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  1. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  3. Sterilization of Fuji pressure-sensitive film.

    PubMed

    Liggins, A B; Hardie, W R; Finlay, J B

    1994-11-01

    Fuji Prescale film is a pressure-sensitive medium which produces a characteristic pink stain on the application of pressure. Up to a saturation level, increases in pressure will produce a denser stain, thereby providing a method of determining pressures within the interface between two articulating surfaces. The relationship between the magnitude of applied pressure and the optical density of the resulting stain is non-linear; this relationship also varies with ambient temperature and humidity, in addition to load rate, and therefore requires a calibration procedure prior to use. The use of Fuji prescale film for recording interface pressures within the joint space in vivo has been widely reported; however, the object of this study was to assess the effects of sterilizing this medium, with a view to future in vivo applications. Samples of Fuji film were sterilized using a standard ethylene oxide (ETO) gas process and their subsequent pressure-recording properties were compared to a control group of samples. The 'optical-density vs pressure' relationship for the sterilized group was significantly different from that of the control group (paired Student's t-test, P < = 0.001); however, both groups provided reliable data across the same pressure-range and both exhibited an excellent degree of repeatability (coefficient of variation < 2.5%). It was concluded that Fuji film will continue to produce pressure-stains following ETO sterilization; however, the calibration of this film will only be valid if it is conducted using film from the sterilized group. PMID:7858782

  4. Diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field at the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan, distinctly different from the Carnegie curve in the summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, Masashi; Suzuki, Yuko; Sakai, Rikuma; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Torii, Tatsuo; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Sato, Ryoe; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Okochi, Hiroshi; Miura, Kazuhiko; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    In fair weather, a clear diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field (AEF), which is distinctly different from the global diurnal variation, i.e., Carnegie curve, was observed during the summer time (July and August) of the year 2010 and 2011 at the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan (3776 m in altitude). The variation of the AEF at the summit showed a local time dependent feature, which means that the AEF increased at sunrise and decreased at sunset. This local diurnal variation is known as a mountain variation. The intensity of AEF in the daytime reached 1.5-3 times larger than that in the nighttime. From the multipoint observations of cloud images and AEF, the mountain variation was found to be attributable to the AEF generated by the positively charged top of a horizontally extensive sea of clouds below the summit. Since the sea of clouds grows with the temperature rise, the AEF variation follows local time.

  5. 75 FR 20423 - Fuji Heavy Industries USA, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fuji Heavy Industries USA, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Fuji Heavy Industries USA, Inc. (Fuji), on behalf of Subaru...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  7. Seismic exploration of Fuji volcano with active sources in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, J.; Kagiyama, T.; Tanaka, S.; Miyamachi, H.; Tsutsui, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Katayama, H.; Matsuo, N.; Oshima, H.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yamazaki, F.

    2004-12-01

    Fuji volcano (altitude 3,776 m) is the largest basaltic stratovolcano in Japan. In late August and early September 2003, seismic exploration was conducted around Fuji volcano by the detonation of 500 kg charges of dynamite to investigate the seismic structure of that area. Seismographs with an eigenfrequency of 2 Hz were used for observation, positioned along a WSW-ENE line passing through the summit of the mountain. A total of 469 observation points were installed at intervals of 250-500 m. The data were stored in memory on-site using data loggers. The sampling interval was 4 ms. Charges were detonated at 5 points, one at each end of the observation line and 3 along its length. The first arrival times at each observation point for each detonation were recorded as data. The P-wave velocity structure directly below the observation line was determined by forward calculation using the ray tracing method [Zelt and Smith, 1992]. The P-wave velocity structure below the volcano, assuming a layered structure, was found to be as follows. (1) The first layer extends for about 40 km around the summit and to a depth of 1-2 km. The P-wave velocity is 2.5 km/s on the upper surface of the layer and 3.5 km/s on the lower interface. (2) The second layer has P-wave velocities of 4.0 km/s on the top interface and 5.5 km/s at the lower interface. The layer is 25 km thick to the west of the summit and 1-2 km thick to the east, and forms a dome shape with a peak altitude of 2000 m directly below the summit. (3) The third layer is 5-12 km thick and has P-wave velocities of 5.7 km/s at the top interface and 6.5 km/s at the lower interface. This layer reaches shallower levels to the east of the summit, corresponding to the area where the second layer is thinner. Mt. Fuji is located slightly back from where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts below the Eurasian plate in association with collision with the Izu Peninsula. Matsuda (1971) suggested that Mt. Fuji lies on the same uplifted body as

  8. High energy gamma-rays and hadrons at Mount Fuji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amenomori, M.; Nanjo, H.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectra of high energy gamma-rays and hadrons were obtained by the emulsion chamber with 40 c.u. thickness at Mt. Fuji (3750 m). These results are compared with the Monte Carlo calculation based on the same model which is used in a family analysis. Our data are compatible with the model of heavy-enriched primary and scaling in the fragmentation region.

  9. Image optimization procedures for the Fuji AC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.; Pe, Einar V.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Nelson, Martha C.

    1993-06-01

    The Fuji AC-1 is a popular system for digital radiography with great potential, but for many the initial implementation of the system in a radiology service is frustrating experience for lack of effective support and a clear operational manual. Adjusting the image processing settings for site specific image optimization has been, for most users, difficult and confusing. The effect of each of the image processing parameters available on the Fuji AC-1 is not easily understood by users of the machine. The application manual that comes with the machine briefly defines the parameters and gives recommended settings for different types of examinations, but the manual does not provide the user with adequate information or a suggested method to allow the user to easily optimize the image for that user's site. This paper defines in more precise terms the meaning of the various parameters and suggests a method of procedure to optimize the parameters to each radiologists preference. The results are based on experiments and measurements we performed with a Fuji AC-1 +. This information should assist the radiologist to use a more systematic method of image quality improvement rather than the somewhat random trial and error process that current users have described.

  10. Imaging crust and upper mantle beneath Mount Fuji, Japan, by receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, S. M.; Igarashi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Takeo, M.

    2015-05-01

    Mount Fuji has ejected a huge amount of basaltic products during the last 100,000 years. Even though the region around Mount Fuji is tectonically active, the seismicity below Mount Fuji is low, resulting in little knowledge about the seismic structure there. To gain more insight into the magma-plumbing system, we obtain the seismic structure beneath Mount Fuji by the receiver function (RF) technique. RFs at seismic stations around Mount Fuji show positive phases at ~3 and ~6 s, representing the conversion of P to S waves at a positive velocity boundary in the Philippine Sea plate. Cross sections of RF amplitudes reveal two distinct velocity boundaries around Mount Fuji, at depths of 40-50 km and 20-30 km, which we interpret to be the boundary between the crust-mantle transition layer and the uppermost mantle of the Izu-Bonin arc and the velocity discontinuity just below the region where low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) of Mount Fuji have occurred, respectively. The velocity boundary at about 50 km depth shows a clear gap just beneath Mount Fuji. We suggest that this gap represents a weaker velocity contrast zone through which the magma of Mount Fuji ascends from the Pacific plate. A thorough grid search reveals that a low-velocity zone at depths of ~13-26 km explains all the characteristics of RFs around Mount Fuji, leading us to interpret the high-velocity boundary just below the LFE region as the lower boundary of Mount Fuji's magma chamber.

  11. Elevational Patterns in Archaeal Diversity on Mt. Fuji

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmesh; Takahashi, Koichi; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of how archaeal diversity and community ecology behaves along elevational gradients. We chose to study Mount Fuji of Japan as a geologically and topographically uniform mountain system, with a wide range of elevational zones. PCR-amplified soil DNA for the archaeal 16 S rRNA gene was pyrosequenced and taxonomically classified against EzTaxon-e archaeal database. At a bootstrap cut-off of 80%, most of the archaeal sequences were classified into phylum Thaumarchaeota (96%) and Euryarchaeota (3.9%), with no sequences classified into other phyla. Archaeal OTU richness and diversity on Fuji showed a pronounced ‘peak’ in the mid-elevations, around 1500 masl, within the boreal forest zone, compared to the temperate forest zone below and the alpine fell-field and desert zones above. Diversity decreased towards higher elevations followed by a subtle increase at the summit, mainly due to an increase in the relative abundance of the group I.1b of Thaumarchaeota. Archaeal diversity showed a strong positive correlation with soil NH4+, K and NO3−. Archaeal diversity does not parallel plant diversity, although it does roughly parallel bacterial diversity. Ecological hypotheses to explain the mid diversity bulge on Fuji include intermediate disturbance effects, and the result of mid elevations combining a mosaic of upper and lower slope environments. Our findings show clearly that archaeal soil communities are highly responsive to soil environmental gradients, in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Distinct communities of archaea specific to each elevational zone suggest that many archaea may be quite finely niche-adapted within the range of soil environments. A further interesting finding is the presence of a mesophilic component of archaea at high altitudes on a mountain that is not volcanically active. This emphasizes the importance of microclimate – in this case solar heating of the black volcanic ash surface – for the ecology of

  12. Seismic anisotropy of the upper crust around Mount Fuji, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, Kohtaro R.; Savage, Martha K.; Ohminato, Takao; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-04-01

    We measure shear wave splitting and estimate stresses of Mount Fuji, Japan, to interpret anisotropic structure and its implication for geologic processes using local crustal earthquake seismograms from 2009 to 2012. The measured fast polarizations have preferred orientations at each station with mean values of delay times <0.15 s. We infer that the anisotropic structure is located at shallow depths (<4 km) from a lack of focal depth dependence of delay times. The fast polarization directions for stations within approximately 15 km of the summit of Mount Fuji show a radial pattern pointing toward the summit, while stations far from the summit exhibit fast polarization directions approximately parallel to the NW-SE compressional regional stress field. We infer that the symmetrical seismic anisotropic structure around the summit and the fast directions parallel to the regional compression observed at distant stations from the summit reflect interactions of the gravitational stresses and regional tectonics. Assuming stress control only, the spatial pattern of anisotropy can be fit by the interaction of gravitational with regional stresses if the regional maximum horizontal stress is 1.02 times lithostatic pressure (51.9 MPa at a depth of 2.0 km). If structural anisotropy also contributes to the radial pattern, then the regional maximum horizontal stress magnitude is not constrained.

  13. Precipitation regime and stable isotopes at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Anna; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Powers, Jordan G.; Manning, Kevin W.; Werner, Martin; Fujita, Koji

    2016-06-01

    A unique set of 1-year precipitation and stable water isotope measurements from the Japanese Antarctic station, Dome Fuji, has been used to study the impact of the synoptic situation and the precipitation origin on the isotopic composition of precipitation on the Antarctic Plateau. The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) archive data are used to analyse the synoptic situations that cause precipitation. These situations are investigated and divided into five categories. The most common weather situation during a precipitation event is an upper-level ridge that extends onto the Antarctic Plateau and causes strong northerly advection from the ocean. Most precipitation events are associated with an increase in temperature and wind speed, and a local maximum of δ18O. During the measurement period, 21 synoptically caused precipitation events caused 60 % of the total annual precipitation, whereas the remaining 40 % were predominantly attributed to diamond dust. By combining the synoptic analyses with 5-day back-trajectories, the moisture source regions for precipitation events were estimated. An average source region around a latitude of 55° S was found. The atmospheric conditions in the source region were used as initial conditions for running a Rayleigh-type isotopic model in order to reproduce the measured isotopic composition of fresh snow and to investigate the influence of the precipitation source region on the isotope ratios. The model represents the measured annual cycle of δ18O and the second-order isotopic parameter deuterium excess reasonably well, but yields on average too little fractionation along the transport/cooling path. While simulations with an isotopic general circulation model (GCM) (ECHAM5-wiso) for Dome Fuji are on average closer to the observations, this model cannot reproduce the annual cycle of deuterium excess. In the event-based analysis, no evidence of a correlation of the measured deuterium excess with the latitude of the

  14. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  15. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  16. 78 FR 27474 - Fuji Heavy Industries USA, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... 19, 2010, in the Federal Register (75 FR 20423). Comments were received from Advocates for Highway... model year 2010 Subaru Legacy passenger car and Outback multipurpose Passenger Cars, manufactured from....2.2 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard FMVSS No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection. Fuji...

  17. Physiological and morphological effects of size-controlling rootstocks on 'Fuji' scion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size-controlling effects of apple rootstocks were partially characterized in greenhouse experiments. Two-year-old 'Fuji' scions on 25 size-controlling rootstocks, from the USDA apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva, NY, were grown for one season and shoot development was measured each mont...

  18. Fog and rain water chemistry at Mt. Fuji: A case study during the September 2002 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Takebe, Yusaku; Sode, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Dokiya, Yukiko

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of fog and rain water chemistry at the summit of Mt. Fuji, the highest peak in Japan, as well as at Tarobo, the ESE slope of Mt. Fuji in September 2002. The pH of fog and rain water sampled at Mt. Fuji varied over a range of 4.0-6.8. Acidic fogs (pH < 5.0) were observed at the summit when the air mass came from the industrial regions on the Asian continent. The ratio of [SO 42-]/[NO 3-] in the fog water was lower at Tarobo than at the summit. High concentrations of Na + and Cl - were determined in the rain water sampled at the summit, possibly because of the long-range transport of sea-salt particles raised by a typhoon through the middle troposphere. The vertical transport of sea-salt particles would influence the cloud microphysical properties in the middle troposphere. Significant loss of Mg 2+ was seen in the rain water at the summit. The concentrations of peroxides in the fog and rain water were relatively large (10-105 μM). The potential capacity for SO 2 oxidation seems to be strong from summer to early autumn at Mt. Fuji. The fog water peroxide concentrations displayed diurnal variability. The peroxide concentrations in the nighttime were significantly higher than those in the daytime.

  19. Analysis of 'Fuji' apple somatic variants from next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, G H; Kwon, S I; Kim, J H; Kwon, Y S; Choi, C

    2016-01-01

    The domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a major fruit crop of temperate regions of the world. 'Fuji' apple (Ralls Genet x Delicious), a famous apple cultivar in Korea, has been very popular since its promotion in Japan in 1958. 'Fuji' and its bud mutant cultivars possess variable levels of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, the phenotypes of each group, which are classified into the bud mutation groups: early season, fruiting spur, and coloring, are similar. Despite attempts to identify these bud mutation cultivars, molecular markers, which were developed before the emergence of next-generation sequencing technology, have not been able to distinguish each cultivar easily. In this study, we adopted the resequencing technique using the 'Golden Delicious' (Grimes Golden x Unknown) apple genome as a reference. SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and InDels (insertions or deletions) of 'Fuji' apple and its bud mutant cultivar were detected and SNPs and unique InDels distinct to each cultivar were identified. Data from this study may be used to identify bud mutant cultivars of 'Fuji' apples and be useful for further breeding of apples. PMID:27525934

  20. Annually-resolved temperature reconstructions of the past 2000 years from Dome-Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motizuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Kazuya; Nakai, Yoichi; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    We present annually-resolved temperature and SST reconstructions of the past 2000 years based on water (oxygen and deuterium) isotope measurement on a shallow ice core drilled in 2010 at Dome Fuji station, East Antarctica. These time series records will be an essential contribution to the PAGES 2k project from sparse data area in Antarctica. Dome Fuji station is located on a summit of Dronning Maud Land at an altitude of 3810 m a.s.l. (above sea level) (77o19'01'' S, 39o42'12'' E) in East Antarctica. The 10 m depth mean snow temperature at Dome Fuji is ‑57.3oC1). The inland area around Dome Fuji has been recognized to be especially unique: The snow and ice there contain much stratospheric information. The direct evidence for this comes from tritium contents originated from the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s; the tritium fallout at the Dome Fuji site is outstandingly high among 16 snow pit samples widely collected over Antarctica2). To date the concerned Dome Fuji ice core, we applied volcanic signature matching to transfer the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core chronology constructed by annual layer counting as used in the study by Sigl et al. (2014)3). In our presentation, we confine ourselves to discuss the oscillation periodicity that we observed in the oxygen isotope record in our data: The periods of approximately 10, 20, and 200 years were found. We will present the time series analyses for this in detail, and will discuss the origin of this periodicity. References: 1) Kameda, T., Motoyama, H., Fujita, S., and Takahashi, S.: "Past temporal and spatial variability of surface mass balance at Dome Fuji", East Antarctica, by the stake method from 1995 to 2006, J. Glaciol., 54, 107-116, 2008. 2) Fourre, E., Jean-Baptiste, P., Dapoigny, A., Baumier, D., Petit, J.-R., and Jouzel, J.: "Past and recent tritium levels in Arctic and Antarctic polar caps", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 245, 56-64, 2006. 3) Sigl, M., J. McConnell, M. Toohey, M. Curran, S. Das

  1. Conditions of deep magma chamber beneath Fuji volcano estimated from high- P experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Takahashi, E.; Hamada, M.; Ushioda, M.; Suzuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Fuji volcano, the largest in volume and eruption rate in Japan, is located at the center of Honshu, where North America, Eurasia and Philippine Sea plates meets. Because of the significance of Fuji volcano both in tectonic settings and potential volcanic hazard (particularly after the M9 earthquake in 2011), precise knowledge on its magma feeding system is essentially important. Composition of magma erupted from Fuji volcano in the last 100ky is predominantly basalt (SiO2=50-52wt%, FeO/MgO=1.5-3.0). Total lack of silica-rich magma (basaltic andesite and andesite) which are always present in other nearby volcanoes (e.g., Hakone, Izu-Oshima, see Fig.1) is an important petrologic feature of Fuji volcano. Purpose of this study is to constrain the depth of magma chamber of Fuji volcano and explain its silica-nonenrichment trend. High pressure melting experiments were carried out using two IHPVs at the Magma Factory, Tokyo Institute of Technology (SMC-5000 and SMC-8600, Tomiya et al., 2010). Basalt scoria Tr-1 which represents the final ejecta of Hoei eruption in AD1707, was adopted as a starting material. At 4kbar, temperature conditions were 1050, 1100 and 1150C, and H2O contents were 1.3, 2.7 and 4.7 wt.%, respectively. At 7kbar, temperature conditions were 1075, 1100 and 1125C, and H2O contents were 1.0, 1.1, 3.6 and 6.3wt.%, respectively. The fO2 was controlled at NNO buffer. At 4kbar, crystallization sequence at 3 wt% H2O is magnetite, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and finally orthopyroxene. At 7 kbar, and ~3 wt% H2O, the three minerals (opx, cpx, pl) appears simultaneously near the liquidus. Compositional trend of melt at 4 kbar and 7 kbar are shown with arrows in Fig.1. Because of the dominant crystallization of silica-rich opx at 7 kbar, composition of melt stays in the range SiO2=50-52wt% as predicted by Fujii (2007). Absence of silica-rich rocks in Fuji volcano may be explained by the tectonic setting of the volcano. Because Fuji volcano locates on the plate

  2. Symmetrical seismic anisotropy of Mt. Fuji and its interpretations in terms of regional stress fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, K.; Savage, M. K.; Ohminato, T.; Aoki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is recently used for the interpretation of subsurface structure and its relationship to stress fields. We measure shear wave splitting (SWS) on Mt. Fuji to interpret anisotropic structure and its recent temporal change. Mt. Fuji is an active volcano in Japan located on the triple junction of the Philippine Sea plate, the North American plate, and the Eurasian plate. Mt. Fuji erupted repeatedly, although it has been dormant since the last eruption in 1707. We have no clear geophysical signal of imminent eruptive activity around Mt. Fuji and the area is known as a low seismicity area (less than 10 events per month within 10 km of the summit). By contrast, the seismicity of Mt. Fuji temporally increased after the Great Tohoku Earthquake and an aftershock (Mw 5.9) on 15 March 2011. The aftershock is likely to cause significant pressure perturbation in the area (e.g. Fujita et al., 2013). In order to evaluate current geologic processes in the area and potential of the influence of the Great Tohoku Earthquake on a future increase of volcanic activity, the quantitative approaches to understand the upper crustal structure of Mt. Fuji are required. It is also important to interpret geophysical observation in volcanic areas might be affected by large earthquakes. Measurements of seismic anisotropy by using shear wave splitting can constrain current subsurface structure and help to evaluate if future transients exist. We use seismic data from 2009 to 2012 to measure SWS. ERI and NIED installed 16 seismic stations in the vicinity of the volcanic edifice of Mt. Fuji. The period covers when the Mw5.9 earthquake occurred. Since we needed to process numerous amount of data, we adopted the MFAST (Savage et al., 2010) shear wave splitting technique. The methodology applies multiple filters to the waveform and conducts clustering analysis of SWS measurements. The code can reject noisy data based on the evaluation of measurement results and it increases the

  3. Precise hypocenter locations of midcrustal low-frequency earthquakes beneath Mt. Fuji, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakamichi, H.; Ukawa, M.; Sakai, S.

    2004-01-01

    Midcrustal low-frequency earthquakes (MLFs) have been observed at seismic stations around Mt. Fuji, Japan. In September - December 2000 and April - May 2001, abnormally high numbers of MLFs occurred. We located hypocenters for the 80 MLFs during 1998-2003 by using the hypoDD earthquake location program (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). The MLF hypocenters define an ellipsoidal volume some 5 km in diameter ranging from 11 to 16 km in focal depth. This volume is centered 3 km northeast of the summit and its long axis is directed NW-SE. The direction of the axis coincides with the major axis of tectonic compression around Mt. Fuji. The center of the MLF epicenters gradually migrated upward and 2-3 km from southeast to northwest during 1998-2001. We interpret that the hypocentral migration of MLFs reflects magma movement associated with a NW-SE oriented dike beneath Mt. Fuji. Copyright ?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.

  4. The 1707 Mw8.7 Hoei earthquake triggered the largest historical eruption of Mt. Fuji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Christine; LaFemina, Peter C.; Puskas, Christine; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2012-12-01

    Studies in magma-tectonics point to a spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here, we examine the correlation between two great Japanese earthquakes, the 1703 Mw 8.2 Genroku and 1707 Mw 8.7 Hoei, and Mt. Fuji's explosive (VEI 5) Hoei eruption, 49 days after the 1707 earthquake. We model the static stress changes and dilatational strain imparted on the Mt. Fuji magmatic system due to each earthquake to determine if these mechanisms enhanced the potential for eruption. Our results show that both earthquakes clamped the dike from 8 km to the surface and compressed magma chambers at 8 km and 20 km depths. The 1707 earthquake decreased the normal stress on the dike at 20 km, the proposed depth of a basaltic magma chamber, by 1.06 bars (0.106 MPa). We hypothesize that the stress change and strain generated by the 1707 earthquake triggered the eruption of Mt. Fuji by permitting opening of the dike and ascent of basaltic magma from 20 km into andesitic and dacitic magma chambers located at 8 km depth. The injection of basaltic magma into the more evolved magmatic system induced magma mixing and a Plinian eruption ensued.

  5. [Effects of environmental factors at different altitudes on leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Wen; Gao, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Dong; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Liu, Hang-Kong

    2014-08-01

    To inquire the different performances of the leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple tress at various altitudes and their responses to the environmental factors, indices including leaf morphology, anatomy, δ13 C, and fruit quality of the Fuji apple trees at respective altitudes of 1375 m, 1575 m and 1715 m were investigated and their responses to environmental factors were determined following stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that 6 factors like the warmth index, Bailey's index, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), coldness index, ultraviolet B and the annual precipitation dominantly affected the characteristic parameters of leaves and fruit. Elevation increase was matched by the decreasing warmth index, rising Bailey' s index, intenser PAR, higher coldness index, stronger ultraviolet B and heavier annual precipitation; meanwhile, the leaf structure and fruit quality parameters also displayed evident trends of change accordingly, namely, leaf parameters like leaf thickness, cuticle thickness, ratio of palisade and spongy, maximum conduit diameter, δ13C and nitrogen content per unit area increased gradually, and oppositely, leaf length-width ratio, specific leaf area, stoma length-width ratio and ratio of upper and lower epidermis to the leaf thickness decreased gradually; similarly, fruit parameters such as fruit shape index, fruit hardness, sugar-acid ratio, total color and the a/b-value ascended while the titratable acid and the hue angle descended. With increasing the altitude, the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of leaves were enhanced, and the fruit sugar-acid ratio climbed and the fruit flavor and color improved. Therefore, it could be safely concluded that within the altitude range between 1375 and 1715 m, environmental factors at a higher altitude favored Fuji apple growth. PMID:25509074

  6. Concentration and isotope ratio of sulfur species in snow along the route to Dome Fuji, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, M.; Motoyama, H.

    2014-12-01

    Snow ice sample in Antarctica contains particulate matter. Particulates originate from continent, volcano, sea, space, and organism. Methanesulfonate ion and sulfate ion are major sulfur compounds packed in snow ice in Antarctica. The isotopic ratio of an element reflects the origin and the history of the particle matter. Since the isotopic ratio of sulfur species depends on the source, the information about the source contribution of particulate matter can be estimated by analyzing the isotopic ratios of sulfur species. In this research, concentrations of sulfur species and isotopic ratios of sulfur species in snow collected on the route form coastal area to Dome Fuji station in Antarctica were analyzed. The snow samples were collected along ca. 1000 km traverse route from Mikaeridai (S16; 69°01'S, 40°03'E, 590 m) to Dome Fuji station (77°19'S, 39°42'E, 3810 m) by the Japan Antarctica research expedition. The snow samples were also collected from a pit dug at Dome Fuji station. Those samples were collected in the 2009/2010 austral summer. The samples were transported to Japan without thawing. Quantitative analyses of sulfur species were performed using ion chromatograph and quadrupole type mass spectrometer. The isotopic ratios of isolated sulfur species were measured using elemental analyzer and the magnetic field type mass spectrometer. Average concentrations and maximum concentration of methanesulfonate ion in the snow samples were 17 ng/ml and 123 ng/ml, respectively. Average concentrations and maximum concentration of sulfate ion were ng/ml 63 and 419 ng/ml, respectively. Further results and discussion about the behavior and origin of sulfur species in the snow will be presented.

