Science.gov

Sample records for fuerzas producidas por

  1. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  2. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  3. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at ?152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  4. Capacitación de la fuerza laboral

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI es una organización gubernamental que capacita a la próxima generación de investigadores del cáncer en universidades e instituciones de todo el país y proporciona financiación para investigación científica.

  5. Infeccin por VIH y el riesgo de cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el mayor riesgo de ciertos tipos de cnceres que presentan las personas con infeccin por VIH. Dichos cnceres son el sarcoma de Kaposi, los linfomas de Hodgkin y no Hodgkin, y los cnceres de ano, de crvix, de hgado y de pulmn. Trata tambin de lo que las personas con infeccin por VIH pueden hacer para reducir su riesgo de cncer o para detectar temprano la enfermedad.

  6. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  7. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  8. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevencin de ms de 795 000 muertes por cncer de pulmn en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pas hubiera cesado despus de la publicacin d

  9. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  10. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  11. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, fetus Final Diagnosis: Antley-Bixler syndrome Symptoms: Craniosynostosis midface hypoplasia femoral bowing radiohumeral synostosis Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Prenatal diagnosis of severe fetal bone disease using detailed ultrasonography and computed tomography Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Maternal-Fetal Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. Case Report: We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for malposition of the inferior limbs. The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. Conclusions: The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment. PMID:26670660

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment. PMID:26670660

  14. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  15. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-05-08

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  16. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  17. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Bentez, J F; Blomstrm, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernndez-Baumgarten, E; Hernndez-Juregui, P; Ramrez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  18. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-?. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  19. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Ense Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Ense por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,

  20. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions

  1. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  2. Porcine Corneal Ocular Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) predicts ocular damage and recovery for global regulatory agency hazard categories.

    PubMed

    Piehl, Michelle; Carathers, Micheal; Soda, Rachel; Cerven, Daniel; DeGeorge, George

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the capacity of the Porcine Corneal Ocular Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) to classify the reversibility of ocular effects for 32 test compounds (20 reversible, 12 irreversible) from various chemical classes. PorCORA predicted 28 of 32 compounds correctly when compared to historical rabbit eye test data. The correlation coefficient for PorCORA versus historical rabbit test data was 0.84, based on the last day of damaged cornea reversal. These results demonstrate a high correlation between corneal irritation recovery time in the PorCORA and the rabbit eye. When compared to historical Modified Maximal Average Score (MMAS) in rabbit eyes, PorCORA yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.80, demonstrating ability to predict MMAS. PorCORA was highly predictive of regulatory agency ocular hazard classification categories, resulting in 91% accuracy for EU R41 and GHS Category 1. PorCORA was also predictive of EPA Category I (88% accuracy). Overall, the accuracy (88-91%), sensitivity (79-86%), specificity (94%), positive predictivity (94%), and negative predictivity (85-89%) for all three regulatory classifications indicate that ocular irritation hazardous effects were well predicted by the PorCORA. This study suggests that PorCORA could help discriminate between EU R36 and R41, GHS Categories 1 and 2, and EPA Categories I and II. PMID:21708243

  3. Aquisio fonolgica do portugus brasileiro por crianas ouvintes bilngues bimodais e surdas usurias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisio fonolgica do Portugus Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianas ouvintes bilngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito Lngua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianas surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito Libras. Para a avaliao do sistema fonolgico das crianas em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeao, do ABFW Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianas ouvintes bilngues bimodais e a criana surda usuria de IC com acesso irrestrito Libras apresentaram processo de aquisio fonolgica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etria. Considera-se que a aquisio precoce e o acesso irrestrito Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianas no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  4. Intermitncia alfvnica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rpido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetrio so dominados por flutuaes Alfvnicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlao entre as variaes do campo magntico e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuaes exibem muitas caractersticas esperadas em turbulncia magneto-hidrodinmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitncia e espectros contnuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsveis pela evoluo de turbulncia Alfvnica intermitente no so completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvnicos, modelados pela equao Schrdinger no-linear derivativa e pela equao Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caticos medida em que parmetros do plasma so variados. Pequenas perturbaes no parmetro de dissipao podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime peridico, ou fracamente catico, para um regime fortemente catico. As sries temporais das flutuaes do campo magntico nos regimes fortemente caticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caticas so interrompidas por fortes estouros caticos. mostrado que o regime fortemente catico atingido quando as solues peridicas ou fracamente caticas globalmente estveis interagem com solues do sistema que so fortemente caticas, mas globalmente instveis. Estas solues globalmente instveis so conjuntos caticos no-atrativos conhecidos como selas caticas, e so responsveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caticas tm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provvel que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulncia intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  5. Anlise dos Conceitos Astronmicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razo para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educao Bsica (EB) no lidam com conceitos relacionados astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como de conhecimento geral a astronomia um dos contedos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de So Paulo, mas um fato, que vrios pesquisadores apontam, a existncia de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propsito de minimizar algumas dessas deficincias foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilizao de questionrios pr e ps pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extenso Universitria para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mau, Ribeiro Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de So Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepes alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem aps o curso, adotando-se como referncia, para a anlise dos resultados, os dicionrios de Lngua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopdico de Astronomia e Astronutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questes foram aplicadas antes e aps o curso, assim pode-se verificar aps a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstcio, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrncia das estaes do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrncia do equincio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteride, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  6. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  7. Aflatoxinas

    Cancer.gov

    Las aflatoxinas son un tipo de toxinas producidas por ciertos hongos en cultivos agrícolas como el maíz, los cacahuates o el maní, la semilla de algodón y los frutos secos (de cáscara dura como las nueces).

  8. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  9. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  10. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 is a key factor for PorB-dependent invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Faulstich, Michaela; Hagen, Franziska; Avota, Elita; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Xian, Yibo; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare but serious complication caused by the spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the human host. Gonococci associated with DGI mainly express the outer membrane protein PorBIA that binds to the scavenger receptor expressed on endothelial cells (SREC-I) and mediates bacterial uptake. We recently demonstrated that this interaction relies on intact membrane rafts that acquire SREC-I upon attachment of gonococci and initiates the signalling cascade that finally leads to the uptake of gonococci in epithelial cells. In this study, we analysed the role of sphingomyelinases and their breakdown product ceramide. Gonococcal infection induced increased levels of ceramide that was enriched at bacterial attachment sites. Interestingly, neutral but not acid sphingomyelinase was mandatory for PorBIA -mediated invasion into host cells. Neutral sphingomyelinase was required to recruit the PI3 kinase to caveolin and thereby activates the PI3 kinase-dependent downstream signalling leading to bacterial uptake. Thus, this study elucidates the initial signalling processes of bacterial invasion during DGI and demonstrates a novel role for neutral sphingomyelinase in the course of bacterial infections. PMID:25224994

  11. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  12. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  13. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, A. M.; Banik, B. L.; Brown, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signalingmoleculesRac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 ?m were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 ?m), a trend that was long in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT/PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0?m), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  14. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 ?m were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 ?m), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 ?m), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  15. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 7694% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 6177% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  16. Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing pneumococcal conjugates and meningococcal PorA OMVs.

    PubMed

    van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; van Dijken, Harry H; Pillai, Subramonia; van Alphen, Loek

    2007-03-22

    The pre-clinical immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (13vPnC) vaccine (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F conjugated to CRM197) and nine-valent meningococcal B PorA vaccine (NonaMen; serosubtypes P1.7,16; P1.5-1,2-2; P1.19,15-1; P1.5-2,10; P1.12-1,13; P1.7-2,4; P1.22,14; P1.7-1,1 and P1.18-1,3,6), and any potential immunological interference between pneumococcal and MenB components of the vaccine were evaluated. NIH mice were immunized twice subcutaneously with the vaccines combined in one syringe, or given individually. Combining 13vPnC vaccine with NonaMen vaccine in one syringe had no negative effect on the induced antibody response against any MenB serosubtypes compared to separate injection of the vaccines, and the anti-pneumococcal antibody responses were enhanced. Furthermore, co-administration of the combination vaccine with a combined diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b-TT conjugate (DTaP/IPV-Hib) vaccine to New Zealand white rabbits at a different injection site did not affect the anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide and anti-PorA antibody titres. We conclude that no immunological interference was observed by combined administration of pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal B vaccines in one syringe. PMID:17023098

  17. Mi fuerza/my strength. The academic and personal experiences of Chicana/Latina transfer students in math and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Yvonne

    This study unravels Chicana/Latina college students' perceptions of their experiences after transfer to two four-year universities. The study expands current research and provides a richer, detailed perspective of transfer students' experiences in the fields of math and science through the lens of a Feminist Critical Race Theory. The study specifically focuses on the experience of these students through their narratives, including their academic preparation, reasons for campus selection, and their academic and social integration after transferring to the senior institution. The study includes students who transferred from Santa Ana College, a Hispanic Serving Institution, that enrolls over 24,000 students, 42% of which are from "Hispanic" backgrounds. Female students who transferred from Santa Ana College to one of two four-year universities, University of California, Irvine, or California State University, Fullerton, were selected for participation. A comparative analysis of experiences at the two senior institutions was conducted. Also included was an examination of how each campus promoted or hindered the success of students. Findings will guide policy recommendations at the two- and four-year college level, and may impact statewide policies regarding transfer of Chicanas/Latinas into math and science fields. Moreover, this study will add to the limited research available in the field of community college students and transfer student experiences.

  18. Obtencin de la curva de luz en la ocultacin de 35 Sgr por Jpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultacin de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Jpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parmetros fsicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmsfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presin) Para lograr sto se program la cmara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imgenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imgenes de la inmersin y otras tantas de la emersin. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturacin del CCD ya que la observacin se realiz de da. En este momento las imgenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reduccin.

  19. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  20. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  1. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  2. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV Is Required for Secretion of a Subset of Proteins Targeted to the Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Kharade, Sampada S.

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS. PMID:25331433

  5. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  6. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial. PMID:22401563

  7. Relacin masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretacin de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un ncleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxgeno como predice la teora standard de evolucin estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aqu, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones qumicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el cdigo de evolucin estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho cdigo resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolucin estelar mediante la tcnica de relajacin de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripcin fsica muy detallada y actualizada.

  8. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  9. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnstico de gastritis atrfica multifocal asociada con la infeccin por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, Jos Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, Mara Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introduccin El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estmago y el nmero de fragmentos de mucosa gstrica disponibles para evaluacin histopatolgica son fuentes importantes de variacin en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradacin de la gastritis crnica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del nmero de fragmentos de mucosa gstrica necesarios para establecer los diagnsticos de gastritis atrfica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infeccin por Helicobacter pylori. Adems evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificacin de estas lesiones precursoras del cncer gstrico. Materiales y mtodos En una cohorte de 6 aos de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterlogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gstrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un nico patlogo hizo la interpretacin histolgica de las 5 biopsias y proporcion un diagnstico definitivo global que se utiliz como patrn de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gstrica examinado condujo a un diagnstico individual para cada biopsia que se compar con el patrn de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evalu en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnstico de MI y displasia gstrica aument de manera significativa con el nmero de fragmentos de mucosa gstrica evaluados El sitio anatmico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logr alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gstrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtencin de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnstico de gastritis crnica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusin El nmero de fragmentos de mucosa gstrica evaluados, el mtodo de fijacin y la regin del estmago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificacin de la gastritis crnica atrfica multifocal. PMID:25267864

  10. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Vermont, C L; van Dijken, H H; Kuipers, A J; van Limpt, C J P; Keijzers, W C M; van der Ende, A; de Groot, R; van Alphen, L; van den Dobbelsteen, G P J M

    2003-04-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (> or =4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  11. Cross-Reactivity of Antibodies against PorA after Vaccination with a Meningococcal B Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Vermont, C. L.; van Dijken, H. H.; Kuipers, A. J.; van Limpt, C. J. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; van der Ende, A.; de Groot, R.; van Alphen, L.; van den Dobbelsteen, G. P. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (≥4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  12. Estudio terico de la desorcin de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la accin de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnguez Ariza, D.; Lpez, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generacin de sodio y potasio atmico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando clculos basados tanto en la teora del funcional de la densidad como en mtodos post-Hartree Fock, as como en el mtodo de cluster para modelar el slido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorcin, estimulada por la accin de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el xido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicacin a la atmsfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  14. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16274361

  15. Nuevo sitio web en espaol del Instituto Nacional del Cncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingls) Cancer.gov en espaol - Silvia Inz Salazar - transcript

    Cancer.gov

    Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

  16. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  17. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  18. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  19. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  20. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  1. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em particular, é foco deste ensaio: a astronomia. Em que sentido e em que medida valeria a pena abordá-la em aulas, seja de ciências, seja de astronomia especificamente, ou em disciplinas afins? Discutimos neste texto alguns aspectos das vantagens de se tratar essa área do conhecimento nas escolas, levando em conta as dimensões epistemológica e axiológica da astronomia, à luz da visão da ciência como um diálogo inteligente com o mundo, de Bachelard, além da proposta de problematização do conhecimento, de Paulo Freire. Proporemos que de fato a astronomia não precisa ser vista como apenas um novo conjunto de conteúdos a serem ensinados, mas figura como conjunto de temas motivadores para discussões histórico-filosóficas, além de permitir a abordagem de conceitos típicos de outras disciplinas.

  2. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  3. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  4. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  5. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  6. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  7. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  8. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking. PMID:24448396

  9. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  10. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Jodie B; Kamath, Sandip; Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  11. FLP-FRT-based method to obtain unmarked deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and large genomic fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei; Lu, Xuemei

    2014-10-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  12. FLP-FRT-Based Method To Obtain Unmarked Deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and Large Genomic Fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  13. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  14. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  15. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupcin colisional de objetos destrudos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturn principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaos y las rbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en da pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente despus de la fragmentacin del objeto original. En esta hiptesis, puede ser difcil reconstruir la evolucin colisional de la familia basndose slo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener informacin sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimacin de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulacin de la evolucin colisional de un cuerpo original terico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribucin para el cinturn propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  16. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

  17. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher

  18. Mi Primer Libro de Maquinas Simples: Trabajo y Fuerza. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My First Book of Simple Machines: Work and Force. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the first book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume defines force and work by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate scientific principles. Answers to the questions are provided;

  19. Teor­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecnica Celeste es la determinacin de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solucin mediante mtodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitacin, el generado por su fuerza centr­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atraccin entre los cuerpos. Los mtodos clsicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos mtodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casu&stica y que permiten una manipulacin efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armnicos esfricos como combinacion lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios prximos. Se ha elaborado un mtodo analtico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinacin del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios prximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  20. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  1. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  2. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  3. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  4. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  5. Nonspherical Radiation Driven Wind Models Applied to Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauxo, F. X.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. In this work we present a model for the structure of a radiatively driven wind in the meridional plane of a hot star. Rotation effects and simulation of viscous forces were included in the motion equations. The line radiation force is considered with the inclusion of the finite disk correction in self-consistent computations which also contain gravity darkening as well as distortion of the star by rotation. An application to a typical BlV star leads to mass-flux ratios between equator and pole of the order of 10 and mass loss rates in the range 5.l0 to Mo/yr. Our envelope models are flattened towards the equator and the wind terminal velocities in that region are rather high (1000 Km/s). However, in the region near the star the equatorial velocity field is dominated by rotation. RESUMEN. Se presenta un modelo de la estructura de un viento empujado radiativamente en el plano meridional de una estrella caliente. Se incluyeron en las ecuaciones de movimiento los efectos de rotaci6n y la simulaci6n de fuerzas viscosas. Se consider6 la fuerza de las lineas de radiaci6n incluyendo la correcci6n de disco finito en calculos autoconsistentes los cuales incluyen oscurecimiento gravitacional asi como distorsi6n de la estrella por rotaci6n. La aplicaci6n a una estrella tipica BlV lleva a cocientes de flujo de masa entre el ecuador y el polo del orden de 10 de perdida de masa en el intervalo 5.l0 a 10 Mo/ano. Nuestros modelos de envolvente estan achatados hacia el ecuador y las velocidads terminales del viento en esa regi6n son bastante altas (1000 Km/s). Sin embargo, en la regi6n cercana a la estrella el campo de velocidad ecuatorial esta dominado por la rotaci6n. Key words: STARS-BE -- STARS-WINDS

  6. Astronoma Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronoma gamma, en el extremo de energas detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnologa avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La tcnica Cherenkov Atmosfrica es la utilizada para la deteccin, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiacin gamma de muy altas energas (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la tcnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofsica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de ncleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperacin con el grupo de Radiacin Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, est constitudo por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partculas producidas por rayos csmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmsfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascencin recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energas inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energa desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situacin no ptima para este tipo de tcnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del anlisis de los datos obtenidos observando la regin del Centro Galctico, luego de dos aos de observaciones, as como una descripcin de la tcnica Cherenkov Atmosfrica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  7. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feijó Nunes, Flávia; Bassani, Lílian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la elección del método para la evaluación nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de hígado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y después del trasplante de hígado por el tiempo de un año para los diferentes métodos de evaluación nutricional.Métodos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de hígado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los métodos utilizados fueron la antropometría, la fuerza de apretón de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar y el ángulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los métodos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los métodos de evaluación de CB, espesor del pliegue cutáneo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los métodos de evaluación nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el método de mayor detección de desnutrición.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podría intensificarse el uso del método AF por la BIA en esta población, ya que los resultados están en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles. PMID:27019235

  9. Induccin de brotes de formacin estelar por efectos de marea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, C.; Tissera, P.; Siz, A.; Domnguez-Tenreiro, R.

    Hydrodynamical cosmological SPH simulations are used to study the effects of mergers in the star formation history of galactic objects in hierarchical clustering scenarios. We find that during some merger events, gaseous discs can experience two starbursts: the first one during the orbital decay phase, due to gas inflows driven as the satellite approaches, and the second one, when the two baryonic clumps collide. A trend for these first induced starbursts to be more efficient at transforming the gas into stars is also found. We detect that systems which do not experience early gas inflows have well-formed stellar bulges and more concentrated dark matter potential wells, which seem to be responsible for preventing further gas inward transport triggered by tidal forces. The coupled evolution of the dark matter and baryons lead to an evolutionary sequence during which systems with shallower total potential wells suffer early gas inflows during the orbital decay phase that help feed their central mass concentration, pulling in dark matter that contributes to build up more stable systems. We find a clear trend to have major mergers (i.e., similar mass objects) at high redshift as expected in a hierarchical clustering model. Whithin this scenario, massive mergers tends to occur when the systems are more likely to be unstable, and consequently, more suceptable to experiencing early gas inflows and double starbursts events. As double starbursts are more efficient at transforming gas into stars, and tend to occur at higher redshift, their impact on galaxy formation could be very important.

  10. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  11. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  12. Observaciones de la corona solar interior con un coronógrafo de espejo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    El plasma de la corona solar es un buen indicador de las líneas de fuerza del campo magnético. Por lo tanto, el análisis de estructuras coronales cuasiestacionarias en la corona da importante información sobre el campo magnético y la actividad asociada. Se trata de poner límites a los modelos teóricos existentes mediante el estudio de distintas estructuras en la corona interior. En agosto de 1997 comenzó a operar el coronógrafo solar (MICA) en El Leoncito como parte del Observatorio Solar Alemán-Argentino. Desde su instalación obtiene imágenes de la corona solar (1.05 a 2.0 radios solares) en 2 líneas espectrales correspondientes a la emisión de Fe XIV y Fe X. El instrumento puede obtener imágenes cada minuto por lo que es ideal para estudiar procesos rápidos. Presentamos observaciones recientes que muestran la capacidad del coronógrafo así como la evolución de algunos eventos dinámicos observados por MICA.

