups, Vision Stations connect people with the life-changing provision of functional vision. PMID:25984406

  2. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Forsyth, D. S.

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in an automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.

  3. Vision-based registration for augmented reality system using monocular and binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerand, Steve; Kanbara, Masayuki; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2003-05-01

    In vision-based augmented reality systems, the relation between the real and virtual worlds needs to be estimated to perform the registration of virtual objects. This paper suggests a vision-based registration method for video see-through augmented reality systems using binocular cameras which increases the quality of the registration performed using three points of a known marker. The originality of this work is the use of both monocular vision-based and stereoscopic vision-based techniques in order to complete the registration. Also, a method that performs a correction of the 2D positions in the images of the marker points is proposed. The correction improves the registration stability and accuracy of the system. The stability of the registration obtained with the proposed registration method combined or not with the correction method is compared to the registration obtained with standard stereoscopic registration.

  4. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Hebert, Wesley P.; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from

  5. Mobile robot on-board vision system

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, V.W.; Nai-Yung Chen.

    1993-06-15

    An automatic robot system is described comprising: an AGV transporting and transferring work piece, a control computer on board the AGV, a process machine for working on work pieces, a flexible robot arm with a gripper comprising two gripper fingers at one end of the arm, wherein the robot arm and gripper are controllable by the control computer for engaging a work piece, picking it up, and setting it down and releasing it at a commanded location, locating beacon means mounted on the process machine, wherein the locating beacon means are for locating on the process machine a place to pick up and set down work pieces, vision means, including a camera fixed in the coordinate system of the gripper means, attached to the robot arm near the gripper, such that the space between said gripper fingers lies within the vision field of said vision means, for detecting the locating beacon means, wherein the vision means provides the control computer visual information relating to the location of the locating beacon means, from which information the computer is able to calculate the pick up and set down place on the process machine, wherein said place for picking up and setting down work pieces on the process machine is a nest means and further serves the function of holding a work piece in place while it is worked on, the robot system further comprising nest beacon means located in the nest means detectable by the vision means for providing information to the control computer as to whether or not a work piece is present in the nest means.

  6. 78 FR 12815 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... vision, good color vision, and a good field of vision when using both eyes. His condition is stable and... and the docket numbers for this notice. Note that all comments received will be posted without change... FR 82132), or you may visit http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-29/pdf/2010-32876.pdf ....

  7. Training Vision Screening Behavior to Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simer, Nancy; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision screening of all children between 3 and 5 years of age, and states have mandated vision screening for all school children. Participants were three 4-6-year old school children with either a developmental delay or autism who scored "could not test" on the state required vision screening.…

  8. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  13. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  15. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  16. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  17. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  20. Project Magnify: Increasing Reading Skills in Students with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jeanie; Morse, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Modeled after Project PAVE (Corn et al., 2003) in Tennessee, Project Magnify is designed to test the idea that students with low vision who use individually prescribed magnification devices for reading will perform as well as or better than students with low vision who use large-print reading materials. Sixteen students with low vision were…

  1. 78 FR 1919 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...FMCSA announces receipt of applications from 14 individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable to meet the vision requirement in one eye for various reasons. The exemptions will enable these individuals to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce without meeting the prescribed vision requirement in......

  2. Family Functioning and Low Vision: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…

  3. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  4. The Learning School: A Guide to Vision-Based Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Richard C., Jr.; Engel, David E.; Mooney, James E.

    Leading with vision is critical to the success of schools. The purpose of this book is to define and describe vision-based educational leadership. The book proposes the model of a learning school in which everyone is a learner. Chapter 1 discusses the ways in which vision drives educational leadership, the organization of the schools, and learning…

  5. Vision Care for the Preschool Child with Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Pamela; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article provides information about the number and diversity of preschool children with handicaps requiring vision services, such as refractive errors and eye muscle imbalances, and describes a vision care system designed to ensure that these preschool children receive optimal vision care. (Author/CL)

  6. 77 FR 71671 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...FMCSA announces its decision to exempt 15 individuals from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs). They are unable to meet the vision requirement in one eye for various reasons. The exemptions will enable these individuals to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce without meeting the prescribed vision requirement in one eye. The......

  7. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  9. 75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-5292 Filed 3-9-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8483 of March 5, 2010 Save Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the... are affected by low vision or blindness. Maintaining good vision requires early diagnosis and...