  7. On the halo events observed by Mount Fuji and Mount Kanbala Emulsion Chamber Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, J. R.; Kuang, H. H.; Lu, S. L.; Su, S.; Xue, Y. G.; Wang, C. R.; Huo, A. X.; Wang, Y. X.; He, M.; Zhang, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of big gamma-ray families associated by halo is obtained from Mt. Fuji experiment (650 g/sq.cm. atmospheric depth) and Mt. Kanbala experiment (515 g/sq.cm.). The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation based on several assumptions on interaction mechanisms and the primary cosmic ray composition. The results suggest more than 3 times lower proton abundance among primaries than that of 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 13th eV region within the framework of quasi-scaling model of multiple production.

  8. Observation of new particle formation at the summit of Mt. Fuji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, N.; Miura, K.; Ueda, S.; Kato, S.; Uno, I.

    2013-12-01

    New particle formation (NPF) from gaseous precursors is largely recognized as an important worldwide mechanism increasing the number of atmospheric particles. However, there are a few reports from high-altitude in eastern Asia about this. Mt. Fuji (35.36N, 138.73E, 3776m ASL) is the highest mountain in Japan. The summit of Mt. Fuji is almost located in the free troposphere and is affected very little by local pollution. Therefore, measurements taken here can be assumed to be a representation of measured background atmospheric conditions and long-range transport of pollutants from Continent of China. In order to observe NPF, measurements of aerosol size distribution were conducted at the summit of Mt. Fuji from July 30 to Aug. 23, 2011, and from July 19 to Aug. 23, 2012. Aerosol size distributions from 4.4 to 5000 nm in diameter were measured with a scanning mobility particle size (SMPS, TSI 3936N25 or 3936L22) and an optical particle counter (OPC, RION KR12). Small positive ions were measured with a Gerdien type meter (COM-3400). The critical mobility was set at 5.0 and 0.7 cm2 / V-sec. The 59 days of data were analyzed and classified into NPF events and non-events. There were 21 events, the 15 events of which were nighttime events during the period of measurements. We calculated a NPF event frequency for each air mass origin: Continent of China, Maritime, Japan, and Sea to land. It appears that air mass from the continent of China have the highest probability to lead to a NPF event, while the lower probabilities of NPF events are found in the air masses from maritime. New particle formation with ion induced nucleation was observed only once at night at the summit of Mt. Fuji. Then, the ratio of O3 to CO was high and the mixing ratio was low. This is possibly due to a descending stratospheric air mass. The low condensation sink at this time may have caused the ion induced nucleation.

  9. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  10. Purification and structural analysis of membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase from Fuji apple.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Wen, Xin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-09-15

    Membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase (mPPO) in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) was purified and analyzed with a nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The three-dimensional model and binding site of mPPO to 4-methyl catechol were also studied using molecular docking. mPPO was purified 54.41-fold using temperature-induced phase partitioning technique and ion exchange chromatography. mPPO had a molecular weight of 67.3kDa. Even though a significant level of homology was observed between mPPO and the soluble polyphenol oxidase in the copper binding sequence, there was another region, rich in histidine residues, which differed in 13 amino acids. The three-dimensional structure of mPPO consisted of six α-helices, two short β-strands, and ten random coils. The putative substrate-binding pocket contained six polar or charged amino acids, His191, His221, Trp224, Trp228, Phe227, and Val190. Trp224 and Trp228 formed hydrogen bonds with 4-methyl-catechol. PMID:25863612

  11. Particle interactions at energies over 1000 TeV inferred from gamma-families observed at Mount Fuji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amenomori, M.; Nanjo, H.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.

    1985-01-01

    Scaling, mean P sub t, high P sub t jets and others at energies over 1000 TeV are discussed on the basis of gamma-family data with sigma E sub gamma 100 TeV, observed at Mt. Fuji (3750 m). These quantities were examined in connection with the primary composition.

  12. Application of thermoluminescence for detection of cascade shower 2: Detection of cosmic ray cascade shower at Mount Fuji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akashi, M.; Kawaguchi, S.; Watanabe, Z.; Misaki, A.; Niwa, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Fujinaga, T.; Ichimura, M.; Shibata, T.; Dake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a thermoluminescence (TL) chamber exposed at Mt. Fuji during Aug. '83 - Aug. '84 are reported. The TL signal induced by cosmic ray shower is detected and compared with the spot darkness of X-ray film exposed at the same time.

  13. 78 FR 12827 - Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A., Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A., Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,...

  14. A full Stokes ice flow model for the vicinity of Dome Fuji, Antarctica, with induced anisotropy and fabric evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.; Zwinger, T.; Placidi, L.

    2011-06-01

    A three-dimensional, thermo-mechanically coupled ice flow model with induced anisotropy has been applied to a ~200 × 200 km domain around the Dome Fuji drill site, Antarctica. The model ("Elmer/Ice") is based on the open-source multi-physics package Elmer (http://www.csc.fi/elmer/) and solves the full Stokes equations. Flow-induced anisotropy in ice is accounted for by an implementation of the Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor ("CAFFE model"). Steady-state simulations for present-day climate conditions are conducted. The main findings are: (i) the flow regime at Dome Fuji is a complex superposition of vertical compression, horizontal extension and bed-parallel shear; (ii) for an assumed geothermal heat flux of 60 mW m-2 the basal temperature at Dome Fuji reaches the pressure melting point and the basal melting rate is ~0.35 mm a-1; (iii) in agreement with observational data, the fabric shows a strong single maximum at Dome Fuji, and the age of the ice is decreased compared to an isotropic scenario; (iv) as a consequence of spatially variable basal melting conditions, the basal age tends to be smaller where the ice is thicker and larger where the ice is thinner. The latter result is of great relevance for the consideration of a future drill site in the area.

  15. A full-Stokes ice flow model for the vicinity of Dome Fuji, Antarctica, with induced anisotropy and fabric evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.; Zwinger, T.; Placidi, L.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional, thermo-mechanically coupled ice flow model with induced aniso-tropy has been applied to a ~200×200 km domain around the Dome Fuji drill site, Antarctica. The model ("Elmer/Ice") is based on the open-source multi-physics package Elmer (http://www.csc.fi/elmer/) and solves the full-Stokes equations. Flow-induced anisotropy in ice is accounted for by an implementation of the Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor ("CAFFE model"). Steady-state simulations for present-day climate conditions are conducted. The main findings are: (i) the flow regime at Dome Fuji is a complex superposition of vertical compression, horizontal extension and bed-parallel shear; (ii) for a geothermal heat flux of 60 mW m-2 the basal temperature at Dome Fuji reaches the pressure melting point and the basal melting rate is ~1 mm a-1; (iii) the fabric shows a weak single maximum at Dome Fuji, which increases the age of the ice compared to an isotropic scenario; (iv) as a consequence of spatially variable basal melting conditions, and contrary to intuition, the basal age is smaller where the ice is thicker and larger where the ice is thinner. The latter result is of great relevance for the consideration of a future drill site in the area.

  16. Forward modeling of stress fields around Mt. Fuji and its implication for seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, K.; Savage, M. K.; Ohminato, T.; Aoki, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is used to constrain stresses or geologic structures. In volcanic areas, distinguishing characteristics of the stress is important for understanding geologic processes at depths. We measure shear wave splitting of Mt. Fuji. In this area, the geophysical environment includes regional stress fields, the gravitational effect of the volcanic edifice, and stress perturbations caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and a Mw 5.9 event on 15 March 2011. Measurement of splitting can be a good indicator of the interaction of these factors. We used data from 2009 to 2012 at 24 seismic stations around the volcanic edifice. The distribution of fast directions shows a radial pattern in the vicinity of the volcanic edifice while a pattern of stations far from the summit is parallel to the regional compression. We conducted forward modeling of stress fields around Mt. Fuji to test whether the contrast of patterns can be explained by stress. We estimated regional stresses from focal mechanisms by the methodology of Hardebeck and Michael (2006). And then, we calculated stress fields by gravitational effect as a consequence of the deformation of mass of volcanic edifice by solving a Boussinesq problem. We obtained horizontal directions of principal stresses as eigenvectors of stress tensors that sum both regional stress and gravitational effects. The estimation reproduced the radial pattern of seismic anisotropy near the volcano. It may be possible to constrain the absolute range of stresses if we estimate the influence of gravitational effect of topography and area of seismic anisotropy similtaneously. Measurement results of splitting indicate temporal consistency of anisotropy around the volcanic edifice. Delay times did not show significant change of seismic anisotropy less than 0.025s. By contrast, calculated vp/vs ratios in the measured area suggest that some small change may exist. In previous geophysical observations of Mt. Fuji, possible perturbation of

  17. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  18. Absolute response of Fuji imaging plate detectors to picosecond-electron bunches.

    PubMed

    Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Jochmann, A; Kroll, F; Jahr, W; Schramm, U; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J; Hidding, B; Pretzler, G

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the absolute number of electrons generated by laser wakefield acceleration often relies on absolutely calibrated FUJI imaging plates (IP), although their validity in the regime of extreme peak currents is untested. Here, we present an extensive study on the dependence of the sensitivity of BAS-SR and BAS-MS IP to picosecond electron bunches of varying charge of up to 60 pC, performed at the electron accelerator ELBE, making use of about three orders of magnitude of higher peak intensity than in prior studies. We demonstrate that the response of the IPs shows no saturation effect and that the BAS-SR IP sensitivity of 0.0081 photostimulated luminescence per electron number confirms surprisingly well data from previous works. However, the use of the identical readout system and handling procedures turned out to be crucial and, if unnoticed, may be an important error source. PMID:20113093

  19. Absolute response of Fuji imaging plate detectors to picosecond-electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Jochmann, A.; Kroll, F.; Jahr, W.; Schramm, U.; Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J.; Hidding, B.; Pretzler, G.

    2010-01-15

    The characterization of the absolute number of electrons generated by laser wakefield acceleration often relies on absolutely calibrated FUJI imaging plates (IP), although their validity in the regime of extreme peak currents is untested. Here, we present an extensive study on the dependence of the sensitivity of BAS-SR and BAS-MS IP to picosecond electron bunches of varying charge of up to 60 pC, performed at the electron accelerator ELBE, making use of about three orders of magnitude of higher peak intensity than in prior studies. We demonstrate that the response of the IPs shows no saturation effect and that the BAS-SR IP sensitivity of 0.0081 photostimulated luminescence per electron number confirms surprisingly well data from previous works. However, the use of the identical readout system and handling procedures turned out to be crucial and, if unnoticed, may be an important error source.

  20. Be-10 Variations in Dome Fuji Ice Core During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Horiuchi, K.; Yasudomi, Y.; Sugawara, A.; Matsuzaki, H.; Motoyama, H.; Shibata, Y.; Minoura, K.

    2007-12-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10 is produced in the atmosphere by an interaction of cosmic ray particles and nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The Be-10 is then quickly attached to aerosols and falls on the surface of the land and sea. Assuming Be-10 in an ice core reflects the variations of the production rate of the nuclide, it is possible to know the history of the cosmic ray flux from an ice core record of the nuclide. Several Be-10 records in the Holocene epoch have been obtained from ice cores from Greenland (Beer et al., 1988, 1990; Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997) and Antarctica (Raisbeck et al., 1990; Steig et al., 1996, Bard et al., 1997; Horiuchi et al., 2007). The records show Be-10 variations relevant to the known periodicities and amplitudes of the solar activity, which, as well as the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, controls the cosmic ray flux in the atmosphere (Lal and Peters, 1967; Masarik and Beer, 1999). However, the detailed Be-10 records of the last deglaciation are very few (Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997) and much less investigated than those of the Holocene epoch. In this paper, we present a Be-10 record of the last deglaciation, which is obtained from an ice core retrieved from Dome Fuji station, Eastern Antarctica (77° 19' S, 39° 42' E). The Be-10 was analyzed by using an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of MALT at the University of Tokyo, Japan. One of the problems that should be considered when we investigate the past changes in the cosmic rays by using the Be-10 variations is contamination of local meteorological signals. The last deglaciation was marked by large, hemispheric, millennial-scale climate variations: the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas periods in the north and the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the south. Because these events were not coincident in the north and south (Blunier et al., 1998; Blunier and Brook, 2001), the nature of the Be-10 flux variations may be different in Greenland and Antarctica if climatic changes really influenced

  1. Characteristics of basal ice and subglacial water at Dome Fuji, Antarctica ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, H.; Uemura, R.; Hirabayashi, M.; Miyake, T.; Kuramoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Dome Fuji Ice Core Project, M.

    2008-12-01

    (Introduction): The second deep ice coring project at Dome Fuji, Antarctica reached a depth of 3035.22 m during the austral summer season in 2006/2007. The recovered ice cores contain records of global environmental changes going back about 720,000 years. (Estimation of basal ice melt): The borehole measurement was carried out on January 2nd in 2007 when the temperature disturbance in the borehole calmed down by the rest of drilling for 2 days. Temperature measurement was performed after 0 C thermometer test was done in the ground. The temperature sensor of pt100 installed in the skate-like anti-torque was used. We did not have the enough time until the temperature of thermometer was matched with the temperature of ice sheet. Some error was included in ice temperature data. The resistance of pt100 sensor was converted to temperature in the borehole measurement machine. But we used only two electrical lines for pt100 sensor. Rate of heat flow in the ice sheet was calculated using the vertical temperature gradient of the ice sheet and rate of heat conductivity of ice. The deepest part of heat flux using temperatures at 3000m and 3030m was about 45mW/m2. We assumed that this value was the heat flux from the bedrock in the ice sheet. Heat flux to the bedrock surface in the ground was assumed 54.6mW/m2 adopted by ice sheet model (P. Huybrechts, 2006). Then the heat flux for basal ice melt was about 10mW/m2. This value was equaled to melting of 1.1mm of ice thickness per year. On the other hand, the annual layer thickness under 2500m was not changed so much and its average was 1.3mm of ice thickness. So the annual layer thickness and melting rate of basal ice was the same in ordering way. Or ice equivalent in annual layer is melting every year. The age of the deepest part of ice core is guessed at 720,000 years old and the ice older than basal ice has melted away. (The state of basal ice): When the ice core drilling depth passed 3031.44m, amount of ice chip more abundant

  2. Adaptation in tunably rugged fitness landscapes: the rough Mount Fuji model.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Johannes; Szendro, Ivan G; Krug, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Much of the current theory of adaptation is based on Gillespie's mutational landscape model (MLM), which assumes that the fitness values of genotypes linked by single mutational steps are independent random variables. On the other hand, a growing body of empirical evidence shows that real fitness landscapes, while possessing a considerable amount of ruggedness, are smoother than predicted by the MLM. In the present article we propose and analyze a simple fitness landscape model with tunable ruggedness based on the rough Mount Fuji (RMF) model originally introduced by Aita et al. in the context of protein evolution. We provide a comprehensive collection of results pertaining to the topographical structure of RMF landscapes, including explicit formulas for the expected number of local fitness maxima, the location of the global peak, and the fitness correlation function. The statistics of single and multiple adaptive steps on the RMF landscape are explored mainly through simulations, and the results are compared to the known behavior in the MLM model. Finally, we show that the RMF model can explain the large number of second-step mutations observed on a highly fit first-step background in a recent evolution experiment with a microvirid bacteriophage. PMID:25123507

  3. Adaptation in Tunably Rugged Fitness Landscapes: The Rough Mount Fuji Model

    PubMed Central

    Neidhart, Johannes; Szendro, Ivan G.; Krug, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current theory of adaptation is based on Gillespie’s mutational landscape model (MLM), which assumes that the fitness values of genotypes linked by single mutational steps are independent random variables. On the other hand, a growing body of empirical evidence shows that real fitness landscapes, while possessing a considerable amount of ruggedness, are smoother than predicted by the MLM. In the present article we propose and analyze a simple fitness landscape model with tunable ruggedness based on the rough Mount Fuji (RMF) model originally introduced by Aita et al. in the context of protein evolution. We provide a comprehensive collection of results pertaining to the topographical structure of RMF landscapes, including explicit formulas for the expected number of local fitness maxima, the location of the global peak, and the fitness correlation function. The statistics of single and multiple adaptive steps on the RMF landscape are explored mainly through simulations, and the results are compared to the known behavior in the MLM model. Finally, we show that the RMF model can explain the large number of second-step mutations observed on a highly fit first-step background in a recent evolution experiment with a microvirid bacteriophage. PMID:25123507

  4. How Would You Move Mount Fuji - And Why Would You Want To?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2008-12-01

    According to author William Poundstone, "How Would You Move Mt Fuji?" typifies the kind of question that corporations such as Microsoft are wont to ask job applicants in order to test their lateral thinking skills. One answer (albeit not one that would necessarily secure a job at Microsoft) is: "With Google Earth and a Macintosh or PC." The answer to the more profound follow-up question "Why Would You Want To?" is hinted at by one of the great quotations of earth science, namely Charles Lyell's proposition that "The Present Is Key to the Past." Google Earth is a phenomenally powerful tool for visualizing today's earth, ocean, and atmosphere. With the aid of Google SketchUp, that visualization can be extended to reconstruct the past using relocated samples of present-day landscapes and environments as models of paleo-DEM and paleogeography. Volcanoes are particularly useful models because their self similar growth can be simulated by changing KML altitude tags within a timespan, but numerous other landforms and geologic structures serve as useful keys to the past. Examples range in scale from glaciers and fault scarps to island arcs and mountain ranges. The ability to generate a paleo-terrain model in Google Earth brings us one step closer to a truly four- dimensional, interactive geological map of the world throughout time.

  5. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer using endoscopy with Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jie; Shen, Lei; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Demarcation of early gastric cancers is sometimes unclear. Indigo carmine chromoendoscopy has usually been used as a diagnostic method for tumor margins as it enhances mucosal irregularities and differences in color. Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE), a recently developed virtual chromoendoscopic system, can explore the entire mucosal surface (of structures and vessels). Here we report a case of a patient with early gastric cancer who underwent a successful endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using endoscopy with FICE. A 58-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent an ESD. Demarcation of the lesion was not clear through normal endoscopy. Therefore, an endoscopy was performed with FICE, which clearly revealed the demarcation. An ESD was carried out after spots were marked circumferentially. We identified the positional relationship between the demarcation and all markings on the magnifying model. A resection of the lesion was performed on the area outside the markings. Finally, the lesion was Histopathologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated adeno-carcinoma confined in the mucosal region, and the margins were free from carcinoma. FICE, especially combined with the magnifying model, is useful in the identification of the demarcation of early gastric cancer. This method may be useful in increasing the rate of complete resection by ESD for early gastric cancer. PMID:23386167

  6. Recent activities on CCMHD power generation studies with Fuji-1 blow-down facility

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Y.; Okamura, T.; Yoshikawa, K.

    1995-12-31

    Recent activities on experimental studies with closed cycle MBD {open_quotes}Fuji-1{open_quotes} blow-down facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology are presented. A new disk generator ( Disk-F4 ) has been installed and a new seed injection system has been introduced from IVTAN (Institute of High Temperature in Russia) in 1994.The design concept of the new generator channel is focused mainly on the reliability of high power generation. The Mach number at the generator inlet and the thermal input are increased up to {approximately}2.8 and {approximately}3.0 MW, respectively. In the new seeding system, a melted seed material is pushed by a piston dozator, instead of gas-pressure-driven in the previous system. The controllability of seed fraction is markedly improved, and the large fluctuation as has been observed previously is diminished, although the spatial non-uniformity of seed fraction which could occur in the all previous experiments is observed. In the power generation experiments with the new components, the maximum power output of 502 kW and the enthalpy extraction ratio of 16.7% have been obtained. These values at the present stage are lower than the maximum values previously achieved in the facility. However, the reliable high power generation can be expected for the new generator.

  7. Experimental studies on closed cycle MHD power generation with Fuji-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Yoshihiro; Kabashima, Shigeharu; Okamura, Tetsuji; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Suekane, Tetsuya; Shioda, Susumu; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Yasuo

    1996-12-31

    Experimental studies on closed cycle MHD power generation with Fuji-1 blow-down facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology are presented. Recently, a new disk generator (Disk-F4) has been installed and a new seed injection system has been introduced from IVTAN (Institute of High Temperature in Russia). The design concept of the new generator channel is focused mainly on the reliability of high power generation. The Mach number at the generator inlet and the thermal input are increased up to {approximately}2.8 and {approximately}3.0 MW, respectively. In the new seeding system, a melted seed material is pushed by a piston dozator, instead of gas-pressure-driven in the previous system. The controllability of seed fraction is markedly improved, and the large fluctuation as has been observed previously is diminished. In the power generation experiments with the new components, the maximum power output of 502kW and the enthalpy extraction ratio of 16.7% have been obtained. These values at the present stage are lower than the maximum values previously achieved in the facility. However, the reliable high power generation can be expected with the new generator. The behavior of plasma and fluid under high MHD interaction taking place in the generator channel is also discussed.

  8. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  9. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  10. Patulin distribution in Fuji and Golden apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Marín, S; Morales, H; Hasan, H A H; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2006-12-01

    This work assesses the extent of patulin contamination in Penicillium expansum-infected apples stored at room temperature for short periods of time and its relationship with apple variety (Golden or Fuji), degree of ripeness and size of lesions. Inoculated apples were incubated at 20 degrees C. Patulin was determined in both sound and decayed tissue from cylindrical samples taken around the lesions and cut into 0.5-cm thick sections. Higher accumulation of patulin occurred in Golden apples, with less ripened apples showing higher concentrations. Total accumulated patulin was similar or higher in 4-cm compared to 2-cm lesioned apples, although a decrease in patulin concentration was observed in older lesion sections. Patulin accumulation occurred over a short period of time at room temperature, thus the stand-by period before processing should be minimised. Of total patulin, 2-6% migrated to the surrounding sound tissue, thus trimming tissue around the rotten part may be a good preventive practice for apple derivative production. PMID:17118875

  11. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  12. On the occurrence of annual layers in Dome Fuji ice core early Holocene ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, A.; Fujita, S.; Bigler, M.; Braun, M.; Dallmayr, R.; Gkinis, V.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Popp, T.; Simonsen, M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.

    2015-09-01

    Whereas ice cores from high-accumulation sites in coastal Antarctica clearly demonstrate annual layering, it is debated whether a seasonal signal is also preserved in ice cores from lower-accumulation sites further inland and particularly on the East Antarctic Plateau. In this study, we examine 5 m of early Holocene ice from the Dome Fuji (DF) ice core at a high temporal resolution by continuous flow analysis. The ice was continuously analysed for concentrations of dust, sodium, ammonium, liquid conductivity, and water isotopic composition. Furthermore, a dielectric profiling was performed on the solid ice. In most of the analysed ice, the multi-parameter impurity data set appears to resolve the seasonal variability although the identification of annual layers is not always unambiguous. The study thus provides information on the snow accumulation process in central East Antarctica. A layer counting based on the same principles as those previously applied to the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice core Project) and the Antarctic EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dronning Maud Land (EDML) ice cores leads to a mean annual layer thickness for the DF ice of 3.0 ± 0.3 cm that compares well to existing estimates. The measured DF section is linked to the EDML ice core through a characteristic pattern of three significant acidity peaks that are present in both cores. The corresponding section of the EDML ice core has recently been dated by annual layer counting and the number of years identified independently in the two cores agree within error estimates. We therefore conclude that, to first order, the annual signal is preserved in this section of the DF core. This case study demonstrates the feasibility of determining annually deposited strata on the central East Antarctic Plateau. It also opens the possibility of resolving annual layers in the Eemian section of Antarctic ice cores where the accumulation is estimated to have been greater than in the Holocene.