  13. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  14. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  15. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many

  16. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote hbrido de maz x teocintle no impide la introgresin de genes transgnicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresin entre el maz cultivado y el maz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluacin ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introduccin de genes transgnicos. La posibilidad de introgresin entre el maz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en Mxico, donde maz y teocintle coexisten. El maz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridizacin espontnea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos cientficos han planteado como hiptesis que al cruzar el maz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maz o el elote, impide la dispersin de la progenie evitando que la introgresin ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersin de los frutos hbridos del maz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del hbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos hbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maz. Como conclusin sugerimos que en Mxico, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresin de los genes transgnicos del maz al teocintle. PMID:22707759

  17. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

  18. Las fulguraciones como manifestacin de reconexin en el campo magntico solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagal, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Dmoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenmenos transitorios de liberacin de energa que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagntico, y acelerar partculas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicacin de los abrillantamientos en H? de diversas fulguraciones est relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las lneas del campo magntico de la regin, como se espera por las teoras de reconexin en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Dmoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magntico coronal se extrapola del campo fotosfrico observado suponiendo una configuracin libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drstico en la conectividad de las lneas de campo (lmites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magntico se reconectar con ms probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producir allla liberacin de energa proveniente del campo magntico. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Dmoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en H?. Alldonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, stas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las lneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orgenes fotosfricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexin magntica en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  19. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  20. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  1. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.

  2. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate

  3. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all

  4. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2008-10-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  5. Prospects por practical use of squeezed light and back action evasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, M. D.; Shelby, R. M.

    1989-10-01

    The most powerful method to date of reducing quantum noiseKimble's cavity parametric deamplifiereliminates 95% of this noise but requires a full optical table of sophisticated equipment. The questions remains whether such methods can be made useful. In some very difficult and esoteric experiments, such as gravity wave detection, even quite laborious techniques may make the overall experiment only marginally more difficult. In other types of measurement, such as infrared spectroscopy and optical data storage and retrieval, much simpler and more flexible devices with similar power will be required.

  6. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,

  7. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  8. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Senz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,

  9. Monitoreo ptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez-Lajs, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  10. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  11. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that

  12. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and

  13. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  14. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  15. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  16. "Por qu leemos esto en la clase de espaol?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research

  17. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  18. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  19. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  20. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  1. Efectos de la irradiacin inica en hielos de molculas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satorre, M. A.

    En Astrofsica podemos encontrar numerosos contextos en los cuales se observan molculas en estado slido que, en condiciones estndar de presin y temperatura, se encontraran como gases o lquidos. Dichas molculas se denominan hielos y han sido observadas en nubes densas del medio interestelar, en envolturas circumestelares, en satlites del Sistema Solar, en cometas, etc. Los hielos pueden ser alterados en su composicin qumica debido a diversos factores como por ejemplo variaciones de temperatura o aportes energticos por parte de la irradiacin, ya sea tanto de fotones ultravioleta como de iones. Dependiendo del escenario astrofsico que analicemos, unos factores cobran ms importancia que otros. Los experimentos de laboratorio muestran el efecto que produce sobre la composicin de los hielos la irradiacin inica, en particular sobre los que contenan alguna molcula con tomos de carbono. Dicha composicin se analiza con espectroscopa IR en el rango de 2 a 25? m. La aplicabilidad de los resultados de los experimentos es distinta dependiendo de la composicin qumica inicial de los hielos, del tipo de ion utilizado y de la dosis total de irradiacin. Existen efectos generales de la irradiacin sobre la materia en los experimentos de relevancia astrofsica como son: - la formacin de nuevas molculas, que pueden incluir o no el ion incidente; - la progresiva prdida de hidrgeno (carbonizacin) cuando irradiamos muestras que originalmente contienen una determinada relacin carbono/hidrgeno; - la variacin de la temperatura de sublimacin que presentan algunos hielos. Esto puede suceder tanto en hielos que estaban presentes antes de la irradiacin como en hielos formados por sta. Se presentar el papel del ion en la formacin de nuevas molculas a partir de las que originalmente se encontraban en el hielo. Al penetrar en l, el ion provoca distintos procesos como rotura de enlaces y excitaciones electrnicas. En la mayor parte de los casos las especies producidas por la rotura del enlace, se recombinan volviendo a formar la molcula original. Sin embargo un pequeo porcentaje es capaz de formar nuevas molculas. Si el ion queda implantado en el hielo y es reactivo (H+, C+,ldots) podra formar parte de una molcula nueva que incorpora un tomo que inicialmente no se encontraba presente en el hielo. Tambin se presentar un contraejemplo para demostrar que no es posible asegurar que siempre que implantemos un ion reactivo, ste formar parte de nuevas molculas en la mezcla. Tambin se presentar la formacin de nuevas molculas a partir de la irradiacin de hielos de metano, que llevan a la formacin de otros compuestos como acetileno, eteno, etano,... en los cuales la relacin C/H ha variado. Adems de estos compuestos se forma tambin un residuo carbonoso (refractario) que es estable a temperatura ambiente y cuya composicin qumica no es bien conocida. Por ltimo, el aumento de la temperatura de sublimacin es tambin una consecuencia de la irradiacin, aunque la magnitud del aumento depende de la mezcla original y de la irradiacin sufrida. Existen molculas que llegan a variar su temperatura de sublimacin en decenas de grados. Para el caso de molculas carbonadas se forman especies por irradiacin que son estables a temperatura ambiente. Con todo ello se muestra que los experimentos de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos a comprender la formacin, destruccin y variacin de las propiedades fsicas de los hielos de inters astrofsico con la irradiacin.

  2. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  3. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  4. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  5. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolndia County, Paran State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  6. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide

  7. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved

  8. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies

  9. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  10. A Possible Origin of the H-H Objects in Young Stellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La presencIa de flujos coljmados asocjados con objetos estelares j6venes es un fen6meno comun en reglones de formacI6n estelar. Estos chorros frecuentemente muestran una cadena de reglones de lineas de emjsI6n, a varIas de las cuales se les conoce desde bace mucho tlempo objetos HerbIg-Haro (HAl). En el presente trabajo examjnamos la poslbIlI dad de que estos nudos sean condensaciones producIdas por inestabilidad termica en un plasma que se se expande sujeto a `bremsstrahlung' reco - binaci6n y perdida por radjacj5n en lineas de emjsj6n. Nostramos que el valor minimo de = P0/PN0 bajo condjcjones Isobaricas para el crecimien to de la inestabilidad termica es = (6/5) [9/(STc\\)e) - 3/2]; en donde P0 es la presi6n de particulas, PM0 la presi6n magnetica, `)e la tasa de expansI5n y Tc el tiempo de enfriatniento radiativo en el flujo (3eI plasma ambiente. Haciendo calculos no lineales, encontratnos que l9s flujos colitnados de temperatura K, tasas de perdida de masa `4 = 10-6 - lO 8 Ne y velocidades de flujo VJ = 100-400 km/s, resultan favorables para la formacl6n de condensaciones por inestabilidad termica con contrastes de densidad Pp/ .3 -2.0 creados en intervalos de tiempo mas cortos que el tiempo estirnado de expansl6n en los chorros, en donde Pp(Po) es la densidad en la regi5n (ambiente) perturbada. ABSTRACT. The presence of collimated outflows associated with young stellar objects is a common phenomenon in star-fortning regions. These jets frequently show a chain of emission-line regions several of which have long been known as Herbig-Haro (H-H) objects. In this paper we examine the possibility that these knots are condensations produced by thermal instability in an expanding plasma , recombination and emission-line radiation losses. We show that the minimum value of = P /PNo under isobaric conditions for the growth of a thermal instability 0is = (6/5)1 [9/(STcN)e) - 3/2]; where P0 is the particle pressure, NQ tWe magnetic pressure, N) the expansion rate and Tc the radiative cooling time of the ambient plasma flow.Performing nonlinear calculations, we found that collimated flows of temperature T0 %% iOS K, mass-loss rates N = iO-6 - 10-8 Ne yr-1, and flow velocities VJ = 100-400 km/s, are favorable to the formation of condensations by thermal instability with density contrasts Pp/P0 1.3 - 2.0 created in time irr%ervals shorter than the estimated expansion time scales of the jets, where Pp(Po) is the density at the perturbed (ambient) region. Key : HERBIG-HARO OBJECTS - STARS-MASS LOSS

  11. 77 FR 4366 - North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation Notice of Determination Regarding Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... issuance of a Presidential decree on October 10, 2009 dissolving the state-owned electrical power company, Central Light and Power (Luz y Fuerza del Centro), thereby in effect terminating the employment of over 44... 21, 2006 (71 FR 76691 (2006)). The same Federal Register notice informed the public of the...

  12. Dinmica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estndar de la formacin planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamao kilomtrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinmica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todava se desconoce cmo se produjo la formacin de los mismos. Por esta razn, en los estudios ms recientes, existe un renovado inters por comprender mejor la evolucin de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetra axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vrtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitacin e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vrtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendra importantes consecuencias sobre la formacin de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigacin desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relacin entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por friccin dinmica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinmica de las partculas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vrtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formacin de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploracin de los efectos de ondas espirales propagndose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinmica y el crecimiento de las partculas. La presencia de lneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partculas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizndose la dinmica y el crecimiento de las partculas mediante simulaciones numricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partculas slidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vrtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material slido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregacin colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho ms eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formacin de planetesimales y ncleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formacin rpida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Adems, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partculas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compaeras ligadas en una rbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este anlisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numricas de configuraciones jerrquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolucin temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrgrada) de la revolucin relativa de la compaera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

  13. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  14. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  15. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  16. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  17. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  18. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  19. Evaluation de la qualit de modles numriques de terrain drivs par interfromtrieEvaluacin de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevacin derivados por interferometra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  20. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  1. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martnez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  2. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  3. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of

  4. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  5. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  6. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  7. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Rodríguez Blanquet, Raquel; Sánchez García, Juan Carlos; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel; Baena García, Laura; López Contreras, Gracia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el entrenamiento mediante ejercicio físico moderado durante el periodo de gestación aporta beneficios tanto a la mujer embarazada como al feto. Los trabajos de investigación consultados vinculan la actividad física con una reducción del número de cesáreas, de partos instrumentados y con un parto más fisiológico. Previene igualmente la ganancia excesiva de peso de la mujer, disminuye el riesgo de diabetes gestacional y de hipertensión arterial.Objetivo: el objetivo de esta investigación es conocer si un programa de ejercicio físico de carácter moderado con el método Study Water Exercise Pregnant (SWEP), realizado en un medio acuático, contribuye a obtener unos resultados más favorables en la etapa perinatal, tanto para la mujer como para el bebé.Material y métodos: el diseño que se llevará a cabo es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. La muestra estará constituida por 364 gestantes, obtenida de un universo total de 6.579 partos acontecidos en Granada (España) durante el año 2014. Dicha muestra se ha dividido en dos grupos, uno de intervención y otro de control. La actividad se realizará en las instalaciones deportivas acuáticas de la Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte de la Universidad de Granada, que cuentan con dos vasos adecuados a nuestros objetivos, uno polivalente de 25 metros y otro de enseñanza de 12,5 metros.  Resultados: el programa de ejercicios diseñado específicamente para el proyecto denominado SWEP, abarca desde la 20 hasta la 37 semana de gestación (SG) y consta de tres sesiones semanales, con una duración de 60 minutos cada una. Las sesiones incluirán tres fases: fase de calentamiento, fase principal en la que el ejercicio se divide en una parte aeróbica y otra de ejercicios de fuerza y resistencia y una final con estiramientos y relajación. Las variables que se van a estudiar son las siguientes: a) maternas: peso, IMC, tensión arterial, test de O´Sullivan, aparición de depresión postparto, nivel de autopercepción de salud, calidad del sueño y esfuerzo percibido durante la actividad física; b) fetales: peso, test de Apgar, perímetro cefálico y SG (semana de gestación al nacimiento); c) periparto: tiempos de dilatación, expulsivo y alumbramiento, tipo de parto, presencia de episiotomía, tipo de alimentación que recibe el RN y tiempo de lactancia materna exclusiva; y d) descriptivas: edad, profesión, nivel de estudios, tipo de ejercicio físico realizado previamente y FO (fórmula obstétrica).Conclusión: con la actividad física acuática moderada, por parte de la embarazada (método SWEP), se pretenden mejorar las variables arriba indicadas. PMID:27019255

  9. Extraterrestrial hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Dohm, James M.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Ferris, Justin C.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2005-03-01

    Subsurface water processes are common for planetary bodies in the solar system and are highly probable for exoplanets (planets outside the solar system). For many solar system objects, the subsurface water exists as ice. For Earth and Mars, subsurface saturated zones have occurred throughout their planetary histories. Earth is mostly clement with the recharge of most groundwater reservoirs from ample precipitation during transient ice- and hot-house conditions, as recorded through the geologic and fossilized records. On the other hand, Mars is mostly in an ice-house stage, which is interrupted by endogenic-driven activity. This activity catastrophically drives short-lived hydrological cycling and associated climatic perturbations. Regional aquifers in the Martian highlands that developed during past, more Earth-like conditions delivered water to the northern plains. Water was also cycled to the South Polar Region during changes in climate induced by endogenic activity and/or by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. Venus very likely had a warm hydrosphere for hundreds of millions of years, before the development of its current extremely hot atmosphere and surface. Subsequently, Venus lost its hydrosphere as solar luminosity increased and a run-away moist greenhouse took effect. Subsurface oceans of water or ammonia-water composition, induced by tidal forces and radiogenic heating, probably occur on the larger satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Triton. Tidal forces operating between some of the small bodies of the outer solar system could also promote the fusion of ice and the stability of inner liquid-water oceans. Les processus de subsurface impliquant l'eau sont communs pour les corps planétaires du système solaire et sont très probables sur les exoplanètes (planètes en dehors du système solaire). Pour plusieurs objets du systèmes solaire, l'eau de subsurface est présente sous forme de glace. Pour la Terre et Mars, les zones saturées de subsurface apparaissent à travers toute leur histoire planétaire. La Terre est particulièrement clémente avec la recharge des réservoirs, avec de amples précipitations, des conditions glaciaires et de fortes chaleurs, comme l'atteste les enregistrements géologiques et paléontologiques. D'un autre côté, Mars se trouve dans une phase essentiellement glaciaire, qui est interrompue par des activités contraintes par les phénomènes endogéniques. Cette activité conduit de manière catastrophique à des cycles hydrologiques et à des perturbations climatiques brutaux. Les aquifères régionaux dans les haute terres martiennes qui se sont formés dans des conditions similaires aux conditions terrestres, alimentent les plaines du Nord. L'eau a également été déplacée vers le Pôle Sud martien durant des changements marqués par une forte activité endogénique et une modification des paramètres de l'orbite de Mars. Venus possèdait vrais emblablement une hydrosphère chaude durant des millions d'année, avant le développement de son atmosphère et sa surface particulièrement chaude. Par après Venus a perdit son hydrosphère alors que la luminosité solaire augmentait et qu'une humidité liée à un effet de serre s'installait. Les océans de subsurface d'eau ou d'eau ammoniacale, induits par les forces de marée et le chauffage radiogénique, apparaissent probablement sur les satellites les plus importants (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, Triton). Les forces de marée entre les petits corps externes du système solaire peuvent également occasionner la fusion de glace et la stabilité des océans internes d'eau liquide. Los procesos hídricos subsuperficiales son comunes en cuerpos planetarios del sistema solar y son altamente probables para exoplanetas (planetas fuera del sistema solar). Para muchos cuerpos del sistema solar, el agua subsuperficial existe como hielo. Para la Tierra y Marte han ocurrido zonas saturadas subsuperficiales a través de sus historias planetarias. La Tierra es principalmente generosa con la recarga de la mayoría de reservorios de aguas subterráneas a partir de amplia precipitación reconocida en condiciones transitorias calientes y heladas, tal y como aparece en los registros fósiles y geológicos. Por otro lado, Marte se encuentra principalmente en una etapade cámara de hielo la cual es interrumpida por actividad de tipo endogénico. Esta actividad pone en funcionamiento catastróficamente ciclos hidrológicos de vida corta y perturbaciones climáticas asociadas. Acuíferos regionales en las montañas de Marte que se desarrollaron en el pasado en condiciones similares a la Tierra distribuyen agua a las planicies del norte. El agua ha sido transportada hacia el sur de la región polar durante cambios en el clima inducidos por actividad endogénica y/o cambios en los parámetros orbitales de Marte. Venus muy probablemente tuvo una hidrósfera caliente durante cientos de millones de años, antes de que se desarrollara su atmósfera y superficie actual extremadamente caliente. Subsecuentemente, Venus perdió su hidrósfera a medida que la luminosidad solar aumentó y un efecto de invernadero húmedo escapatorio se llevó a cabo. Océanos subsuperficiales de composición agua o amoniaco-agua, inducidos por fuerzas de marea y calentamiento radiogénico, probablemente ocurren en los satélites más grandes como Europa, Ganimeda, Callisto, Titan y Triton. Las fuerzas de marea que operan entre los cuerpos pequeños del sistema solar externo podrían también promover la fusión de hielo y la estabilidad de líquido interno-aguas de los océanos.

  10. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de μ s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

  11. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation résultante fait apparaître des rognons, des pentes qui s'évasent, des roches en équilibre, des inselbergs et des plaines de corrosion d'extension régionale. La migration des sels dissous des eaux souterraines crée des croûtes de compositions variées, qui constituent des paysages particuliers. (3) Les processus d'érosion des sols et des roches par les eaux souterraines comprennent les phénomènes suivants: la chenalisation, l'érosion par suintement, le sapement, qui tous sont des agents notables du recul des versants et d'érosion régressive vers l'amont. Les seuils et les limites sont importants dans de nombreuses actions chimiques et mécaniques des eaux souterraines. Une approche morphométrique quantitative des formes et des processus liés aux eaux souterraines est donnée en exemple à partir d'études choisies dans les terrains carbonatés et détritiques d'origine aussi bien ancienne que récente. Resumen Las aguas subterráneas tienen una importancia fundamental en la evolución de los paisajes geomorfológicos. En este artículo se consideran tres grandes categorías de procesos ligados al agua subterránea y sus correspondientes paisajes resultantes: (1) La disolución crea distintas geometrías kársticas, fundamentalmente en rocas carbonatadas, como respuesta a las condiciones de recarga, condicionantes geológicos, litologías y al propio flujo de agua subterránea. La velocidad de denudación y formación de cavernas se puede estimar a partir de los parámetros cinéticos e hidráulicos. (2) La erosión producida por las aguas subterráneas genera regolitas de alteración residual en los frentes de erosión, con los subsiguientes afloramientos de rocas inalteradas, inselbergs, rocas oscilantes o llanuras de corrosión de carácter regional. La recolocación de las sales disueltas crea costras superficiales de diferente composición. (3) La erosión de rocas y suelos por procesos ligados al agua subterránea, como filtración y arrastre de finos da lugar a un movimiento de retroceso de taludes y barrancos. La existencia de umbrales y límites de actuación es muy importante en muchas acciones químicas y mecánicas. Una metodología para el estudio de relieves y procesos, basada en aspectos cuantitativos y morfométricos se ejemplifica mediante estudios realizados en rocas carbonatadas y en terrenos clásticos de diferentes edades.