  10. Personal and Shared Vision: A Commitment to Increased Rigor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important things a principal can do is have a clear vision for his or her school. The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2008) identified a "clear, strong and collectively held vision" as one of the six essential components of an effective school. Beyond a general vision for their schools, it is important that…

  11. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  14. Vision, Leadership, and Change: The Case of Ramah Summer Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In his retrospective essay, Seymour Fox (1997) identified "vision" as the essential element that shaped the Ramah camp system. I will take a critical look at Fox's main claims: (1) A particular model of vision was essential to the development of Camp Ramah; and (2) That model of vision should guide contemporary Jewish educators in creating Jewish…

  15. Tagore's Vision of International Education: Relevance and Implications for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    In this information age, the world is fast becoming a global village. In this context, it is relevant to look at the educational vision of Rabindranath Tagore. He tried to realize his educational vision in his schools and Visva-Bharati University where the world makes its home in a single nest. Tagore's vision of international education can help…

  16. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  17. Vision Effects: A Critical Gap in Educational Leadership Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantabutra, Sooksan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although leaders are widely believed to employ visions, little is known about what constitutes an "effective" vision, particularly in the higher education sector. This paper seeks to proposes a research model for examining relationships between vision components and performance of higher education institutions, as measured by financial…

  18. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  20. Flight Test Comparison Between Enhanced Vision (FLIR) and Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA s Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  1. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  2. Research and development on embedded omnidirectional vision tracker for vision navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junchao; Feng, Weijia; Cao, Zuoliang; Zhang, Baofeng

    2009-11-01

    Omni-directional vision appears the definite significance since its advantage of acquiring all vision information simultaneously. In this paper, an integrated omni-directional vision tracker based on the configuration with CMOS, FPGA and DSP has been implemented. Fisheye lens is one of the most efficient ways to establish omni-directional vision systems, however, it appear with an unavoidable inherent distortion. An imaging system model which consists of fisheye-lens and the embedded tracker has been proposed. A novel beacon owning the feature of particular topology shape can be identified by the appropriative recognition processes. Particle filter has been programmed as an intersectional arithmetic structure which processes the same step of several particle filters simultaneously. We called it as Multiple Intersection Particle Filter. MIPF makes multi-targets tracking efficiently and successfully on embedded platform. A rectification technique based on equidistant projection theorem is used for correction some distorted image point. The localization method just employs the picture position of two objects to estimate the space position and orientation for AGV. After target recognition, vision tracking, rectification, and object positioning functions actualized on the embedded omni-directional vision tracker, autonomous navigation has been demonstrated on experimental AGV.

  3. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-05-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  4. Neural Networks for Computer Vision: A Framework for Specifications of a General Purpose Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef; Mesrobian, Edmond; Gungner, David J.

    1989-03-01

    The development of autonomous land vehicles (ALV) capable of operating in an unconstrained environment has proven to be a formidable research effort. The unpredictability of events in such an environment calls for the design of a robust perceptual system, an impossible task requiring the programming of a system bases on the expectation of future, unconstrained events. Hence, the need for a "general purpose" machine vision system that is capable of perceiving and understanding images in an unconstrained environment in real-time. The research undertaken at the UCLA Machine Perception Laboratory addresses this need by focusing on two specific issues: 1) the long term goals for machine vision research as a joint effort between the neurosciences and computer science; and 2) a framework for evaluating progress in machine vision. In the past, vision research has been carried out independently within different fields including neurosciences, psychology, computer science, and electrical engineering. Our interdisciplinary approach to vision research is based on the rigorous combination of computational neuroscience, as derived from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, with computer science and electrical engineering. The primary motivation behind our approach is that the human visual system is the only existing example of a "general purpose" vision system and using a neurally based computing substrate, it can complete all necessary visual tasks in real-time.

  5. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    Background Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). Objectives To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Data collection and analysis Two

  6. 78 FR 5557 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twenty-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  7. 76 FR 20437 - Fourteenth Meeting: Joint RTCA Special Committee 213: EUROCAE WG-79: Enhanced Flight Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...- 79: Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: EUROCAE WG-79: Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...: Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). DATES: The meeting will be held May...