  13. Precipitation regime and stable isotopes at Dome C and Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Dittmann, Anna; Stenni, Barbara; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Powers, Jordan G.; Manning, Kevin W.; Raphael, Marilyn; Fujita, Koji; Werner, Martin; Valt, Mauro; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    Dome Fuji and Dome C, both deep ice-core drilling sites in East Antarctica, are the only stations, for which direct daily precipitation measurements and stable isotope ratios of the precipitation samples are available. Whereas the Dome F series encompasses only one year of measurements, the Dome C series has been started in 2006 and is ongoing. For Dome C, the type of precipitation (diamond dust, hoar frost, snowfall) was determined based on crystal type analysis. The weather situations causing precipitation at the stations were analysed using data from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). At both sites, major snowfall events were always related to an amplification of Rossby waves in the circumpolar westerlies, which led to an increased meridional transport of moisture and energy. Furthermore, increased amounts of diamond dust were observed after such event-type precipitation. The stable isotope data of the precipitation samples were related to the different weather situations and precipitation types and also simulated using a simple Rayleigh-type model (MCIM) and compared to output from the global isotopic-enhanced model ECHAM5wiso. Possible moisture sources were estimated using the synoptic analysis combined with back-trajectory calculation. MCIM was better in reproducing the annual cycle of deuterium excess, whereas ECHAM5wiso generally showed a smaller bias of the isotope ratios. Hoar frost shows isotope signals very different from diamond dust and snowfall, which hints at a more local cycle of sublimation and deposition for this type of precipitation, whereas both snowfall and diamond dust are related to large-scale moisture transport. Contrary to the literature, a more northern moisture source was found to be not necessarily associated with more depleted snowfall. This is explained by the strong warm air advection accompanying snowfall events, which decreases the temperature difference between source area and deposition site and thus leads to

  14. Stress perturbation given on the Mount Fuji Volcano Magma System caused by the Tohoku Megathrust Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Ozawa, T.; Ueda, H.; Kohno, Y.; Yoshioka, S.; Toda, N.; Kikuchi, A.; Ida, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake often triggers volcanic eruptions nearby, and its mechanism is widely discussed. The megathrust earthquake on March 11, 2011, in Tohoku, Japan, caused enormous crustal deformation over the mainland of Japan, and 20 volcanoes showed abnormal activities. In this presentation, we evaluate the perturbation given on Mount Fuji volcanic system. We applied the Finite-Element Method (FEM) to calculate both static and quasi-static stress changes. The Japanese main-land and the Mount Fuji region are modeled based on seismic tomography, as well as the effects of the topography. Our results changes indicate that the static stress change due to Tohoku earthquake is in the order of 0.01MPa. In addition, an induced Mw5.9 East-Shizuoka earthquake occurred four days after the major earthquake beneath the south flank of Mount Fuji. This seismic fault is estimated to be located above the magma reservoir in the mid-crust, based on the inversion of ground deformation data, and FEM result suggests the stress changes of 0.1-1MPa. We also consider the quasi-static model to evaluate the mechanism of time lag between earthquakes and volcanic eruption. We applied the visco-elastic (Maxwell) model to crustal structure. We must obtain strain velocity in each time step, which controls the response after. Our results shows that the differential stress around the main shock region will reduce to 78 % of the static stress change in 100 years, but will increase to 7% of the static stress change beneath the magma reservoir of Mount Fuji volcano. Our interest is in whether these disturbances are sufficient to excite the magma and trigger and eruption. Here we consider two kinds of processes leading to an eruption. The first one is the promotion of the promotion of bubbling due to depressurization, and the other is the stress changes in the surrounding rocks. We performed numerical simulations of depressurization bubbling by VERA code (Fujita et al., 2007, IUGG). We assume initial bubble

  15. A Finite-Element Ice Flow Model for the Vicinity of Dome Fuji With Induced Anisotropy and Fabric Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.; Placidi, L.; Zwinger, T.; Gagliardini, O.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional, thermo-mechanically coupled flow model with induced anisotropy has been developed and applied to the vicinity of Dome Fuji, Antarctica. The model implements the full Stokes equations for the ice dynamics, and the system is solved with the finite-element method (FEM) using the open source multi-physics package Elmer (http://www.csc.fi/elmer/). The finite-element mesh for the computational domain has been created with two data sets, the fine resolution data obtained at Dome Fuji and the coarse resolution data sets RAMPDEM V2 and BEDMAP which cover the entire Antarctic ice sheet. The fine data which represent a 60 x 60 km area around the Dome Fuji station have been merged to the coarse data sets to create a single domain of about 200 x 200 km size. The mesh consists of a coarse resolution near the boundaries (20 km) and a mesh resolution refinement (up to 500 m) towards the position of the borehole located at the center of the domain. This procedure has been carried out in order to keep the lateral boundaries sufficiently far away from the dome, so that shallow- ice stresses can be prescribed there. At the base, no-slip conditions are assumed, and on the surface, the temperature is prescribed to be constant everywhere on the domain. A Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE model) is used for taking into account the flow-induced anisotropy in ice. The flow law is implemented in Elmer by means of second and fourth order orientation tensors that describe the c-axis orientation of the fabric. Similarly, the fabric evolution equation is written in terms of the evolution of the second order tensor, and it is solved with a Discontinuous Galerkin method using Picard type iterations for the non-linearity. Since the fabric evolution equation also depends on the fourth order orientation tensor, the IBOF (Invariant-Based Optimal Fitting) closure function is used for the computation of its

  16. A new dating method for Dome Fuji ice core using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Nakano, Shin'ya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Parrenin, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Understanding of past climate changes is regarded as a key for predicting the future climate. In particular, ice cores have been providing excellent records of the past climatic and environmental changes. The second Dome Fuji deep ice core (DF2 core) was drilled to 3,035 m below surface, and the comparison of its isotopic record with that of EDC core suggests that the DF2 core reaches ~700 kyr ago. In order to accurately date the core, one needs good estimation of accumulation rate and thinning function especially in the deep part (within ~500 m from the bed corresponding to ~340-700 kyr ago). The thinning function, which results from the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of an ice layer, is a function of several factors such as depth, temperature, basal sliding and geothermal heat flux. Using Data Assimilation, we try to make a new dating method but based on the glaciological dynamics of Parrenin et al. (2004, 2007). Trough Kalman filter and smoothing method, we could gain a new tracking method for the age of ice. In this time, we treat the age of ice as an object for the data assimilation and we don't assimilate both of accumulation rates and thinning function individually. It is still in the experimental stage but we will introduce the method and indicate the results. The new method has an advantage in the speed for calculation of parameterizations over the other models. We will indicate the results of calculation times and the optimized parameters in comparison with the other models. From reductions of calculation times, we would be able to calculate sampling of larger members for parameterization using another data assimilation method like a particle filter which needs a huge cost of calculations. In the use of Kalman Filter, it is difficult to treat both of the accumulation rate and the thinning function as variable in the state space model because there is the exponential equation for the accumulation rate. We will design a new state space model

  17. Glacioclimatological study of perennial ice in the Fuji Ice Cave, Japan. Part 2. Interannual variation and relation to climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ohata, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Teruo; Osada, Kazuo )

    1994-08-01

    A glacioclimatological study of the interannual variation of mass of perennial ice in the Fuji Ice Cave at the foot of Mt. Fuji, in central Japan is presented. The cave is a 150-m-long lava tube located in a dense forest area at an altitude of 1120 m. It has a perennial floor ice of areas approximately 3000 m[sup 3] and mean thickness 2.8 m. Mean annual air temperature at the ground surface level is 8.4[degrees]C. Ice surface levels and air temperatures were measured 39 times from July 1984 to December 1992. Mean ice level showed a 15 cm increase from 1984 to 1989 and suddenly started to decrease from 1989 to 1992. In the increase stage, annual net balance (December to November) was similar at various points, but in the decreasing stage, the lowering of the level near the entrance was very large due to intense melting. Air temperature inside the cave at the end of the annual cycle showed a correlation to net balance of the corresponding year. Comparison of yearly net balance with meterological indices at ground level (winter and summer, annual mean air temperature and total precipitation; and number of days with strong precipitation) showed that net balance of a give year has a high correlation with the average winter air temperature anomaly of the preceding 4 yr. This is probably due to the high heat capacity of the cave system. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A sensitometric comparison of Fuji Super HR-G and Kodak T-mat G panoramic films.

    PubMed

    Benson, B W; Frederiksen, N L

    1995-05-01

    Film contrast, relative speed, and resolution of Fuji Super HR-G panoramic film were determined according to specifications of the American National Standards Institute and compared with those of Kodak T-mat G panoramic film. The films were simultaneously exposed by Kodak Lanex regular intensifying screens with time-scale sensitometry. Optical density was read with a digital densitometer, and characteristic curves were plotted and analyzed by polynomial and linear regression. The average gradients of the linear regression curves between 0.25 and 2.00 optical density units above base plus fog were taken as contrast (HR-G: 1.831, T-mat G: 1.712). Relative speed, when exposed with Lanex regular intensifying screens and calculated at 1.00 optical density unit above base plus fog, was 412 for HR-G. A speed of 400 was chosen for T-mat G to match Kodak consumer information. Resolution for both films was similar. These findings suggest that Fuji Super HR-G panoramic film develops similar contrast, speed, and resolution to Kodak T-mat G panoramic film. PMID:7600231

  19. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antiproliferative Activities of Free and Bound Phenolics from Peel and Flesh of Fuji Apple.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jincan; Zhang, Pei; Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of flesh free (FF), flesh bound (FB), peel free (PF), and peel bound (PB) phenolics from Fuji apple. The PB, which had highest total phenolic contents (126.15 ± 2.41 mg/100 g wet weight) and lowest total carbohydrate contents (34.68 ± 2.78 mg/100 g wet weight), showed the strongest 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.36 ± 0.02 mg/mL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (Ferric reducing antioxidant power; EC50 = 0.19 ± 0.02 mg/mL) compared with those of FF, FB, and PF. The PB also showed the strongest antibacterial activities on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes and it also showed the highest antiproliferative effects on Caco-2 human colonic cancer cell (EC50 = 1.44 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and Hela human cervical cell (EC50 = 2.81 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Both free and bound phenolics from Fuji apple showed good antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities in our study, and bound phenolics had significantly higher activities compared with those of free phenolics. PMID:27272442

  20. Chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts over the last termination reconstructed from the Dome Fuji ice core, inland Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Uemura, Ryu; Miyake, Takayuki; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Motoyama, Hideaki; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Hondoh, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The flux and chemical composition of aerosols impact the climate. Antarctic ice cores preserve the record of past atmospheric aerosols, providing useful information about past atmospheric environments. However, few studies have directly measured the chemical composition of aerosol particles preserved in ice cores. Here we present the chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts from aerosol particles in the Dome Fuji ice core. The analysis method involves ice sublimation, and the period covers the last termination, 25.0-11.0 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.), with a 350 year resolution. The major components of the soluble particles are CaSO4, Na2SO4, and NaCl. The dominant sulfate salt changes at 16.8 kyr B.P. from CaSO4, a glacial type, to Na2SO4, an interglacial type. The sulfate salt flux (CaSO4 plus Na2SO4) inversely correlates with δ18O in Dome Fuji over millennial timescales. This correlation is consistent with the idea that sulfate salt aerosols contributed to the last deglacial warming of inland Antarctica by reducing the aerosol indirect effect. Between 16.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P., the presence of NaCl suggests that winter atmospheric aerosols are preserved. A high NaCl/Na2SO4 fraction between 12.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P. indicates that the contribution from the transport of winter atmospheric aerosols increased during this period.

  1. Whole fruit staining with aniline blue at harvest is associated with superficial pathogenesis of "Fuji" apples after storage.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Zhang, X; Yao, Y; Sun, X; Liu, L

    2011-12-01

    Whole "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Fuji) were treated with 0.2% aniline blue before storage in 2006, 2007 and 2008 to determine whether cuticular microcracking was associated with post-storage disorders. After storage for 7 months at 0° C and 90% relative humidity followed by 3 days at 20° C, a higher aniline blue staining scale value was associated with a higher peel browning and decay index. These results indicate that superficial disorders or diseases of apples may be related to cuticular microcracking that can be seen by aniline blue staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the ultrastructure of stained portions of the cuticular complex. Disorders or diseases of the cuticle of epidermal tissue was associated with cracked lenticels, unhealed microcracks around the edge of the lenticel, and collapsed epicuticular wax; these areas stained more intensely. Our results indicated the potential of using an aniline blue staining prior to storing the fruit to predict the ultimate quality. PMID:20854224

  2. Quality changes in fresh-cut Fuji apple as affected by ripeness stage, antibrowning agents, and storage atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Graü, M A; Grasa-Guillem, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ripening state, modified atmosphere, and the use of antibrowning agents was investigated in an attempt to determine optimum ripeness and processing conditions for extending the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apple. Apples were classified in 3 groups: mature-green, partially ripe, and ripe; after peeling and slicing, fruits were treated with 1% (w/v) N-acetylcysteine, or 1% (w/v) ascorbic acid (control), and then packed into polypropylene trays with air or a gas mixture (2.5% O2 + 7% CO2 + 90.5% N2) and sealed. Trays containing the apple slices were stored in darkness at 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C and analyzed periodically during 43 d. Changes in atmosphere composition, color, and firmness were examined. Partially ripe apples, based on their lower ethanol production and maintenance of their original color and firmness, were the most suitable to prepare the fresh-cut commodities. A postcutting dip in 1% (w/v) N-acetylcysteine was the most effective treatment to prevent cut surface browning and preserve the initial appearance of Fuji apple slices during more than 1 mo at 4 degrees C. Low O2 and elevated CO2 (2.5% O2 + 7% CO2) atmosphere extended the shelf life of apple slices because of a significant inhibition of ethylene production. PMID:17995895

  3. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period. PMID:26140475

  4. Glacioclimatological study of Perennial Ice in the Fuji Ice Cave, Japan. Part I. Seasonal variation and mechanism of maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohata, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Teruo; Higuchi, Keiji )

    1994-08-01

    Perennial cave ice in a cave located at Mt. Fuji in central Japan was studied to investigate the basic characteristics and the cause for existence of such ice under warm ground-level climate considering the ice cave as a thermal and hydrological system. Fuji Ice Cave is a lava tube cave 150 m in length with a collapsed part at the entrance. Measurements from 1984 to 1986 showed that the surface-level change of floor ice occurred due to freezing and melting at the surface and that melting at the bottom of the ice was negligible. The annual amplitude of change in surface level was larger near the entrance. Meterological data showed that the cold air inflow to the cave was strong in winter, but in summer the cave was maintained near 0[degrees]C with only weak inflow of warm air. The predominant wind system was from the entrance to the interior in both winter and summer, but the spatial scale of the wind system was different. Heat budget consideration of the cave showed that the largest component was the strong inflow of subzero dry air mass in winter. Cooling in winter was compensated for by summer inflow of warm air, heat transport from the surrounding ground layer, and loss of sensible heat due to cooling of the cave for the observed year. Strong inflow of cold air and weak inflow of warm air, which is extremely low compared to the ground level air, seemed to be the most important condition. Thus the thermal condition of the cave is quasi-balanced at the presence condition below 0[degrees]C with ice. It can be said that the interrelated result of the climatological and special structural conditions makes this cave very cold, and allows perennial ice to exist in the cave. Other climatological factors such as precipitation seem to be minor factors. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Response functions of Fuji imaging plates to monoenergetic protons in the energy range 0.6-3.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aleonard, M. M.

    2013-01-15

    We have measured the responses of Fuji MS, SR, and TR imaging plates (IPs) to protons with energies ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 MeV. Monoenergetic protons were produced with the 3.5 MV AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires de Faisceaux d'Ions en Region Aquitaine) accelerator at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG). The IPs were irradiated with protons backscattered off a tantalum target. We present the photo-stimulated luminescence response of the IPs together with the fading measurements for these IPs. A method is applied to allow correction of fading effects for variable proton irradiation duration. Using the IP fading corrections, a model of the IP response function to protons was developed. The model enables extrapolation of the IP response to protons up to proton energies of 10 MeV. Our work is finally compared to previous works conducted on Fuji TR IP response to protons.

  6. Cosmic ray event of A.D. 774-775 shown in quasi-annual 10Be data from the Antarctic Dome Fuji ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Suzuki, Asami; Masuda, Kimiaki; Horiuchi, Kazuho; Motoyama, Hideaki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Motizuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Kazuya; Nakai, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    content in tree rings and 10Be concentration records in polar ice core provide information about past cosmic ray intensities. The A.D. 774-775 cosmic ray event has been identified by 14C measurement in several tree rings from all over the world. Although the quasi-decadal 10Be Dome Fuji data in the Antarctic ice core also shows a sharp peak around A.D. 775, annual 10Be variations in the Dome Fuji core or in other cores have not been revealed. We have measured quasi-annual 10Be concentrations from approximately A.D. 763-794 in the Dome Fuji ice core, and detected a clear increase (~80% above the baseline) in 10Be concentration around A.D. 775. However, an accurate height of this increase is not straightforwardly estimated due to the background variation in 10Be concentration. The 10Be increase can be due to the same cosmic ray event as shown in the 14C content in A.D. 774-775.

  7. A sequential Bayesian approach for the estimation of the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kawamura, K.; Parrenin, F.; Higuchi, T.

    2015-06-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship in an ice core and evaluating its uncertainty is presented. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of ice layers. However, since neither the accumulation process nor the thinning process are fully understood, it is essential to incorporate observational information into a model that describes the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and δ18O data. The estimation is achieved using the particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) method, in which the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method is combined with the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are computed using the Metropolis method, in which the likelihood is obtained with the SMC method. Meanwhile, the posterior distribution for the age as a function of depth is obtained by collecting the samples generated by the SMC method with Metropolis iterations. The use of this PMCMC method enables us to estimate the age-depth relationship without assuming either linearity or Gaussianity. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by applying it to ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  8. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem δ18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation

  9. Volcanic synchronization of Dome Fuji and Dome C Antarctic deep ice cores over the past 216 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, S.; Parrenin, F.; Severi, M.; Motoyama, H.; Wolff, E.

    2015-02-01

    Two deep ice cores, Dome Fuji (DF) and EPICA Dome C (EDC), drilled at remote dome summits in Antarctica, were synchronized to better understand their chronology. A total of 1401 volcanic tie points were identified covering the past 216 kyr. DFO2006, the chronology for the DF core characterized by strong constraining by the O2/N2 age markers, was compared with AICC2012, the chronology for 5 cores including the EDC core, and characterized by glaciological approaches combining ice flow modelling with various age markers. The age gaps between the two chronologies are within 2 kyr, except at Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. DFO2006 gives ages older than AICC2012, with peak values of the gap of 4.5 and 3.1 kyr at MIS 5d and MIS 5b, respectively. Accordingly, ratios of duration DFO2006/AICC2012 are 85% at a period from the late stage of MIS 6 to MIS 5d and 114% at a period from MIS 5d to 5b. We then compared the DFO2006 with another chronology of the DF core, DFGT2006, characterized by glaciological approaches with weaker constraining by age markers. Features of the DFO2006/DFGT2006 age gaps are very similar to those of the DFO2006/AICC2012 age gaps. This fact lead us to hypothesize that a cause of the systematic DFO2006/AICC2012 age gaps at MIS 5 are associated with differences in the dating approaches. Besides, ages of speleothem records from China agreed well with DFO2006 at MIS 5c and 5d but not at MIS 5b. Thus, we hypothesize at least at MIS 5c and 5d, major sources of the gaps are systematic errors in surface mass balance estimation in the glaciological approach. Compatibility of the age markers should be carefully assessed in future.

  10. Simulating a multi-phase tephra fall event: inversion modelling for the 1707 Hoei eruption of Mount Fuji, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Christina; Mannen, Kazutaka; Connor, Laura; Bonadonna, Costanza; Connor, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Fuji Volcano last erupted in ad 1707 depositing approximately 40 mm of tephra in the area that is now central Tokyo. New high-resolution data describe 17 eruptive phases occurring over a period of 16 days (Miyaji et al., J Volcanol Geotherm Res 207(3-4):113-129, 2011). Inversion techniques were used in order to best replicate geological data and eyewitness accounts, and to estimate eruption source parameters. Inversion results based on data from individual eruptive phases suggest a total erupted mass of 2.09 × 1012 kg. Comparatively, results based on a single data set describing the entire eruption sequence suggest a total mass of 1.69 × 1012 kg. Values for total erupted mass determined by inversion were compared to those calculated using various curve fitting approaches. An exponential (two-segment) method, taking into account missing distal data, was found to be most compatible with inversion results, giving an erupted mass of 2.52 × 1012 kg when combining individual phases and 1.59 × 1012 kg when utilising a single data set describing the Hoei sequence. Similarly, a Weibull fitting method determined a total erupted mass of 1.54 × 1012 kg for the single data set and compared favourably with inversion results when enough data were available. Partitioning extended eruption scenarios into multiple phases and including detailed geological data close to the eruption source, more accurately replicated the observed deposit by taking into account subtleties such as lobes deposited during transient increases in eruption rate and variations in wind velocity or direction throughout the eruption.

  11. A sequential Bayesian approach for the estimation of the age-depth relationship of the Dome Fuji ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shin'ya; Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Parrenin, Frédéric; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2016-02-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship in an ice core and evaluating its uncertainty is presented. The age-depth relationship is determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process as a result of the deformation of ice layers. However, since neither the accumulation rate nor the thinning process is fully known, it is essential to incorporate observational information into a model that describes the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated by making use of age markers and δ18O data. The age markers provide reliable age information at several depths. The data of δ18O are used as a proxy of the temperature for estimating the accumulation rate. The estimation is achieved using the particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) method, which is a combination of the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning process are computed using the Metropolis method, in which the likelihood is obtained with the SMC method, and the posterior distribution for the age as a function of depth is obtained by collecting the samples generated by the SMC method with Metropolis iterations. The use of this PMCMC method enables us to estimate the age-depth relationship without assuming either linearity or Gaussianity. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by applying it to ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  12. A method for estimating the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji Ice Core using a sequential Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shinya; Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Parrenin, Frederic; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship and its uncertainty in ice cores has been developed. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of an ice layer. However, both the accumulation process and the thinning process are not fully known. In order to appropriately estimate the age as a function of depth, it is crucial to incorporate observational information into a model describing the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and time series of δ18O data. The estimation is achieved using a method combining a sequential Monte Carlo method and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method as proposed by Andrieu et al. (2010). In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are basically computed using a way of the standard Metropolis-Hastings method. Meanwhile, sampling from the posterior distribution for the age-depth relationship is achieved by using a sequential Monte Carlo approach at each iteration of the Metropolis-Hastings method. A sequential Monte Carlo method normally suffers from the degeneracy problem, especially in cases that the number of steps is large. However, when it is combined with the Metropolis-Hastings method, the degeneracy problem can be overcome by collecting a large number of samples obtained by many iterations of the Metropolis-Hastings method. We will demonstrate the result obtained by applying the proposed technique to the ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  13. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area. These models are frequently applied to study species-richness patterns of macroorganisms, but the MDE in relation to microorganisms is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the MDE in richness patterns of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, an ecologically important group of soil symbionts. We conducted intensive soil sampling to investigate overlap among species ranges and the applicability of the MDE to EM fungi in four temperate forest stands along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan. Molecular analyses using direct sequencing revealed 302 EM fungal species. Of 73 EM fungal species found in multiple stands, 72 inhabited a continuous range along the elevation gradient. The maximum overlap in species range and the highest species richness occurred at elevations in the middle of the gradient. The observed richness pattern also fit within the 95% confidence interval of the mid-domain null model, supporting the role of the MDE in EM fungal richness. Deviation in observed richness from the mean of the mid-domain null estimation was negatively correlated with some environmental factors, including precipitation and soil C/N, indicating that unexplained richness patterns could be driven by these environmental factors. Our results clearly support the existence of microbial species' ranges along environmental gradients and the potential applicability of the MDE to better understand microbial diversity patterns. PMID:24621523

  14. Age dating and flow path evaluation of groundwater by SF6 and microbe in the foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Sakakibara, Koichi; Umei, Yohei; Ohara, Kazuma

    2016-04-01

    A variety of industries are developed at the foot of volcanic mountains in Japan and the groundwater is major source for industrial activity in those regions. The age of groundwater has been estimated to be from 10 to 30 years in Mt. Fuji regions by using 36Cl and 3H. However, the age has not been evaluated using SF6 with higher time resolution in these regions. Also, the total number of prokaryotes shows a specific value in each spring water, suggesting different path and age of the groundwater. Therefore, we aim to estimate residence time and the groundwater flow in three dimensions using the multi-tracers approach; CFCs, SF6, the total number of prokaryotes, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium. We collected totally 25 spring water samples in Mt. Fuji and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium, CFCs, SF6. The apparent age of the spring water was estimated to be ranging from 4 to 19 years at the foot of Mt. Fuji. These results are reasonable as considering the existed age data by36Cl (Tosaki, 2008) in this region. The spring water with younger age tends to show higher total number of prokaryotes, suggesting that the groundwater flows dominantly through the shallow and young lava with the higher total number of prokaryotes, leads to younger age. Focusing on a specific spring water, the seasonal change of SF6 and total number of prokaryotes were monitored. The spring water showed a younger age and higher total number of prokaryotes during the high water flow season, whereas it showed an older age and lower total number of prokaryotes. Therefore, the total number of prokaryotes shows a good negative correlation with the residence time of the spring/ groundwater in space and time. This shows a possibility that the total number of prokaryotes could be a useful tracer of groundwater for time and space in the three dimensions information.

  15. Volcanic synchronization of Dome Fuji and Dome C Antarctic deep ice cores over the past 216 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, S.; Parrenin, F.; Severi, M.; Motoyama, H.; Wolff, E. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two deep ice cores, Dome Fuji (DF) and EPICA Dome C (EDC), drilled at remote dome summits in Antarctica, were volcanically synchronized to improve our understanding of their chronologies. Within the past 216 kyr, 1401 volcanic tie points have been identified. DFO2006 is the chronology for the DF core that strictly follows O2 / N2 age constraints with interpolation using an ice flow model. AICC2012 is the chronology for five cores, including the EDC core, and is characterized by glaciological approaches combining ice flow modelling with various age markers. A precise comparison between the two chronologies was performed. The age differences between them are within 2 kyr, except at Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. DFO2006 gives ages older than AICC2012, with peak values of 4.5 and 3.1 kyr at MIS 5d and MIS 5b, respectively. Accordingly, the ratios of duration (AICC2012 / DFO2006) range between 1.4 at MIS 5e and 0.7 at MIS 5a. When making a comparison with accurately dated speleothem records, the age of DFO2006 agrees well at MIS 5d, while the age of AICC2012 agrees well at MIS 5b, supporting their accuracy at these stages. In addition, we found that glaciological approaches tend to give chronologies with younger ages and with longer durations than age markers suggest at MIS 5d-6. Therefore, we hypothesize that the causes of the DFO2006-AICC2012 age differences at MIS 5 are (i) overestimation in surface mass balance at around MIS 5d-6 in the glaciological approach and (ii) an error in one of the O2 / N2 age constraints by ~ 3 kyr at MIS 5b. Overall, we improved our knowledge of the timing and duration of climatic stages at MIS 5. This new understanding will be incorporated into the production of the next common age scale. Additionally, we found that the deuterium signals of ice, δDice, at DF tends to lead the one at EDC, with the DF lead being more pronounced during cold periods. The lead of DF is by +710 years (maximum) at MIS 5d, -230 years (minimum) at MIS 7a and +60

  16. Chase the direct impact of rainfall into groundwater in Mt. Fuji from multiple analyses including microbial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenji; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki

    2016-04-01

    A huge amount of groundwater is stored in subsurface environment of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport of groundwater an apparent residence time was estimated to ca. 30 years by 36Cl/Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). However, this number represents an averaged value of the residence time of groundwater which had been mixed before it flushes out. We chased signatures of direct impact of rainfall into groundwater to elucidate the routes of groundwater, employing three different tracers; stable isotopic analysis (delta 18O), chemical analysis (concentration of silica) and microbial DNA analysis. Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. Throughout the in situ observation of four rainfall events showed that stable oxygen isotopic ratio of spring water and shallow groundwater obtained from 726m a.s.l. where the average recharge height of rainfall was between 1500 and 1800 m became higher than the values before a torrential rainfall, and the concentration of silica decreased after this event when rainfall exceeded 300 mm in precipitation of an event. In addition, the density of Prokaryotes in spring water apparently increased. Those changes did not appear when rainfall did not exceed 100 mm per event. Thus, findings shown above indicated a direct impact of rainfall into shallow groundwater, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rainfall in the studied geological setting. In addition, increase in the density of Archaea observed at deep groundwater after the torrential rainfall suggested an enlargement of the strength of piston flow transport through the penetration of rainfall into deep groundwater. This finding was

  17. Ice Core Depth-Age Relation for Vostok delta-D and Dome Fuji delta-18O Records Based on the Devils Hole Paleotemperature Chronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the data for the Vostok - Devils Hole chronology, termed V-DH chronology, for the Antarctic Vostok ice core record. This depth - age relation is based on a join between the Vostok deuterium profile (D) and the stable oxygen isotope ratio (18O) record of paleotemperature from a calcitic core at Devils Hole, Nevada, using the algorithm developed by Landwehr and Winograd (2001). Both the control points defining the V-DH chronology and the numeric values for the chronology are given. In addition, a plausible chronology for a deformed bottom portion of the Vostok core developed with this algorithm is presented. Landwehr and Winograd (2001) demonstrated the broader utility of their algorithm by applying it to another appropriate Antarctic paleotemperature record, the Antarctic Dome Fuji ice core 18O record. Control points for this chronology are also presented in this report but deemed preliminary because, to date, investigators have published only the visual trace and not the numeric values for the Dome Fuji 18O record. The total uncertainty that can be associated with the assigned ages is also given.