  12. On the Determination of Perturbations in Planetary Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. The main goal of this paper is to give an alternative way when the physical reaiity is too difficult to interpret, in such form that small effects can be ignored in the force model of dynamical systems. RESUMEN. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una via alterna para cuando la realidad fisica es demasiado dificil de interpretar, en tal forma que los efectos pequefios puedan despreciarse en los modelos de fuerza de sistemas dinamicos. Key words: PLANETS AND SATELLITES-DYNAMICS

  13. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  14. Modle numrique de terrain comme outil pour contrler et mesurer l'rosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevacin como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosin por crcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  15. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the

  16. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  17. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  18. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  19. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusin de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based

  20. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to

  1. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with

  2. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  3. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  4. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which

  5. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially

  6. VISIN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  7. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to

  8. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  9. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified

  10. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  11. Acculturation of Greek Americans: Change and continuity in cognitive schemas guiding intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Koutrelakos, James

    2004-04-01

    The study compares Greek Americans to Greeks and to third-generation white Americans in their endorsement of two cognitive schemas guiding intimate relationships. Greek Americans were more rejecting of low self-disclosure in intimate relationships than were Greeks but did not differ from them on how strongly they advocated sacrificing the self for one's partner. By contrast, Greek Americans did not differ from Americans in their rejection of low self-disclosure and more strongly endorsed self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than did Americans. These findings were interpreted as indicating that Greek Americans have acculturated to a more individualistic orientation in terms of self-disclosure while maintaining a collectivistic orientation regarding self-sacrifice in intimate relationships. Respondents' age, cultural group, and whether they were college students or professionals interacted with how strongly individuals rejected low self-disclosure and showed that age and status differences were more pronounced between rather than within the three cultural groups. It revealed that the initial finding, showing that Greeks and Americans differed, was based on the scores of students; professionals, with one exception, did not differ in their disagreement with low self-disclosure, regardless of their age and cultural group. The exception was the older Greek American professional subgroup, whose stronger disagreement with low self-disclosure may be an overreaction to the acculturation process. Age and status differences were not significant in the American group, while there was a pattern in Greece for professionals to reject low self-disclosure more strongly than did students. Women were more rejecting of both low self-disclosure and self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than were men. Older women most strongly disagreed with the self-sacrifice principle and older men adhered to it more strongly with increasing age. Cette étude compare des Américains grecs à des Grecs et à des Américains blancs de troisième génération relativement à leur adhésion à deux schémas cognitifs guidant les relations intimes. Les résultats indiquent que les Américains grecs se montrent plus rejetants d'une faible ouverture de soi dans les relations intimes comparativement aux Grecs, mais ils ne se différencient pas de ceux-ci quant à la force avec laquelle ils se disent prêts à se sacrifier pour leur partenaire. En contrepartie, Américain grecs ne se différencient pas des Américains sur le plan du rejet de la faible ouverture de soi, tout en se montrant davantage en accord avec le sacrifice de soi dans les relations intimes que ne le font les Américains. Ces résultats sont interprétés comme des indicateurs que les Américains grecs auraient adopté la culture américaine d'orientation plus individualiste en ce qui a trait à l'ouverture de soi, tandis qu'ils semblent avoir maintenu une orientation collectiviste en regard du sacrifice de soi dans les relations intimes. L'âge des répondants, leur groupe culturel et leur statut de collégien ou de professionnel montrent une interaction avec le degré de rejet de la faible ouverture de soi. Aussi, il appert que les différences d'âge et de statut sont plus prononcées entre les trois groupes culturels qu'à l'intérieur-même de ces groupes. Les résultats indiquent que les données initiales, montrant que les Grecs et les Américains sont différents, sont basées sur les scores des étudiants; de façon générale, en regard des professionnels uniquement, aucune différence n'est soulevée pour le degré d'accord face à la faible ouverture de soi, peu importe leur âge ou groupe culturel. Une exception apparaît toutefois pour le sous-groupe d'Américains grecs professionnels et plus âgés pour lequel le fort désaccord avec la faible ouverture de soi peut refléter une sur-réaction face au processus d'acculturation. Les différences d'âge et de statut n'apparaissent pas significatives pour le groupe d'Américains, tandis qu'il semble y avoir un patron chez les professionels grecs à rejeter plus fortement la faible ouverture de soi comparativement aux étudiants grecs. Enfin, les femmes se montrent plus rejetantes à la fois en ce qui concerne la faible ouverture de soi et le sacrifice de soi dans les relations intimes comparativement aux hommes. Les femmes plus âgées sont plus fortement en désaccord avec le principe de sacrifice de soi, tandis que les hommes plus âgés y adhèrent davantage à mesure qu'ils vieillissent. El estudio compara griegos estadounidenses con griegos y estadounidenses blancos de por lo menos tres generaciones respecto a qué tanto se sentían representados por dos esquemas cognitivos de las relaciones íntimas. Los griegos estadounidenses muestran mayor rechazo a revelar poco sobre sí mismos en las relaciones íntimas que los griegos, pero no difieren de éstos en cuanto a qué tanto se sacrificarían por la pareja. En contraste, los griegos estadounidenses no difirieron de los estadounidenses en su rechazo a revelar poco sobre sí mismos a la pareja y apoyaron más el auto sacrificio en las relaciones íntimas que los estadounidenses. Estos hallazgos se interpretaron como indicativos de que los griegos estadounidenses se han aculturado a una orientación más individualista en términos de qué tanto revelan sobre sí mismos, a la vez que han mantenido una orientación colectivista respecto al auto sacrificio en las relaciones íntimas. La edad, el grupo cultural, y la condición de estudiante o profesional interactuaron con el rechazo a revelar poco sobre sí mismo y mostró que la edad y la diferencia en la condición de estudiante o profesional eran más pronunciadas entre los tres grupos culturales que al interior de cada uno de éstos. Reveló que el hallazgo inicial sobre la diferencia entre griegos y estadounidenses se basaba en las calificaciones de los estudiantes; los profesionales, con una excepción, no diferían en cuanto a su desacuerdo con revelar poco sobre sí mismos, independientemente de su edad y grupo cultural. La excepción fue el subgrupo de profesionales griegos estadounidenses de mayor edad, cuyo mayor descuerdo con revelar poco sobre sí mismo podría ser una reacción exagerada al proceso de aculturación. Las diferencias en la edad y en la condición de estudiante o profesional no fueron significativas en el grupo de estadounidenses, en tanto que los profesionales griegos muestran una tendencia a rechazar con mayor fuerza el revelar poco sobre sí mismos, en comparación con los estudiantes. Las mujeres rechazan más que los hombres tanto revelar poco sobre sí mismas como el auto sacrificio en las relaciones íntimas. Las mujeres de mayor edad discrepan con mayor fuerza con el principio de auto sacrificio, y a mayor edad en los hombres mayor adhesión a éste. PMID:22587545

  12. Estudio de la envoltura fra en presencia de un campo magntico en estrellas tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Platzeck, A. M.

    En el estudio de la distribucin espacial de la densidad en torno a estrellas tempranas, al menos en dos coordenadas, se consideran en general ``escenarios" cualitativos. Existen slo dos modelos calculados a partir de la ecuacin de conservacin de momento: el de Poeckert y Marlborough (Astroph. Journal 220, 940, 1978) y el de Ringuelet e Iglesias (Astroph. Journal 369, 463, 1991). El primero es isotermo considerando campo gravitatorio y fuerza centrfuga. El segundo, resuelve un caso no isotermo en equilibrio hidrosttico teniendo en cuenta los campos gravitatorios, de radiacin y magntico. En esta comunicacin presentamos el anlisis, que se deriva de los resultados de Ringuelet e Iglesias para el caso hidrosttico, de la estructura de lneas de campo magntico. A continuacin estudiamos la forma en que se modifica la distribucin espacial de la densidad en la envoltura fra, cuando se tiene en cuenta el movimiento del plasma.

  13. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de cdigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gmez, Guadalupe Nancy; Garca, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the

  14. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national

  15. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  16. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  17. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  18. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  19. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  20. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  1. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  2. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the

  3. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  4. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  5. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  6. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  7. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  8. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  9. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the transversal (x–y) direction, and the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  10. Ultrafast charge separation and charge stabilization in axially linked 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' reaction center mimics.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Lim, Gary N; Vassiliev, Serguei; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-10-21

    The axial bonding ability of aluminum(III) porphyrin (AlPor) has been exploited to synthesize the vertically linked dyad 'aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)) and the two corresponding self-assembled triads 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)). The unique topology of these triads provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the sequential electron transfer in the perpendicular direction to the AlPor plane where the AlPor acts as a photosensitizer and primary electron donor while the AuPor and TTF serve as an electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The ground state properties of the dyad and triad suggest that there are no direct intramolecular interactions between the oppositely disposed AuPor and TTF units of the triad. However, the NMR and UV-visible absorption studies of the dyad reveal intermolecular interactions in non-coordinating solvents due to the coordination of counterion PF6(-) to the Al center of AlPor. Steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption studies of the dyad show that the lowest excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) is strongly quenched by ultrafast electron transfer to AuPor(+) with a time constant of 3.16 ps. The resulting charge separated state (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?) decays to ground state biexponentially with time constants of 27.26 and 2557 ps. Analogously, upon photo-excitation the triads also produce the same primary radical pair (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?). However, the formed radical pair is further involved in a rapid hole transfer from AlPor(+)? to TTF to form a stable final radical pair TTF(+)?-AlPor-AuPor?. The lifetime of the charge separated state exhibits an increase from 27.26 ps in AlPor-Ph-AuPor to 1393 ps in TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and 1484 ps in TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+). These results reveal successful charge stabilization in the self-assembled supramolecular reaction center mimics constructed via the axial linkage strategy. PMID:26388225

  11. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin

    PubMed Central

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Animals Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Methods Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Results Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Conclusions and clinical importance Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. Résumé Contexte Des lingettes contenant de la chlorhexidine et des dérivésazolés ont été recommandés en médicine vétérinaire. Aucune étude n'a été publiée sur leur activité contre Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothèses/Objectifs Evaluer l'activité in vivo et in vitro de lingettes imprégnées d'une solution de chlorhexidine, climbazole et Tris-EDTA contre Malassezia pachydermatis. Sujets Cinq colonies de shar-pei de recherche. Méthodes Les lingettes ont été appliquées une fois par jour au niveau du pli axillaire gauche, le pli inguinal droit et de la zone périanale(protocole A) et deux fois par joursur le pli axillaire droit, le inguinal droit et l'ombilic (protocole B) pendant 3 jours. L'activité in vivo a été évaluée par quantification des colonies de Malassezia par disques de contact sur les zones corporelles choisies avant et après application des lingettes. L'activité de la solution d'imprégnation des lingettes a été testée in vitro par tests de contact suivant les recommandations de l'European Standard UNI EN 1275. Résultats Les échantillons prélevés après application ont montré une diminution importante et rapide des CFU des levures Malassezia. Aucune différence significative dans la diminution des Malassezia n'a été mise en évidence entre les protocoles A et B. Des tests in vitro ont montré 100% d'activité contre les Malassezia après un temps de contact de 15 minutes avec la solution des lingettes. Conclusions et importance Clinique Les lingettes contenant la chlorhexidine, le climbazole et le Tris-EDTA réduisent substantiellement la population de M. pachydermatis sur la peau des chiens. Les résultats, bien qu'il s'agisse d'une étude non contrôlée réalisée sur un faible nombre de chiens, suggère que ces lingettes peuvent être utiles en traitement local de la dermatite à Malassezia des lèvres, des pattes, du périnée et des plis cutanés. Resumen Introducción las gasas que contienen clorhexidina y derivados de azol son recomendadas para uso veterinario. No se ha publicado ningún estudio acerca su actividad contra Malassezia paquidermatis. Hipótesis/Objetivos evaluar la actividad in vivo e in vitro de las gasas con clorhexidina, climbazol y soluciónb Tris-EDTA frente a Malassezia pachydermatis Animales cinco colonias de investigación de perros Sharpei. Métodos las gasas se aplicaron una vez al día en la axila izquierda, zona inguinal izquierda, y zona perianal (protocolo A), y dos veces al día en la axila derecha, zona inguinal derecha, y región umbilical (protocolo B) durante tres días. La actividad in vivo se evaluó mediante cuantificación de las colonias de Malassezia en placas de contacto de zonas seleccionadas del cuerpo antes y después de la aplicación de las gasas. La actividad de la solución en las que las gasas se empaparon se evaluó in vitro mediante pruebas de contacto siguiendo los estándares europeos UNI EN 1275. Resultados las muestras recogidas tras la aplicación de las gasas mostraron una reacción rápida y significativa de las colonias de Malassezia. No hubo significativas en la reducción de Malassezia en los dos protocolos. El ensayo in vitro demostró una actividad del 100% frente a Malassezia tras 15 minutos de contacto con la solución de las gasas. Conclusiones e importancia clínica las gasas que contienen clorhexidina, climbazol y Tris-EDTA reducen sustancialmente la población de Malassezia paquidermatis en la piel de perros. Aunque este era un estudio no controlado y desarrollado en un pequeño número de perros, los resultados sugieren que estas gasas pueden ser útiles para la terapia tópica de dermatitis producida por Malassezia en zonas de los labios, almohadillas plantares, y zonas perianales y pliegues de la piel. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Feuchttücher, die Chlorhexidinund Azolderivate beinhalten, werden für den veterinärmedizinischen Gebrauch empfohlen. Es gibt keine Studie über ihre Wirkung im Einsatz gegen Malasseziapachydermatis. Hypothese/Ziele Eine Evaluierung der in vivo und der in vitro Aktivität dieser Feuchttücher in einer Chlorhexidin, Climbazol und Tris-EDTA Lösung gegen Malasseziapachydermatis. Tiere Fünf Shar-Peis aus einer Versuchstierkolonie. Methoden Die Feuchttücher wurden einmal täglich in der linken Achsel, in der linken Inguinalgegend und perianal (Protokol A) angewendet, und zweimal täglich in der rechten Achsel, in der rechten Inguinalgegend und umbilikal (Protokol B); beide Protokolle wurden 3 Tage lang durchgeführt. Die in vivo Aktivität wurde durch die Quantifizierung von Malassezienkolonien durch Kontaktplatten an den ausgewählten Körperstellen vor und nach Verwendung der Feuchttücher beurteilt. Die Aktivität der Lösung, in der die Feuchttücher getaucht waren, wurde in vitro mittels Kontakttest, den European Standard UNI EN 1275 Richtlinienfolgend, beurteilt. Ergebnisse Die Proben, die nach Anwendung der Feuchttücher genommen wurden, zeigten eine signifikante und rasche Abnahme der Malassezienhefen CFU. Zwischen den Protokollen A und B wurden keine signifikanten Unterschiede bei der Reduktion der Malassezien gefunden. Der in vitro Test zeigte nach einer 15 minütigen Kontaktzeit mit der Feuchtlösung eine 100%ige Wirkung gegen Malassezien. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Bedeutung Feuchttücher, die Chlorhexidin, Climbazol und Tris-EDTA enthalten, reduzierten die M. pachydermatisPopulation auf der Haut der Hunde signifikant. Obwohl es sich um eine unkontrollierte Studie handelte, die an einer kleinen Zahl von Hunden durchgeführt wurde, weisen die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass diese Feuchttücher für eine topische Behandlung der Malasseziendermatitis der Lippen, der Pfoten, der Perianalgegend und der Hautfaltennützlich sein könnten. PMID:26083147

  12. Visible light promoted hydroxylation of a Si-C(sp3) bond catalyzed by rhodium porphyrins in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Fu, Xuefeng

    2011-10-12

    Catalytic activation of an unstrained, unactivated Si-C(sp(3)) bond in water to form methane and silanol by electrophilic rhodium(III) porphyrin [(por)Rh(III)] in acidic aqueous solutions under visible light (? ? 420 nm) has been developed. Activation of the Si-C(sp(3)) bond occurs through direct Si-C bond cleavage, with methyl group transfer to rhodium to give a porphyrin rhodium methyl complex. Photolysis of (por)Rh-CH(3) in water yields methyl radical and (por)Rh(II). Subsequently, (por)Rh(II) reacts with water rapidly to produce (por)Rh-H and (por)Rh-OH. (por)Rh-OH is then protonated to regenerate (por)Rh(III)-OH(2), and (por)Rh-H undergoes hydrogen atom abstraction by methyl radical to form the observed methane. PMID:21919487

  13. Identification of six novel P450 oxidoreductase missense variants in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Tomkov, Mria; Marohnic, Christopher C; Gurwitz, David; eda, Ond?ej; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martsek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme NADPHP450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the main electron donor to all microsomal CYPs. The possible contribution of common POR variants to inter- and intra-individual variability in drug metabolism is of great pharmacogenetic interest. Aim To search for POR polymorphic alleles and estimate their frequencies in a Jewish population. Materials & methods We analyzed the POR gene in 301 Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews. Results A total of 30 POR SNPs were identified, nine in the noncoding regions and 21 in the protein-coding regions (ten synonymous, 11 missense). Six of these missense variants are previously undescribed (S102P, V164M, V191M, D344N, E398A and D648N). Conclusion The data collected in this study on missense POR SNPs, interpreted in light of the crystallographic structure of human POR, indicate that some POR missense variants may be potential biomarkers for future POR pharmacogenetic screening. PMID:22462747

  14. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 10(9)-1.25 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+)-AlPor(-)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+)-AlPor-H2Por(-) radical pair. PMID:26270270

  15. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  16. Mexican-US cooperation on renewable energy programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddle, D. B.

    1991-04-01

    I traveled to Mexico on April 1 with Pete Smith and Chris Rovero of Oak Ridge Associated Universities on a mission sponsored by the Agency for International Development (AID) to initiate a technical support project with Mexican government and private institutions. We met with officials of AID; the Programa Nacional de Solidaridad; the Laboratorio de Energia Solar; Instituto Investigaciones de Electricidad; Comision Federal de Electricidad; Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro; and several private firms to discuss the terms of support. An AIDE Memoire was drafted outlining the scope of future assistance. I traveled to San Jose, Cost Rica on April 7, 1991. There I met with Carlos Rodriguez, manager of Cooperativa Electrica de San Carlos, and Federico Baltodano, the director of BEL Ingenieria to discuss the San Lorenzo hydroelectric project. Details of an engineering and financial analysis outlining the costs and benefits of adding daily pondage to the project were discussed, as was the project development schedule and other issues. I returned to Oak Ridge on April 9, 1991.

  17. [The determination of serological markers of the hepatitis B virus in high-risk areas of the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    PubMed

    Valladares, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Area del Per that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of anti-HBc and anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalence of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life. PMID:2491743

  18. Harmonic force field for nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Edson P; Seminario, Jorge M

    2012-06-01

    Molecular simulations leading to sensors for the detection of explosive compounds require force field parameters that can reproduce the mechanical and vibrational properties of energetic materials. We developed precise harmonic force fields for alanine polypeptides and glycine oligopeptides using the FUERZA procedure that uses the Hessian tensor (obtained from ab initio calculations) to calculate precise parameters. In this work, we used the same procedure to calculate generalized force field parameters of several nitro compounds. We found a linear relationship between force constant and bond distance. The average angle in the nitro compounds was 116, excluding the 90 angle of the carbon atoms in the octanitrocubane. The calculated parameters permitted the accurate molecular modeling of nitro compounds containing many functional groups. Results were acceptable when compared with others obtained using methods that are specific for one type of molecule, and much better than others obtained using methods that are too general (these ignore the chemical effects of surrounding atoms on the bonding and therefore the bond strength, which affects the mechanical and vibrational properties of the whole molecule). PMID:22119786

  19. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    PubMed

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Area del Per that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life. PMID:2491697

  20. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  1. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  2. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  3. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  4. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  5. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  6. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-Ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-Ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments. PMID:26593985

  7. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  8. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. ?? 2011 Aeby et al.