  8. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  9. Federal regulation of vision enhancement devices for normal and abnormal vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drum, Bruce

    2006-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluates the safety and effectiveness of medical devices and biological products as well as food and drugs. The FDA defines a device as a product that is intended, by physical means, to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body. All vision enhancement devices fulfill this definition because they are intended to affect a function (vision) of the body. In practice, however, FDA historically has drawn a distinction between devices that are intended to enhance low vision as opposed to normal vision. Most low vision aids are therapeutic devices intended to compensate for visual impairment, and are actively regulated according to their level of risk to the patient. The risk level is usually low (e.g. Class I, exempt from 510(k) submission requirements for magnifiers that do not touch the eye), but can be as high as Class III (requiring a clinical trial and Premarket Approval (PMA) application) for certain implanted and prosthetic devices (e.g. intraocular telescopes and prosthetic retinal implants). In contrast, the FDA usually does not actively enforce its regulations for devices that are intended to enhance normal vision, are low risk, and do not have a medical intended use. However, if an implanted or prosthetic device were developed for enhancing normal vision, the FDA would likely decide to regulate it actively, because its intended use would entail a substantial medical risk to the user. Companies developing such devices should contact the FDA at an early stage to clarify their regulatory status.

  10. Bilateral vision loss associated with radiofrequency exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dianna; Cruz, Franz Marie; Subramanian, Prem S

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with painless binocular vision loss 1 week after direct application of radiofrequency energy to her orbits. She had no light perception bilaterally. Pupils were dilated and not reactive to light. Fundoscopic exam initially showed optic disc swelling in the right eye and a normal-appearing disc in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed gadolinium enhancement of both intraorbital optic nerves. She underwent a course of high-dose steroid treatment without recovery of vision. Optic discs were pale 11 weeks after injury. With exclusion of other possible causes, this represents a unique case of irreversible binocular optic nerve damage and blindness secondary to radiofrequency exposure. PMID:23271888

  11. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2006-05-01

    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  12. Algorithms and architectures for robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the current work is to develop practical sensing implementations for robots operating in complex, partially unstructured environments. A focus in this work is to develop object models and estimation techniques which are specific to requirements of robot locomotion, approach and avoidance, and grasp and manipulation. Such problems have to date received limited attention in either computer or human vision - in essence, asking not only how perception is in general modeled, but also what is the functional purpose of its underlying representations. As in the past, researchers are drawing on ideas from both the psychological and machine vision literature. Of particular interest is the development 3-D shape and motion estimates for complex objects when given only partial and uncertain information and when such information is incrementally accrued over time. Current studies consider the use of surface motion, contour, and texture information, with the longer range goal of developing a fused sensing strategy based on these sources and others.

  13. Global visions for space exploration education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.

    2010-04-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.

  14. Robotic vision/sensing for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Graham, Olin; De Figueiredo, Rui J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of efforts currently in progress at the NASA/Johnson Space Center and Rice University, the accomplishments to date, and some of the anticipated future developments. Both systems and algorithms are discussed. The evolution of future vision/sensing is projected to included the fusion of multisensors ranging from microwave to optical with multimode capability to include position, attitude, recognition, and motion parameters. The algorithms for information extraction are expected to incorporate aspects of intelligence and knowledge for the interpolation and extrapolation of the needed data. The key features of the overall system design will be small size and weight, fast signal processing, robust algorithms, and accurate parameter determination. These aspects of vision/sensing are also discussed.

  15. The photochemical determinants of color vision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a variety of important chromophore-dependent biological processes, including microbial light sensing and mammalian color vision, relies on protein modifications that alter the spectral characteristics of a bound chromophore. Three different color opsins share the same chromophore, but have three distinct absorptions that together cover the entire visible spectrum, giving rise to trichromatic vision. The influence of opsins on the absorbance of the chromophore has been studied through methods such as model compounds, opsin mutagenesis, and computational modeling. The recent development of rhodopsin mimic that uses small soluble proteins to recapitulate the binding and wavelength tuning of the native opsins provides a new platform for studying protein-regulated spectral tuning. The ability to achieve far-red shifted absorption in the rhodopsin mimic system was attributed to a combination of the lack of a counteranion proximal to the iminium, and a uniformly neutral electrostatic environment surrounding the chromophore. PMID:24323922

  16. 2020 Vision Project Summary, FY98

    SciTech Connect

    A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon

    1998-11-01

    The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.

  17. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  18. Reading aids for adults with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently

  19. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  20. Impact of computer use on children's vision

    PubMed Central

    Kozeis, N

    2009-01-01

    Today, millions of children use computers on a daily basis. Extensive viewing of the computer screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurred vision and headaches, dry eyes and other symptoms of eyestrain. These symptoms may be caused by poor lighting, glare, an improper work station set-up, vision problems of which the person was not previously aware, or a combination of these factors. Children can experience many of the same symptoms related to computer use as adults. However, some unique aspects of how children use computers may make them more susceptible than adults to the development of these problems. In this study, the most common eye symptoms related to computer use in childhood, the possible causes and ways to avoid them are reviewed. PMID:20011087