  18. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Johnson, Sigfus; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, JøRgen Peder; Hondoh, Takeo

    2008-04-01

    We have proposed a method of deducing the chemical compounds found in deep polar ice cores by analyzing the balance between six major ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). The method is demonstrated for the Holocene and last glacial maximum regions of the Dome Fuji and GRIP ice cores. The dominant compounds depend only on the ion balance and the sequence of chemical reactions. In priority order, the principle salts are calcium sulfate, other sulfates, nitrate, chloride, and carbonate. The chemical abundances deduced by this method agree well with the results of Raman spectroscopy on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental environment of Greenland).

  19. Effect of natural antibrowning agents on color and related enzymes in fresh-cut Fuji apples as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Graü, M A; Soliva-Fortuny, R; Niartín-Belloso, O

    2008-08-01

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were evaluated in fresh-cut Fuji apple slices and the effeet of the individual or combined use of ascorbic acid, 4-hexylresorcinol, N-acetylcysteine, and glutathione on their respective activities was determined. Additionally, color changes during storage at 4 degrees C were measured throughout 14 d of storage. PPO activity increased with storage time and was inhibited by the individual use of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione. POD activity in the apple slices was effectively inhibited by the combined use of ascorbic acid with any of the other antibrowning agents. On the other hand, an individual treatment with 1% N-acetylcysteine helped in maintaining the color of fresh-cut apples during 14 d of storage, whereas the use of ascorbic acid was not enough to prevent color deterioration of the apple slices from the 1st day of storage. The results obtained corroborated the effectiveness of other natural antibrowning agents over the traditional use of ascorbic acid in the control of the enzymatic browning in the fresh-cut fruit industry. PMID:19241570

  20. Comparative Transcriptomes Analysis of Red- and White-Fleshed Apples in an F1 Population of Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana Crossed with M. domestica 'Fuji'.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Zheng, Yi; Duan, Naibin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Jiang, Shenghui; Sun, Shasha; Yang, Long; Bai, Yang; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles of the red- and white-fleshed apples in an F1 segregating population of Malus sieversii f.Niedzwetzkyana and M.domestica 'Fuji' were generated using the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology and compared. A total of 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, of which 88 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in red-fleshed apples. The 88 up-regulated genes were enriched with those related to flavonoid biosynthetic process and stress responses. Further analysis identified 22 genes associated with flavonoid biosynthetic process and 68 genes that may be related to stress responses. Furthermore, the expression of 20 up-regulated candidate genes (10 related to flavonoid biosynthesis, two encoding MYB transcription factors and eight related to stress responses) and 10 down-regulated genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. After exploring the possible regulatory network, we speculated that flavonoid metabolism might be involved in stress responses in red-fleshed apple. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for further enriching gene resources associated with flavonoid synthesis and stress responses of fruit trees and for breeding elite apples with high flavonoid content and/or increased stress tolerances. PMID:26207813

  1. Comparative study on essential oils incorporated into an alginate-based edible coating to assure the safety and quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples.

    PubMed

    Raybaudi-Massilia, Rosa M; Rojas-Graü, María A; Mosqueda-Melgar, Jonathan; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2008-06-01

    Cinnamon, clove, and lemongrass essential oils (EOs) and their active compounds cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral, respectively, were investigated for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents in an alginate-based edible coating (EC) on fresh-cut Fuji apples. This EC also contained malic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and calcium lactate as quality stabilizing compounds. The EC applied on apple pieces effectively maintained the physicochemical characteristics of the apple pieces for more than 30 days, decreased the respiration rate, reduced the Escherichia coli O157:H7 population by about 1.23 log CFU/g at day 0, and extended the microbiological shelf life by at least 19 days. The addition of EOs at 0.7% (vol/vol) or their active compounds at 0.5% (vol/vol) into the EC increased its antimicrobial effect, reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by more than 4 log CFU/g, and extended the microbiological shelf life by more than 30 days. However, those concentrations of EOs affected the physicochemical characteristics of fresh-cut apples and thus limited their shelf life from 7 to 21 days. Lemongrass and cinnamon EOs (0.7%), citral (0.5%), and cinnamaldehyde (0.5%) were the most effective compounds for extending microbiological shelf life, whereas lemongrass, cinnamon, and clove EOs at 0.3% (vol/vol) best maintained the physicochemical characteristics of the product. Apple pieces with EC at day 0 and with EC with or without lemongrass EO at 0.7% at day 15 were preferred by the panelists. ECs containing natural antimicrobials and quality stabilizing compounds may be useful for extending the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits. PMID:18592740

  2. Effects of different dwarfing interstocks on key enzyme activities and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism in Red Fuji apples.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Li, F F; Ma, H; Li, Z Y; Xu, J Z

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the test materials were 'Red Fuji' apple trees grafted onto three interstocks (No. 53, No. 111, and No. 236), which were chosen from SH40 seeding interstocks. The content of malic acid, the enzyme activities, and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism were determined during fruit development.The results showed that malic acid content in the ripe fruit on interstock No. 53 was higher than that in the interstock No. 111 fruit. The malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) activity in apples on interstock No. 53 was highest on Day 30, Day 100, and Day 160 after bloom, and the malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity in apples on interstock No. 111 was higher than in the interstock No. 53 fruit from Day 70 to Day 100 after bloom. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in interstock No. 53 fruit was higher than in No. 236 fruit on Day 100 after bloom, but the relative expression of NADP-ME in No. 236 interstock fruit was lower than in No. 53 fruit. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in No. 53 interstock fruit was highest on Day 160 after bloom. This might have been the main reason for the difference in the accumulation of malic acid in the ripe apples.There was a positive correlation between the relative expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the malic acid content of the fruit, and the content of malic acid in the apples was affected by the PEPC activity during the early developmental stage. PMID:26782412

  3. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation. PMID:27295342

  4. Individual aerosol particles in and below clouds along a Mt. Fuji slope: Modification of sea-salt-containing particles by in-cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Hirose, Y.; Miura, K.; Okochi, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sizes and compositions of atmospheric aerosol particles can be altered by in-cloud processing by absorption/adsorption of gaseous and particulate materials and drying of aerosol particles that were formerly activated as cloud condensation nuclei. To elucidate differences of aerosol particles before and after in-cloud processing, aerosols were observed along a slope of Mt. Fuji, Japan (3776 m a.s.l.) during the summer in 2011 and 2012 using a portable laser particle counter (LPC) and an aerosol sampler. Aerosol samples for analyses of elemental compositions were obtained using a cascade impactor at top-of-cloud, in-cloud, and below-cloud altitudes. To investigate composition changes via in-cloud processing, individual particles (0.5-2 μm diameter) of samples from five cases (days) collected at different altitudes under similar backward air mass trajectory conditions were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. For most cases (four cases), most particles at all altitudes mainly comprised sea salts: mainly Na with some S and/or Cl. Of those, in two cases, sea-salt-containing particles with Cl were found in below-cloud samples, although sea-salt-containing particles in top-of-cloud samples did not contain Cl. This result suggests that Cl in the sea salt was displaced by other cloud components. In the other two cases, sea-salt-containing particles on samples at all altitudes were without Cl. However, molar ratios of S to Na (S/Na) of the sea-salt-containing particles of top-of-cloud samples were higher than those of below-cloud samples, suggesting that sulfuric acid or sulfate was added to sea-salt-containing particles after complete displacement of Cl by absorption of SO2 or coagulation with sulfate. The additional volume of sulfuric acid in clouds for the two cases was estimated using the observed S/Na values of sea-salt-containing particles. The estimation revealed that size changes by in

  5. Effect of syneruptive decompression path on shifting intensity in basaltic sub-Plinian eruption: Implication of microlites in Yufune-2 scoria from Fuji volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Fujii, Toshitsugu

    2010-12-01

    To constrain the timing and conditions of syneruptive magma ascent that are responsible for shifting eruption intensity, we have investigated a basaltic sub-Plinian eruption that produced Yufune-2 scoria in Fuji volcano 2200 years ago. We deduced magmatic decompression conditions from groundmass microlite textures, including decompression path (i.e. evolution in decompression rate) and approximate decompression rate, in order to relate them to eruption intensity. The microlites revealed decompression conditions after water saturation at 700-1100 m depth. The temporal change in scoria size indicates that the magma discharge rate and resultant eruption intensity increased from unit a to unit b, and then declined toward ending units d and e. The overall decompression rate in each eruptive unit has a positive correlation with eruption intensity. The variation in decompression rate was enlarged in the final units, where the maximum remained the same as the peak through the eruption (0.13-0.22 MPa/s for units b and c), while the minimum was 0.025 MPa/s. The large variation here is due to 1) variation in flow velocity across conduit and 2) part of the erupted magma in unit d experienced remarkably slow decompression (0.002-0.003 MPa/s) resulting from decreased overpressure in the reservoir following the major eruption of unit b. Furthermore, crystal size distribution (CSD) of microlites implied that the earliest erupted magma (unit a) had once been decompressed slowly (0.005-0.012 MPa/s), having been arrested by material in the conduit-vent system, which was followed by an increase in decompression rate due to removal of the material at the initiation of the eruption. In addition, the magma that had been ascending slowly before the unit-d eruption may record the increase in decompression rate. This increased rate resulted from being pushed up by the successive magma at the start of that eruption. Two factors had a major impact on eruption intensity. First, magma

  6. Low temperature electrical conductivity measurements under high pressure up to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2016-05-01

    This paper report about a modified version of Fuji high pressure cell and other necessary instrumentation required for the calibration of the high pressure cell and electrical resistivity measurement under high pressure and very low temperature environment.

  7. The role of synoptic-scale features and advection in prolonged warming and generation of different forms of precipitation at Dome Fuji station, Antarctica, following a prominent blocking event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Naohiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Motoyama, Hideaki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    A blocking event over the East Antarctic ice sheet during June 1997 generated the highest surface air temperature (which increased from around -70°C to around -30°C) and pressure of that year at the Dome Fuji station (77.5°S, 40°E). Following the blocking event, the anomalously high air temperature (around -50°C to -60°C) and pressure were maintained at the surface for about 1 week. This study investigates how these warm conditions were maintained and documents the sequential occurrence of two forms of synoptic-scale high-pressure systems with conditions that produced precipitation by different processes in each case. In the first half of the warm period, a solitary high-pressure system (the Solitary High) formed over the Dome Fuji station and traveled west over East Antarctica after being cut off from the tip of the preceding blocking ridge. During this phase, tropospheric temperatures were higher, and surface-based temperature inversions were more intense than during the following period. While a dry-out developed in the troposphere below about 300 hPa, the precipitation of ice crystals in the surface-based temperature inversion layer was generated by deposition of moisture that had become trapped in the boundary layer after being transported onto the continent by the previous blocking ridge. This mechanism has not been previously reported elsewhere. During the second half of the warm period, a ridge of high pressure (the Transcontinental Ridge) traversed East Antarctica almost completely, and its western section was amplified by the merging of the Solitary High with a preceding quasi-stationary Rossby wave train propagating along the Southern Ocean. This ridge allowed an intrusion of warm, moist air from the Weddell Sea toward the station, which generated precipitation throughout the whole troposphere by orographic uplift once again, and ended the dry-out. This represents the typical mechanism of both moisture transportation and the generation of

  8. C4 photosynthesis evolution: the conditional Mt. Fuji.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, David

    2016-06-01

    C4 photosynthesis implements a biochemical carbon pump to suppress photorespiration. While this mechanism allows for increased photosynthetic efficiency, it requires the ancestral C3 state to be modified in terms of leaf anatomy, expression of metabolic genes, and enzyme kinetics. Despite the complexity of the C4 syndrome, it evolved in more than 60 independent lineages. Because the phylogenetic distribution of these origins appears to be non-random, enabling factors that are initially unrelated to C4 photosynthesis are assumed to be acting in certain C3 lineages. In recent years, substantial progress has been made on firstly, the nature of enabling events and finally, quantitative models of C4 evolution that are based on C3-C4 intermediate species. I discuss the synthesis of these approaches as a consensus trajectory towards C4 photosynthesis and hypothesize on the effect of enabling factors on the fitness landscape of C4 evolution. A complete understanding of these mechanisms will require both further experimental studies and improved quantitative models of leaf physiology. PMID:27153468

  9. Developments of VCSELs for printers and optical communications at Fuji Xerox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takashi; Takeda, Kazutaka; Otoma, Hiromi; Murakami, Akemi; Sakurai, Jun; Nakayama, Hideo; Gu, Xiaodong; Koyama, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    We review the characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for use in printers and optical communications. In 2003, we launched the world's first laser printer with a 780-nm single-mode 8×4 VCSEL array introduced to the light exposure system in order to meet the market demands for improving the image quality and speed for laser printers. The design of the VCSEL array enabled us to increase the pixel density and the printing speed by projecting 32 beams at a time to the photoconductor in the exposure process. High uniformity with less than 5% of variation has been achieved for both the optical output and the divergence angle. Currently, our high-end color printer is capable of producing the resolution of 2400 dpi (dots per inch) at the speed of 137 ppm (pages per minute). In the field of optical interconnections and networks, 850-nm VCSELs are needed as high-speed optical transmitters (>=10Gbps). In order to address communication traffic that will increase further as well as to reduce their power consumption to an even lower level, we assessed the lasing characteristics of 850-nm VCSELs with InGaAs strained quantum-well (QW) active layers by changing the ratio of Indium composition. As a result, we succeeded in reducing the power consumption per bit to 43 fJ/bit at 10-Gbps, which is much lower than that of commercial GaAs QW VCSELs. Also, we studied 850-nm transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs, which enabled us to achieve a high 3dB modulation bandwidth (>23 GHz) and realize eye-openings at the large-signal modulation rate of 36 Gbps.

  10. 78 FR 59088 - Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A., Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... a 30 day public comment period, on February 25, 2013 in the Federal Register (78 FR 12827). No... thrown through the vehicle windows in collisions'' (64 FR 70116). Because the affected glazing fully...

  11. Using pullulan-based edible coatings to extend shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-04-01

    Pullulan is a thickener that can form semipermeable films, and glutathione is an effective reducing agent, while chitooligosaccharide has antibacterial activity. In this study, effect of pullulan-based coatings in combination with antibrowning and antibacterial agents (1% pullulan; 0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides; and 0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% pullulan) on apple slices was investigated during hypothermia storage. Pullulan-coating treatments effectively retarded enzymatic browning, maintained firmness, decreased weight loss, and inhibited microbial growth and respiration rate of apple slices during hypothermia storage compared with that of the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that using pullulan-based coatings in combination with glutathione and chitooligosaccharides is a promising way to extend the shelf-life of apple slices. PMID:23376560

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  13. Synergism Exists Between Ethylene and Methy Jasmonate in Artificial Light-Induced Pigment Enhancement of 'Fuji' Apple Fruit Peel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigment content of detached ‘Fuji’ apple peel was characterized in fruit exposed to ethylene and/or treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), then irradiated with ultra-violet (UV)/white light. Peel pigments were analyzed using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with scanning UV...

  14. 78 FR 53498 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... accordance with 49 CFR part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with...

  15. 77 FR 1973 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... line in ] accordance with 49 CFR part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition... standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as...

  16. 'Fuji' and 'Delicious' apple volatile production during high CO2 or low O2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit contain many diverse biochemical pathways that are differentially regulated according to development and ripening. From these pathways numerous volatiles contributing to apple aroma are produced. Although apple fruit have an extended s...

  17. Quantification and histochemical localization of ascorbic acid in 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji' apple fruit during on-tree development and cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit are subject to multiple stressors during pre- and post-harvest development. Stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental to the fruit, and ascorbic acid (AsA) is involved in many of the antioxidant pathways that detoxify ROS. An inclusive study to characterize AsA dy...

  18. Use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Patterson, D.; Camilleri, S.

    An account is given of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack used in the Northern Territory University's solar car, Fuji Xerox Desert Rose, which competed in the 1999 World Solar Challenge (WSC). The reasons for the choice of Li-ion batteries over silver-zinc batteries are outlined, and the construction techniques used, the management of the batteries, and the battery protection boards are described. Data from both pre-race trialling and race telemetry, and an analysis of both the coulombic and the energy efficiencies of the battery are presented. It is concluded that Li-ion batteries show a real advantage over other commercially available batteries for traction applications of this kind.

  19. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    responses as well. It, however, should be also noted here that the penetration depth beneath Site WPB is significantly smaller than that beneath Site NWP because the solar activity has been very low since 2006. References Ichiki, M., K. Baba, H. Toh and K. Fuji-ta, An overview of electrical conductivity structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath the northwestern Pacific, the Japanese Islands, and continental East Asia, Gondwana Research, 16, 545?562, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2009.04.007, 2009. Salisbury MH et al (2006) 2. Leg 195 Synthesis: Site 1201?A geological and geophysical section in the West Philippine Basin from the 660-km discontinuity to the mudline. Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Reports 195:27. Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191 (2000) Northwest Pacific seismic observatory and hammer drill tests, Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports 191. Toh, H., Y. Hamano and M. Ichiki, Long-term seafloor geomagnetic station in the northwest Pacific: A possible candidate for a seafloor geomagnetic observatory, Earth Planets Space, 58, 697-705, 2006. Toh, H., Y. Hamano, M. Ichiki and H. Utada, Geomagnetic observatory operates at the seafloor in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 85, 467/473, DOI: 10.1029/2004EO450003, 2004.

  20. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of three restorative glass ionomer cements: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Diwanji, Amish; Dhar, Vineet; Arora, Ruchi; Madhusudan, A.; Rathore, Ambika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomers (conventional and resin modified) with that of recently introduced nanoionomers. Materials and Methods: Standardized class I and class V cavities were prepared on 120 young permanent teeth. Samples were equally divided into group I (class I restorations) and group II (class V restorations), and further divided into subgroups. The subgroups were restored with Fuji IX, Fuji II LC, and newly introduced Ketac™ N 100 (KN 100). Samples were thermocycled and submerged in Acridine dye for 24 h. Samples were sectioned to view under fluorescent microscope and marginal leakage was evaluated by Chi-square and Kruskal — Wallis test. Results: Fuji IX showed the maximum leakage, followed by LC II and the least was observed in KN 100. In class I restorations, there was significant difference while comparing Fuji IX with Fuji LC II and KN 100 and nonsignificant difference between LC II and KN100. In class V restorations, Fuji IX and KN100, KN 100 and LC II showed significant difference. Fuji IX and LC II showed nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, Fuji IX showed the maximum microleakage. KN 100 showed minimum leakage, better sealing ability, and was more consistent. PMID:25097418

  1. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. Aim: The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Materials and methods: Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. Results: The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103. PMID:27365927

  3. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  4. An evaluation of microleakage of various glass ionomer based restorative materials in deciduous and permanent teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Teena; Pandit, I.K.; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the microleakage of recently available glass ionomer based restorative materials (GC Fuji IX GP, GC Fuji VII, and Dyract) and compare their microleakage with the previously existing glass ionomer restorative materials (GC Fuji II LC) in primary and permanent teeth. Method One hundred and fifty (75 + 75) non-carious deciduous and permanent teeth were restored with glass ionomer based restorative materials after making class I cavities. Samples were subjected to thermocycling after storing in distilled water for 24 h. Two coats of nail polish were applied 1 mm short of restorative margins and samples sectioned buccolingually after storing in methylene blue dye for 24 h. Microleakage was assessed using stereomicroscope. Result Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found when inter group comparisons were done. Except when GC Fuji VII (Group III) was compared with GC Fuji II LC (Group II) and Dyract (Group IV), non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference when the means of microleakage of primary teeth were compared with those of permanent teeth. Conclusions GC Fuji IX GP showed maximum microleakage and GC Fuji VII showed least microleakage. PMID:23960526

  5. A novel high-wear-resistant glass-ionomer cement for class I and class II restorations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming; Xie, Dong

    2009-02-01

    This study reports the results of an evaluation on the in vitro wear of a newly developed experimental light-cured glass-ionomer cement composed of the synthesized six-arm star-shape poly(acrylic acid) and Fuji II LC glass fillers. The resin composite P-60, as well as glass-ionomer cements Fuji II and Fuji II LC, were used for comparison. All specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 d prior to testing. The experimental cement exhibited statistically the same wear-resistance to abrasion as P-60, but the wear-resistance was 14 times higher for the experimental cement than for Fuji II and Fuji II LC. Furthermore, the experimental cement showed a degree of wear-resistance to attrition that was 1.4 times higher than both Fuji II and Fuji II LC but six times lower than that of P-60. Impressively, after 1 month of aging the experimental cement was able to compete with P-60 in wear-resistance to attrition, showing a degree of wear depth that was only 1.3 times more than that of P-60. It appears that this novel cement is a clinically attractive dental restorative that can be potentially used for high-wear sites such as class I and class II restorations. PMID:19196323

  6. Plutonium and minor actinides utilization in Thorium molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian,; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    FUJI-12 reactor is one of MSR systems that proposed by Japan. The original FUJI-12 design considers Th/{sup 233}U or Th/Pu as main fuel. In accordance with the currently suggestion to stay away from the separation of Pu and minor actinides (MA), in this study we evaluated the utilization of Pu and MA in FUJI-12. The reactor grade Pu was employed in the present study as a small effort of supporting THORIMS-NES scenario. The result shows that the reactor can achieve its criticality with the Pu and MA composition in the fuel of 5.96% or more.

  7. Plutonium and minor actinides utilization in Thorium molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian, Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    FUJI-12 reactor is one of MSR systems that proposed by Japan. The original FUJI-12 design considers Th/233U or Th/Pu as main fuel. In accordance with the currently suggestion to stay away from the separation of Pu and minor actinides (MA), in this study we evaluated the utilization of Pu and MA in FUJI-12. The reactor grade Pu was employed in the present study as a small effort of supporting THORIMS-NES scenario. The result shows that the reactor can achieve its criticality with the Pu & MA composition in the fuel of 5.96% or more.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the microleakage of two modified glass ionomer cements on primary molars. An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Masih, Shaila; Thomas, Abi Mathew; Koshy, George; Joshi, J L

    2011-01-01

    This in vivo study was conducted to compare and evaluate the microleakage of two modified glass ionomer cements on deciduous molars. Thirty children (10-16 years) were selected. In each patient, standardized class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of two different retained deciduous molars and these cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC (Improved) and GC Fuji IX GP, respectively. Following a period of four weeks after the restoration, these teeth were extracted and immersed in 2% Basic Fuschin dye solution for 24 hours. The depth of dye penetration was assessed after sectioning the teeth and the microleakage determined. The results were statistically analyzed using Student 't' test. It was concluded that both the materials, GC Fuji II LC (Improved) and GC Fuji IX GP were comparable in performance and can be considered to be materials safe for Pedodontics usage, and decrease bacterial penetration. PMID:21911952

  9. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    Selimović-Dragaš, Mediha; Hasić-Branković, Lajla; Korać, Fehim; Đapo, Nermin; Huseinbegović, Amina; Kobašlija, Sedin; Lekić, Meliha; Hatibović-Kofman, Šahza

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride release is important characteristic of glass-ionomer cements. Quantity of fluoride ions released from the glass-ionomer cements has major importance in definition of their biological activity. The objectives of this study were to define the quantity of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements and to define the effect of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements on their cytotoxicity. Concentrations of the fluoride ions released in the evaluated glass-ionomer cements were measured indirectly, by the fluoride-selective WTW, F500 electrode potential, combined with reference R503/D electrode. Statistical analyses of F-ion concentrations released by all glass-ionomers evaluated at two time points, after 8 and after 24 hours, show statistically higher fluoride releases from RMGICs: Vitrebond, Fuji II LC and Fuji Plus, when compared to conventional glass-ionomer cements: Fuji Triage, Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac Silver, both after 8 and after 24 hours. Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released by evaluated glass-ionomer cements and cytotoxic response of UMR-106 osteoblast cell-line are relatively high, but do not reach levels of biological significance. Correlation between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line after 8 hours is high, positive and statistically significant for conventional GICs, Fuji Triage and Fuji IX GP Fast, and RMGIC, Fuji II LC. Statistically significant Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 cell line after 24 hours is defined for RMGIC Fuji II LC only. PMID:23988173

  10. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Selimović-Dragaš, Mediha; Hasić-Branković, Lajla; Korać, Fehim; Đapo, Nermin; Huseinbegović, Amina; Kobašlija, Sedin; Lekić, Meliha; Hatibović-Kofman, Šahza

    2013-08-01

    Fluoride release is important characteristic of glass-ionomer cements. Quantity of fluoride ions released from the glass-ionomer cements has major importance in definition of their biological activity. The objectives of this study were to define the quantity of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements and to define the effect of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements on their cytotoxicity. Concentrations of the fluoride ions released in the evaluated glass-ionomer cements were measured indirectly, by the fluoride-selective WTW, F500 electrode potential, combined with reference R503/D electrode. Statistical analyses of F-ion concentrations released by all glass-ionomers evaluated at two time points, after 8 and after 24 hours, show statistically higher fluoride releases from RMGICs: Vitrebond, Fuji II LC and Fuji Plus, when compared to conventional glass-ionomer cements: Fuji Triage, Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac Silver, both after 8 and after 24 hours. Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released by evaluated glass-ionomer cements and cytotoxic response of UMR-106 osteoblast cell-line are relatively high, but do not reach levels of biological significance. Correlation between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line after 8 hours is high, positive and statistically significant for conventional GICs, Fuji Triage and Fuji IX GP Fast, and RMGIC, Fuji II LC. Statistically significant Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 cell line after 24 hours is defined for RMGIC Fuji II LC only. PMID:23988173