  9. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

  10. An Estimate of the Tidal Effects in the Dynamics of the Binary Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha estimado los efectos de marea en los pares dinamicos de galaxias elipticas. Para poder estudiar tales efectos hernos expandido el potencial gravitacional en potencias del cociente plr hasta en el orden 3 correspondientes a las fuerzas de marea. Hemos examina- do la influencia de este termino en el movimiento orbital. Se encon- tr6 el valor de M/LB = 10+7 (en unidades solares) para un ejemplo de 46 pares E-E usando Ia aproximaci6n de marea. De este resultado, no podemos concluir que existen alrededor de las galaxias halos grandes y obscuros. Hemos encontrado tambien que la suposici6n de masas puntuales es una buena aproximaci6n para el sistema fisico. Sin embargo, tal aproximaci6n sobreestima ligeramente el cociente masa-lurninosidad. ABSTRACT. In the present work we have estimated the tidal effects in the dynamics of pairs of elliptical galaxies. In order to study such effects we have expanded the gravitational potential in power of the ratio p/r up to order 3 corresponding to tidal forces. We examined the influence of this term in the orbital motion. The value of M/LB =lOi7 (in solar units) was found for a sample of 46 E-E pairs using the tidal approximation. From this result, we cannot conclude that large dark haloes exist around galaxies. We have also found that the assump- tion of point masses is a good approximation for the physical system. However, such an approximation overestimates slightly the mass-luminosity ratio. Keq wo't : GALAXIES-DYNAMICS

  11. Digital image capture, processing, and recording system upgrade for the APS-94F SLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Guillermo L.

    2000-11-01

    The Argentine Army has been operating the APS-94F SLAR systems, on board the venerable OV-1D MOHAWK aircraft, since 1996. These systems were received from the U.S. Government through the FMS program. One major handicap of the system is due to the now obsolete imagery recording subsystem, which includes complex optical, thermal and electro-mechanical obsolete processes and components, that account for most of the degradations and distortions in the images obtained (not to mention the fact that images are recorded on a 9.5-inch silver halide film media, which has to be kept at -17 degree(s)C and has to be brought to thermal equilibrium with the environment eight hours before the mission). An integral digital capture, processing and recording subsystem was developed at CITEFA (Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de las Fuerzas Armadas) to replace the old analog RO-495/U recorder, as an upgrade to this very robust and proven imaging radar system The subsystem developed includes three custom designed ISA boards: (1) Radar video and aircraft attitude signal conditioning board, (2) Microprocessor controlled two- channel high speed digitizing board and (3) Integrated 12- channel GPS OEM board. The operator's software interface is a PC based GUI C++ application, including radar imagery forming and processing algorithms, slant range to ground range conversion, digitally controlled image gain, bias and contrast adjustments, image registration (GPS), image file disk recording and retrieval functions, real time mensuration and MTI/FTI (moving target indication/fixed target indication) image correlation. The system also provides for the added capability to send compressed still radar images in NRT (near real time) to a ground receiving station through a secure data link. Due to serious space limitations inside the OV-1D two-seat cockpit, a military grade ruggedized laptop computer and docking station hardware implementation was selected.

  12. Reconexin magntica en una regin activa en decaimiento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Dmoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Schmieder, B.; Bagal, L. G.; Rovira, M. G.

    Se han obtenido observaciones desde Tierra (H? y magnetogramas) coordinadas con el Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a bordo del satlite japons Yohkoh, de una regin activa bipolar en decaimiento. Estos datos constituyen la base para el estudio de un punto brillante en rayos X (PBX) y de la actividad relacionada con el mismo en distintas capas de la atmsfera solar. Las observaciones muestran que el PBX est relacionado con la aparicin de un bipolo menor (~ 1020 Mx) y que su abrillantamiento continuo, as como sus aumentos de brillo espordicos (``fulguraciones"), son el resultado de la reconexin entre el pequeo arco emergente (visto en H? como un sistema de filamentos arqueados, SFA) y arcos mayores asociados al campo facular preexistente. Se ha extrapolado el campo magntico observado en la aproximacin libre de fuerzas lineal y se ha seguido su evolucin a lo largo de la vida del PBX. Se ha calculado la posicin de las cuasiseparatrices (CSs) a partir del campo modelado. Las lneas de campo extrapoladas, cuyas bases fotosfricas se encuentran a ambos lados de las CSs, estn de acuerdo con las estructuras cromosfricas y coronales observadas. Se ha calculado el espesor de la CD ubicada a lo largo de la polaridad negativa emergente, encontrndose que su variacin est de acuerdo con la evolucin de la intensidad del PBX; la CS es muy delgada durante la vida del PBX (~ 100 m), mientras que su espesor aumenta considerablemente (>= 10^4 m) cuando el PBX desaparece de las imgenes del SXT. Estos resultados sealan que el abrillantamiento y las ``fulguraciones" de este PBX se deben al proceso de reconexin en 3D que tiene lugar en las CSs.

  13. Terrorism in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where necessary. PMID:15074487

  14. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  15. High-yield expression of a catalytically active membrane-bound protein: human P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Sandee, Duanpen; Miller, Walter L

    2011-07-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  16. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  17. Single molecule activity measurements of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reveal the existence of two discrete functional states.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Rantzau, Nicolai; Tutkus, Marijonas; Borch, Jonas; Hedegrd, Per; Stamou, Dimitrios; Mller, Birger Lindberg; Hatzakis, Nikos S

    2014-03-21

    Electron transfer between membrane spanning oxidoreductase enzymes controls vital metabolic processes. Here we studied for the first time with single molecule resolution the function of P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the canonical membrane spanning activator of all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Measurements and statistical analysis of individual catalytic turnover cycles shows POR to sample at least two major functional states. This phenotype may underlie regulatory interactions with different cytochromes P450 but to date has remained masked in bulk kinetics. To ensure that we measured the inherent behavior of POR, we reconstituted the full length POR in "native like" membrane patches, nanodiscs. Nanodisc reconstitution increased stability by ?2-fold as compared to detergent solubilized POR and showed significantly increased activity at biologically relevant ionic strength conditions, highlighting the importance of studying POR function in a membrane environment. This assay paves the way for studying the function of additional membrane spanning oxidoreductases with single molecule resolution. PMID:24359083

  18. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2012-10-23

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism. PMID:23092891

  19. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2004-09-01

    Combined partial deficiency of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase is well-described, but patients' genes for these enzymes lack mutations. Recent work has identified mutations in the gene for P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in such patients. POR-deficient individuals have a broad range of disorders, from infants with congenital malformations to women with the polycysic ovary syndrome. POR transfers electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes: its deficiency affects steroidogenesis, drug metabolism and other processes. PMID:15350602

  20. Binding of C4b-Binding Protein to Porin

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sanjay; Cullinane, Meabh; Blom, Anna M.; Gulati, Sunita; McQuillen, Daniel P.; Monks, Brian G.; O'Connell, Catherine; Boden, Ryan; Elkins, Christopher; Pangburn, Michael K.; Dahlbäck, Björn; Rice, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    We screened 29 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and found 16/21 strains that resisted killing by normal human serum and 0/8 serum sensitive strains that bound the complement regulator, C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Microbial surface–bound C4bp demonstrated cofactor activity. We constructed gonococcal strains with hybrid porin (Por) molecules derived from each of the major serogroups (Por1A and Por1B) of N. gonorrhoeae, and showed that the loop 1 of Por1A is required for C4bp binding. Por1B loops 5 and 7 of serum-resistant gonococci together formed a negatively charged C4bp-binding domain. C4bp–Por1B interactions were ionic in nature (inhibited by high salt or by heparin), whereas the C4bp–Por1A bond was hydrophobic. Only recombinant C4bp mutant molecules containing the NH2-terminal α-chain short consensus repeat (SCR1) bound to both Por1A and Por1B gonococci, suggesting that SCR1 contained Por binding sites. C4bp α-chain monomers did not bind gonococci, indicating that the polymeric form of C4bp was required for binding. Using fAb fragments against C4bp SCR1, C4bp binding to Por1A and Por1B strains was inhibited in a complement-dependent serum bactericidal assay. This resulted in complete killing of these otherwise fully serum resistant strains in only 10% normal serum, underscoring the importance of C4bp in mediating gonococcal serum resistance. PMID:11157049

  1. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. PMID:19077323

  2. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for the evolution of POR and more generally for other enzyme catalysts are discussed. PMID:26807652

  3. Inhibition of the Alternative Pathway of Nonhuman Infant Complement by Porin B2 Contributes to Virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Infant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Vu, David M.; Granoff, Dan M.; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  4. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  5. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... report self-employment tax under IRC chapter 2 of Subtitle A, and provide credit to the taxpayer's...

  6. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May 19... case was made long after the end of the POR.\\5\\ \\3\\ See Final Rule, 62 FR at 27319-20 (``The...

  7. Diagnstico y estadificacin

    Cancer.gov

    El cncer puede causar muchos sntomas diferentes. El doctor ordenar pruebas para determinar si los sntomas son causados por cncer o por algn otro problema. Si se diagnostica cncer, el doctor efectuar algunas pruebas para determinar el estadio. Al conocer el estadio, el doctor podr hacer un plan de tratamiento y hablar del pronstico.

  8. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podría reducir el riesgo de cáncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podrían reducir el riesgo de cáncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  9. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  10. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y niños. Los índices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008.

  11. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  12. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  13. Aerodinámica y béisbol - Duration: 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  14. Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer de pulmón patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  15. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  16. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  17. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  18. Making the invisible visible: improved electrospray ion formation of metalloporphyrins/-phthalocyanines by attachment of the formate anion (HCOO(-)).

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, Jakob Felix; Dammann, Claudia; Lang, Nina; Lungerich, Dominik; García-Iglesias, Miguel; Bottari, Giovanni; Torres, Tomás; Jux, Norbert; Drewello, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A protocol is developed for the coordination of the formate anion (HCOO(-)) to neutral metalloporphyrins (Pors) and -phthalocyanines (Pcs) containing divalent metals as a means to improve their ion formation in electrospray ionization (ESI). This method is particularly useful when the oxidation of the neutral metallomacrocycle fails. While focusing on Zn(ii)Pors and Zn(ii)Pcs, we show that formate is also readily attached to Mn(ii), Mg(ii) and Co(ii)Pcs. However, for the Co(ii)Pc secondary reactions can be observed. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), Zn(ii)Por/Pc·formate supramolecular complexes can undergo the loss of CO2 in combination with transfer of a hydride anion (H(-)) to the zinc metal center. Further dissociation leads to electron transfer and hydrogen atom loss, generating a route to the radical anion of the Zn(ii)Por/Pc without the need for electrochemical reduction, although the Zn(ii)Por/Pc may have a too low electron affinity to allow electron transfer directly from the formate anion. In addition to single Por molecules, multi Por arrays were successfully analyzed by this method. In this case, multiple addition of formate occurs, giving rise to multiply charged species. In these multi Por arrays, complexation of the formate anion occurs by two surrounding Por units (sandwich). Therefore, the maximum attainment of formate anions in these arrays corresponds to the number of such sandwich complexes rather than the number of porphyrin moieties. The same bonding motif leads to dimers of the composition [(Zn(ii)Por/Pc)2·HCOO](-). In these, the formate anion can act as a structural probe, allowing the distinction of isomeric ions with the formate bridging two macrocycles or being attached to a dimer of directly connected macrocycles. PMID:26753183

  19. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  20. Physical Properties of the SKYLAB North Polar Coronal Hole with an Extended Base and its MHD Self-Consistent Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, S.; Ocania, G.

    1991-04-01

    RESUMEN Con base en las observaciones del Skylab del Sol en rayos X que permitieron r la forma de la frontera del hoyo coronal del polo norte y en las observaciones de l 'z que permitieron derivar un perfil de densidad para el flujo de viento solar (IC ese hoyo, Murno yjackson (1977) concluyeron que se requiere una adici6n t l clc energfa al flujo hasta al menos 5 R8. En este trabajo, recalculamos los perfiles de y de temperatura para el mismo hoyo pero considerando una frontera Cs mas ancha en la base, de acuerdo con las observaciones del coron6metro-K del IIAO, los espectroheliogramas en EUV del OSO-7 y las fotografias de la corona solar cerca de los 4 E)()O A. Se tomaron tambien las incertidumbres en el perfil de densidad electr6nica inl & a las observaciones de luz blanca y se consideraron diversos valores posibles dCl fl 'jo (lC masa 1 UA. Encontramos que las diferencias introducidas no son suficientes par clcsc' la necesidad de una energetizaci6n extensa del viento solar, pero una dC las s posibles muestra una concordancia muy buena con el modelado MHD (l( l flujo con el unico t6rmino adicional de la fuerza de Lorentz en la ecuaci6n de # (). ABSTRACT Based on the near to the Sun boundary of the Skylab north polar coroi ' l estimated from the AS & E X-ray photographs and on the density profile fi-C)I white light data, Munro and Jackson (1977) concluded that substantial energy the solar wind flux is required up to at least 5 Rs. In this paper we recalculate `eloci y and temperature profiles for the same hole but considering a different bo ' ry for flux tube which is larger at its base, according to the HAO K- obser"' (i()I0 , the OSO-7 EUV spectroheliograms and pictures of the solar 4500 A. è take into account the uncertainties inherent in the white light observations () electron density profile and consider different possible values of the solar I .' fltix at 1 AU. We that the differences introduced are not sufficient to discard ii y of an extended energetization of the wind, one of the possibilities allowed for fltix the observational uncertailities shows a very good agreement wi4 an NI Ill) seli'consistent modelling with the only additional term of the Lorentz force in the iiii equation. Key words: SUN-CORONA

  1. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  2. Genetic and clinical features of p450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel R; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations. POR is the electron donor for all microsomal P450 enzymes, including the three steroidogenic enzymes P450c17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), P450c21 (21-hydroxylase), and P450aro (aromatase). Since the first description of POR mutations in 2004, about 50 patients have been reported. Serum steroid profiles indicate partial deficiencies in 21-hydroxylase, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase. The 17-OH progesterone levels are elevated, as in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while androgen levels are low; cortisol may be normal but is poorly responsive to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Most patients also have associated skeletal malfor- mations (craniosynostosis, radio-ulnar synostosis, midface hypoplasia, bowed femora) termed Antley-Bixler syndrome. Antley-Bixler syndrome with normal steroidogenesis is caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Males with POR deficiency are often undervirilized, while females can be virilized. The prognosis for patients with POR deficiency appears to depend on the severity of the bony malformations and their timely treatment. The potential impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by other hepatic P450 enzymes requires further investigation. Given the varied physical and biochemical phenotype of POR deficiency and the risk of adrenal insufficiency, clinicians should be alert to this potential diagnosis. PMID:18259105

  3. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase: roles in physiology, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Riddick, David S; Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C Roland; Porter, Todd D; Pandey, Amit V; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Henderson, Colin J; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b(5), squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b(5) are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b(5) on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell-culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  4. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at ?325/?1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at ?208 and ?173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at ?152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between ?249 and ?261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-? (TR?) at ?240/?245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TR?, TR?, and estrogen receptor-? were bound between ?374 and ?149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TR?, with TR?, estrogen receptor-?, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TR? and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at ?152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  5. Molculas orgnicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formacin de estrellas, con temperaturas cinticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 tomos cm-3. Su materia est formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partculas de polvo estn cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 ?m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos csmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vaco, P 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposicin de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiacin ultravioleta por medio de una lmpara de descarga de hidrgeno activada con microondas. La evolucin del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrmetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composicin del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de molculas an no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. Tambin es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por molculas orgnicas complejas, algunas prebiticas, como varios cidos carboxlicos, aminas, amidas, steres y en menor proporcin molculas heterocclicas y aminocidos. Algunas de estas molculas podran detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimtricas y de radio. Tambin podran estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo anlisis qumico est planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo est llevando a cabo el anlisis de partculas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiacin del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgnico que contiene oxgeno.

  6. Characterisation of porin genes from Mycobacterium fortuitum and their impact on growth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic mycobacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterised by their slow growth and their ability to reside and multiply in the very hostile phagosomal environment and a correlation between the growth rate of mycobacteria and their pathogenicity has been hypothesised. Here, porin genes from M. fortuitum were cloned and characterised to address their impact on the growth rate of fast-growing and pathogenic mycobacteria. Results Two genes encoding porins orthologous to MspA from M. smegmatis, porM1 and porM2, were cloned from M. fortuitum strains, which were originally isolated from human patients. Both porin genes were at least partially able to complement the mutations of a M. smegmatis mutant strain lacking the genes mspA and mspC with respect to the growth rate. PorM1 and porM2 were present in different strains of M. fortuitum including the type strain. Comparative expression analysis of porM genes revealed divergent porin expression among analysed M. fortuitum strains. Repression of the expression of porins by antisense technique decreased the growth rates of different M. fortuitum. The effects of over-expression of porM1 as well as porM2 varied depending on the strain and the concentration of antibiotic added to the medium and indicated that PorM1 and PorM2 enhance the growth of M. fortuitum strains, but also the diffusion of the antibiotic kanamycin into the cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates the important role of porin expression in growth as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the opportunistic bacterium M. fortuitum. PMID:19203364

  7. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17α-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  8. Prevención del cáncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  9. Dotar de precisin a exmenes de deteccin para cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Una conferencia reciente patrocinada por el NCI reuni a investigadores importantes de exmenes de deteccin y de control de cncer para tratar la situacin de la ciencia de exmenes de deteccin de precisin para cinco cnceres.

  10. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radimetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las caractersticas ms importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolucin (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contnuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna tcnica de sntesis digital directa. Por ltimo, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisicin de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la seleccin de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  11. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  12. 76 FR 73017 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Return; Form 1040-PR, Planilla Para La Declaracion De La Contribucion Federal Sobre El Trabajo Por Cuenta..., and provide credit to the taxpayer's social security account. Anejo H-PR is used to compute...

  13. Sobre | Smokefree Espaol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espaol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisin de Investigacin para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cncer.

  14. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot - Duration: 102 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  15. Polvo en la Regin de los Troyanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhutton, R.; Brunini, A.; Coldwell, G.

    La posible existencia de un anillo de polvo en la resonancia 1:1 con Jpiter formado por partculas provenientes de colisiones de asteroides fue propuesta por Liou and Zook (Icarus 113, 403, 1995) y estudiada extensamente por Vieira Martins and Gomes (VIII Reunin Regional Latinoamericana de Astronoma, Montevideo,1995). Si bien las partculas quedaran atrapadas slo por perodos de algunos miles de aos, el proceso colisional continuo en el cinturn de asteroides mantendra constante la densidad, presentndose una mayor concentracin en la regin de los troyanos. En el presente trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre observaciones polarimtricas realizadas desde CASLEO de la regin de L5 que confirmaran la existencia y variaciones de densidad en el anillo de polvo.

  16. Foodborne Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Illness English ?????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Chinese - Traditional (????) Foodborne Illness English ?????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Spanish (espaol) Enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos ...

  17. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Espaol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espaol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisin de Investigacin para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cncer.

  18. Estudio de Exmenes de Deteccin de Cncer de Prstata, Pulmn, Colorrectal y Ovarios (PLCO): preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El estudio de exmenes de deteccin PLCO es un estudio a gran escala, aleatorizado, para determinar si el uso de ciertos exmenes selectivos de deteccin disminuir el riesgo de morir por esos cuatro tipos de cncer.

  19. 76 FR 9753 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... (``POR''), November 6, 2008, through October 31, 2009. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film,...

  20. Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproduccin (PDQ)Versin para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informacin revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que podran afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con cncer. Se discuten adems tems sobre la fertilidad relacionados con el tratamiento del cncer.