  11. Effects of storage media on physical properties of selected tooth coloured restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Sadaghiani, Leili; Adusei, Gabriel; Rees, Jeremy

    2009-09-01

    It is known that storage media can affect the physical properties of some restorative dental materials. The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the possible effects of storage media on physical properties of a conventional glass-ionomer, a resin modified glass ionomer and a compomer. Specimens of the restorative materials in the study (FujiII LC, FujiIX and Dyract EXTRA) were prepared. The specimens were stored in either water or artificial saliva with or without exposure to Listerine. The compressive and diametral tensile strength and Vickers hardness of these materials were tested at 24 hours, 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks. Compressive and diametral tensile strength for FujiII LC and Fuji IX had increased at 12 weeks. A decrease was observed for Dyract EXTRA in the same period. No significant differences were observed between the storage media (P > 0.01). Vickers hardness values fluctuated during the testing period, with a pattern being consistent for each material. Storage of materials investigated for the period in this study resulted in superior compressive and diametral tensile strength for Fuji II LC and FujiIX. The opposite was true for Dyract EXTRA. Effects of time were found to be more pronounced than the media (P < 0.01). PMID:19839187

  12. Biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Iz, Sultan Gulce; Ertugrul, Fahinur; Eden, Ece; Gurhan, S. Ismet Deliloglu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements (GICs) with and without chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as coated with varnish or not using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of Fuji IX, Fuji IX with varnish, Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate and Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate with varnish was determined with in vitro cytotoxicity assay by using L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. After 72 h, cell viabilities were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay to determine the effects of the cements on the mitochondrial function and microscopic images were taken by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. 72 h after treatment, there were statistically significant differences between Fuji IX and Fuji IX-CHX (P < 0.001). In addition, the reduction of the cytotoxicity by coating the GICs with varnish was indicative and increased the cell viability ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Fuji IX coated with varnish was found to be the most biocompatible one among others. Thus adding CHX significantly reduced the cell viability, it is assumed that, due to the leakage of CHX and the other components of the GICs to the cell culture medium, the cell viabilities were decreased, so it is highly recommended to use varnish not only to reduce the water loss from the GICs, but also to reduce the cytotoxicity of the GICs. PMID:24966735

  13. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare constituents of glass powder, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of new atraumatic restorative treatment material with zirconia fillers and conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) type IX. Materials and Methods: Thisin vitro study comparing Zirconomer and Fuji IX was executed in three parts: (1) energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of glass powders (2) analysis of fluoride release at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day, and (3) antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Candida albicans at 48 hours. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and two way analysis of variance followed by least significant difference post hoc test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that, in both Zirconomer and Fuji IX glass powders, mean atomic percentage of oxygen was more than 50%. According to the weight percentage, zirconium in Zirconomer and silica in Fuji IX were the second main elements. Calcium, zinc, and zirconium were observed only in Zirconomer. At all the time intervals, statistically significant higher amount of fluoride release was observed with Zirconomer than Fuji IX. At 48 hours, mean ± standard deviation (SD) of zone of inhibition against Streptococcus mutans was 11.14 ± 0.77 mm and 8.51 ± 0.43 mm for Zirconomer and Fuji IX, respectively. Against Lactobacillus casei, it was 14.06 ± 0.71 mm for Zirconomer and 11.70 ± 0.39 mm for Fuji IX. No antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans by Zirconomer and Fuji IX. Conclusion: Zirconomer had higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei, which may be attributed to its composition and higher fluoride release. However, it failed to show antifungal effect againstCandida albicans. PMID:27583226

  14. Performance evaluation of PEFC stack

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Jun-ichi; Ohtsuki, Jitsuji; Shindo, Yoshihiko

    1996-12-31

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have many advantages such as high current density, short start-up time and endurance for start-stop cycles. Making use of these advantages, Fuji Electric has been working with the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. to explore practical applications of PEFCs for an electric utility use. Since large-sized electrodes are required in the electric utility applications, we have fabricated 600cm{sup 2} membrane-electrode assemblies by using hot-press method. We have also designed a cell structure to realize a uniform reaction over the electrodes. The structure includes a properly-shaped gas flow channel, a temperature-gradient cooling system. Using the 600cm{sup 2} (25x24cm) electrodes, a 30-cell stack (5kW) were constructed and tested.

  15. Effect of surfactant on surface hardness of dental stone and investment casts produced from polyvinyl siloxane duplicating materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Attalah; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2008-06-01

    Polyvinylsiloxane duplicating materials are typically treated with a topical surfactant before pouring dental models, but the use of topical surfactants in the dental laboratory may affect the surface hardness of the resultant models. The effect of two different topical surfactants on surface hardness of two dental stones (FujiRock and Dentstone) and one phosphate bonded investment material (Croform WB) produced from polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) dental laboratory duplicating moulds was investigated. Topical surfactants affected the surface hardness of FujiRock, Dentstone and Croform WB investment material. Surface hardness of FujiRock increased with Wax-Mate surfactant. However, surface hardness of Croform WB investment material decreased with both topical surfactants. PMID:18637383

  16. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  17. In-vitro study of resin-modified glass ionomer cements for cementation of orthodontic bands. Isolation, surplus removal and humidity as factors influencing the bond strength between enamel, cement and metal.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, S M; Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate different light-cured and chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements used for the cementation of orthodontic bands and to analyze various factors influencing the adhesive strength between enamel, cement and stainless steel. Four resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji Ortho LC/GC, Fuji Duet/GC, Unitek Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Band Cement/3M Unitek, Vitremer/3M) and 1 compomer (Band-Lok/Reliance) were examined. Flattened and polished bovine teeth embedded in polyurethane resin were used as enamel specimens. Before cementation, 50% of the specimens were moistened with the aerosol of an inhalation device, while the rest were dried with compressed air. Stainless steel cylinders (CrNi 18 10) were perpendicularly bonded onto the polished enamel using a custom-made cementation device and immediately topped with a pressure of 0.25 MPa. The cement was isolated with either Ketac Glaze/ESPE, Fuji Coat/GC, Cacao Butter/GC, Dryfoil/Jalenko or Final Varnish/VOCO, or was left uncoated. Eight minutes after the beginning of mixing, either the surplus cement was removed with a scalpel or surplus removal was simulated with ultrasound. After 24 hours storage in a water bath at 37 degrees C and 1,000 thermocycles the shear bond strength was determined. Significant differences with respect to the shear bond strength were found among the following cements, ranking from highest to lowest: Fuji Duet, Unitek cement > Fuji Ortho LC > Vitremer > Band-Lok. The application of a barrier coating significantly increased the shear bond strength of all cements except Fuji Ortho LC. The light-cured resin Ketac Glaze proved to be the most effective barrier coating. A dry enamel surface increased the bond strength of all investigated cements except Unitek cement. The use of ultrasound led to no significant reduction in shear bond strength in comparison with surplus removal with a scalpel. PMID:10546417

  18. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of catalyst degradation on electrode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizaki, K.; Uchida, H.; Watanabe, M.

    1996-12-31

    Aiming commercialization of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant, many researches and developments have been contributed. Over 20000 hours operations have been demonstrated by many PAFC power plants. But there is no effective method for the estimation of lifetime of electrochemical cells without a practical long-term operation. Conducted by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), cooperative research projects aiming development of PAFC lifetime estimation method have started since 1995 FY in Japan. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and PAFC manufacturers (Toshiba Co., Mitsubishi Electric Co, Fuji Electric Co.). Among several main causes of the cell performance degradation, effects of catalyst degradation (reduction in metal surface area, dealloying, changes in catalyst support) on PAFC cathode performances are discussed in this work.

  19. The effect of mechanical load cycling and polishing time on microleakage of class V glass-ionomer and composite restorations: A scanning electron microscopy evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, Mansoreh; Yasini, Esmail; Kermanshah, Hamid; Omidi, Baharan Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microleakage is one of the challenging concerns in direct filling restorations. Understanding of its related factors is important in clinical practice. The aim of this study was scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of marginal integrity in three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and the effect of load cycling and polishing time on the microleakage. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, class V cavity preparations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 20 teeth: group 1: Filtek Z350, Group 2: Fuji IX/G Coat Plus, Group 3: Fuji II LC/GC varnish. In each group, 2 subgroups (n = 20) were established based on finishing time (immediate or delayed by 24 h). All specimens were thermocycled (×2,000, 5-50°C). In each sub groups, half of the teeth were load cycled. Epoxy resin replicas of 24 specimens were evaluated under field emission-SEM and interfacial gaps were measured. All teeth were then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 h, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis’ test and Mann-Whitney U test and a comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Load cycling and filling material had a significant effect on microleakage, but polishing time did not. Cervical microleakage in Z350/load cycle/immediate polish and Fuji IX/load cycle/immediate or delayed polish and Fuji IX/no load cycle/immediate polish were significantly higher than incisal microleakage. Conclusion: It was concluded that the cervical sealing ability of Fuji IX under load cycling was better than Fuji II LC. Under load cycling and immediate polishing Z350 showed better marginal integrity than both Fuji II LC and Fuji IX. The immediate polishing didn’t cause a statistically significant increase

  20. Electric emissions from electrical appliances.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intracorporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. PMID:18083998

  1. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  2. Performance evaluation of 1 kw PEFC

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Hideaki; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a PEFC Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns the effects brought on PEFC operating performance by conditions particular to shipboard operation. The performance characteristics were examined through tests performed on a 1 kw stack and on a single cell (Manufactured by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.). The tests covered the items (1) to (4) cited in the headings of the sections that follow. Specifications of the stack and single cell are as given.

  3. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  4. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  5. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  6. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  7. Technical and investigative support for high density digital satellite recording systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Availability of tape in suitable widths continue to obstruct standardized methods on tests where width is an important parameter. These tests include flexibility, coefficients of friction, and abrasivity. The Fuji Beridox tape samples evaluated were obtained from a 1/2 inch video cassette.

  8. Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents provide a novel way to improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin, incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated appl...

  9. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  10. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Food Media on the Marginal Integrity of Class V Compomer, Conventional and Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Shiji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical lesions of anterior and posterior teeth are a common finding in routine dental practice. They are of much concern to the patient, if present in esthetically sensitive regions. Adhesive tooth-colored restorative materials are generally recommended for treating such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of various food media (lime juice, tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola) on the marginal integrity of Class V compomer (Dyract®), conventional glass-ionomer (Fuji II) and resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC improved) restorations along their cemental and enamel margins with saline as control media. Materials and Methods: After restoration of prepared Class V cavities in human premolars with the three different materials (n = 8), they were immersed in the test media for 7 days and then stained with methylene blue dye. Buccolingual sections were prepared and examined under stereomicroscope and scores (0-2) were given. Results: Data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 16.0. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusions: Among the three tested materials Compomer (Dyract®) showed more marginal integrity than the other two. Micro leakage values of Fuji II and Fuji II LC improved were statistically significant in acidic media (lime juice and Coca-Cola) compared to saline. Enamel margins showed more marginal adaptation than cemental margins. PMID:25878480

  12. Cytotoxicity of commonly used luting cements -An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Trumpaite-Vanagiene, Rita; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Rutkunas, Vygandas

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to 1) evaluate the cytotoxicity of luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (Hoffmann's ZP), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (Fuji Plus RMGI) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RelyX Unicem RC) and 2) test if pre-washing reduces the cements' cytotoxicity. In vitro human gingival fibroblast (HGF) culture model was chosen. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test, the cell viability -by staining the cells with AO/EB dye mixture. The means±SD of Cell Survival Ratio (CSR%) were compared among different cement types under two testing conditions, with or without cement pre-washing. The CSR%s were compared by ANOVA and linear multiple regression (LMR). Hoffmann's ZPC was less cytotoxic, while Fuji Plus RMGIC and RelyX Unicem RC were more cytotoxic (ANOVA, p<0.001). The type of cement and cement pre-washing jointly explained 90% of cell survival (LMR, p<0.001, adjusted squared R=0.889). The commonly used luting cements such as Hoffmann's ZP, Fuji Plus RMGI and RelyX Unicem RC may have a cytotoxic potential. PMID:25904168

  13. Comparison of the push-out shear bond strength of four types of glass ionomers when used to bond amalgam: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vinod Babu; Ramachandran, S; Indira, R; Shankar, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental amalgam is the primary direct posterior restorative material used worldwide, but it have certain shortcomings due to the lack of adhesiveness to the cavity. The introduction of the concept of bonded amalgam helped improve the use of amalgam as a restorative material. Aim: Evaluation of the comparative push-out shear bond strength of four types of conventional glass ionomers used to bond amalgam to tooth in simulated class I situations. Materials and Methods: Four chemical cure glass ionomers are used: GC Fuji I, GC Fuji II, GC Fuji III and GC Fuji VII, and are compared with unbonded amalgam. The push-out bond strength was tested using the Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that the use of glass ionomer to bond amalgam resulted in an increase in the bond strength of amalgam. The Type VII glass ionomer showed the highest bond strength in comparison with the other glass ionomers. Conclusions: Conventional glass ionomer bonds to amalgam and shows a beneficial increase in the bond strength of the restoration in comparison with unbonded amalgam. PMID:22144798

  14. 36 Views of Mount Rainier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Look for ways to take students on virtual journeys to faraway places, and then connect the experience to something they can relate to on a more personal level. In this article, the author describes a block-printing unit inspired by Japanese printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and his series of art prints, "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji."…

  15. FTIR investigation of monomer polymerisation and polyacid neutralisation kinetics and mechanisms in various aesthetic dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Young, A M; Rafeeka, S A; Howlett, J A

    2004-02-01

    Diamond ATR FTIR has been used to quantify light catalysed polymerisation and polyacid neutralisation rates in various glass ionomer cements (GIC), resin-modified GICs (RMGIC) and compomers. At 150s after the start of light exposure, levels of methacrylate polymerisation on the lower surfaces of 1mm thick specimens were 97% and 98% for the RMGIC, Vitremer and Fuji II LC and 47% and 37% for the compomers, Compoglass and Dyract. After light exposure, polymerisation rates for the compomers decreased linearly with inverse time. By 50,000s Compoglass and Dyract were 62% and 51% polymerised. Initial rate of polyacid neutralisation in the GIC Shofu HIFI was 0.32 times that of Fuji IX GIC. Those in Vitremer, Fuji II LC, Compoglass and Dyract were 0.16, 0.09, 0.004 and 0.004 times that of Fuji IX. Excluding short initial periods, log of neutralisation rates decreased linearly with log-time. Average gradients were -1.35 for the GIC, -0.80 for the RMGIC and -0.59 for the compomers. By 50,000s, polyacid salt concentrations for the RMGIC and compomers were 0.41 and 0.016 times that of the GIC. Reaction mechanisms have been discussed and used to help interpret material mechanical properties, fluoride release rates and adhesion to tooth structure. PMID:14609671

  16. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily Pond" (Claude Monet, 1899);…

  17. A Thousand Lights [and] A Thousand Lights: Teacher and Parent Guide. Brothers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…

  18. PERFORMANCE OF BRAZILIAN AND IMPORTED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS USED IN ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT (ART) REGARDING MICROLEAKAGE IN PRIMARY MOLARS

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; do Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the performance of Brazilian and imported glass ionomer cements (GIC) with regard to microleakage, 40 primary molars received two standard class II cavity preparations with margins in enamel. Twenty cavities were filled with Brazilian materials (Vidrion® R and Vidrion® RCaps) and the other 20 cavities were filled with imported materials (Fuji® IX and Fuji® IXGPFast capsule). All fillings were performed by a single operator according to the manufacturer's instructions. Teeth were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue and half-sectioned. Three independent calibrated examiners assessed microleakage using scores (0-3). Data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test and Wilcoxon analysis. High microleakage indexes were verified for all ionomer cements: 59.5% of the samples restored with Vidrion® R or Vidrion® RCaps and 83.4% of the samples restored with Fuji® IX or Fuji® IXGpFast capsule obtained the maximum score (3). The Brazilian ionomer cements presented less microleakage than imported cements, although this difference was only significant (p=0.003) among the encapsulated materials. PMID:19089050

  19. VOLATILE RESPONSE OF FOUR APPLE VARIETIES OF DIFFERENT COATINGS DURING MARKETING AT 20°C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experimental coatings with different resistance to gas exchange were used with freshly harvested and 20-week commercially stored apples of `Delicious', `Fuji', `Braeburn' and `Granny Smith' varieties. The coated or non-coated apples were held at 20 °C for up to 4 weeks. The gas partial press...

  20. Effect of Nanoclay Dispersion on the Properties of a Commercial Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGV and PGN nanoclay) on Fuji-IX glass ionomer cement was investigated. Materials and Method. PGV and PGV nanoclays (2.0 wt%) were dispersed in the liquid portion of Fuji-IX. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to quantify acid-base reaction and the liquid portion of GIC. The mechanical properties (CS, DTS, FS, and Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured at 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 month. The microstructure was examined by cryo-SEM and TEM. Results. FTIR shows that the setting reaction involves the neutralisation of PAA by the glass powder which was linked with the formation of calcium and aluminium salt-complexes. The experimental GICs (C-V and C-N) exhibited mechanical properties in compliance to ISO standard requirement have higher values than Fuji-IX cement. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties was found between C-V and C-N. The average Mw of Fuji-IX was 15,700 and the refractive index chromatogram peak area was 33,800. TEM observation confirmed that nanoclays were mostly exfoliated and dispersed in the matrix of GIC. Conclusion. The reinforcement of nanoclays in GICs may potentially produce cements with better mechanical properties without compromising the nature of polyacid neutralisation. PMID:25210518

  1. Effect of nanoclay dispersion on the properties of a commercial glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGV and PGN nanoclay) on Fuji-IX glass ionomer cement was investigated. Materials and Method. PGV and PGV nanoclays (2.0 wt%) were dispersed in the liquid portion of Fuji-IX. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to quantify acid-base reaction and the liquid portion of GIC. The mechanical properties (CS, DTS, FS, and E f ) of cements (n = 20) were measured at 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 month. The microstructure was examined by cryo-SEM and TEM. Results. FTIR shows that the setting reaction involves the neutralisation of PAA by the glass powder which was linked with the formation of calcium and aluminium salt-complexes. The experimental GICs (C-V and C-N) exhibited mechanical properties in compliance to ISO standard requirement have higher values than Fuji-IX cement. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties was found between C-V and C-N. The average Mw of Fuji-IX was 15,700 and the refractive index chromatogram peak area was 33,800. TEM observation confirmed that nanoclays were mostly exfoliated and dispersed in the matrix of GIC. Conclusion. The reinforcement of nanoclays in GICs may potentially produce cements with better mechanical properties without compromising the nature of polyacid neutralisation. PMID:25210518

  2. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  3. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  4. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  5. Lifelines for the Isolated: The Supply, Training and Professional Support of Educational Personnel in Multi-Island Situations. Educational Development in the Small States of the Commonwealth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, John

    A 1987 meeting in Fuji that examined the supply, training, and professional support of educational personnel in multi-island situations led to development of a directory of innovative practices relevant to any situation of isolation. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of countries in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific. Findings are…

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 51.301 - U.S. Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  11. 7 CFR 51.301 - U.S. Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under...

  12. 7 CFR 51.301 - U.S. Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under...

  13. Electric moped

    SciTech Connect

    Ferschl, M.S.

    1981-02-26

    Two electrically powered mopeds were designed and built. These vehicles offer single-person transportation which is convenient, quiet, low-cost, smooth, and pollution-free. The first moped has a 12 volt electrical system. The second has a 24 volt electrical system. They both have top speeds of about 20 miles per hour. They both use transistorized speed controls and deep-discharge, lead-acid batteries. These mopeds were put through a 750 mile test program. In this program, the 12 volt bike had an average range of nine miles. The 24 volt bike, with a smaller battery capacity, had an average range of six miles.

  14. Electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  15. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  16. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... wiring Flashing of electric arcs from high-voltage power lines Lightning Machinery or occupational-related exposures Young ... a passenger in a vehicle struck by a power line, remain in it until help arrives unless ...

  17. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  18. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  19. Surface characteristics of aesthetic restorative materials - an SEM study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, R; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    2007-01-01

    To determine the degree of surface roughness of glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and polyacid-modified resin composite (PAMRC) after polishing and immersion in various foodstuffs. Three tooth-coloured restorative materials were used: a PAMRC (F2000), a conventional glass-ionomer cement (CGIC) (Fuji IX) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM-GIC) (Fuji II LC). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and tested with either a plastics matrix finish or after polishing with wet silicon carbide papers up to 2000-grit. All specimens were immersed in 37 degrees C-distilled water for 1 week, followed by three different foodstuffs (red wine, coffee or tea) for a further 2 weeks. Replicas of specimens were prepared by taking polyvinyl siloxane impressions, casting in epoxy resin, gold sputter-coating and examining using a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The polished and matrix finish specimens of F2000 showed many microcracks at low magnification, and eroded surfaces with missing and protruding particles at high magnification in the polished specimens. The surface-polished specimens of Fuji II LC were considerably rougher than the matrix-finish specimens, with large voids and protruding filler particles. The effects of foodstuffs on Fuji II LC and F2000 were not noticeable. The CGIC became noticeably rougher after exposure to coffee and tea. All specimens had the smoothest surface when they were cured against a plastics matrix strip, and all materials had a rougher surface after polishing. None of the foodstuffs produced a perceptible increase in roughness on RM-GIC and PAMRC surfaces, whereas coffee and tea markedly increased the surface roughness of Fuji IX. PMID:17207080

  20. Electricity tommorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The critical issues for the electricity sector in California were presented. Adopted level of electricity demand and adopted policies and supply criteria are included. These form the basis for planning and certification of electric generation and transmission facilities by the energy commission. Estimates of the potential contributions of conservation and various conventional and alternative supply sources, critiques of utility supply plans, and determinations of how much new capacity is required are also included. Policy recommendations for directing public and private investments into preferred energy options, for spreading the benefits and costs of these options broadly and fairly among California's citizens, and for removing remaining obstacles to the development of all acceptable energy sources are presented.

  1. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  2. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  3. Electricity unplugged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  4. Solar Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  5. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  6. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  7. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  8. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  9. Microleakage of Four Dental Cements in Metal Ceramic Restorations With Open Margins

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar Ashtiani, Reza; Farzaneh, Babak; Azarsina, Mohadese; Aghdashi, Farzad; Dehghani, Nima; Afshari, Aisooda; Mahshid, Minu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fixed prosthodontics is a routine dental treatment and microleakage is a major cause of its failure. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the marginal microleakage of four cements in metal ceramic restorations with adapted and open margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty sound human premolars were selected for this experimental study performed in Tehran, Iran and prepared for full-crown restorations. Wax patterns were formed leaving a 300 µm gap on one of the proximal margins. The crowns were cast and the samples were randomly divided into four groups based on the cement used. Copings were cemented using zinc phosphate cement (Fleck), Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer, Panavia F2.0 resin cement, or G-Cem resin cement, according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution. After 24 hours, dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope and analyzed using the respective software. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, paired t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The least microleakage occurred in the Panavia F2.0 group (closed margin, 0.18 mm; open margin, 0.64 mm) and the maximum was observed in the Fleck group (closed margin, 1.92 mm; open margin, 3.32 mm). The Fleck group displayed significantly more microleakage compared to the Fuji Plus and Panavia F2.0 groups (P < 0.001) in both closed and open margins. In open margins, differences in microleakage between the Fuji Plus and G-Cem as well as between the G-Cem and Panavia F2.0 groups were significant (P < 0.001). In closed margins, only the G-Cem group displayed significantly more microleakage as compared to the Panavia F2.0 group (P < 0.05). Paired t-test results showed significantly more microleakage in open margins compared to closed margins, except in the Fuji Plus group (P = 0.539). Conclusions: Fuji Plus cement exhibited better sealing ability in closed and open margins compared to G-Cem and Fleck

  10. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  11. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  12. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  13. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  14. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  15. Electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains proceedings on electric vehicle technology. Topics covered include: flow-by lead-acid---improving the performance standard for EV battery systems; Townobile purpose-built electric commuter cars, vans and mini-buses; An electric van with extended range; and The future of electric vehicles in meeting the air quality challenges in Southern California.

  16. Electricity in the Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampath, S.; Kumar, V. Sasi

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the atmospheric electric circuit and a discussion of the fair-weather electrical are presented. The ion concentration, mobility, conductivity, and electric field altitudinal profiles are explained. An outline of the electrical processes inside thunderstorms along with a description of the lightning strike are included. (Author)

  17. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

  18. [Adhesive strengths of cast crowns with various types of cements].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Büscher, M

    1990-12-01

    In an in vitro study the adhesive strength of sand-blasted castings (gold alloy) was tested on human teeth prepared and finished in different ways. For cementation we used two glass ionomer and one phosphate cement. On the surfaces treated with carbide finishing instruments the force required for separating the crown from the tooth was about 1.9 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, about 2 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and about 1.8 N/mm2 for Harvard (a zinc oxide phosphate cement). Compared with this, the values obtained for dentin surfaces pretreated with fine diamonds (red ring) were 1.5 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, 1.6 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and 1.9 N/mm2 for Harvard. The measured differences between the various types of cement were statistically not significant. PMID:2135267

  19. High performance computing for drug development on K computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Hideaki; Shinoda, Keiko; Yamashita, Takefumi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2013-08-01

    Massively parallel computations (MP-CAFEE) ware developed to calculate absolute binding free energies of small molecules bound to a protein by all-atom molecular dynamics. It uses the nonequilibrium work measurement and Bennett acceptance ratio methods to calculate the free energy difference between the bound and unbound states. The FUJI force field was developed in order to assign force field parameters to arbitrary organic molecules in a unified manner including proteins and nucleic acids. Its dihedral parameters agree with the torsion energy profiles calculated by high-level ab initio molecular orbital theory for the model systems of protein backbone. Comparing with various force fields it agrees well with recent observations by vibrational spectroscopy on Ramachandran angle's population of alanine dipeptide in water. MP-CAFEE with FUJI force field has an efficient parallel algorithm and enough accuracy for computer aided drug design.

  20. Comparison of a SiO(2)-CaO-ZnO-SrO glass polyalkenoate cement to commercial dental materials: glass structure and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Wren, A W; Coughlan, A; Laffir, F R; Towler, M R

    2013-02-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have previously been considered for orthopedic applications. A Zn-GPC (BT 101) was compared to commercial GPCs (Fuji IX and Ketac Molar) which have a setting chemistry analogous to BT 101. Handling properties (working, T (w) and setting, T (s) times) for BT 101 were shorter than the commercial GPCs. BT 101 also had a higher setting exotherm (S (x) -34 °C) than the commercial GPCs (29 °C). The maximum strengths for BT 101, Fuji IX, and Ketac Molar were 75, 238, and 216 MPa (compressive, σ (c)), and 34, 54, and 62 MPa (biaxial flexural strengths, σ (f)), respectively. The strengths of BT 101 are more suitable for spinal applications than commercial GPCs. PMID:23179999

  1. Correlation of nighttime MF signal strength with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohata, Hiroki; Kimura, Iwane; Wakai, Noboru; Ogawa, Tadahiko

    Observations of the signal strength of MF broadcasting signals (774/770 kHz) transmitted from Akita, Japan, on board the Japanese Antarctic ice breaker Fuji, bound from Japan to Syowa station, Antarctica, have revealed an interesting positive correlation between strengths of long distance signals propagating at night and solar activity. It is already known that MF propagation characteristics in North America show a negative correlation with solar activity. The present paper, interprets the results by using the multihop method with full-wave analysis. The difference in correlation with solar activity between the results of Fuji and those in North America can be elucidated if it is assumed that there is a ledge in the electron-density profile around an altitude range of 85 to 90 km and that the density of the ledge is smaller in the North American region than in the equatorial region.

  2. Marginal leakage of visible light-cured glass ionomer restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Crim, G A

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the sealing of two visible light-cured glass ionomer restorative materials and a conventional glass ionomer. Class V cavity preparations were completed at the cementoenamel junction on the facial and lingual surfaces of extracted human molars. The cavity preparations were restored with either VariGlass VLC, GC Fuji II LC, or GC Fuji II glass ionomer cements. The restored teeth were thermocycled, immersed in fuchsin dye for 24 hours, sectioned, and evaluated with a measuring microscope. No microleakage occurred at the enamel/glass ionomer or dentin/glass ionomer cement interfaces of any samples, but the enamel adjacent to the VariGlass glass ionomer cement restorations exhibited crazing and staining. PMID:8320640

  3. Dispersive surface properties of glass-ionomer cements determined by inverse gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejewska, E.; Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewski, M.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.

    2005-05-01

    The surface properties of several glass-ionomer cements (GIC), restorative dental materials, (GC-Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated for the first time by means of inverse gas chromatography. This method enables characterization of surface activity in dispersive (non-polar) and acid-base interactions. The ability of the surface of glass-ionomers to participate in dispersive interactions was expressed by the use of the dispersive component of surface free energy γsd. This parameter was determined with satisfactory precision, meaning that the values of γsd can be further used in the discussion of the influence of the type of GIC, its preparation and the storage time on the surface properties. The greatest capacity for dispersive interactions was revealed by Ketac Molar and the lowest by GC-Fuji. Dispersive interactions in the surface activity of glass-ionomers increased with increasing storage time after cement preparation.

  4. A 10kW class molten carbonate fuel cell test: The stack with electrolyte plate prepared with paper-making method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaki, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Mugikura, Y.; Hayasaka, T.; Shimazu, K.; Hamamatsu, T.; Abe, T.; Ishikawa, H.; Kusunose, N.; Shundo, Y.

    1989-10-01

    In Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) , 10kW class Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Test Facility has been installed at Yokosuka Laboratory, and operation experiments have been performed. The experimental results are described. An operation experiment of about 250 hours was carried out, using large MCFC stack with the Electrolyte Plate prepared with a Paper Making Method made by Fuji Electric Co. Ltd. The test stack was designed by adopting internal manifold and co-flow type as gas flow structure. It was clarified that high fuel utilization operation is very important, because the energy conversion efficiency depends on fuel utilization ratio. Output power of the stack depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in cathode oxidizing agent gas, but the amount of dependency is not clear. It was recognized that the temperature control for keeping operation without any outside heater is possible, as the amount of producing heat by power generation becomes more than heat loss and gas removal heat at the electric current over 200A (2/3 load).

  5. Detection threshold energy of high energy cascade showers using thermoluminescence PTFE-sheet and hot-gas reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kino, S.; Nakanishi, A.; Miono, S.; Kitajima, T.; Yanagita, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ohmori, N.; Hazama, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new thermoluminescence (TL) sheet was developed as a detector for high energy components in air showers. For the investigation of detection threshold energy for a cascade showeer, TL sheets were exposed at Mt. Fuji with X ray films in emulsion chambers and were scanned by a hot-gas reader. It is concluded that if a gamma ray whose energy is more than 6 TeV enters vertically into lead chambers, the resulting cascade shower is readily detectable at maximum development.

  6. Microleakage of Three Types of Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations: Effect of CPP-ACP Paste Tooth Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) increases the mineral content of tooth structure. This may enhance the chemical bonding of glass ionomer cements (GIC) and marginal sealing of their restorations. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste pretreatment on the microleakage of three types of GIC. Materials and Method In this study, 72 Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in root. The cavities were divided into 6 groups. Cavities in group 1 and 2 were restored with Fuji II, group 3 and 4 with Fuji II LC, and group 5 and 6 with Ketac N100 with respect to the manufacturers’ instructions. In groups 2, 4 and 6, CPP-ACP containing paste (MI paste) was placed into the cavities for 3 minutes before being filled with GIC. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. Kruskall-Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to analyze the data. Result There were no statistically significant differences between the control and the CPP-ACP pretreatment groups in enamel and dentin margins. In pairwise comparisons, there were no significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in enamel margin, and in dentin margins of G1 and 2, G5 and 6; however, a significant differences was detected in dentin margins between G3 and 4 (p= 0.041). Conclusion CPP-ACP paste pretreatment did not affect the microleakage of Fuji II and Ketac N100 in enamel or dentin, but decreased the microleakage in dentine margins of Fuji II LC when cavity conditioner was applied before surface treatment. PMID:26331147

  7. [Comparative in vitro evaluation of modern glass ionomer cements for adhesion strength and fluoride release].

    PubMed

    Zhitkov, M Yu; Rusanov, F S; Poyurovskaya, I Ya

    2016-01-01

    The study proved similar adhesion strength and fluoride release level in aqueous extracts of glass ionomer cements Cemion (VladMiVa, Russia), Glassin Rest (Omega-Dent, Russia), Cemfil 10 (StomaDent, Russia) and Fuji VIII (GC Corporation, Japan). Despite of close concentrations of fluoride in glasses, the rate of fluoride release in water from calcium and calcium-barium glasses is much higher than that of strontium glasses. PMID:27239999

  8. Resin-modified glass ionomers: dentin bond strength versus time.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Iwasaki, K; Soyamura, T; Onose, H; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    Most dentin bond strength tests of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements have been conducted after at least 24 hours' storage in water. In a clinical situation, debonding might occur soon after the restoration was placed if subjected to stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of development of shear bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, two Type IIs of which, Fuji II LC and Vitremer, were used. A conventional glass-ionomer cement, Fuji II, and a resin composite, Herculite XRV/OptiBond system, were also employed as controls. Bovine incisors were mounted in self-curing resin, and the facial surfaces wet ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose dentin. Materials were condensed into a vinyl mold and bonded following the manufacturers' instructions. The shear bond strengths of 10 specimens per group were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute after 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes' and 2, 5, and 24 hours' storage in water at 37 degrees C. One-way ANOVAs followed by the Dunnet test (P < 0.05) were used to test for significant differences between the mean bond strength at 1 minute and each of the other test periods. The test period when there was a significant increase in bond strength was defined as the "initial increasing time." The dentin bond strengths of all the materials tested increased with prolonged storage time. The initial increasing times were 10 minutes for Fuji II LC and OptiBond, 20 minutes for Fuji II, and 60 minutes for Vitremer. The differences in the initial increasing time might have clinical implications if the restoration is subjected to significant stress immediately after placement. PMID:9656926

  9. A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Padmaja; Valiathan, Ashima; Arora, Ankit; Agarwal, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC. PMID:24014999

  10. An investigation into the bonding of orthodontic attachments to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Larmour, C J; Bateman, G; Stirrups, D R

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed bonding of orthodontic brackets to porcelain teeth using two different surface preparation techniques and comparing two bonding systems, Fuji Ortho L.C. and Transbond. Four groups of 20 porcelain premolar teeth were bonded with metal orthodontic brackets (0.022 inch Minitwin, 3M Unitek) according to the following protocol: Transbond with a phosphoric acid etch (group 1), Transbond with a hydrofluoric acid etch (group 2), Fuji Ortho L.C. with a hydrofluoric acid etch (group 3), and Fuji Ortho L.C. with a phosphoric acid etch (group 4). All groups were bonded with a silane coupling agent. The teeth were debonded with an Instron universal testing machine. Bond strength, site of bond failure and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were recorded for each group. Differences between groups were analysed statistically. The composite resin groups (groups 1 and 2) had the highest mean bond strength values at 7.9 and 9.7 MPa, respectively. The resin-modified glass ionomer cement groups (RMGIC; groups 3 and 4) had the lowest mean bond strength values at 6.3 and 1.8 MPa, respectively. The mean bond strength of group 3 was significantly lower than all other groups (P < 0.0001). The Fuji groups had also significantly (P < 0.001) lower ARI scores than the composite groups (groups 1 and 2). Most samples experienced porcelain surface damage, except group 4. In conclusion, the highest bond strength levels were achieved with a conventional composite resin cement (groups 1 and 2). No significant differences in bond strength were found between the hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etch technique. PMID:16199411

  11. Image quality for five modern chest radiography techniques: a modified FROC study with an anthropomorphic chest phantom.

    PubMed

    Månsson, L G; Kheddache, S; Lanhede, B; Tylén, U

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the image quality for one conventional and four digital chest radiography techniques. Three storage phosphor systems, one selenium drum system, and one film-screen system were compared using a modified receiver-operating-characteristics method. Simulated pathology was randomly positioned over the parenchymal regions and the mediastinum of an anthropomorphic phantom. Eight observers (four chest radiologists, one specialist in general radiology, one hospital physicist, and two radiographers) evaluated 60 images for each technique. The selenium drum system (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) rated best for the detection of parenchymal nodules. Together with the storage phosphor system of generation IIIN (Philips/Fuji), the selenium drum system also rated best for detection of thin linear structures. The storage phosphor system of generation V (Fuji) rated best for the detection of mediastinal nodules. The first generation of the storage phosphor system from Agfa (Mortsel, Belgium) rated worst for the detection of parenchymal nodules and thin linear structures. These differences were significant (p < 0.0001). Averaging the results for all test objects, the selenium drum system and the storage phosphor system of generation V were significantly better than the other systems tested. The film/screen system performed significantly better than the first-generation storage phosphor system from Agfa, equal to the generation IIIN storage phosphor system (Philips/Fuji) and significantly worse than the selenium drum system (Philips) and the generation-V storage phosphor system (Fuji). The conclusion is therefore that the image quality of selenium-based digital technique and of the more recent generations of storage phosphor systems is superior to both conventional technique and storage phosphor systems using image plates of older types. PMID:10602958

  12. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  13. New mammography screen/film combinations: Imaging characteristics and radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Kimme-Smith, C.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Zheutlin, J.; Gornbein, J.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Five types of film (Kodak OM, Kodak OM-SO177, Konica CM, Dupont Microvision, and Fuji MiMa) exposed in combination with seven different intensifying screens (Min R, Min R Medium, Siemens Orthox MA, Kyokka HR Mammo Fine, Agfa Gevaert Detail S (old and new), and Konica Monarch) were processed for either 90 sec (at 33.3{degrees}C) or 3 min (at 35.0 degrees C). The films imaged a Computerized Imaging Reference System phantom with additional detail test objects placed on its surface to produce four groups of objects with which to evaluate resolution and contrast. For objects that tested resolution, the Kyokka HR Mammo Fine (Fuji) screen was statistically significantly superior; for objects that tested contrast, the Konica Monarch screen was statistically significantly superior. Extended processing did not affect Dupont and Kodak OM film as much as it affected the other films. It did affect contrast for the other films tested. The mean glandular doses from gridless exposures ranged from 32 to 80 mrad (0.32-0.80 mGy) over all film/screen/processing combinations for a 4.5-cm-thick test object. Several new film/screen combinations can provide images superior to the Kodak Min R/OM combination at a reduced radiation dose. The Kyokka HR Mammo Fine (Fuji) screen was found statistically superior in radiographic resolution of mammographic test objects and the Konica Monarch screen was found to be superior in defining contrast.

  14. A NMR-based, non-targeted multistep metabolic profiling revealed L-rhamnitol as a metabolite that characterised apples from different geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Satoru; Nemoto, Tadashi; Matsuo, Yosuke; Shoji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Jun; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2015-05-01

    This study utilises (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling to characterise apples of five cultivars grown either in Japan (Fuji, Orin, and Jonagold) or New Zealand (Fuji, Jazz, and Envy). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation between the Fuji-Orin-Jonagold class and the Jazz-Envy class, primarily corresponding to the differences in sugar signals, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Multistep PCA removed the influence of dominant sugars and highlighted minor metabolites such as aspartic acid, 2-methylmalate, and an unidentified compound. These minor metabolites separated the apples into two classes according to different geographical areas. Subsequent partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated the importance of the unidentified metabolite. This metabolite was isolated using charcoal chromatography, and was identified as L-rhamnitol by 2D NMR and LC/MS analyses. The remarkable contribution of L-rhamnitol to geographic discrimination suggests that apples may be characterised according to various factors, including storage duration, cultivation method, and climate. PMID:25529666

  15. A novel star-shaped poly(carboxylic acid) for resin-modified glass-ionomer restoratives.

    PubMed

    Weng, Y; Howard, L; Xie, D

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement (GIC) system composed of photo-curable star-shaped poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer radical polymerization using a newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agent. The star-shaped polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the molecular weight (MW) of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhancing the mechanical strengths while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The effects of MW, GM-tethering ratio, P/L ratio, and aging on the compressive properties of the experimental cements were significant. The light-cured experimental cements showed significantly improved mechanical strengths i.e. 49% in yield strength, 41% in modulus, 25% in CS, 20% in DTS, and 36% in FS, higher than commercial Fuji II LC. After aging in water for 1 month, the compressive strength of the novel light-cured experimental cement reached 343 MPa, which was 34% and 42% higher than Fuji II and Fuji II LC, respectively. This one-month aged experimental cement was also 23% higher than itself after one day aging, indicating that aging in water can significantly enhance salt-bridge formation for this novel star-shaped polyacid-comprised GIC. PMID:24865692

  16. New mammography screen/film combinations: imaging characteristics and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Kimme-Smith, C; Bassett, L W; Gold, R H; Zheutlin, J; Gornbein, J A

    1990-04-01

    Five types of film (Kodak OM, Kodak OM-SO177, Konica CM, Dupont Microvision, and Fuji MiMa) exposed in combination with seven different intensifying screens (Min R, Min R Medium, Siemens Orthox MA, Kyokka HR Mammo Fine, Agfa Gevaert Detail S (old and new), and Konica Monarch) were processed for either 90 sec (at 33.3 degrees C) or 3 min (at 35.0 degrees C). The films imaged a Computerized Imaging Reference System phantom with additional detail test objects placed on its surface to produce four groups of objects with which to evaluate resolution and contrast. For objects that tested resolution, the Kyokka HR Mammo Fine (Fuji) screen was statistically significantly superior; for objects that tested contrast, the Konica Monarch screen was statistically significantly superior. Extended processing did not affect Dupont and Kodak OM film as much as it affected the other films. It did affect contrast for the other films tested. The mean glandular doses from gridless exposures ranged from 32 to 80 mrad (0.32-0.80 mGy) over all film/screen/processing combinations for a 4.5-cm-thick test object. Several new film/screen combinations can provide images superior to the Kodak Min R/OM combination at a reduced radiation dose. The Kyokka HR Mammo Fine (Fuji) screen was found statistically superior in radiographic resolution of mammographic test objects and the Konica Monarch screen was found to be superior in defining contrast. PMID:2107663

  17. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-08-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated 'Fuji' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated 'Fuji' apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of 'Fuji' apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds.

  18. Diagnose oscillation properties observed in an Antarctic ice core oxygen isotope record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motizuki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate water isotope ratio profile obtained in a shallow ice core drilled at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica. Two sets of time series will be discussed; the first set was analyzed at NIPR (National Institute of Polar Research) with temporal resolution of about 5 years for the past 1900 years, and the second was obtained at RIKEN very recently with temporal resolution of less than a year for the past 400 years. Paying our attention on uncertainty in the depth-age relation, time series analyses to the measured oxygen isotope variations will be presented. A preliminary result for the former time series shows a ~200-year periodicity, which is by chance the same with one of solar activity cycles reported from tree ring studies. We note that snow and ice core samples obtained at Dome Fuji are known to contain much information on the stratosphere than those recovered from other sites in both the hemisphere. Considering this, we will further discuss possible mechanism to cause oscillation in oxygen isotope record in a Dome Fuji ice core.

  19. Review of the management of pneumocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Salas, Gueider; Silveira, Elisabeth do N.; Dabdoub, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pneumocephalus (PNC) is the presence of air in the intracranial cavity. The most frequent cause is trauma, but there are many other etiological factors, such as surgical procedures. PNC with compression of frontal lobes and the widening of the interhemispheric space between the tips of the frontal lobes is a characteristic radiological finding of the “Mount Fuji sign.” In addition to presenting our own case, we reviewed the most relevant clinical features, diagnostic methods, and conservative management for this condition. Case Description: A 74-year-old male was diagnosed with meningioma of olfactory groove several years ago. After no improvement, surgery of the left frontal craniotomy keyhole type was conducted. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the skull performed 24 h later showed a neuroimaging that it is described as the silhouette of Mount Fuji. The treatment was conservative and used continuous oxygen for 5 days. Control CT scan demonstrated reduction of the intracranial air with normal brain parenchyma. Conclusion: The review of the literature, we did not find any cases of tension pneumocephalus documented previously through a supraorbital keyhole approach. There are a few cases reported of patients with Mount Fuji signs that do not require surgical procedures. The conservative treatment in our report leads to clinical and radiological improvement as well as a reduction in hospitalization time. PMID:26500801

  20. Evaluation of image quality of a new CCD-based system for chest imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, Patrik; Kheddache, Susanne; Mansson, Lars G.; Bath, Magnus; Tylen, Ulf

    2000-04-01

    The Imix radiography system (Qy Imix Ab, Finland)consists of an intensifying screen, optics, and a CCD camera. An upgrade of this system (Imix 2000) with a red-emitting screen and new optics has recently been released. The image quality of Imix (original version), Imix 200, and two storage-phosphor systems, Fuji FCR 9501 and Agfa ADC70 was evaluated in physical terms (DQE) and with visual grading of the visibility of anatomical structures in clinical images (141 kV). PA chest images of 50 healthy volunteers were evaluated by experienced radiologists. All images were evaluated on Siemens Simomed monitors, using the European Quality Criteria. The maximum DQE values for Imix, Imix 2000, Agfa and Fuji were 11%, 14%, 17% and 19%, respectively (141kV, 5μGy). Using the visual grading, the observers rated the systems in the following descending order. Fuji, Imix 2000, Agfa, and Imix. Thus, the upgrade to Imix 2000 resulted in higher DQE values and a significant improvement in clinical image quality. The visual grading agrees reasonably well with the DQE results; however, Imix 2000 received a better score than what could be expected from the DQE measurements. Keywords: CCD Technique, Chest Imaging, Digital Radiography, DQE, Image Quality, Visual Grading Analysis

  1. Comparison of two methods for evaluating image quality of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, C.; Sund, P.; Tingberg, A.; Keddache, S.; Mansson, L. G.; Almen, A.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Imix radiography system (Oy Imix Ab, Finland) consists of an intensifying screen, optics, and a CCD camera. An upgrade of this system (Imix 2000) with a red-emitting screen and new optics has recently been released. The image quality of Imix (original version), Imix 2000, and two storage-phosphor systems, Fuji FCR 9501 and Agfa ADC70 was evaluated in physical terms (DQE) and with visual grading of the visibility of anatomical structures in clinical images (141 kV). PA chest images of 50 healthy volunteers were evaluated by experienced radiologists. All images were evaluated on Siemens Simomed monitors, using the European Quality Criteria. The maximum DQE values for Imix, Imix 2000 Agfa and Fuji were 11%, 14%, 17% and 19%, respectively (141 kV, 5 (mu) Gy). Using the visual grading, the observers rated the systems in the following descending order: Fuji, Imix 2000, Agfa, and Imix. Thus, the upgrade to Imix 2000 resulted in higher DQE values and a significant improvement in clinical image quality. The visual grading agrees reasonably well with the DQE results; however, Imix 2000 received a better score than what could be expected from the DQE measurements.

  2. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic. PMID:26647936

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomers, Compomers and Giomers – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, J. Sharada; Suhasini, K.; Hemachandrika, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental restorative materials, especially those applied in direct contact with the contaminated substrate, should have appropriate antibacterial activity in order to prevent residual bacteria from continuing their metabolic activity in addition to impairing new bacteria from reaching the tooth-restoration interface. Aim To determine the antibacterial efficacy of three different restorative materials against the common cariogenic microorganism i.e., Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods Three different restorative materials were evaluated in this study: Giomer (Beautifil), Compomer (F2000) & Resin modified Glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) for their anti microbial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans by standard agar diffusion method and zones of inhibition for each restorative material were calculated. Statistical Analysis Inhibition zones around each restorative material were measured and values were subjected to one-way ANOVA with least square difference (LSD) Post-hoc test. Results The mean inhibitory zones for Resin modified glass ionomers, Giomers & Compomers ranged from 10.1 – 6.90mm. Fuji II LC exhibited the highest mean inhibitory zone of 10.1 ± 1.97 for S.mutans. Beautifil exhibited mean inhibitory zone of 8.20 ± 1.62, whereas F2000 showed the least mean inhibitory zone of 6.90 ± 1.29. Conclusion Based on the inhibitory zones of three restorative materials, Fuji II LC is recommended as the best restorative material among the three tested restorative materials. PMID:26393212

  4. A novel glass ionomer cement containing MgCO(3 )apatite induced the increased proliferation and differentiation of human pulp cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laiteerapong, Arunee; Lochaiwatana, Yossakit; Hirata, Isao; Okazaki, Masayuki; Mori, Kenta; Murakami, Shinya; Poolthong, Suchit

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro biological response of human dental pulp cells to glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji IX GP(®)) containing 2.5% magnesium carbonate apatite (MgCO(3)Ap). MgCO(3)Ap was synthesized by wet method and characterized using FT-IR, XPS, and SEM. Fuji IX GP(®) served as a control. Test and control cements were prepared by encapsulated mixing the powder with Fuji IX-liquid (P/L=3.6:1). Eluates from cements extracted by 1 mL culture medium were collected at day 1, 7 and 14, and used for WST-1 proliferation assay. For ALPase activity, cells were maintained with cements in transwells, harvested and enzyme activity was measured at day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21. We found a higher cell proliferation and increased ALPase activity by pulp cells in the test group compared to the control. This suggests the potential of GIC containing this novel biological apatite as a restorative material for pulp-dentin regeneration. PMID:23037840

  5. Thermal characterization of glass ionomer/vinyl IPN composites

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, A.D.; Bennett, B.; Shelby, A. Storey, R.

    1993-12-31

    In and attempt to improve some of the disadvantages of the conventional glass ionomers such as Ketac-fil, two photocurable glass ionomer restoratives have been introduced to the dental profession. The initial objective of this study was to compare the thermal expansion coefficients on the new formulations, Vari-Glass and Fuji II ionomer to the conventional glass ionomer composites using thermal mechanical analysis and to determine the residual monomer contents after photopolymerization using differential scanning calorimetry. Results suggest that these materials exhibit multiphase morphologies. Conventional glass ionomers exhibit two distinct glass transition temperatures. While Fuji II exhibits many of the characteristics of a conventional glass ionomer, Vari-Glass behaves more as a glass-filled resin composite. Fuji II and Ketac-fil exhibit expansion coefficients which are compatible with tooth structure below body temperature, but may cause significant stress on the bond to tooth structure due to shrinkage of the materials at temperatures slightly above body temperature. In contrast, the Vari-Glass formulation exhibits an expansion coefficient which is over three times that of tooth structure and will result in significant stresses above or below body temperature.