  1. Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproduccin (PDQ)Versin para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informacin revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con cncer. Se discuten adems temas sobre la fecundidad relacionados con el tratamiento del cncer.

  2. Streptococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Translations Korean (???) Strep Throat ??? ??? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (espaol) Infecciones por estreptococo Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  3. Baseline Comorbidities in a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Parvez, Faruque; Dignam, James; Islam, Tariqul; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Haider, Ahmed Talat; Hossain, Zahid; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; La Porte, Paul; Harjes, Judith; Anton, Kristen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Jasmine, Farzana; Khan, Rashed; Kamal, Mohammed; Shea, Christopher R.; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic research suggests that increased cancer risk due to chronic arsenic exposure persists for several decades even after the exposure has terminated. Observational studies suggest antioxidants exert a protective effect on arsenical skin lesions and cancers among those chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. This study reports on the design, methods, and baseline analyses from the Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST), a population based chemoprevention study conducted among adults in Bangladesh with visible arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods BEST is a 22 full factorial double-blind randomized controlled trial of 7,000 adults having manifest arsenical skin lesions evaluating the efficacy of 6-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg daily) and L-selenomethionine (200 ?g daily) for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Results In cross-sectional analyses, we observed significant associations of skin lesion severity with male sex (female prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.87; 95% CI=0.790.96), older age (aged 3645 POR=1.27; 95% CI=1.131.42; aged 4655 POR=1.44; 95% CI=1.271.64; and aged 5665 POR=1.50; 95% CI=1.261.78 compared to aged 2535), hypertension (POR=1.29; 95% CI=1.081.55), diabetes (POR=2.13; 95% CI=1.323.46), asthma (POR=1.55; 95% CI=1.032.32), and peptic ulcer disease (POR=1.20; 95% CI=1.071.35). Conclusions We report novel associations between arsenical skin lesions with several common chronic diseases. With the rapidly increasing burden of preventable cancers in developing countries, efficient and feasible chemoprevention study designs and approaches, such as employed in BEST, may prove both timely and potentially beneficial in conceiving cancer chemoprevention trials in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23590571

  4. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. working population: an analysis of data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon; Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the population attributable fraction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. adult workers, we analyzed data obtained from the National Health Interview Surveys for the period 1997-2004. The overall COPD prevalence was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-4.1%). The prevalence was higher in females (5.4%, 95% CI 5.3-5.6%) than in males (2.8%, 95% CI 2.7-2.9%); in Whites (4.2%, 95% CI 4.1-4.3%) than in Blacks (3.4%, 95% CI 3.1-3.7%) and other races (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1-2.8%). Compared with insurance, real estate and other finance industry, the top three industries associated with significantly higher prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking) were other educational services (POR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3); transportation equipment (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8); and social services, religious and membership organizations (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Compared with managers and administrators, except public administration occupation, the top three occupations with significantly higher PORs were health service (1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), other protective service (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), and material moving equipment operators (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The overall population attributable fraction for association of COPD with employment was 12.2% for industry and 17.4% for occupation. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors associated with COPD in industries and occupations with elevated prevalence and POR. PMID:19863367

  5. Se calcula que los costos del cáncer ascenderán po

    Cancer.gov

    Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la población de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos médicos por cáncer en el año 2020 ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en dólares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si

  6. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M; Miller, Walter L

    2015-05-15

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN ? cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  7. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  8. Synthesis and solvent-dependent photochromic reactions of porphyrin-spiropyran hybrid compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Dae Young; Park, Tae Jong; Shin, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin(Por)-spiropyran(SP) hybrid compounds, including Por-SP dyad, Por-SP2 triad, and Por-SP4 pentad, were prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Upon 350 nm UV irradiation of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane, unusual red-shifted absorption spectra were observed with the colour change from pink into green. Probably due to the protonation of core nitrogens in porphyrin ring, their absorption maxima in dichloromethane were shifted from 418 (Soret band), 515, 550, 590, 645 (four Q bands) nm into 450 and 665 nm. Also, fluorescence maxima were also shifted from 650 and 715 nm to 692 nm. In the other hands, upon irradiation with 350 nm UV light in THF, the colour changed from pink into violet and absorption band at 590 nm increased and the fluorescence spectra showed the decrease of 650 and 715 nm bands and increase of 600-640 nm band, due to the normal ring-opening reaction of spiropyran moiety into merocyanine. In the dark, original absorption and fluorescence spectra were recovered very slowly in dichloromethane, but quickly in THF. The reversible photochromic reactions of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane and THF were investigated by observing absorption and fluorescence spectral changes during UV irradiation or standing in the dark.

  9. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  10. Photoactive Protochlorophyllide-Enzyme Complexes Reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC Proteins of A. thaliana: Fluorescence and Catalytic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gabruk, Micha?; Stecka, Anna; Strza?ka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strza?ka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His?-PORA, His?-PORB and His?-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  11. Layer-by-Layer Surface Molecular Imprinting on Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxuan; Cao, Bing; Jia, Peng; An, Junhu; Luo, Chao; Ma, Lijing; Chang, Jiao; Pan, Kai

    2015-06-25

    Surface molecular imprinting in layer-by-layer (SMI-LbL) film is known as a facile and effective strategy to build imprinting sites that are more accessible to template molecules compared with molecular imprinting in polymers. Herein, we accomplished the formation of SMI-LbL film on electrospun nanofibers for the first time. The SMI-LbL nanofibers were prepared by a template-induced LbL process on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrates, followed by postinfiltrating and photo-cross-linking of photosensitive agent 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS). The obtained nanofiber mat maintained the nanofibrous structure and showed rapid absorption and extraction of template molecules of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphine (Por). The binding capacity of Por reached 2.1 mg/g when 3.5 bilayers were deposited on the nanofibers. After six cycles of extraction and reabsorption, the binding capacity of Por remained at 83%. Moreover, the absorption results of the targeted templated molecule of Por and the control molecule of Fast Green, which had a very similar chemical structure and charge status to Por, indicated the specific absorption for template molecule of Por. Thus, a surface molecular imprinted nanofiber mat with high selectivity of the templated molecule has been demonstrated. PMID:26038802

  12. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 μL/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence cyclophosphamide bioactivation, affecting therapeutic efficacy and treatment related toxicity and hence on clinical outcome. Thus, both POR and CYP genotype and expression levels may have to be taken into account when personalizing treatment schedules to achieve optimal therapeutic drug plasma concentrations of cyclophosphamide. PMID:26544874

  13. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular environmental conditions. Predictive statistical modeling can help to increase our understanding of coral disease ecology worldwide. PMID:20174663

  14. Regulation of etioplast pigment-protein complexes, inner membrane architecture, and protochlorophyllide a chemical heterogeneity by light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B.

    PubMed

    Franck, F; Sperling, U; Frick, G; Pochert, B; van Cleve, B; Apel, K; Armstrong, G A

    2000-12-01

    The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of protochlorophyll(ide) a [Pchl(ide) a]. Either of two structurally related, but differentially expressed light-dependent NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductases (PORs), PORA and PORB, can assemble the PLB and form dark-stable ternary complexes containing enzymatically photoactive Pchlide-F655. Here we have examined in detail whether these polypeptides play redundant roles in etioplast differentiation by manipulating the total POR content and the PORA-to-PORB ratio of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings using antisense and overexpression approaches. POR content correlates closely with PLB formation, the amounts, spectroscopic properties, and photoreduction kinetics of photoactive Pchlide, the ratio of photoactive Pchlide-F655 to non-photoactive Pchl(ide)-F632, and the ratio of divinyl- to monovinyl-Pchl(ide). This last result defines POR as the first endogenous protein factor demonstrated to influence the chemical heterogeneity of Pchl(ide) in angiosperms. It is intriguing that excitation energy transfer between different spectroscopic forms of Pchl(ide) in etiolated cotyledons remains largely independent of POR content. We therefore propose that the PLB contains a minimal structural unit with defined pigment stoichiometries, within which a small amount of non-photoactive Pchl(ide) transfers excitation energy to a large excess of photoactive Pchlide-F655. In addition, our data suggests that POR may bind not only stoichiometric amounts of photoactive Pchlide, but also substoichiometric amounts of non-photoactive Pchl(ide). We conclude that the typical characteristics of etioplasts are closely related to total POR content, but not obviously to the specific presence of PORA or PORB. PMID:11115885

  15. FetA Antibodies Induced by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Derived from a Serogroup B Meningococcal Isolate with Constitutive FetA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Holly; Norheim, Gunnstein; Chan, Hannah; Dold, Christina; Vipond, Caroline; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease causes over 3500 cases each year in Europe, with particularly high incidence among young children. Among serogroup B meningococci, which cause most of the cases, high diversity in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is observed in endemic situations; however, comprehensive molecular epidemiological data are available for the diversity and distribution of the OMPs PorA and FetA and these can be used to rationally design a vaccine with high coverage of the case isolates. The aim of this study was to determine whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from an isolate with constitutive FetA expression (MenPF-1 vaccine) could be used to induce antibodies against both the PorA and FetA antigens. The immunogenicity of various dose levels and number of doses was evaluated in mice and rabbits, and IgG antibody responses tested against OMVs and recombinant PorA and FetA proteins. A panel of four isogenic mutants was generated and used to evaluate the relative ability of the vaccine to induce serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against FetA and PorA. Sera from mice were tested in SBA against the four target strains. Results demonstrated that the MenPF-1 OMVs were immunogenic against PorA and FetA in both animal models. Furthermore, the murine antibodies induced were bactericidal against isogenic mutant strains, suggesting that antibodies to both PorA and FetA were functional. The data presented indicate that the MenPF-1 vaccine is a suitable formulation for presenting PorA and FetA OMPs in order to induce bactericidal antibodies, and that proceeding to a Phase I clinical trial with this vaccine candidate is justified. PMID:26466091

  16. Postoperative Crohn’s disease recurrence: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Nos, Pilar; Domènech, Eugeni

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although several drugs have proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining disease in remission, resectional surgery remains as a cornerstone in the management of the disease, mainly for the treatment of its stenosing and penetrating complications. However, the occurrence of new mucosal (endoscopic) lesions in the neoterminal ileum early after surgery is almost constant, it is followed in the mid-term by clinical symptoms and, in a proportion of patients, repeated intestinal resections are required. Pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence (POR) is not fully understood, but luminal factors (commensal microbes, dietary antigens) seem to play an important role, and environmental and genetic factors may also have a relevant influence. Many studies tried to identify clinical predictors for POR with heterogeneous results, and only smoking has repeatedly been associated with a higher risk of POR. Ileocolonoscopy remains as the gold standard for the assessment of appearance and severity of POR, although the real usefulness of the available endoscopic score needs to be revisited and alternative techniques are emerging. Several drugs have been evaluated to prevent POR with limited success. Smoking cessation seems to be one of the more beneficial therapeutic measures. Aminosalicylates have only proved to be of marginal benefit, and they are only used in low-risk patients. Nitroimidazolic antibiotics, although efficient, are associated with a high rate of intolerance and might induce irreversible side effects when used for a long-term. Thiopurines are not widely used after ileocecal resection, maybe because some concerns in giving immunomodulators in asymptomatic patients still remain. In the era of biological agents and genetic testing, a well-established preventive strategy for POR is still lacking, and larger studies to identify good clinical, serological, and genetic predictors of early POR as well as more effective drugs (or drug combinations) are needed. PMID:18810773

  17. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular environmental conditions. Predictive statistical modeling can help to increase our understanding of coral disease ecology worldwide. PMID:20174663

  18. Conditional Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Osteoprogenitor Cells Affects Long Bone and Skull Development in Mice Recapitulating Antley-Bixler Syndrome: Role of a Redox Enzyme in Development

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Satya P.; Guntur, Anyonya R.; Polusani, Srikanth R.; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Gakunga, Peter T.; Roman, Linda J.; Masters, Bettie Sue

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Porlox/lox and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes. PMID:24086598

  19. Sun exposure and melanoma risk at different latitudes: a pooled analysis of 5700 cases and 7216 controls

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Barrett, Jennifer H; Bishop, D Timothy; Armstrong, Bruce K; Bataille, Veronique; Bergman, Wilma; Berwick, Marianne; Bracci, Paige M; Elwood, J Mark; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gallagher, Richard P; Green, Adle C; Gruis, Nelleke A; Holly, Elizabeth A; Ingvar, Christian; Kanetsky, Peter A; Karagas, Margaret R; Lee, Tim K; Le Marchand, Loc; Mackie, Rona M; Olsson, Hkan; sterlind, Anne; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Sasieni, Peter; Siskind, Victor; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Zens, Michael S; Newton-Bishop, Julia A

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanoma risk is related to sun exposure; we have investigated risk variation by tumour site and latitude. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 15 casecontrol studies (5700 melanoma cases and 7216 controls), correlating patterns of sun exposure, sunburn and solar keratoses (three studies) with melanoma risk. Pooled odds ratios (pORs) and 95% Bayesian confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Bayesian unconditional polytomous logistic random-coefficients models. Results Recreational sun exposure was a risk factor for melanoma on the trunk (pOR?=?1.7; 95% CI: 1.42.2) and limbs (pOR?=?1.4; 95% CI: 1.11.7), but not head and neck (pOR?=?1.1; 95% CI: 0.81.4), across latitudes. Occupational sun exposure was associated with risk of melanoma on the head and neck at low latitudes (pOR?=?1.7; 95% CI: 1.03.0). Total sun exposure was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the limbs at low latitudes (pOR?=?1.5; 95% CI: 1.02.2), but not at other body sites or other latitudes. The pORs for sunburn in childhood were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.31.7), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.31.7) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.11.7) for melanoma on the trunk, limbs, and head and neck, respectively, showing little variation across latitudes. The presence of head and neck solar keratoses was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the head and neck (pOR?=?4.0; 95% CI: 1.79.1) and limbs (pOR?=?4.0; 95% CI: 1.98.4). Conclusion Melanoma risk at different body sites is associated with different amounts and patterns of sun exposure. Recreational sun exposure and sunburn are strong predictors of melanoma at all latitudes, whereas measures of occupational and total sun exposure appear to predict melanoma predominately at low latitudes. PMID:19359257

  20. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species. PMID:26986566

  1. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  2. Combined evaluation of risk factors predicting poor ovarian responders in Chinese patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Shuyu; Ma, Yanmin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the parameters associated with poor ovarian response (POR) to develop an early warning score model (EWSM) for detecting POR in Chinese women undergoing in vitro fertilization, in order to improve the outcomes. Between 2005 and 2011, we recruited 736 patients with POR after IVF and 736 individuals with normal ovarian response after IVF as controls. Clinical parameters were determined to evaluate the ovarian reserve. We then compared the clinical parameters between the POR and control groups, and performed a multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors associated with ovarian response. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) was used to analyze the predicted values of individual and combined risk factors. The predicted values were further tested in another cohort of 957 patients. Age, basal follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and FSH/luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio were identified as independent factors associated with ovarian response. The EWSM was established using a combination of these parameters. The sensitivity and specificity of the EWSM were 74.6% and 93.6%, respectively. In conclusion, combination of individual risk factors could predict POR with high specificity. The EWSM may help in the evaluation of IVF treatment at an early stage. PMID:26489886

  3. Simultaneous measurements of solvent dynamics and functional kinetics in a light-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (T(g)), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above T(g) and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR. PMID:19254549

  4. Synthesis, photochemistry, and electrochemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes with pendent pyridyl groups and of their metal complexes with zinc porphyrin. Comparison with pyridyl-bearing fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Mercedes; Atienzar, Pedro; de la Cruz, Pilar; Delgado, Juan L; Troiani, Vincent; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Langa, Fernando; Palkar, Amit; Echegoyen, Luis

    2006-05-24

    A soluble, functionalized Py-SWNT has been synthesized and characterized by solution (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-Raman, and electron microscopy. Experimental data indicate that Py-SWNT has short tubes with pentyl esters at the tips and pyridyl isoxazolino units along the walls. The synthesis of Py-SWNT is based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a nitrile oxide on the SWNT walls, similar to 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions that are common for fullerene functionalization. The resulting Py-SWNT forms a complex with a zinc porphyrin (ZnPor) in a way similar to that reported for pyridyl-functionalized [60]-fullerenes. Formation of this metal-ligand complex was firmly established by a detailed electrochemical study. However, in contrast to the behavior observed for the ZnPor/Py-C(60) complex, photochemical excitation of the complex between ZnPor/Py-SWNT does not lead to electron transfer with the generation of charge-separated states. Fluorescence and laser flash studies indicate that the main process is energy transfer from the singlet ZnPor excited state to the Py-SWNT with observation of emission from Py-SWNT. Triplet ZnPor excited-state quenching by Py-SWNT is only observed in polar solvents such as DMF, but not in benzonitrile. PMID:16704263

  5. Cholesterol Metabolism: the Main Pathway Acting Downstream of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in Skeletal Development of the Limb?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Katy; Hughes, Catherine; Chudek, J. A.; Goodyear, Simon R.; Aspden, Richard M.; Talbot, Richard; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Blomhoff, Rune; Henderson, Colin; Wolf, C. Roland; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor for all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of a wide spectrum of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Point mutations in POR have been found recently in patients with Antley-Bixler-like syndrome, which includes limb skeletal defects. In order to study P450 function during limb and skeletal development, we deleted POR specifically in mouse limb bud mesenchyme. Forelimbs and hind limbs in conditional knockout (CKO) mice were short with thin skeletal elements and fused joints. POR deletion occurred earlier in forelimbs than in hind limbs, leading additionally to soft tissue syndactyly and loss of wrist elements and phalanges due to changes in growth, cell death, and skeletal segmentation. Transcriptional analysis of E12.5 mouse forelimb buds demonstrated the expression of P450s involved in retinoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Biochemical analysis of CKO limbs confirmed retinoic acid excess. In CKO limbs, expression of genes throughout the whole cholesterol biosynthetic pathway was upregulated, and cholesterol deficiency can explain most aspects of the phenotype. Thus, cellular POR-dependent cholesterol synthesis is essential during limb and skeletal development. Modulation of P450 activity could contribute to susceptibility of the embryo and developing organs to teratogenesis. PMID:19273610

  6. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and Antley-Bixler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2007-12-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome that primarily manifests with craniofacial abnormalities but may include skeletal malformations. Some cases have been shown to be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations and, recently, it was revealed that others are caused by mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR). P450 oxidoreductase deficiency, however, is not only associated with the malformations but frequently presents with disordered sex development in affected patients of both sexes. Furthermore, biochemical work-up invariably reveals impairment of 17-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase activities, two steroidogenic enzymes dependent on electron transfer from POR. While we begin to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease, detailed genotype-phenotype studies are still lacking and POR deficiency presents several challenges for research. Firstly, the exact pathogenesis of the skeletal malformations as a consequence of POR mutations is unclear, though impaired sterol biosynthesis has been implicated. Secondly, it needs to be explained, why the external genitalia in affected boys may appear undervirilized while affected girls can be severely virilized. Further evidence is required for the proposed alternative pathway in human androgen synthesis that might explain the apparently contradictory finding of low circulating androgens and severely virilised external genitalia in affected girls. Recent studies have provided evidence for a differential interaction of specific POR mutations with different electron-accepting P450 enzymes and this may provide the key for further understanding of the complex pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:17960482

  7. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  8. Excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Scrutton, Nigel S; Groot, Marie Louise; Heyes, Derren J