  6. The assessment of surface roughness and microleakage of eroded tooth-colored dental restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Thulfiqar Ali; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Ghani, Zuryati Ab; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of acidic solution on surface roughness and microleakage of tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A 160 box-shaped cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 160 human molars, and assigned to four groups: Group A restored with Ketac™ Molar Easymix, Group B with Fuji II™ LC, Group C with Ketac™ N100, and Group D with Filtek™ Z250, and subdivided into study and control groups (n = 20). Study groups were immersed in lemon juice (pH = 2.79) for 24 h, whilst controlgroups in deionized distilled water. All samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye, sectioned into two equal halves for surface roughness, and microleakage tests. Data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at P < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in surface roughness of Ketac™ Molar, Fuji II™ LC, and Ketac™ N100. No significant difference was found in microleakage of Ketac™ Molar and Fuji II™ LC; however, there were significant differences in the gingival margin of Ketac™ N100, and the occlusal margin of Filtek™ Z250. Conclusions: All glass ionomer cements were eroded after exposure to the acidic drink. Filtek™ Z250 and Ketac™ Molar Easymix showed more microleakage. All materials showed more microleakage at the gingival margins. PMID:25506139

  7. Fluoride release and antibacterial activity of selected dental materials.

    PubMed

    Marczuk-Kolada, Grazyna; Jakoniuk, Piotr; Mystkowska, Joanna; Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Elzbieta; Waszkiel, Danuta; Dabrowski, Jan Ryszard; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the fluoride ion release and antibacterial activities of the glassionomer cement Fuji IX and the compomer (composite modified polyacid) Dyract AP. Fluoride ion release was measured using direct potentiometry with an Orion fluoride ion selective electrode. The measurement was carried out after 1, 4, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days of storage in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The antibacterial activity of the materials was evaluated against the bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393. The agar diffusion test was applied. The material specimens were assessed twice: after setting and seven days later. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured in millimeters after 24 hours. The results of the study showed that both materials released ion fluoride, with a higher emission of Fuji IX than Dyract AP. The highest level of emission was observed on the seventh day of the study in both materials. After 24 hours of bonding there was inhibition of bacterial growth by Fuji IX, whereas Dyract AP did not show similar activity. On the eighth day after polymerization, Dyract AP was significantly more active towards Streptococcus sanguis and salivarius. PMID:18493226

  8. Fluoride penetration from three orthodontic adhesives: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Szepietowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prophylactic potential of 3 orthodontic bonding adhesives: Fuji Ortho SC, Illuminate, and Resilience. Methods Thirty-six Wistar Wag rats were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 9 rats each. One of the groups received no treatment and was used as a control. In the other groups, individual bands coated with one of the 3 adhesives were cemented to the lower incisors. Enamel samples were obtained after 6 and 12 weeks and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive spectrometry. Results Six weeks after band cementation, no fluoride was found in the enamel of the lower incisors. After 12 weeks, there was no fluoride in the enamel of teeth coated with the Resilience composite. However, in the case of the Illuminate composite and the resin-modified glass ionomer Fuji Ortho SC cement, the depth of fluoride penetration reached 2 µm and 4.8 - 5.7 µm, respectively. Conclusions Fluoride ions from orthodontic adhesives can be incorporated into the surface layer of the enamel. Orthodontists may apply orthodontic adhesives, such as the Fuji Ortho SC, to reduce the occurrence of caries during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:23502591

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  10. Electric Field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, E.; Gallardo, C.; Molina, M.; Sanjosé, V.

    We present the computer program called LINES which is able to calculate and visualize the electric field lines due to seven different discrete configurations of electric point charges. Also we show two examples of the graphic screens generated by LINES.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  14. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  15. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  16. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  17. Overview of electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniłko, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT 1) was the first experiment in which electric propulsion device was sent into space. The present year marks the 50th anniversary of that particular mission that opened the door for the application of electric propulsion on board spacecrafts. We present an overview of existing electric propulsion technology along with the description of the most successful missions that followed the success of the SERT 1mission.

  18. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  19. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  20. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  1. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  3. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. The model electric restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. ); Claar, C.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Restaurants are the most intensive users of energy of all types of commercial buildings. As a result, they have some of the highest energy costs. New and existing restaurants are important customers to electric utilities. Many opportunities exist to use electricity to improve restaurant energy performance. This report discusses a project in which computer simulations were used to investigate restaurant energy subsystem performance and to assess the potential for electric equipment to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak demand improve load factors, and reduce energy cost in new all-electric restaurants. The project investigated typical restaurant designs for all-electric and gas/electric facilities and compared them to high efficiency electric options in all-electric restaurants. This analysis determined which investiments in high-efficiency electric equipment are attractive for restaurant operators. Improved equipment for food preparation, heating and cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and lighting subsystem was studied in cafeteria, full menu, fast food, and pizza restaurants in Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. In addition to the actual rate structures, four synthetic rate structures were used to calculate energy costs, so that the results can be applied to other locations. The results indicate that high efficiency and improved all-electric equipment have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption, peak demand, and operating costs in almost all restaurants in all locations. The all-electric restaurants, with a combination of improved equipment, also offer the customer a competitive choice in fuels in most locations. 12 refs., 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Economics of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  6. Automated routing of DICOM CT, MR, and CR images: solving the pitfalls of vendor-specific DICOM implementations.

    PubMed

    Junck, K L; McEachern, M; Grandhi, S; Lewey, G

    1998-08-01

    This paper details our experience in developing and implementing an automated DICOM Image Router. This workstation serves as a gateway between image acquisition devices and image display and storage devices. Images are checked for demographic input errors and data format inconsistencies between the source and destination devices. Based on the configured rules, and image may be held for manual correction and/or distributed to multiple locations. Distribution is based on easily configured environmental variables and rules files which may be changed as needed. For example, CT images are typically sent to the archive and to a radiologist's display workstation. If the patient came from the Emergency Department, a copy of the images are sent to a clinician display workstation located in the Emergency Department. If the patient has suffered trauma to the head, a copy of the images are sent to a display workstation in the Neurosurgery Department for possible consultation. The software was developed on a UNIX-based platform and utilizes a Fast Ethernet network. To date, images from a variety of devices have been acquired: General Electric HiSpeed CT/I scanner, General Electric Signa MRI scanner, Philips Thoravision Digital Chest unit, and Fuji AC-3CS Computed Radiography (CR) unit. Each device has presented new challenges in providing a uniform look to patient demographics in the PACS archive. The workstation also provides a buffer in the event of network outages, storing images for later transmission when the network and/or a workstation recover. PMID:9735450

  7. Electrical properties of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakova, Larisa A.

    In this study, thorough analysis is conducted for soil electrical properties, i.e. electrical resistivity, conductivity, and potential. Soil electrical properties are the parameters of natural and artificially created electrical fields in soils and influenced by distribution of mobile electrical charges, mostly inorganic ions, In soils. Distributions of electrical charges and properties in various soil profiles were shown to be results of the soil-forming processes. Soil properties influencing the density of mobile electrical charges were found to be exponentially related with electrical resistivity and potential based on Boltzmann's law of statistical thermodynamics. Relationships were developed between electrical properties and other soil physical and chemical properties, such as texture, stone content, bulk density, water content, cation exchange capacity, salinity, humus content, and base saturation measured in-situ and in soil samples. Geophysical methods of vertical electrical sounding, four-electrode probe, non-contact electromagnetic profiling, and self-potential were modified for measuring soil electrical properties and tested in different soil studies. The proposed methods are extremely efficient, reliable, and non-disturbing. Compared with conventional methods of soil analysis, the electrical geophysical methods allowed evaluating groundwater table, salt content, depth and thickness of soil horizons, Polluted or disturbed layers in soil profiles, and stone content with an estimation error <10%. The methods provide extensive data on spatial and temporal variations in soil electrical properties, which relate to the distributions of other essential soil properties. The electrical properties were incorporated with the data from conventional soil analyses to enhance the estimation of a number of soil physical and chemical properties and to assist soil survey. The study shows various applications of the modified geophysical methods in soil physics, soil

  8. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  9. Electrical system architecture

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  10. Integrated electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  11. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  12. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  13. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  14. The earth's electrical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lighting, cloud and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

  15. Electric propulsion - Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerpheide, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The state of the art of electric propulsion technology is discussed with a review of the many difficult engineering problems which must be resolved before the incorporation of electric propulsion in space missions. Interferences with the spacecraft and its scientific instrumentation, conducted and radiated electromagnetic interferences during the switching and processing of large electrical loads, and mercury and other eroded materials deposition on the spacecraft are indicated among the engineering and design challenges to be overcome and resolved.

  16. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  17. Essays on electricity theft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  18. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the efficacy of calcium silicate indirect pulp capping: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hashem, D; Mannocci, F; Patel, S; Manoharan, A; Brown, J E; Watson, T F; Banerjee, A

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  19. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  20. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  1. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  2. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOEpatents

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  3. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  4. EPRI electric vehicle conference

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleeger, D.

    1999-10-01

    Lower operating and maintenance costs, quiet and clean operation appear the main factors in choosing electric over the typical internal combustion powered equipment. The Conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI is a cooperative effort by major electric companies across the USA, founded in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, CA. Featured at the Conference were presentations on regulatory issues, lift truck technologies, automotive advances and other industrial applications to include automated guided vehicles, personnel carriers and electric bicycles. Approximately 25 exhibitors displayed components, subassemblies and complete vehicles.

  5. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  6. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  7. Electrical Work in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Business and Finance Branch.

    Most buildings rely on electricity for lighting, power, signals, and other communications. Electric energy is also used for heating and year-round thermal conditioning of spaces. Its ease of transmission, simple control and measurement, and relative safety make it a useful source of energy. This publication is intended to provide those persons…

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  9. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: the role of nuclear power; the role of electricity; generating electricity with the…

  10. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  11. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  12. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  13. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  14. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  15. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  16. Pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  17. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  18. Electrical Distribution Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard electrical distribution curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the electrical distribution field, and in job skills such as construction, maintenance, and repair of overhead and underground electrical…

  19. Electricity and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with the use of electricity. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss consumer uses of electricity and understand increased usage and problems relating to needs for production expansion. Some topics covered are major…

  20. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  1. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  6. Efficient Use of Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickett, Arnold P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are advanced technologies which may offer an opportunity to meet the world's future energy needs while minimizing the environmental impact. Savings to both suppliers and consumers are described. International electricity usage is compared. Government standards for the manufacture of electrical products in the United States are…

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  9. Static and Current Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  10. Advancements in electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Contents of this volume include: Influence of Battery Characteristics on Traction Drive Performance; Chassis Design for a Small Electric City Car; Thermal Comfort of Electric Vehicles; Power Quality Problems at Electric Vehicle`s Charging Station; The Development and Performance of the AMPhibian Hybrid Electric Vehicle; The Selection of Lead-Acid Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; and more.

  11. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  13. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  14. Development of filter exchangeable 3CCD camera for multispectral imaging acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Noh, Sang Ha

    2012-05-01

    There are a lot of methods to acquire multispectral images. Dynamic band selective and area-scan multispectral camera has not developed yet. This research focused on development of a filter exchangeable 3CCD camera which is modified from the conventional 3CCD camera. The camera consists of F-mounted lens, image splitter without dichroic coating, three bandpass filters, three image sensors, filer exchangeable frame and electric circuit for parallel image signal processing. In addition firmware and application software have developed. Remarkable improvements compared to a conventional 3CCD camera are its redesigned image splitter and filter exchangeable frame. Computer simulation is required to visualize a pathway of ray inside of prism when redesigning image splitter. Then the dimensions of splitter are determined by computer simulation which has options of BK7 glass and non-dichroic coating. These properties have been considered to obtain full wavelength rays on all film planes. The image splitter is verified by two line lasers with narrow waveband. The filter exchangeable frame is designed to make swap bandpass filters without displacement change of image sensors on film plane. The developed 3CCD camera is evaluated to application of detection to scab and bruise on Fuji apple. As a result, filter exchangeable 3CCD camera could give meaningful functionality for various multispectral applications which need to exchange bandpass filter.

  15. Perspective on photovoltaic amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Stafford, B.; von Roedern, B.

    1992-05-01

    Amorphous silicon is a thin film option that has the potential for a cost-effective product for large-scale utility photovoltaics application. The initial efficiencies for single-junction and multijunction amorphous silicon cells and modules have increased significantly over the past 10 years. The emphasis of research and development has changed to stabilized efficiency, especially that of multijunction modules. NREL has measured 6.3%--7.2% stabilized amorphous silicon module efficiencies for US products, and 8.1% stable efficiencies have been reported by Fuji Electric. This represents a significant increase over the stabilized efficiencies of modules manufactured only a few years ago. An increasing portion of the amorphous silicon US government funding is now for manufacturing technology development to reduce cost. The funding for amorphous silicon for photovoltaics by Japan over the last 5 years has been about 50% greater than that in the United State, and by Germany in the last 2--3 years more than twice that of the US Amorphous silicon is the only thin-film technology that is selling large-area commercial modules. The cost for amorphous silicon modules is now in the $4.50 range; it is a strong function of plant production capacity and is expected to be reduced to $1.00--1.50/W{sub p} for plants with 10 MW/year capacities. 10 refs.

  16. Perspective on photovoltaic amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Stafford, B.; von Roedern, B. )

    1992-12-01

    Amorphous silicon is a thin film option that has the potential for a cost-effective product for large-scale utility photovoltaics application. The initial efficiencies for single-junction and multijunction amorphous silicon cells and modules have increased significantly over the past 10 years. The emphasis of research and development has changed to stabilized efficiency, especially that of multijunction modules. NREL has measured 6.3%--7.2% stabilized amorphous silicon module efficiencies for U.S. products, and 8.1% stable efficiencies have been reported by Fuji Electric. This represents a significant increase over the stabilized efficiencies of modules manufactured only a few years ago. An increasing portion of the amorphous silicon U.S. government funding is now for manufacturing technology development to reduce cost. The funding for amorphous silicon for photovoltaics by Japan over the last 5 years has been about 50% greater than that in the United States, and by Germany in the last 2--3 years more than twice that of the U.S. Amorphous silicon is the only thin-film technology that is selling large-area commercial modules. The cost for amorphous silicon modules is now in the $4.50 range; it is a strong function of plant production capacity and is expected to be reduced to $1.00--1.50/W[sub [ital p

  17. Development of computer-aided functions in clinical neurosurgery with PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Satoh, Minoru; Kowada, Masayoshi; Kikuchi, K.

    1991-07-01

    The introduction of the "Picture Archiving and Communications System (known as PACS)," provides many benefits, including the application of C.A.D., (Computer Aided Diagnosis). Clinically, this allows for the measurement and design of an operation to be easily completed with the CRT monitors of PACS rather than with film, as has been customary in the past. Under the leadership of the Department of Neurosurgery, Akita University School of Medicine, and Southern Tohoku Research Institute for Neuroscience, Koriyama, new computer aided functions with EFPACS (Fuji Electric's PACS) have been developed for use in clinical neurosurgery. This image processing is composed of three parts as follows: (1) Automatic mapping of small lesions depicted on Magnetic Resonance (or MR) images on the brain atlas. (2) Superimposition of two angiographic films onto a single synthesized image. (3) Automatic mapping of the lesion's position (as shown on the. CT images) on the processing image referred to in the foregoing clause 2. The processing in the clause (1) provides a reference for anatomical estimation. The processing in the clause (2) is used for general analysis of the condition of a disease. The processing in the clause (3) is used to design the operation. This image processing is currently being used with good results.

  18. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  19. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  20. Electricity from biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-12-31

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as {open_quotes}controlled landfilling{close_quotes}. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills.

  1. Electric vehicle activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonaco, J. L.; Pandya, D. A.

    1995-02-01

    The data and information collected for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE&G) electric vehicle demonstration program were intended to support and enhance DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. The DOE Site Operator Program is focused on the life cycle and reliability of Electric Vehicles (EV's). Of particular interest are vehicles currently available with features that are likely to be put into production or demonstrate new technology. PSE&G acquired eight GMC Electric G-Vans in 1991, and three TEVans in 1993, and conducted a program plan to test and assess the overall performance of these electric vehicles. To accomplish the objectives of DOE's Site Operator's test program, a manual data collection system was implemented. The manual data collection system has provided energy use and mileage data. From September 1991 to October 1994 PSE&G logged 69,368 miles on eleven test vehicles. PSE&G also demonstrated the EVs to diverse groups and associations at fifty seven various events. Included in the report are lessons learned concerning maintenance, operation, public reactions, and driver's acceptance of the electric vehicles.

  2. Electrical futures past.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal. PMID:16271766

  3. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  4. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  5. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Atoms to electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for some 12 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1982. In the 1990's, it is expected to become second only to coal as a source of our electric power, almost doubling its present contribution to our national electricity supply. 14 references, 40 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  8. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  9. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  10. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  11. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  12. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  13. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  14. Home Electrical Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, baseboard, etc) with nails or wire staples ? YES: Remove any nails and/or staples and replace damaged cords. ... shock (other than one from static electricity) from any appliance? YES: Do not touch the appliance until it has ...

  15. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  16. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  17. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  18. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  19. Electrical discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antanasijević, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragić, A.; Joković, D.; Joksimović, D.; Marić, Z.; Panić, B.; Udovičić, V.; Vigier, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    An experiment on electrical discharges in air under normal atmospheric conditions has been performed. The ratio between output and input energy is greater than 1, which confirms the results already reported by Graneau et al.

  20. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  1. Electric battery research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-16

    Electric-battery research programs are receiving less funding, and efforts have been made to phase out the still-unsuccessful effort to produce a commercially viable automotive battery. Lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries are top contenders for commercial applications, but a short life span continues to limit their usefulness. Until electric cars can compete (when gasoline approaches $2.50 a gallon) the market does not look hopeful. (DCK)

  2. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  3. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOEpatents

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  4. Electric drive for submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, F.E.

    1984-06-05

    A direct current electric motor marine propulsion system is provided with a pair of shunt wound direct current electric motors which are alternatively connected in a series/parallel circuit configuration. A forward biased diode between the motors in the series circuit, provides for smooth switching characteristics. Fine control of low speed operation is accomplished through the use of a chopper in series with the power source. A contactor connected across the diode provides for reverse current flow during regenerative braking.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  6. US electric power system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Electric energy supply, transmission and distribution systems are investigated in order to determine priorities for legislation. The status and the outlook for electric power reliability are discussed.

  7. Mechanisms of Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2004-11-01

    The technology of electric propulsion evolved to overcome the high propellant weight associated with propulsion by chemical means. As opposed to ejecting propellant at velocities of kilometers per second, exhaust velocities of plasma at tens of kilometers per second and more could be accomplished through electrical means. Although higher exhaust velocities require higher on-board power, the reduced propellant requirements facilitate a large variety of space transportation missions, such as orbit-raising, station-keeping, or other propulsion missions requiring the conservation of propellant mass such as interplanetary flight. To produce thrust by the application of electric forces, plasma can be accelerated directly, or ions can be accelerated and then neutralized to form flowing neutral plasma. The different mechanisms of acceleration are embodied in such thrust devices as ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, or arcjets. In each method of electric propulsion, different technological limitations arise from basic plasma properties. This talk reviews the basic acceleration mechanisms at play in contemporary means of electric propulsion within the broader context of accelerating plasma by any means.

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  10. Electrical capacitance clearanceometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Norbert J. (Inventor); Hornbeck, Charles E. (Inventor); Young, Joseph C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hot gas turbine engine capacitive probe clearanceometer is employed to measure the clearance gap or distance between blade tips on a rotor wheel and its confining casing under operating conditions. A braze sealed tip of the probe carries a capacitor electrode which is electrically connected to an electrical inductor within the probe which is inserted into a turbine casing to position its electrode at the inner surface of the casing. Electrical power is supplied through a voltage controlled variable frequency oscillator having a tuned circuit in which the probe is a component. The oscillator signal is modulated by a change in electrical capacitance between the probe electrode and a passing blade tip surface while an automatic feedback correction circuit corrects oscillator signal drift. A change in distance between a blade tip and the probe electrode is a change in capacitance therebetween which frequency modulates the oscillator signal. The modulated oscillator signal which is then processed through a phase detector and related circuitry to provide an electrical signal is proportional to the clearance gap.

  11. Source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Marhanka, F.D.

    1983-06-28

    A source of electricity has a first electrode, a second electrode which is spaced from the first electrode and which is made from a metal that is displaced in the electromotive series from the metal of the first electrode, a first mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the first electrode, a second mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the second electrode and which has at least one particulate that is different from all of the particulates in the first mass, an interface between the confronting surfaces of the first and second masses, a polarity-imparting material in one of the masses, and that polarity-imparting material and the liquids enabling the masses to cause the electrodes to supply a unidirectional flow of current to any load which is connected across them.

  12. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  14. The development of electricity futures

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, B.

    1994-12-31

    The development of electricity futures is outlined. The following topics are discussed: electricity futures contract research; evolution of the electricity industry; electric power marketer applications; natural gas marketing companies; EWG filings and approvals; and introduction to New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

  15. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  17. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  18. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  19. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  20. Deaths from electricity.

    PubMed

    Brokenshire, B; Cairns, F J; Koelmeyer, T D; Smeeton, W M; Tie, A B

    1984-03-14

    This paper reviews the circumstances of 95 fatalities from electrical injuries. Eighty-nine were accidental, four were suicides and two occurred during autoerotic electrical stimulation. Forty-nine of the accidental fatalities occurred at work, Twenty-eight in the home and twelve in the course of outside recreational activities. In many accidents the circumstances were distressingly similar and included: (1) Contact with overhead distribution lines by a length of conductor such as a yacht mast or crane. (2) Faulty wiring or electrical repairs performed by unqualified people. (3) Badly deteriorated cords, plugs and occasionally appliances. (4) Failure to use isolating transformers when indicated. Deaths involving children are a particular cause of concern. Nine fatalites involved children under the age of five years who contacted inadequately protected wires. PMID:6584755

  1. Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-29

    SIMPLEV2.0 is an electric vehicle simulation code which can be used with any IBM compatible personal computer. This general purpose simulation program is useful for performing parametric studies of electric and series hybrid electric vehicle performance on user input driving cycles.. The program is run interactively and guides the user through all of the necessary inputs. Driveline components and the traction battery are described and defined by ASCII files which may be customized by themore » user. Scaling of these components is also possible. Detailed simulation results are plotted on the PC monitor and may also be printed on a printer attached to the PC.« less

  2. Electric fluid pump

    DOEpatents

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  3. Electric utilities and telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Part I of this article will provide some background on the involvement of electric utilities in telecommunications. It will discuss the Power Radio Services, under which the FCC regulates radio communications of electric utilities, the pole attachment statute of the Communications Act, which authorized the FCC to regulate attachments of cable television cables to electric utility poles, and a recent Department of Energy (DOE) report on the need for a demonstration on the use of telecommunications for DSM. Part I will also discuss several recent developments relative to the Power Radio Services and the pole attachment statute. Part II will discuss electric utilities and telecommunications under PUHCA. It will outline the extensive and complex requirements of PUHCA that are applicable to public utility holding companies, as well as the specific requirements of PUHCA for the formation by public utility holding companies of subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss the seven instances in the past decade in which the SEC has approved the formation by public utility holding companies of such subsidiaries. Part III of this article will discuss a principal obstacle to expanded electric utility involvement in telecommunications activities-a series of administrative and judicial decisions that illustrate the potential for dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC to result in confusion and inefficiencies. It will also discuss proposals in Congress to minimize this potential. Part IV will discuss House Bill 3636 and Senate Bill 1822 and their proposals to amend PUHCA to facilitate the formation or acquisition by public utility holding companies of non-utility subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss their proposals to address the potential consequences of dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC of electric utilities involved in telecommunications.

  4. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  5. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  6. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  7. Enhance separations with electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhara, H.S.

    1994-05-01

    To satisfy growing environmental regulations, control energy costs, or just to stay competitive, one must improve existing separation technologies and make them more efficient. New challenges in food processing and requirements for novel purification technologies in the biotech industry also will require more efficient separation techniques. This paper discusses some enhanced separation processes based on the application of an electric field in the combined-fields approach. In a combined-fields approach, the emphasis is on the generation of additional driving forces to work simultaneously with the conventional driving force of the process. Here the authors concentrate on the application of an electric field to generate the additional driving force.

  8. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  9. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  10. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  11. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  12. Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedly, V. J.; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Litchford, R. J.; Garrison, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform (EPOP), of which the primary objective is to provide an instrumented platform for testing electric propulsion devices in space. It is anticipated that the first flight, EPOP-1, will take place on the Shuttle-deployed Wake Shield Facility in 1996, and will be designed around a commercial 1.8 kW arcjet system which will be operated on gaseous hydrogen propellant. Specific subsystems are described, including the arcjet system, the propellant and power systems, and the diagnostics systems.

  13. Electric propulsion: Experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes from electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  14. Electric Propulsion: Experimental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed LIF technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes form electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  15. Wave Motion Electric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, E. F.; Winkler, R. J.

    1983-12-27

    Set out herein is an electrical generator conformed for installation in a buoy, the generator comprising an inverted pendulum having two windings formed at the free end thereof and aligned to articulate between two end stops each provided with a magnetic circuit. As the loops thus pass through the magnetic circuit, electrical current is induced which may be rectified through a full way rectifier to charge up a storage battery. The buoy itself may be ballasted to have its fundamental resonance at more than double the wave frequency with the result that during each passing of a wave at least two induction cycles occur.

  16. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  18. Deregulation of electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccour, G.

    1998-07-01

    This volume is a collection of fourteen, mainly applied, economic papers examining electric utility deregulation in many parts of the world. These papers were presented at the International Workshop on Deregulation of Electric Utilities held in Montreal, Canada in September 1997. As the title suggests, these papers cover a broad range of topics. Despite the book's scattershot approach, a small subset of contributors asks a fundamental question: Is the industry sufficiently deregulated? This book succeeds in providing some concrete and well-analyzed examples that examine this important question.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  20. Electric micropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. P.; Ferrer, P.

    2015-04-01

    With the development of microspacecraft, the field of electrical micropropulsion is a rapidly expanding discipline. New ideas are being explored constantly and a review of the current state of technological development in the field will be useful. This review deals with electrostatic and electromagnetic micropropulsion systems that are either miniaturization attempts of existing technologies or novel systems in their own right. A brief discussion of the development of microspacecraft and a general overview of the types of micropropulsion are given. The essential mechanism of operation of each electrical micropropulsion system is described and recent progress in the development of these systems is explored, giving latest available data of their performance parameters.

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  2. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  3. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  4. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  5. Electrical Stunning Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation is an overview of the mechanics of electrical stunning of broilers and the physiology associated with stunning, bleeding, and the rapid progression to death. Stunning and bleeding compose a relative short time period in the 6-week life of a commercial broiler, about 2.5 to 3 minut...

  6. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  7. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  8. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  9. Lightweight Electrical Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Hollow plastic spheres expanded and fused together. Hollow, gasfilled plastic spheres piled in mold. Heating in vacuum softens and expands spheres, forcing them together into nearly regular hexagonal close packing. Foam used as lightweight, electrically insulating material in place of solid ceramic, glass, or polymer. Padding to protect against mechanical shocks another application for such dense, regular foam.

  10. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: (1) "The Role of Nuclear Power"; (2) "The Role of Electricity"; (3) Generating Electricity…

  11. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  12. Solar Electricity for Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  13. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  14. Introduction to Electrical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.; Balabanian, Norman

    This text (in mimeographed form) was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education and is intended as material of a first course in the electrical engineering sequence. Introductory concepts such as charge, fields, potential difference, current, and some of the basic physical laws are presented in Chapter I. Subsequent…

  15. Implantable electrical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fully implantable and self contained device is disclosed composed of a flexible electrode array for surrounding damaged nerves and a signal generator for driving the electrode array with periodic electrical impulses of nanoampere magnitude to induce regeneration of the damaged nerves.