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, catalysed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), is the penultimate step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and is a key light-driven reaction that triggers a profound transformation in plant development. As POR is light-activated it can provide new information on the way in which light energy can be harnessed to power enzyme reactions. Consequently, POR presents a unique opportunity to study catalysis at low temperatures and on ultrafast timescales, which are not usually accessible for the majority of enzymes. Recent advances in our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of POR illustrate why it is an important model for studying enzyme catalysis and reaction dynamics. The reaction involves the addition of one hydride and one proton, and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the Pchlide substrate. As the reaction involves the Pchlide excited state, a variety of ultrafast spectroscopic measurements have shown that significant parts of the reaction occur on the picosecond timescale. A number of excited state Pchlide species, including an intramolecular charge transfer complex and a hydrogen bonded intermediate, are proposed to be required for the subsequent hydride and proton transfers, which occur on the microsecond timescale. Herein, we review spectroscopic investigations, with a particular focus on time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence experiments that have been used to study the excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of POR. PMID:22419074

  9. Relationships among plant available phosphorus, fertilizer sales, and water quality in northwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Frank G; Bigham, Jerry M; Slater, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applications of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble P (Bray-1 P) levels in the soil over time as influenced by fertilizer P management, cultivation practice, soil properties, and landscape factors. Because soil is the intermediary between added P and SRP measured in river water, we examined the relationship between fertilizer P, soluble soil P, and SRP. Using historical soil survey sample sites as a baseline for original soluble P concentrations (Por), we resampled Ap horizons to establish current levels of soluble P (Pcu). The Por baseline extended from 1953-1982 and Pcu from 1996-1998. Thirty percent of the Pcu values and 17% of the Por values were > or = 40 mg kg(-1). Log-transformed means for Pcu were significantly higher than for Por. The principal determining factors for Por were physiography, soil texture, and soil series. Current P is affected by present tillage practice and drainage class. Change in soluble P in the soil is not as responsive to fertilizer P sales as is SRP in river water. This suggests that as fertilizer P sales decline, a declining percentage of P added as fertilizer is annually dissolved and transported into the drainage system. Soluble P in soil is governed by a combination of fertilizer and tillage management, soil properties, and landscape factors interacting over time. PMID:11837442

  10. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical outcome in poor responders: A pilot study in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, using bologna criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha; Chougule, Shruti Mahesh; Gavali, Vijayamala Gurudas; Bhomkar, Deepali Atul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in women with poor ovarian response (POR) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Private tertiary fertility clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 31 infertile women with POR diagnosed as per the Bologna criteria. INTERVENTIONS: DHEA supplementation for 2 months and a subsequent IVF cycle, after two previous IVF cycles with POR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Dose and duration of gonadotropin therapy, oocyte yield, embryo number and quality, pregnancy and live birth rate. RESULTS: No difference was seen in gonadotropin requirement before and after DHEA supplementation. There was a significant increase in total and metaphase II oocytes (5.9 0.68 vs. 2.73 0.24; 4.45 0.47 vs. 2.09 0.26), fertilization (3.65 0.49 vs. 2.00 0.27), Grade I embryos (1.52 0.25 vs. 0.55 0.18), pregnancy rate (30% vs. 9.1%) and live birth rate (25% vs 0%) in those who completed the cycle, following DHEA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in an improvement in oocyte yield, embryo quality, and live birth rate in a group of women with POR having undergone at least two previous failures due to POR. PMID:25395742

  11. Resonancias en la regin trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansin de la rbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acrecin del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernndez e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinmicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolucin estable, en contraste con el comportamiento catico del resto de la regin trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todava muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicacin presentamos un estudio analtico y numrico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  12. Heteroleptic Tetrapyrrole-Fused Dimeric and Trimeric Skeletons with Unusual Non-Frustrated Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuehong; Oh, Juwon; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao; Cao, Wei; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Dongho; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin (Por) chromophores have been fused through the benzo[α]pyrazine moiety, resulting in unprecedented heteroleptic tetrapyrrole-fused dimers and trimers. The heteroleptic tetrapyrrole nature has been clearly revealed based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the zinc dimer. Electrochemical analysis, theoretical calculations, and time-resolved spectroscopic results disclose that the two/three-tetrapyrrole-fused skeletons behave as one totally π-conjugated system as a result of the strong conjugative interaction between/among the tetrapyrrole chromophores. In particular, the effectively extended π-electron system through the fused-bridge induced strong electronic communication between the Pc and Por moieties and large transition dipole moments in the Pc-Por-fused systems, providing high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.13) and relatively long excited state lifetimes (>1.3 ns) in comparison with their homo-tetrapyrrole-fused analogues. PMID:26879243

  13. A typing system for neisseria gonorrhoeae based on biotinylated oligonucleotide probes to PIB gene variable regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D K; Deal, C D; Ison, C A; Zenilman, J M; Bash, M C

    2000-05-01

    The porin proteins PIA and PIB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are serotyping antigens for the serovar classification system and leading candidates for gonococcal vaccine development. Although serotyping has been a useful tool, this method can be insensitive to critical sequence changes in the por gene, including those in surface-exposed variable regions (VRs). A sensitive and specific typing system for N. gonorrhoeae has been developed that uses biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes with chemiluminescence detection to type PIB gene VRs. The PIB VR types of geographically and temporally diverse gonococcal strains and sexual contact isolates were determined. por VR typing discriminated between most unrelated isolates and provided information about individual VR type that was not apparent from serovar designations. PIB VR typing avoids limited monoclonal antibody availability, interlaboratory variation, and the requirement for culture-based surveillance associated with gonococcal serotyping, and provides useful information about the molecular epidemiology of individual por gene VRs. PMID:10823765

  14. Fluorescent nanogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Wei, Chang; Lu, Li; Liu, Tianjun; Lv, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core (POR-PEG-PCL) exhibits beneficial fluorescence ability in vivo. To further develop an application of thermosensitive porphyrin hydrogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer as a drug carrier, a POR-PEG-PCL nanogel was tracked and located to tumor tissue with porphyrin as a fluorescence tag via intravenous injection. The structure and function of the nanogel were evaluated by TEM, DLS, H-NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The fluorescent nanogel was monitored by an in vivo imaging system with hepatoma tumor-bearing mice. Good biocompatibility and safety in vitro and in vivo show that the POR-PEG-PCL nanogel is a potential drug carrier that targets tumor tissues with fluorescence bioimaging. PMID:26838843

  15. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  16. Global Alfven Waves in Solar Physics: Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha demostrado que Ia onda discreta de Alfven puede generar por lo memos un 20% de la energia coronal requerida con densidad de flujo de lO- erg 5 . Las ondas discretas de Alfven son una nueva clase `de ondas de Alfven las cuales pueden describirse por el modelo con que incluye un i6n finito, con frecuencia ciclotr6nica ( /uci # 0) y los efectos del equilibrio de plasma mostrados por Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. ABSTRACT. It has been shown that the Discrete Alfven wave can power at least 20% of the required coronal energy flux density iO- Discrete Alfven waves are a new class of Alfven waves wich can be described by the model with the inclusion of finite ion cyclotron frequency (w/wci 0) and the equilibrium plasma current effects as shown by Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. o,t :, HYDROMAGNETICS - SUN-CORONA

  17. Movimiento regular y catico en cmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Los cmulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las rbitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energa ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos caticos. Como paso preliminar de una investigacin ms extensa, presentamos aqu los resultados de un estudio de rbitas estelares en un cmulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una rbita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las rbitas se investigan utilizando dos mtodos: 1) La clasificacin por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de rbitas de las estrellas del cmulo. Confirmamos la presencia de rbitas caticas, particularmente en las zonas externas del cmulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del cmulo.

  18. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  19. œNADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael P. Timko

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  20. Novel porphyrin-daunomycin hybrids: Synthesis and preferential binding to G-quadruplexes over i-motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-fang; Lu, Jia-Zheng; Lv, Jun-liang; Wu, Gong-qing; Chen, Pan-Pan; Tan, Cai-Lian; Chen, Dian-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Encouraged by the enormous importance attributed to the structure and function of human telomeric DNA, herein we focused our attention on the interaction of a serious of newly prepared porphyrin-daunomycin (Por-DNR) hybrids with the guanine-rich single-strand oligomer (G4) and the complementary cytosine-rich strand (i-motif). Various spectral methods such as absorption and fluorescence titration, surface-enhanced Raman and circular dichroism spectrum were integrated in the experiment and it was found that these Por-DNR hybrids could serve as prominent molecules to recognize G4 and i-motif. What is more, interesting results were obtained that the hybrids with longer flexible links are more favorable in binding with both G4 and i-motif than the hybrid with shorter linkage. These Por-DNR hybrids may help to develop new ideas in the research of human telomeric DNA with small molecules.

  1. A variable-temperature direct electrochemical study of metalloproteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms involves in hydrogen production from pyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.T.; Blamey, J.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1995-05-30

    The hyperthomophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and the hyperthermolic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grow optimally at 80{degrees} and 100{degrees}C, respectively, by the fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acids, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. Pyruvate is a major source of reductant for H{sub 2} production during fermentation, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), a 4Fe-type ferredoxin, and hydrogenase have been previously purified from both species. P. furiosus utilizes copper-iron-containing POR and a nickel-iron-containing hydrogenase, whereas the POR of T. maritima lacks copper and its hydrogenase lacks nickel. For all four enzymes and for the two ferredoxins, we have determined their reproduction potentials (E{degrees}` and, where possible, thermodynamic parameters associated with electron transfer {Delta}S{degrees} and {Delta}H{degrees}), using differential pulse voltammetry at temperatures ranging from 25 to 95{degrees}C. 55 refs., 7 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. O-Mycoloylated Proteins from Corynebacterium

    PubMed Central

    Huc, Emilie; Meniche, Xavier; Benz, Roland; Bayan, Nicolas; Ghazi, Alexandre; Tropis, Marielle; Daff, Mamadou

    2010-01-01

    O-Acylation of proteins was known only in a few eukaryotic proteins but never in bacteria. We demonstrate, using a combination of protein chemistry and mass spectrometry, the occurrence of three O-acylated polypeptides in Corynebacterium glutamicum, PorA, PorH, and an unknown small protein. The three polypeptides are O-substituted by mycolic acids, long chain ?-alkyl and ?-hydroxy fatty acids specifically produced by members of the Corynebacterineae suborder. To date these acids were described only as esterifying trehalose and arabinogalactan, and less frequently glycerol, important components of the highly impermeable outer barrier of Corynebacterineae. We show that the post-translational mycoloylation of PorA occurs at Ser-15 and is necessary for the pore-forming activity of C. glutamicum. PMID:20508265

  3. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes ?2 and mature oocyte ?1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was ?0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of ?0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  4. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25?g or 50?g of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres ?1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  5. H-rev107 Regulates Cytochrome P450 Reductase Activity and Increases Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Fu-Ming; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Lu-Kai; Lee, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    H-rev107 is a member of the HREV107 type II tumor suppressor gene family and acts as a phospholipase to catalyze the release of fatty acids from glycerophospholipid. H-rev107 has been shown to play an important role in fat metabolism in adipocytes through the PGE2/cAMP pathway, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying H-rev107-mediated lipid degradation has not been studied. In this study, the interaction between H-rev107 and cytochrome P450 reductase (POR), which is involved in hepatic lipid content regulation, was determined by yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by using in vitro pull down assays and immunofluorescent staining. The expression of POR in H-rev107-expressing cells enhanced the H-rev107-mediated release of arachidonic acid. However, H-rev107 inhibited POR activity and relieved POR-mediated decreased triglyceride content in HtTA and HeLa cervical cells. The inhibitory effect of H-rev107 will be abolished when POR-expressing cells transfected with PLA2-lacking pH-rev107 or treated with PLA2 inhibitor. Silencing of H-rev107 using siRNA resulted in increased glycerol production and reversion of free fatty acid-mediated growth suppression in Huh7 hepatic cells. In summary, our results revealed that H-rev107 is also involved in lipid accumulation in liver cells through the POR pathway via its PLA2 activity. PMID:26381418

  6. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiología. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: ¿Por qué no existió una epidemiología precolombina? Sobre el presente: ¿Cuáles son los orígenes de la epidemiología moderna, incluyendo sus raíces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escogí un título surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: ¿Por qué fenómenos complejos son los “objetos oscuros del deseo” epidemiológico? PMID:25124247

  7. Paleoenvironmental implications of taxonomic variation among δ 15 N values of chloropigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Meytal B.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Qin, Yelun; Saito, Mak A.; Pearson, Ann

    2011-11-01

    Natural variations in the ratios of nitrogen isotopes in biomass reflect variations in nutrient sources utilized for growth. In order to use δ 15N values of chloropigments of photosynthetic organisms to determine the corresponding δ 15N values of biomass - and by extension, surface waters - the isotopic offset between chlorophyll and biomass must be constrained. Here we examine this offset in various geologically-relevant taxa, grown using nutrient sources that may approximate ocean conditions at different times in Earth's history. Phytoplankton in this study include cyanobacteria (diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic), eukaryotic algae (red and green), and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (Proteobacteria), as well as environmental samples from sulfidic lake water. Cultures were grown using N 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+ as nitrogen sources, and were examined under different light regimes and growth conditions. We find surprisingly high variability in the isotopic difference (δ 15N biomass - δ 15N chloropigment) for prokaryotes, with average values for species ranging from -12.2‰ to +11.7‰. We define this difference as ɛpor, a term that encompasses diagenetic porphyrins and chlorins, as well as chlorophyll. Negative values of ɛpor reflect chloropigments that are 15N-enriched relative to biomass. Notably, this enrichment appears to occur only in cyanobacteria. The average value of ɛpor for freshwater cyanobacterial species is -9.8 ± 1.8‰, while for marine cyanobacteria it is -0.9 ± 1.3‰. These isotopic effects group environmentally but not phylogenetically, e.g., ɛpor values for freshwater Chroococcales resemble those of freshwater Nostocales but differ from those of marine Chroococcales. Our measured values of ɛpor for eukaryotic algae (range = 4.7-8.7‰) are similar to previous reports for pure cultures. For all taxa studied, values of ɛpor do not depend on the type of nitrogen substrate used for growth. The observed environmental control of ɛpor suggests that values of ɛpor could be useful for determining the fractional burial of eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial organic matter in the sedimentary record.

  8. Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with DNA from an Mtz(r) strain. The results of this study suggest that Mtz resistance may be a recessive trait, possibly involving inactivation of a regulatory gene, that results in constitutive expression of isocitrate lyase. Repression of POR and KOR activities in response to low levels of Mtz may be a general response of H. pylori strains to Mtz, but only resistant strains manage to survive via activation of compensatory metabolic pathways. PMID:8759844

  9. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnologías de eficiencia energética y energía renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnologías Geotérmicas, parte crítica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, está avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  10. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnticos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnticos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresin para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una gua de onda o de manera libre (geodsicas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interfermetro, cuando este ltimo es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  11. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  12. Aplicacin del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecnica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Nez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecnica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinacin de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un mtodo para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables accin-ngulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotacin tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separacin en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  13. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. No toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constitudos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um ncleo slido, que pode ter vrios quilmetros de dimetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direo contrria ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graas aparncia de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrrio de outros astros, que parecem estticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus pressgios. Conhea algumas dessas histrias:

  14. Aprendiendo de los errores del pasado - Duration: 91 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fernando Abilleira, analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, comenta por qué el aterrizaje de una nave espacial en Marte requiere una precisión increíble y hasta ...

  15. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER PALL CORPORATION WPM-1 MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM AT PITTSBURGH, PA - NSF 00/09/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation WPM-1 Microfiltration Pilot System was conducted from February 3 to March 5, 1999. The Pall WPM-1 membrane is a hollow fiber type microfiltration membrane made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF). It has a 0.1 micrometer ( m) nominal por...

  17. Mini-mastoidectoma para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con seccin parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, lvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introduccin: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la tcnica de eleccin para la reparacin de la parlisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La tcnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y seccin parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Mtodo: La porcin mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una lnea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrs de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la lnea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porcin mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado seo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento tcnicamente ms sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusin: Esta es una tcnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatoma. PMID:23596555

  18. Pneumatocele selar a tensin: Reporte de un caso y revisin de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, lvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damin; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introduccin: El neumoencfalo a tensin luego de la ciruga transesfenoidal es poco comn. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artculo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensin de presentacin tarda. Descripcin del caso: Una mujer de 57 aos consult por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le haba realizado una ciruga transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le haba colocado una derivacin lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fstula de lquido cefalorraqudeo. Adems, se le haba realizado una reseccin transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiociruga debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llev a cabo una resonancia magntica que demostr un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervencin: Se realiz un abordaje transciliar. La regin selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abri la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despus del procedimiento, su campo visual retorn a la normalidad. Un ao despus de su ltima ciruga, continua asintomtica. Conclusin: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensin es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una ciruga transesfenoidal. Su manifestacinw clnica sera la alteracin visual debida a la compresin inferior de la va ptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensin debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  19. 76 FR 29192 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... established in the LTFV investigation. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63672... Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 2655 (January 14, 2011... to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Period of Review The POR...

  20. 75 FR 55307 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Reviews, 75 FR 5764 (February 4, 2010). On February 4, 2010, the... Results for New Shipper Review, 75 FR 38980 (July 7, 2010). Expansion of the POR When the sale of the... 19 CFR 351.214(f)(2)(ii). \\4\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR...

  1. 77 FR 28570 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... period of review (POR) of honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

  2. Prevención del cáncer de ovario, trompas y peritoneo (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que influirían en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de los mismos.

  3. Genetic Enhancement of Visual Learning by Activation of Protein Kinase C Pathways in Small Groups of Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Lu, Xiu-gui; Lee, Brian; Liu, Meng; Sun, Mei; Franklin, Corinna; Cook, Robert G.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons might potentiate a specific circuit and enhance learning, thereby localizing learning to that circuit. In this study, we activated protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in small groups of neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. We microinjected helper virus-free herpes simplex virus vectors that expressed a constitutively active PKC into POR cortex. This PKC was expressed predominantly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex. This intervention increased phosphorylation of five PKC substrates that play critical roles in neurotransmitter release (GAP-43 and dynamin) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (specific subunits of AMPA or NMDA receptors and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate). Additionally, activation of PKC pathways in cultured cortical neurons supported activation-dependent increases in release of glutamate and GABA. This intervention enhanced the learning rate and accuracy of visual object discriminations. In individual rats, the numbers of transfected neurons positively correlated with this learning. During learning, neuronal activity was increased in neurons proximal to the transfected neurons. These results demonstrate that potentiating small groups of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex enhances visual object learning. More generally, these results suggest that learning can be mediated by specific cortical circuits. PMID:16162929

  4. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ?3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ?3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  5. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58 is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer. PMID:25023856

  6. Prevención del cáncer de estómago (gástrico) (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de estómago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  7. Supervivientes de cáncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El número de supervivientes de cáncer en Estados Unidos ascendió a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  8. NCI en el congreso de ASCO: Breve reseña de los resultados de investigaciones de cánceres en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    En el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO) 2014 celebrado en junio en Chicago, se destacaron los resultados de varios estudios clínicos patrocinados por el NCI sobre cánceres en la mujer.

  9. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...On March 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Based on our analysis of the comments received we have made certain changes in the margin calculations.......

  10. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young

  11. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Campylobacter Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Campylobacter Infections Print A A A Text Size What's ... to Call the Doctor en español Infecciones por campylobacter Campylobacter bacteria, usually transmitted in contaminated food or ...

  12. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  13. Prevención del cáncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  14. Publicacin de Propuesta Presupuestaria del NCI para el Ao Fiscal 2017

    Cancer.gov

    Ayer, tuve el honor de presentar al Presidente Barack Obama el Plan Anual del NCI y Propuesta Presupuestaria para el Ao Fiscal 2017. Creo que la Propuesta Presupuestaria, como se conoce ahora, es especialmente importante este ao para la investigacin oncolgica por dos razones.

  15. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). In a letter dated November 22... administrative review of entries of the subject merchandise during the POR from the following companies:...

  16. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ..., 64 FR 46343 (August 25, 1999). See also Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Cut-to... Administrative Review, 74 FR 39921 (August 10, 2009) (``Preliminary Results''). The period of review (``POR'') is... of Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Administrative Review, 74 FR 60237 (November 20,...

  17. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

  18. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para

  19. 75 FR 49888 - Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). The period of review (``POR'') is January 31, 2008... of the Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... Government Closure During the Recent Snowstorm,'' dated February 12, 2010. Extension of Time Limit...

  20. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  1. Descargo de responsabilidad de Smokefree Español | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  2. 76 FR 77485 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 17837 (March 31, 2011). \\3\\ See... Results of the New Shipper Review, 76 FR 59658 (September 27, 2011). Period of Review The POR is August...

  3. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  4. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34340 (June 7, 2013) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ The Department initiated... during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 34340 n. 4. Furthermore, as we stated in the draft cash... Results, 78 FR at 34341. The Department has conducted this administrative review in accordance...

  5. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; Garca, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barb, R.

    La estrella simbitica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscpicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los aos 1990 y 1996, utilizndose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 a 7200 . La historia fotomtrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitacin, muy rico en lneas de emisin, es tambin similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolucin espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atencin a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitacin. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionizacin, incluyndose las anchas e intensas lneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en ?? 6825 y 7082 . En el perodo cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variacin de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las lneas, especialmente en H? y H?. El contnuo de la regin roja observada indica un tipo espectral no ms tardo que M3 para la componente gigante fra del sistema.

  6. 76 FR 36519 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005) (CMC Order). On July 1, 2010... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 38074 (July 1, 2010). Pursuant... from Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals B.V. (ANFC) and CP Kelco B.V. (CP Kelco) during the POR. On...

  7. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religión en las personas que tienen cáncer. Se discuten varios métodos sobre manejo e intervención.

  8. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  9. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. PMID:26116854

  10. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 38986 (July 7, 2010... of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 74002 (November 30, 2010). On February 11, 2011, the... flexibility to extend the POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296,...

  11. La ingeniería de la Estación Espacial Internacional - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La Estación Espacial Internacional es del tamaño de un campo de fútbol americano y pesa 827.794 libras. Entonces, ¿cómo hicimos para colocar algo tan grande en el espacio? Pieza por pieza. Quince p...

  12. A study on exposure to cyanide among a community living near a gold mine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Sahani, Mazrura; Hod, Rozita; Yahya, Noral' Asyikin

    2015-01-01

    Cyanidation in gold extraction has detrimental impacts on the ecosystem and the population in surrounding areas. The research described in this article aimed to assess the health effects of environmental exposure to cyanide in a community near a gold mining area in Malaysia. A total of 255 members of the exposed community and 117 members of the control community answered questionnaires on their exposure to a gold mine and health outcomes. Urine samples were collected for biomarker assessment (i.e., urinary thiocyanate). The authors found that the mean level of urinary thiocyanate was significantly higher among the exposed community (0.30 0.26 mg/dL) than the control community (0.24 0.23 mg/dL) (p = .0021). The exposed community had a significantly higher prevalence of headaches (prevalence odds ratio [pOR] = 2.6, p = .001), dizziness (pOR = 3.7, p < .001), skin irritation (pOR = 2.1, p = .040), and eye irritation (pOR = 5.1, p = .004). No association occurred between dietary exposure and urinary biomarkers. Smokers living near a gold mine had a higher urinary thiocyanate level (0.56 mg/dL) than smokers in the control community (0.49 mg/dL). PMID:25619035

  13. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  14. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  15. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  16. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ...On August 13, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Taiwan. This review covers twenty producers/ exporters of the subject merchandise to the United States. The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. Based on......

  17. The Migrant Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some background of Efrain Gutierrez's "story" and its relationship to film historiography. Gutierrez is a self-taught filmmaker from San Antonio, Texas, who wrote, directed, starred in, and distributed the first three U.S. feature films produced by a Chicano: "Please, Don't Bury Me Alive!/Por favor, no me…

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  19. 75 FR 49893 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is November 6, 2008, through October 31, 2009. This administrative review covers two......

  20. Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y su familia, incluso los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y el entrenamiento de las aptitudes para la comunicación.

  1. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  2. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  3. Do you really know where this SNP goes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The release of build 10.2 of the swine genome was a marked improvement over previous builds and has proven extremely useful. However, as most know, there are regions of the genome that this particular build does not accurately represent. For instance, nearly 25% of the 62,162 SNP on the Illumina Por...

  4. 77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period of review (``POR'') of February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. As discussed below, the Department preliminarily determines that the respondents in this review did......

  5. 76 FR 2883 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of 2007-2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') published its preliminary results of the 2007-2008 deferred and 2008-2009 administrative reviews of the antidumping duty order on folding metal tables and chairs (``FMTCs'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on July 14, 2010.\\1\\ The periods of review (``POR'') are June 1, 2007, through May 31, 2008, for the deferred administrative review,......

  6. The Migrant Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some background of Efrain Gutierrez's "story" and its relationship to film historiography. Gutierrez is a self-taught filmmaker from San Antonio, Texas, who wrote, directed, starred in, and distributed the first three U.S. feature films produced by a Chicano: "Please, Don't Bury Me Alive!/Por favor, no me

  7. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341 (March 11, 1986). Notifications This notice serves... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 21105 (April 9, 2013) (Preliminary... during the POR.\\5\\ \\5\\ See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 21105. Analysis of Comments Received All...

  8. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  9. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  10. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Determination To Revoke in Part, 73 FR 66218 (Nov. 7, 2008). The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2006... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended...

  11. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ..., Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part, and Determination To Revoke in Part, 70 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision... certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey covering the period of review (POR) of April...

  12. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of..., of any wall thickness (pipe and tube) from Turkey. These products are currently provided for...

  13. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 14, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S. en C. por A. (SE.), et al., Civil Action No....

  14. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar - Duration: 3 minutes, 18 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  15. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their…

  16. Determinacin de parmetros Post-Newtonianos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; Vucetich, H.

    Icaro es un asteroide que, debido a su gran excentricidad, (0.83), puede ser utilizado para verificar la relatividad general. Tiene acercamientos peridicos a la Tierra cada 18 aos aproximadamente. Los ocurridos en 1949 y 1968 permitieron realizar una primera determinacin de la variacin de su perihelio por efectos relativistas. En 1987 tuvo un nuevo acercamiento que permitir mejorar los resultados existentes.

  17. 78 FR 36524 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...On December 10, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on diamond sawblades and parts thereof (diamond sawblades) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 23, 2011. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies......

  18. Significado de los cambios en los senos: Gua para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Informacin sobre los cambios y padecimientos especficos del seno, y sobre cmo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Explica que todos los cambios en el seno deben ser revisados por un mdico, a pesar de que la mayora de estos cambios no son cncer.

  19. Cmo interpretar los nmeros: lo que verdaderamente nos dicen las estadsticas de los exmenes de deteccin del cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los estudios sobre los exmenes de deteccin del cncer han mostrado que la realizacin de una mayor cantidad de exmenes no se traduce necesariamente en un menor nmero de muertes por cncer. Este artculo explica cmo interpretar las estadsticas utilizadas para describir los resultados de los exmenes de deteccin.

  20. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On... Review, 75 FR 23673 (May 4, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time...: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The POR is August 1,...

  1. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  2. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  3. Cánceres poco comunes en la niñez (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los cánceres poco comunes en la niñez como los cánceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el tórax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  4. Estudio del NCI revela que la obesidad extrema puede acortar la esperanza de vida hasta en 14 años

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos con obesidad extrema tienen mayor riesgo de morir a edad más joven por cáncer y muchas otras causas entre ellas, enfermedades cardíacas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes y enfermedades del hígado y los riñones, según estudio del NCI.

  5. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  6. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  7. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  8. To the Barricades: The Department Head Role in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer

    This paper examines the role of individuals in positions of responsibility (POR) during the implementation of two different curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance-based assessment. In addition to addressing the lack of knowledge of department heads' role in implementing innovations, the report explores the effectiveness of…

  9. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their

  10. Lifelines-Pancreatic-Cancer-SPA-2013

    Cancer.gov

    LOS HISPANOS Y EL CNCER DE PNCREAS: COSAS PARA SABER por el Instituto Nacional del Cncer Una de las causas principales de muerte relacionadas con el cncer en los hispanos o latinos de los Estados Unidos es una enfermedad poco comn pero con frecuencia

  11. Prevención del cáncer de estómago (gástrico) (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de estómago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  12. Prevención del cáncer de ovario (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  13. Exámenes de detección del cáncer de próstata (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden influir en el desarrollo del cáncer de próstata y sobre la investigación dirigida a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  14. The Development of Grammatical Competence through Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiori, Melissa L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the findings of a study which set out to examine the role that consciousness raising (CR) plays in grammatical development in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Students participated in weekly SCMC sessions. Spanish L2 forms "por/para" and "ser/estar" were chosen, and the data from two groups--form-and-meaning…

  15. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development over Time: Part II, "ser" and "estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    Follow up to a previous study of the use of "por" and "para," this study analyzes "ser,""estar," and "haber" for lexical selection in relation to their functions and also for errors in tense, mode, aspect, agreement, and invented forms and uses of copula in simplified or reduced utterances. Data were from 20 oral examinations of Peace Corps…

  16. Prurito (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  17. Cuidados médicos de apoyo en niños (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y después del tratamiento en los niños con cáncer, y como sobrevivientes adultos de cáncer.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5β-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    SciTech Connect

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A.

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5β-reductase is the first stereospecific enzyme in the pathway for the synthesis of cardenolides. To elucidate the structural mechanism of this reaction, we crystallized the selenomethionine-labelled enzyme from D. lanata and report the preliminary analysis of a MAD data set collected from these crystals. Progesterone 5β-reductase (5β-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5β-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 Å. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 Å resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5β-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5β-POR will readily be built.

  19. Fumar relacionado con la mitad de cánceres de vejiga en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer cáncer de vejiga que lo que se informó anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por científicos d

  20. 78 FR 15696 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period of review (``POR'') from February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. As discussed below, the Department preliminarily......

  1. Delirio (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  2. 75 FR 14574 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the 2008-2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... FR 56573 (November 2, 2009). The period of review (``POR'') is November 20, 2008, through October 31..., 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission...

  3. Observacin solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados ms recientes sobre la fsica del sol, obtenidos por medio del anlisis de datos de satlites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la accin y dinmica de los campos magnticos en la generacin de fenmenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  4. Accesibilidad | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  5. Ver Archivos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  6. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is amending the final results of a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to correct a ministerial error.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.......

  7. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films: Effects of Cross-linking on Thermal, Mechanical, Barrier, and Biodegradation Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) skins and cast into films. The fish gelatin films’ tensile, thermal, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, and biodegradation properties were compared to those of bovine and por...

  8. OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

  9. Cometas - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Sabías que los cometas que vemos por el cielo nocturno pueden haber traído hace miles de millones de años, los elementos básicos para la vida a nuestro planeta? Únete a la NASA para aprender más a...

  10. 75 FR 34100 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...In response to timely requests, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review and a new- shipper review of the antidumping duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is September 1, 2008, through August 31, 2009. With respect to the administrative review, we have preliminarily determined......

  11. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  12. 76 FR 41452 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China; Notice of Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is rescinding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tissue paper products from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period of review (POR) of March 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, with respect to Max Fortune Industrial Limited (Max Fortune Industrial), Max Fortune (FZ) Paper Products Co., Ltd. (formerly known as......

  13. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 16426 (April 1.... See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28... France, 75 FR 42380 (July 21, 2010). Consequently, the POR for the administrative review became April...

  14. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  15. 77 FR 73424 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Giang Fisheries Import & Export Joint Stock Company (``Agifish''). The period of review (``POR'') is... Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). DATES: Effective Date... Requests for Revocation, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). \\3\\ See Agifish's submission dated January 3,...

  16. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... To Rescind, in Part, 76 FR 62356 (October 7, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). We invited interested... United States during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 62358. The Department did not receive any... Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991), as amplified by Notice of Final Determination of Sales...

  17. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 55808 (September 11, 2012). ] Methodology The... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 77 FR 19179, 19182 (March 30, 2012). Cash Deposit... Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) for the period of review (POR) February 1, 2011,...

  18. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... review (``POR'') is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate...

  19. Host preference between saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and native non-target Frankenia spp. within the Diorhabda elongata species complex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its release in 2001 for the biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp., Tamaricaceae), the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) from China, has become successfully established in many locations in the western United States. However, it failed to establish in the southern and western por...

  20. Cáncer que regresa

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer puede regresar cuando el tratamiento no elimina o destruye por completo todas las células cancerosas. Aprenda acerca de los diferentes tipos de recurrencia -recidiva- y cómo se vuelve a asignar un estadio al cáncer y se da tratamiento.

  1. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en espaol Enfermedad por araazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  2. Six-coordinate nitro complexes of iron(III) porphyrins with trans S-donor ligands. Oxo-transfer reactivity in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Iretskii, Alexei V; Ford, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the 5-coordinate O-nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta(1)-ONO) (Por--meso-tetraphenyl- or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions) react with the thioethers (R(2)S) dimethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene to give the 6-coordinate N-nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(R(2)S)(NO(2)). These reactions were conducted in low-temperature porous layered solids formed in a cryostat; however, with excess R(2)S in the atmosphere, the same species are moderately stable at room temperature. Six-coordinate O-nitrito isomers were not observed with the R(2)S proximal ligands, even though DFT calculations for the Fe(P)(DMS)(eta(1)-ONO) and Fe(P)(DMS)(NO(2)) models (P = porphinato dianion, DMS = dimethyl sulfide) show the latter to be only modestly lower energy (approximately 8 kJ/mol) than the former. Leaving this system at room temperature in the presence of excess R(2)S leads eventually to the appearance in the FTIR spectra of the nu(NO) band characteristic of the ferrous nitrosyl Fe(Por)(NO). Concomitantly, the mass spectrum of the gas phase demonstrated the molecular peaks of the sulfoxides R(2)SO, indicating oxygen atom transfer reactivity for the ferric porphryinato complexes of nitrite. PMID:19886653

  3. El dolor y el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el cáncer.

  4. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  5. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students

  6. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia a la cabeza y el cuello.

  7. Adaptación al cáncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las difíciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con cáncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptación normal, alteración psicosocial y trastornos de adaptación.

  8. Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine

    SciTech Connect

    D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

    2011-12-31

    Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

  9. 78 FR 34986 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on aluminum extrusions from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is November 12, 2010, through April 30, 2012. The review covers two exporters of subject merchandise who are mandatory respondents: Kromet International, Inc. (``Kromet'');......

  10. 78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain oil country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily determine that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel......

  11. 75 FR 63814 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997), and Oil Country... Rescission of Review, 70 FR 53161, 53162 (September 7, 2005), unchanged in Oil Country Tubular Goods from... Paper Products From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 53079 (September 8, 2006); Final...

  12. 77 FR 2700 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... International Trade Administration Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... order on oil country tubular goods from the People's Republic of China covering 53 companies for the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected...

  13. 77 FR 24464 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... order on oil country tubular goods from the People's Republic of China covering 53 companies for the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected...

  14. 77 FR 13534 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...-2011 POR.\\4\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Silicon Metal from the People's Republic of China, 56 FR... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 31586 (June 1, 2011). \\3\\ See letter from... Reviews, 76 FR 45227 (July 28, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On August 2, 2011, the Department issued...

  15. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  16. Cánceres poco comunes en la niñez (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los cánceres poco comunes en la niñez como los cánceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el tórax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  17. Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... la diabetes tipo 2 El Programa Nacional de Educación sobre la Diabetes (NDEP, por sus siglas en ... http://ndep.nih.gov. El Programa Nacional de Educación sobre la Diabetes (NDEP) del Departamento de Salud ...

  18. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Le cuesta trabajo no fumar por ms de algunas horas. Incluso si est cayendo una tormenta, si se le acabaran los cigarrillos, probablemente ira a la tienda a comprar ms. Cuando no ha fumado durante algunas horas, siente ansias de fumar.

  19. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  20. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  1. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  2. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religión en las personas que tienen cáncer. Se discuten varios métodos sobre manejo e intervención.

  3. Monitoring and inhibition of Plk1: amphiphilic porphyrin conjugated Plk1 specific peptides for its imaging and anti-tumor function.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongguang; Chan, Chi-Fai; Chan, Wai-Lun; Lear, Sam; Cobb, Steven L; Mak, Nai-Ki; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-08-21

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is well-known for taking part in cell cycle progression and regulation. Using small molecules for Plk inhibition has been well documented in the literature. However, there are several intrinsic and intractable problems associated with this approach. For example monitoring small molecule Plk inhibitors as anti-tumor agents in vitro/in vivo is often ineffective, they can have poor cell internalization and be susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Herein, we report the synthesis of cell-permeable, water-soluble amphiphilic porphyrin Plk1 specific peptide bioconjugates, Por-P1 and Por-P2. In addition to resolving the aforementioned problems of the small molecule inhibitors Por-P2 manifests responsive emission enhancement upon binding with Plk1 in aqueous medium and in vitro, while potently triggering G2-M phase arrest and then apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells tested. In combination our findings make Por-P2 a promising candidate for the preparation of a new generation of smart chemotherapeutic targeting agents (imaging and inhibition) for Plk1 in particular cancer cell lines. PMID:24977405

  4. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cncer: funciones y desafos (PDQ)Versin para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones tpicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones tiles para esas personas.

  5. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  6. 78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... established in the Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 76 FR 13982 (March 15, 2011). These... International Trade Administration Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR)...

  7. Prurito (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  8. Delirio (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  9. Náuseas y vómitos (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las náuseas y los vómitos como complicaciones a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las náuseas y los vómitos.

  10. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  11. Náuseas y vómitos (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las náuseas y los vómitos como complicaciones a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las náuseas y los vómitos.

  12. Jóvenes con cáncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes jóvenes y lograr su participación en estudios clínicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el cáncer y su tratamiento.

  13. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  14. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT XRF TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT OXFORD X-MTE 3000TX XRF ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Elvatech, Ltd. ElvaX (ElvaX) x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer distributed in the United States by Xcalibur XRF Services (Xcalibur), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field por...

  15. El equilibrio correcto: cómo ayudar a los supervivientes de cáncer a tener un peso saludable

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre las intervenciones que buscan ayudar a los supervivientes a mantener un peso saludable para reducir la recidiva y la muerte por cáncer, y disminuir la probabilidad de padecer efectos tardíos y crónicos del tratamiento.

  16. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  17. El dolor y el cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el cáncer.

  18. Informe Anual a la Nacin sobre el Estado del Cncer con una seccin especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nacin sobre el Estado del Cncer (1975 a 2010), mostr un descenso ms acelerado que en aos anteriores de los ndices de mortalidad por cncer de pulmn. Tambin contiene una seccin especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  19. Edades relativas de cmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M.; Forte, J. C.

    El trabajo de Rossemberg et al (1999), estudia las edades relativas de cmulos globulares galcticos mediante el anlisis de ciertos parmetros morfolgicos de los diagramas color-magnitud de dichos cmulos. Este trabajo se centra en tres puntos: analizar la consistencia de los resultados obtenidos por Rossemberg et al (1999) al emplear observaciones en el sistema fotomtrico de Washington, ms precisamente, las magnitudes C y T1 en lugar de las magnitudes V e I utilizadas por dichos autores. De la existencia de colores integrados, metalicidad y edad (relativa) para 21 de los cmulos utilizados en dicho trabajo, se analiza la consistencia de estos resultados con las dependencias de color integrado como funcin de la edad y la metalicidad que se desprenden de los modelos tericos de luz integrada por Worthey (1994), Schulz (2002) y Lee et al (2002). Por ltimo se lleva a cabo una breve comparacin de la morfologa de los diagramas color-magnitud de los cmulos globulares y de las isocronas utilizadas, a fin de intentar identificar algunas de las posibles causas de las diferencias observadas en los incisos anteriores.

  20. 78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. This review covers one exporter/producer of the subject merchandise, Ambica Steels Limited (Ambica). We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has not been sold at......

  1. 77 FR 32517 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium covering the period of review (POR) May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. This review covers one producer/exporter of subject merchandise, Aperam Stainless Belgium N.V. (AS Belgium).\\1\\......

  2. Las propiedades de las estrellas extraas en el marco de una nueva ecuacin de estado para la materia extraa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constitudas por materia extraa (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuacin de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del nmero medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximacin, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extraas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser ms masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, adems, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relacin perodo vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresin analtica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, an con hiptesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuacin de estado de la materia extraa, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberan ser muy diferentes de las aqu expuestas.

  3. First report of sooty mold of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) caused by Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sooty mold disease on longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) was found on trees growing close to bodies of water in Puerto Rico. On the basis of the morphological characters the fungi associated with this disease were identified as Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima. T. por...

  4. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespecímenes de calidad son un recurso de investigación oncológica. Uno de los programas de bioespecímenes que han operado por más tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos básicos e investigación inicial de transferencia.

  5. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  6. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  7. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  8. Síntesis: Resultados iniciales del Estudio Nacional de Ex

    Cancer.gov

    El 4 de noviembre de 2010, el Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmóndio a conocer resultados iniciales que indican que hubo 20% menos muertes por cáncer de pulmón entre los participantes del estudio evaluados con tomografía computarizada espiral de baja d

  9. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  10. Atención médica más importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio

  11. Biocombustibles - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Qué es verde, viscoso y lleno de energía? Las algas, ¡por supuesto! Este biocombustible es apenas una de las muchas energías renovables que estudia la NASA. Los biocombustibles podrían generar y a...

  12. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a significant por...

  13. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  14. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of perceptual,

  15. Aspirina y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de muchos estudios en las últimas dos décadas permiten suponer que tomar aspirina con regularidad podría disminuir en forma considerable el riesgo de padecer cáncer o morir por la enfermedad, pero hacen falta más estudios de investigación.

  16. 78 FR 55057 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Requests for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). \\2\\ The period of review (POR) ends on... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 78 FR 16832 (March 19, 2013) (CORE Revocation). \\3...; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). \\14\\ See 19 CFR 351.106(c)(2). The...

  17. 75 FR 13490 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...: Notice of Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 46110 (September 8... Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 58945 (November 16... assessment''' regulation on May 6, 2003 (68 FR 23954). This clarification applies to POR entries of...

  18. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the respondents examined during the period of review (``POR''), August 1, 2011, through......

  19. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de cánceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones específicas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terapéutica para pacientes

  20. Bis axial ligation of simple imine and methyleneamido groups by ruthenium porphyrins

    PubMed

    Huang; Leung; Cheung; Che

    2000-08-18

    Bis(N-ethylideneethanamine)ruthenium(ii) porphyrins, [Ru11(Por)(N(Et)=CHMe)2] (Por=TTP, 4-Cl-TPP), were prepared by the reaction of dioxoruthenium(VI) porphyrins with triethylamine in approximately 85% yields. The reaction between dioxoruthenium(VI) porphyrins and benzophenone imine afforded bis(diphenylmethyleneamido)ruthenium(IV) porphyrins, [Ru(IV)(Por)(N=CPh2)2] (Por=TTP, 3,4,5-MeO-TPP), in approximately 65% yields. These new classes of metalloporphyrins were characterized by 1H NMR, UV/Vis, and IR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The X-ray crystallographic structures of [Ru(II)(TTP)(N(Et)=CHMe)2] and [Ru(IV)(3,4,5-MeO-TPP)(N=CPh2)2] revealed an axial Ru-N bond length of 2.115(6) A for the imine complex and 1.896(8) A for the methyleneamido complex. Each of the N=CPh2 axial groups in [Ru(IV)(3,4,5-MeO-TPP)(N=CPh2)2] adopts a linear coordination mode with a corresponding Ru-N-C angle of 175.9(9)degrees. Spectral and structural studies revealed essentially single bonding character for the bis(imine) complexes but a multiple bonding character for the bis(methyleneamido) complexes with respect to their axial Ru-N bonds. PMID:10993258

  1. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, M J; Smith, A H

    1990-01-01

    Published studies of the relation between type of building ventilation system and work-related symptom prevalence in office workers have been contradictory. A reanalysis was performed of six studies meeting specific eligibility criteria, combining published data with unpublished information obtained from study authors. Five eligible studies were from the United Kingdom, and one was from Denmark. Standardized categories of building ventilation type were created to allow comparison of effects across studies. Within each study, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for symptoms in each ventilation category relative to a baseline category of naturally ventilated buildings. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with increased prevalence of work-related headache (POR = 1.3-3.1), lethargy (POR = 1.4-5.1), and upper respiratory/mucus membrane symptoms (POR = 1.3-4.8). Humidification was not a necessary factor for the higher symptom prevalence associated with air-conditioning. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. The consistent associations found between type of building ventilation and reported symptom prevalence have potentially important public health and economic implications. PMID:2400029

  2. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ)Versin para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informacin revisada por expertos sobre lo que debe ser el cuidado desde los ltimos das hasta las ltimas horas de vida, esto incluye los sntomas comunes, dilemas ticos que podran surgir, y la funcin que desempea el onclogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este tiempo.

  3. 78 FR 55680 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...On March 8, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on small diameter graphite electrodes from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies covered by this......

  4. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  5. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  6. Adaptación al cáncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las difíciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con cáncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptación normal, alteración psicosocial y trastornos de adaptación.

  7. Cuidados médicos de apoyo en niños (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y después del tratamiento en los niños con cáncer y como sobrevivientes adultos de cáncer.

  8. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocíticas crónicas o juveniles, y la LMC atípica.

  9. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocítica crónica o juvenil y la LMC atípica.

  10. La necesidad de cohetes más veloces - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy rápido a aquellos lugares a los que todavía no llegamos, como Marte, o más lejos. Una solución posible ...

  11. Dairy maturation of milk used in the manufacture of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese: effects on physico-chemical characteristics, rennet-coagulation aptitude and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Sandri, Sandro; Pecorari, Mauro; Vecchia, Paola; Mariani, Primo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of dairy maturation on the physico-chemical characteristics and technological properties of milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese manufacture. Three different operating conditions (CF1, CF2 and CF3) were considered. Full cream milk from the evening milking was stored on the farm and delivered to the cheese factory in churns (CF1) or in thermoregulated tanks at a temperature not lower than 18 degrees C (CF2 and CF3). The natural creaming (10-12 h overnight) was performed in a traditional large flat vat containing 10-12 hl (CF1 and CF2) or in thermoregulated large flat vats containing 60 hl at about 15 degrees C (CF3). Twenty-four, 24 and 22 maturation trials were performed in CF1, CF2, and CF3, respectively, during 2 consecutive years. A significant increase (P=0.05) in pH during the maturation of milk was observed in CF1 and CF2. The increase of pH was higher (P=0.05) in CF1 than CF2 and CF3. The values of titratable acidity were higher (P=0.05) in partially skimmed evening (PS) milk than in full cream (FC) milk in each operative condition. The increase observed in CF2 was higher than those reported in CF1 and CF3. Compared with FC milk, PS milk showed lower values (P=0.05) of casein and casein number and higher contents (P=0.05) of whey proteins and, particularly, proteose-peptone. The increase of proteose-peptone--per 100 g SNF or 100 g casein--was significantly higher (P=0.05) in CF1 than in CF2 and, in particular, than in CF3. A higher increase (P=0.05) of resistance to compression was observed in CF1 with respect to CF3. CF2 variation was not different with respect to either CF1 or CF3. Variation of the difference between PS and FC milks (PS-FC) in pH, TBC and fat were clearly lower in CF3 than CF1. This means that the control of milk temperature throughout the whole maturation phase offers a greater control of both microbial development and extent of creaming. PMID:18474140

  12. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluacin Diagnstica Para la Enseanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliao Diagnstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Clia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to present the results of a diagnostic evaluation, used as a tool for collecting data on prior knowledge of scientific concepts needed to understand the topic "Earth and Universe", from a group comprised of 47 students of 6th grade. The educational method of diagnosing the student's prior knowledge before teaching them is founded on the Meaningful Learning theory, proposed by David Ausubel. The diagnostic evaluation consisted of 25 questions; the answers were analyzed and categorized, making possible their interpretation, which allows us to understand the meanings assigned by the student to these concepts. It follows from the diagnostic evaluation, that the majority of students surveyed had difficulties in exposing scientific concepts on the topic "Earth and Universe" when starting the 6th grade. However, we identified relevant ideas and representations that contributed to the re-signification of scientific concepts proposed for the teaching of the subject in this grade. The results of diagnostic evaluation served as reference to the organization of the syllabus, making possible the learning process by matching the sequence of teaching to the students" characteristics and context of the classroom. It is expected that other researchers in this topic can also use the instrument presented in this paper. Este artculo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de una evaluacin diagnstica, utilizada como una herramienta para recoger datos sobre el conocimiento previo de los conceptos cientficos necesarios para comprender el tema "Tierra y Universo", de un grupo compuesto por 47 alumnos de 6 grado de la escuela primaria. La accin pedaggica del diagnstico de los conocimientos previos del estudiante antes de ensearles est justificada por la teora del Aprendizaje Significativo, propuesta por David Ausubel. La evaluacin de diagnstico consisti en 25 preguntas, las respuestas fueron analizadas y clasificadas objetivando-se su interpretacin, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluacin diagnstica que la mayora de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos cientficos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significacin de los conceptos cientficos propuestos para la enseanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluacin diagnstica han servido como referencia para la organizacin del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didctica a las caractersticas de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento tambin pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliao diagnstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prvio de conceitos cientficos, necessrios compreenso do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6 srie do Ensino Fundamental. A ao pedaggica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prvios, do estudante, antes de ensin-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliao diagnstica foi composta por 25 questes, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretao, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribudos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliao diagnstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos cientficos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6 srie. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representaes relevantes que contriburam para a (re)significao dos conceitos cientficos propostos para o ensino do tema nessa srie. Os resultados da avaliao diagnstica serviram como referncia para a organizao do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequncia didtica s caractersticas dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado tambm por outros pesquisadores em investigaes relacionadas ao tema.

  13. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S. W.; Martin, I.; Demczuk, W.; Bharat, A.; Hoang, L.; Wylie, J.; Allen, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Tyrrell, G.; Horsman, G.; Haldane, D.; Garceau, R.; Wong, T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results. PMID:25878350

  14. Identificao de variveis cataclsmicas eruptivas na direo do bojo galctico e Nuvens de Magalhes usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na dcada de 90 iniciaram-se vrios programas para a pesquisa de matria escura na Galxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratgia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande nmero de estrelas (dezenas de milhes) to freqentemente quanto poss vel e por longos per odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemtica de observao, alm de descobrir inmeras lentes gravitacionais, tambm muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variveis. De fato, inmeras novas variveis de vrios tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereos http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variveis catacl smicas eruptivas (novas clssicas, novas recorrentes e novas ans) so objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razo, devem ter sido detectadas em grande nmero nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade ns procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variao de brilho como critrio principal. Este critrio forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direo da Grande Nuvem de Magalhes, 1162 na direo da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhes e o restante na direo do Bojo Galctico. A anlise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupes com as caractersticas acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clssicas e 33 novas ans. Alm disso, pode-se mencionar a identificao de candidatas a outros tipos de variveis como: estrelas simbiticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae Borealis, Miras, etc.

  15. Gender Differences in Smoking Among U.S. Working Adults

    PubMed Central

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although gender differences in cigarette smoking in the U.S. population have been documented, information on these differences among working adults is limited. Purpose To describe the current smoking prevalence by gender among working U.S. adults and examine gender differences in smoking by occupation. Methods The 20042011 National Health Interview Survey data for adults aged ?18 years that were working in the week prior to the interview (N=132,215) were analyzed in 2013. Current cigarette smokers were those who smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoke every day or some days. Results During 20042011, an estimated 22.8% of men workers and 18.3% of women workers were current smokers. Of the current smokers, women workers had higher odds of being an everyday smoker (prevalence OR [POR]=1.17, 95% CI=1.09, 1.26); having poor self-rated emotional health (POR=1.28, 95% CI=1.15, 1.41); and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (POR=2.45, 95% CI=2.14, 2.80), heart disease (POR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12, 1.45), and current asthma (POR=2.21, 95% CI=1.96, 2.49) compared with men workers. Women in supervisors, construction, and extraction (38.9%) occupations and men in extraction (40.5%) occupations had the highest smoking prevalence. Conclusion Among working adults, women had lower prevalence of smoking than men, yet women who smoke were more likely than men to have adverse health outcomes, including self-rated poorer physical and emotional health. PMID:25049215

  16. Preventing the Reintroduction of Malaria in Mauritius: A Programmatic and Financial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Cohen, Justin M.; Gopee, Neerunjun; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Moonasar, Devanand; Phillips, Allison A.; Kahn, James G.; Moonen, Bruno; Smith, David L.; Sabot, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Sustaining elimination of malaria in areas with high receptivity and vulnerability will require effective strategies to prevent reestablishment of local transmission, yet there is a dearth of evidence about this phase. Mauritius offers a uniquely informative history, with elimination of local transmission in 1969, re-emergence in 1975, and second elimination in 1998. Towards this end, Mauritius's elimination and prevention of reintroduction (POR) programs were analyzed via a comprehensive review of literature and government documents, supplemented by program observation and interviews with policy makers and program personnel. The impact of the country's most costly intervention, a passenger screening program, was assessed quantitatively using simulation modeling. On average, Mauritius spent $4.43 per capita per year (pcpy) during its second elimination campaign from 1982 to 1988. The country currently spends $2.06 pcpy on its POR program that includes robust surveillance, routine vector control, and prompt and effective treatment and response. Thirty-five percent of POR costs are for a passenger screening program. Modeling suggests that the estimated 14% of imported malaria infections identified by this program reduces the annual risk of indigenous transmission by approximately 2%. Of cases missed by the initial passenger screening program, 49% were estimated to be identified by passive or reactive case detection, leaving an estimated 3.1 unidentified imported infections per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the reestablishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius's enabling conditions. Although the cost of POR is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking on elimination should quantify and plan for potentially similar POR operations and costs. PMID:21912645

  17. Evoluo rotacional de corpos reacumulados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Lazzaro, D.; Roig, F.; Duffard, R.; Kodama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Asterides reacumulados (rubble-piles) so corpos formados por um conjunto de fragmentos agregados primariamente pela sua gravidade. A importncia do estudo de corpos reacumulados para a compreenso da evoluo do Cinturo de Asterides tem sido bastante evidenciada, no apenas pela constatao de que estes devem corresponder a uma grande parcela da populao de asterides, mas tambm por recentes estudos da estrutura e evoluo colisional deste tipo de asteride. A evoluo rotacional de corpos reacumulados e a formao de famlias tm sido estudadas pelo nosso grupo, com base no modelo de elipsides interagentes. Este modelo foi desenvolvido recentemente pelo grupo, e baseia-se na integrao numrica das equaes de movimento para translao e rotao de corpos formados por um conjunto de elipsides que interagem entre si pela sua gravidade, fora de contato e dissipao de energia por atrito. Considerar a rotao de cada fragmento a principal diferenciao do nosso modelo em relao aos que tm sido desenvolvidos recentemente. Apresentamos aqui os resultados obtidos para a evoluo da rotao de populaes de corpos reacumulados. Estes foram submetidos a sries de colises com projteis de altas velocidades (5Km/s, tpicas do Cinturo atual), distribudos em uma lei de potncias de tamanhos. Estes resultados so comparados com os de Harris (1979), um dos poucos trabalhos analticos existentes para evoluo rotacional de asterides. O principal resultado obtido por Harris foi a distribuio final de velocidades de rotao como uma lei de potncias para corpos pequenos, passando de forma bem definida para rotao constante para os grandes. Nas nossas simulaes observamos que as distribuies de velocidades de rotao resultantes tendem a leis de potncia, com a inclinao evoluindo no decorrer de colises subsequentes.

  18. Field-resolved measurement of reaction-induced spectral densities by polarizability response spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2007-11-01

    The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of reactions that do not satisfy the time-scale separability inherent to nonadiabatic kinetic models.

  19. Expression of P450c17 in the Human Fetal Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Schonemann, Marcus D.; Muench, Marcus O.; Tee, Meng Kian; Miller, Walter L.

    2012-01-01

    P450c17 catalyzes steroid 17?-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities. P450c17 is expressed in human fetal and postnatal adrenals and gonads and in the developing mouse nervous system, but little is known about its expression in the human nervous system. We obtained portions of 9-, 10-, and 11-wk gestation human fetuses and delineated the pattern of expression of P450c17 in their peripheral nervous systems by immunocytochemistry using the P450c17 antiserum previously used to characterize P450c17 in the mouse brain. P450c17 was readily detected in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord. Neural structures were identified with antisera to the cytoskeletal protein neural cell adhesion molecule; DRG were identified with antisera to the neuronal transcription factor BRN3A and neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B. The identification of P450c17 was confirmed using commercial antisera directed against different domains of P450c17 and by using antisera immunodepleted with authentic human P450c17. We also found expression of the P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in the spinal cord and DRG. Expression of P450scc is limited to cell bodies; unlike P450c17, we never detected P450scc in fiber tracts. Catalysis by P450c17 requires electron donation from P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Dual-label immunohistochemistry detected P450c17 and POR colocalized in DRG bundles, but some fibers containing P450c17 lacked POR. These data suggest that neurosteroids synthesized via these two enzymes may act in the developing human nervous system. The expression of P450c17 in structures lacking POR means that P450c17 may not be steroidogenic in those locations, suggesting that P450c17 may have additional functions that do not require POR. PMID:22434081

  20. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados obtenidos en diferentes momentos, por los comentarios efectuados por los participantes durante las actividades y por los altos índices de aprobación al final de la etapa, consideramos que la propuesta atingió los objetivos establecidos y puede ser repetida con certeza de éxito. Neste relato, descreve-se o desenvolvimento de uma proposta metodológica que aborda conceitos básicos de astronomia fundamentada pedagogicamente na Aprendizagem Significativa. A proposta, que compreende quatro encontros, foi desenvolvida por professores e acadêmicos do curso de Licenciatura em Física da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), através de um curso de extensão, a um grupo de dez estudantes do ensino médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Passo Fundo, RS. O trabalho centrou-se em conceitos básicos de astronomia. Os indícios da aprendizagem significativa foram obtidos por instrumentos de pesquisa e avaliação aplicados ao término de cada encontro. A avaliação da proposta foi efetuada através de um questionário final respondido pelos participantes ao término do desenvolvimento das atividades. Pelos resultados obtidos nos diferentes instrumentos, pelos comentários efetuados pelos participantes durante as atividades e pelos altos índices de aprovação alcançados no questionário final, consideramos que a proposta atingiu os objetivos estabelecidos e pode ser repetida com convicção de sucesso.