  16. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  17. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  18. Electric-car simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  19. Measurement of Electric Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the measurement of electric potentials by means of a flame probe. This method is used extensively in the new Nuffield Advanced Level Physics course, and provides a means of taking reliable quantitative results in an area of most school courses where the majority of the work is qualitative. (JR)

  20. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  1. Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    Stakeholders often have competing interests when selecting or planning new power plants. The purpose of developing this preliminary Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model (EPSim) is to provide a first cut, dynamic methodology and approach to this problem, that can subsequently be refined and validated, that may help energy planners, policy makers, and energy students better understand the tradeoffs associated with competing electricity portfolios. EPSim allows the user to explore competing electricity portfolios annually from 2002 tomore » 2025 in terms of five different criteria: cost, environmental impacts, energy dependence, health and safety, and sustainability. Four additional criteria (infrastructure vulnerability, service limitations, policy needs and science and technology needs) may be added in future versions of the model. Using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach, users or groups of users apply weights to each of the criteria. The default energy assumptions of the model mimic Department of Energy’s (DOE) electricity portfolio to 2025 (EIA, 2005). At any time, the user can compare alternative portfolios to this reference case portfolio.« less

  2. The Electric Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This book is intended as an introduction to the television program, "The Electric Company," designed to help teach reading to children in grades 2-4 who are experiencing difficulty. Contents include: Sidney P. Marland, Jr.'s preface, "A Significant New Teaching Tool"; Joan Ganz Cooney's "Television and the Teaching of Reading"; and Barbara…

  3. Making Electricity with Fruit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispezio, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how electrochemical cells exploit reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions to produce electric current. Presents an activity using a paper clip, copper wire, an apple, and a voltmeter where students can measure the voltage from an apple cell. Describes variables that can be changed to assess the impact on the voltage produced. (PR)

  4. Electrical drive for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Fobbs, H.

    1980-09-16

    Electrical apparatus for driving an automobile is described that is comprised of a dc motor operationally connected to the rear axle through a drive shaft with the motor energized from storage batteries and recharged from alternators coupled to the drive shaft adjacent a clutch at the rear end of the automobile through an auxiliary drive shaft.

  5. Electrical Maintenance Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 30 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electrical maintenance technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  6. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  7. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  8. Teaching Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark D.

    1989-01-01

    An understanding of the important concepts of electrical safety can be developed without the concept of potential. Stresses the idea of current flow and the hazards involved. Discusses ground-fault circuit breakers. Includes diagrams on safe and faulty circuits which could lead to electrocution. (Author/MVL)

  9. Electrifying Inquiry: Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Susan; Barnett, Jessica; Webster, Lois

    2005-01-01

    An activity involving parallel electrical circuits was modified to incorporate an open inquiry approach. Both the original and revised versions of the activity were tested in the middle school classroom. We present a comparison of the two versions of the activity in terms of facilitating learning and engaging students' interests.

  10. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  11. Graphing Electric Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  12. Electric Guitar and Violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  13. Electrical impedance of FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of FCC are investigated in the context of multiple transmission lines theory. Analytical expressions for the coefficients of capacitance of conductors in a single cable are obtained. Numerical values calculated with these expressions are in good agreement with experimental data. Crosstalk, attenuation constants and phase angles of the current and voltage in flat conductor cable are also calculated.

  14. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  15. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  18. 44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  19. 8. North elevation of electric relay station showing electrical cable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. North elevation of electric relay station showing electrical cable connection to tower. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  20. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. ELECTRIC-FIELD-ENHANCED FABRIC FILTRATION OF ELECTRICALLY CHARGED FLYASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes measurements in which both external electric field (applied by electrodes at the fabric surface) and flyash electrical charge (controlled by an upstream corona precharger) are independent variables in a factorial performance experiment carried out in a labora...

  2. The electrical soliton oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, David Shawn

    Solitons are a special class of pulse-shaped waves that propagate in nonlinear dispersive media while maintaining their spatial confinement. They are found throughout nature where the proper balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is achieved. Examples of the soliton phenomena include shallow water waves, vibrations in a nonlinear spring-mass lattice, acoustic waves in plasma, and optical pulses in fiber optic cable. In electronics, the nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) serves as a nonlinear dispersive medium that propagates voltage solitons. Electrical solitons on the NLTL have been actively investigated over the last 40 years, particularly in the microwave domain, for sharp pulse generation applications and for high-speed RF and microwave sampling applications. In these past studies the NLTL has been predominantly used as a 2-port system where a high-frequency input is required to generate a sharp soliton output through a transient process. One meaningful extension of the past 2-port NLTL works would be to construct a 1-port self-sustained electrical soliton oscillator by properly combining the NLTL with an amplifier (positive active feedback). Such an oscillator would self-start by growing from ambient noise to produce a train of periodic soliton pulses in steady-state, and hence would make a self-contained soliton generator not requiring an external high-frequency input. While such a circuit may offer a new direction in the field of electrical pulse generation, there has not been a robust electrical soliton oscillator reported to date to the best of our knowledge. In this thesis we introduce the first robust electrical soliton oscillator, which is able to self-generate a stable, periodic train of electrical solitons. This new oscillator is made possible by combining the NLTL with a unique nonlinear amplifier that is able to "tame" the unruly dynamics of the NLTL. The principle contribution of this thesis is the identification of the key instability

  3. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  4. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Hani Nordin, Farah; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z. A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  5. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  6. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  7. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  8. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold. PMID:25880721

  9. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  10. Turning tires into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, S.

    1991-05-01

    Nationally, nearly one million tires a day are retired from vehicles. With landfill space at a premium, old tires are usually heaped in growing piles across the country. Old tires have not only become a highly visible environmental problem, but a health menace as well. Mounds of discarded tires are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. In addition, hazards to air and water quality from tire fires are well documented. At Wisconsin Power and Light Co, the author has been experimenting with using scrap tires as fuel to create electricity. In 1990, the utility burned 130,000 tons of tire chips in a cyclone furnace, saving about $75,000 in fuel cost. The project is a joint experiment with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to determine the feasibility of using old tires to create electricity.

  11. Electrical safety device

    DOEpatents

    White, David B.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical safety device for use in power tools that is designed to automatically discontinue operation of the power tool upon physical contact of the tool with a concealed conductive material. A step down transformer is used to supply the operating power for a disconnect relay and a reset relay. When physical contact is made between the power tool and the conductive material, an electrical circuit through the disconnect relay is completed and the operation of the power tool is automatically interrupted. Once the contact between the tool and conductive material is broken, the power tool can be quickly and easily reactivated by a reset push button activating the reset relay. A remote reset is provided for convenience and efficiency of operation.

  12. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  13. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  14. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  15. Gut feeling is electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide

    2011-06-01

    Although "gut feeling" is a cliché in English parlance, there are neuro-physiological basis for registration of emotions in the gut. Control of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by an integration of neuro-hormonal factors from the local myogenic to the central nervous system. Gastric contractile activity, which is responsible for the motor properties of the stomach, is regulated by this integrated complex. Signatures of the activity include gastric electrical activity (GEA) and bowel sounds. GEA has two distinct components: a high-frequency spike activity or post depolarization potential termed the electrical response activity superimposed on a lower frequency, rhythmic depolarization termed the control activity. These signatures are measured in the clinic with contact sensors and well understood for diagnosis of gut dysmotility. Can these signatures be measured at standoff and employed for purposes of biometrics, malintent and wellness assessment?

  16. Electricity: new consumer choices

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The utility industry faces a battery of new technologies that are forcing it to reassess some of its most fundamental assumptions. Small power producers and engineering efficiencies of scale are proving that utilities do not hold a natural monopoly on power generation. Consumers are more interested in light and services than in electricity, and are attracted to the new energy entrepreneurs. Large capital investments have made utilities conservative instead of innovative, and no longer attract investors. Background on the transition underway in the electric power industry and some of the new energy sources covers the trend toward decentralization, cogeneration, and renewable energy sources, as well as the new generation of management and entrepreneurs and improvements in energy efficiency as a substitute for new capacity. 44 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  18. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  19. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  20. Electrical Contacts to Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, P R; Faraby, H; DiBattista, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficient passage of electrical current from an external contact to a nanomaterial is necessary for harnessing characteristics unique to the nanoscale, such as those relevant to energy quantization. However, an intrinsic resistance pertinent to dimensionality crossover and the presence of impurities precludes optimal electrical contact formation. In this review, we first discuss the relevant principles and contact resistance measurement methodologies, with modifications necessary for the nanoscale. Aspects related to the deposition of the contact material are deemed to be crucial. Consequently, the use of focused ion beam (FIB) based deposition, which relies on the ion-induced decomposition of a metallorganic precursor, and which has been frequently utilized for nanoscale contacts is considered in detail. PMID:26682353

  1. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  2. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  3. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  4. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Stahura, D.

    1995-04-30

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  5. Electric power apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, D.S.

    1983-10-04

    A coiled tubular electric battery is a conductor through its electrolyte and it may coincide with an electromagnet and a wire coil. The electromagnet is powered by the battery and caused to pulsate whereby its fluctuating magnet is equivalent to relative motion between the coils and the magnet. Current is increased by ampere turns in the wire induction coil while voltage is increased by series connection of the battery cells.

  6. QUICK DISCONNECT ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

    DOEpatents

    None

    1962-08-14

    A remotely actuated quick-dlsconnect electrical connector which comprises a pair of mating portrons releasably retained together by a bayonet- type joint with a rotatable sleeve on one of the mating portions providing for engagement and disengagement of the joint is described. A lanyard with ends passed through fulcrums and affixed to the sleeve erfects rotation of the sleeve and disengages the joint. (AEC)

  7. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  8. Electrical pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  9. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  10. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  11. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ... sturdy, dry, nonmetallic object that won't conduct electricity. Move the child as little as possible because ...

  12. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  13. NYMEX electricity futures and options

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity futures and options are discussed under the following topics: a futures contract, primary economic role of commodity exchanges, characteristics of an effective exchange, natural gas and electricity similarities, hedging, and coal futures contracts.

  14. Concept to convert electrical power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratti, N.

    1968-01-01

    Moving fluid conductor transforms electrical power from one voltage to another. The electrically conductive fluid acts as a coupling medium between or among multiple electromagnetic fields producing the conversion.

  15. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  16. Electrical apparatus lockout device

    DOEpatents

    Gonzales, Rick

    1999-01-01

    A simple lockout device for electrical equipment equipped with recessed power blades is described. The device comprises a face-plate (12) having a threaded member (14) attached thereto and apertures suitable for accommodating the power blades of a piece of electrical equipment, an elastomeric nose (16) abutting the face-plate having a hole for passage of the threaded member therethrough and power blade apertures in registration with those of the face-plate, a block (20) having a recess (34) in its forward face for receiving at least a portion of the hose, a hole therein for receiving the threaded member and an integral extension (26) extending from its rear face. A thumb screw (22) suitable for turning with the hands and having internal threads suitable for engaging the threaded member attached to the face-plate is inserted into a passage in the integral extension to engage the threaded member in such a fashion that when the device is inserted over the recessed power blades of a piece of electrical equipment and the thumb screw (22) tightened, the elastomeric nose (16) is compressed between the face-plate (12) and the block (20) forcing it to expand laterally thereby securing the device in the recess and precluding the accidental or intentional energization of the piece of equipment by attachment of a power cord to the recessed power blades. Means are provided in the interval extension and the thumb screw for the attachment of a locking device (46) which will satisfy OSHA standards.

  17. Reflections on Electric Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Nicholas

    2007-10-01

    One of the more immediate temptations for an experimental plasma physicist is to insert some kind of refractory, conducting material into a plasma, as a simple means of probing its charge composition. Irvine Langmuir tried it in the 1920s and was one of the first to develop an electrical probe method in his early work on electrical discharge plasmas. There are now numerous variations on the theme including planar, cylindrical and spherical geometry with single, double and triple probes. There are also probes that resonate, propagate and reciprocate. Some probes are electrostatic and others are electromagnetic; some are effectively wireless; most absorb but some emit. All types can be used in steady and transient plasmas, while special schemes have been devised for RF plasmas, using passive and active compensation. Magnetised plasmas pose further challenges. Each configuration is accompanied by assumptions that constrain both their applicability and the analytical methods that translate the measured currents and voltages variously into charge densities, space potentials, particle fluxes, energy distributions and measures of collisionality. This talk will take a broad look at the options and opportunities for electric probes, principally in the environment of non-equilibrium plasma.

  18. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  19. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  20. Electrically modulated magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P.; Salzer, S.; Reermann, J.; Yarar, E.; Röbisch, V.; Piorra, A.; Meyners, D.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R.; Schmidt, G.; Quandt, E.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric thin film composites have demonstrated their potential to detect sub-pT magnetic fields if mechanical resonances (typically few hundred Hz to a few kHz) are utilized. At low frequencies (1-100 Hz), magnetic field-induced frequency conversion has enabled wideband measurements with resonance-enhanced sensitivities by using the nonlinear characteristics of the magnetostriction curve. Nevertheless, the modulation with a magnetic field with a frequency close to the mechanical resonance results in a number of drawbacks, which are, e.g., size and energy consumption of the sensor as well as potential crosstalk in sensor arrays. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an electric frequency conversion of a magnetoelectric sensor which would overcome the drawbacks of magnetic frequency conversion. This magnetoelectric sensor consists of three functional layers: an exchange biased magnetostrictive multilayer showing a high piezomagnetic coefficient without applying a magnetic bias field, a non-linear piezoelectric actuation layer and a linear piezoelectric sensing layer. In this approach, the low frequency magnetic signal is shifted into the mechanical resonance of the sensor, while the electric modulation frequency is chosen to be either the difference or the sum of the resonance and the signal frequency. Using this electric frequency conversion, a limit of detection in the low nT/Hz1/2 range was shown for signals of low frequency.

  1. Method for protecting an electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  2. Rural Electric Youth Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials provides information about tours for rural secondary students in Washington, D.C., sponsored jointly by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), state rural electric cooperatives, and statewide associations of rural electric systems. Since 1958 this program has selected high school students to visit…

  3. It's Coming: Electricity For You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rural Electrification Act changed farm life dramatically. The miracle of electricity in rural East Texas is examined in "Electricity Comes to East Texas" (Brandi Anderson and others). Chronicled is a description of life without electricity and how everyday chores were done in its absence. Local citizens compare…

  4. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  5. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  6. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  7. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  8. Battery-powered electric bicycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morchin, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric bicycles powered with today`s nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given. 4 refs.

  9. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  12. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  13. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  14. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity. PMID:17876910

  15. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  16. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  17. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  18. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  19. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  20. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  1. Electric Utility Observers' Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, L.E.

    1982-05-13

    This second Observers' Forum of Public Utilities Fortnightly includes invited comments from 19 key legislators, utility consultants, and recognized figures in service industries on any subject to which the contributor wished to direct the attention of the industry leadership and which has a public-interest aspect. Participants were free to point to what they think the industry is doing, either right or wrong, and to areas where the industry might improve its performance. There is no single overriding message, but there is a prevalent mood that the electric-utility industry may have turned a corner despite some remaining problems.

  2. Electrically reconfigurable logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.

  3. World's simplest electric train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  4. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  5. ELECTRICAL COIL STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Hartwig, A.

    1962-09-25

    A compactly wound electrical coil is designed for carrying intense pulsed currents such as are characteristic of controlled thermonuclear reaction devices. A flat strip of conductor is tightly wound in a spiral with a matching flat strip of insulator. To provide for a high fluid coolant flow through the coil with minimum pumping pressure, a surface of the conductor is scored with parallel transverse grooves which form short longitudinal coolant pasaages when the conductor is wound in the spiral configuration. Owing to this construction, the coil is extremely resistant to thermal and magnetic shock from sudden high currents. (AEC)

  6. Miniature electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Casper, Robert F.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature coaxial cable electrical connector includes an annular compressible gasket in a receptacle member, the gasket having a generally triangular cross section resiliently engaging and encircling a conically tapered outer surface of a plug member to create an elongated current leakage path at their interface; means for preventing rotation of the plug relative to the receptacle; a metal sleeve forming a portion of the receptacle and encircling the plug member when interconnected; and a split ring in the plug having outwardly and rearwardly projecting fingers spaced from and encircling a portion of a coaxial cable and engageable with the metal sleeve to interlock the receptacle and plug.

  7. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  8. Modeling the electric field of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Babineau, David; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2006-09-01

    Weakly electric fish characterize the environment in which they live by sensing distortions in their self-generated electric field. These distortions result in electric images forming across their skin. In order to better understand electric field generation and image formation in one particular species of electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we have developed three different numerical models of a two-dimensional cross-section of the fish's body and its surroundings. One of these models mimics the real contour of the fish; two other geometrically simple models allow for an independent study of the effects of the fish's body geometry and conductivity on electric field and image formation. Using these models, we show that the fish's tapered body shape is mainly responsible for the smooth, uniform field in the rostral region, where most electroreceptors are located. The fish's narrowing body geometry is also responsible for the relatively large electric potential in the caudal region. Numerical tests also confirm the previous hypothesis that the electric fish body acts approximately like an ideal voltage divider; this is true especially for the tail region. Next, we calculate electric images produced by simple objects and find they vary according to the current density profile assigned to the fish's electric organ. This explains some of the qualitative differences previously reported for different modeling approaches. The variation of the electric image's shape as a function of different object locations is explained in terms of the fish's geometrical and electrical parameters. Lastly, we discuss novel cues for determining an object's rostro-caudal location and lateral distance using these electric images. PMID:16943504

  9. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  10. Zee electrical interconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, Thomas M. (Inventor); Gaddy, Edward M. (Inventor); Herriage, Michael J. (Inventor); Patterson, Robert E. (Inventor); Partin, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An interconnect, having some length, that reliably connects two conductors separated by the length of the interconnect when the connection is made but in which one length if unstressed would change relative to the other in operation. The interconnect comprises a base element an intermediate element and a top element. Each element is rectangular and formed of a conducting material and has opposed ends. The elements are arranged in a generally Z-shape with the base element having one end adapted to be connected to one conductor. The top element has one end adapted to be connected to another conductor and the intermediate element has its ends disposed against the other end of the base and the top element. Brazes mechanically and electrically interconnect the intermediate element to the base and the top elements proximate the corresponding ends of the elements. When the respective ends of the base and the top elements are connected to the conductors, an electrical connection is formed therebetween, and when the conductors are relatively moved or the interconnect elements change length the elements accommodate the changes and the associated compression and tension forces in such a way that the interconnect does not mechanically fatigue.

  11. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  12. Winning in electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, L.; Jansen, P.; Geyn, G. van

    1996-08-01

    Should you be a buyer or a seller of generation? In general, spot buyers should do very well, while many generation owners will be fortunate to recover their stranded costs. Successful generators will capitalize on superior operating performance and market knowledge. The smartest natural gas strategy in the early 1980`s was to short natural gas. Will this lesson of restructuring be written again of the electricity generation business of the late 1990`s? The authors will examine whether and how winners might emerge in the generation business of the future. The U.S. electric generation market, already marked by intense competition for new capacity and industrial demand, will become even more competitive as it makes the transition from regulated local monopoly to marketbased commodity pricing. At risk is up to $150 billion of shareholder equity and the future viability of half of the country`s investor-owned utilities. The winners in year 2005 will be those who early on developed strategies that simultaneously recovered existing generation investments while restructuring their asset portfolios and repositioning their plants to compete in the new market. Losers will have spent the time mired in indecision, their strategies ultimately forced upon them by regulators or competitors.

  13. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  14. Electricity from waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

  15. Electrical Breakdown in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Zutavern, Fred; Kambour, Kenneth; Moore, Chris; Mar, Alan

    During electron breakdown of a solid subjected to a large electric field, impact ionization causes growth of an electron-hole plasma. This growth process is opposed by Auger recombination of the electron-hole pairs. In our work, such breakdown is investigated by obtaining steady-state solutions to the Boltzmann equation. In these calculations, the carriers are heated by the electric field and cooled by phonon emission. Our results imply that breakdown may lead to high carrier-density current filaments. Conductive filaments have been observed in optically-triggered, high-power photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices being developed at Sandia Labs. The relationship between the steady-state computed solutions to the observed filaments will be discussed in the presentation. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  17. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

  18. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation...

  19. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  20. Electrical spectrum analysis of operating Hydro Electric machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timperley, J. E.

    1981-12-01

    The electrical spectrum analysis of the operation of five pumped storage machines is discussed. It was found that machines without electrical problems produced little radio noise, although all machines produced some noise. Severe problems produced severe radio noise. If stator deterioration increases, the noise level increases. Similar machines produce similar electrical spectrum signatures. The general source of discharges can be located. A likelihood of failure can be calculated from spectrum analysis.

  1. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  2. Effect of ultrasound application during setting on the mechanical properties of high viscous glass-ionomers used for ART restorations.

    PubMed

    Daifalla, Lamia E; Mobarak, Enas H

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ultrasound application on the surface microhardness (VHN) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of three high viscous glass-ionomer restorative materials (HVGIRMs). For each test (VHN and DTS), a total of 180 specimens were prepared from three HVGIRMs (Ketac-Molar Aplicap, Fuji IX GP Fast, and ChemFil Rock). Specimens of each material (n = 60) were further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 20) according to the setting modality whether ultrasound (20 or 40 s) was applied during setting or not (control). Specimens within each subgroup were then equally divided (n = 10) and tested at 24 h or 28 days. For the VHN measurement, five indentations, with a 200 g load and a dwell time for 20 s, were made on the top surface of each specimen. The DTS test was done using Lloyd Testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Ultrasound application had no significant effect on the VHN. Fuji IX GP Fast revealed the highest VHN value, followed by Ketac-Molar Aplicap, and the least was recorded for ChemFil Rock. Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac-Molar Aplicap VHN values were significantly increased by time. ChemFil Rock recorded the highest DTS value at 24 h and was the only material that showed significant improvement with both US application times. However, this improvement did not sustain till 28 days. The ultrasound did not enhance the surface microhardness, but its positive effect on the diametral tensile strength values was material and time dependent. PMID:26644916

  3. Comprehensive QTL mapping survey dissects the complex fruit texture physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Longhi, Sara; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2012-02-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process in plants whereby cell wall programmed changes occur mainly to promote seed dispersal. Cell wall modification also directly regulates the textural properties, a fundamental aspect of fruit quality. In this study, two full-sib populations of apple, with 'Fuji' as the common maternal parent, crossed with 'Delearly' and 'Pink Lady', were used to understand the control of fruit texture by QTL mapping and in silico gene mining. Texture was dissected with a novel high resolution phenomics strategy, simultaneously profiling both mechanical and acoustic fruit texture components. In 'Fuji × Delearly' nine linkage groups were associated with QTLs accounting from 15.6% to 49% of the total variance, and a highly significant QTL cluster for both textural components was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-located with Md-PG1, a polygalacturonase gene that, in apple, is known to be involved in cell wall metabolism processes. In addition, other candidate genes related to Md-NOR and Md-RIN transcription factors, Md-Pel (pectate lyase), and Md-ACS1 were mapped within statistical intervals. In 'Fuji × Pink Lady', a smaller set of linkage groups associated with the QTLs identified for fruit texture (15.9-34.6% variance) was observed. The analysis of the phenotypic variance over a two-dimensional PCA plot highlighted a transgressive segregation for this progeny, revealing two QTL sets distinctively related to both mechanical and acoustic texture components. The mining of the apple genome allowed the discovery of the gene inventory underlying each QTL, and functional profile assessment unravelled specific gene expression patterns of these candidate genes. PMID:22121200

  4. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  5. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  6. Electric double layer of anisotropic dielectric colloids under electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, M.; Wu, H.; Luijten, E.

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic colloidal particles constitute an important class of building blocks for self-assembly directed by electrical fields. The aggregation of these building blocks is driven by induced dipole moments, which arise from an interplay between dielectric effects and the electric double layer. For particles that are anisotropic in shape, charge distribution, and dielectric properties, calculation of the electric double layer requires coupling of the ionic dynamics to a Poisson solver. We apply recently proposed methods to solve this problem for experimentally employed colloids in static and time-dependent electric fields. This allows us to predict the effects of field strength and frequency on the colloidal properties.

  7. Tuning Photoluminescence Response by Electric Field in Electrically Soft Ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Dipak Kumar; Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2016-03-18

    We show that an electrically soft ferroelectric host can be used to tune the photoluminescence (PL) response of rare-earth emitter ions by external electric field. The proof of this concept is demonstrated by changing the PL response of the Eu^{3+} ion by electric field on a model system Eu-doped 0.94(Na_{1/2}Bi_{1/2}TiO_{3})-0.06(BaTiO_{3}). We also show that new channels of radiative transitions, forbidden otherwise, open up due to positional disorder in the system, which can as well be tuned by electric field. PMID:27035321

  8. Solar thermal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  9. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  10. Electric propulsion for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, B. A.; Guman, W. J.; Herron, B. G.; Zafran, S.

    1978-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems derive their low overall mass, relative to chemical propulsion systems, from an optimized mix of independently controlled power and mass flow rate. A significant reduction in mass can be secured by substituting electric propulsion for conventional hydrazine systems for all the major propulsion tasks of a communications satellite. Additional advantages for all electric propulsion maneuvers are precision location and higher pointing accuracy. Three auxiliary electric propulsion systems are now available for application on communications satellites: the electrically augmented hydrazine system, the Teflon pulsed plasma system, and the mercury ion thruster system. Primary electric propulsion will be available in the mid to late 1980s as a spin-off of NASA's program of interplanetary exploration.

  11. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  12. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  13. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  14. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  15. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-10-10

    SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansionmore » configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.« less

  16. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  17. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  18. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    , minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  20. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  1. Mobile electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

    1992-01-30

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

  2. Rotary electric device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madey, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An electric motor is described with a low speed shaft that rotates at a speed much slower than the speed of a high speed shaft. It is comprised of a stator having a cylindrical bore with a longitudinal axis and a rotor that carries the low speed shaft which rotates in the bore eccentrically about the axis. There is contact and no magnetic gap between a relatively small portion of the rotor periphery and the periphery of the bore. A magnetic field, rotating at the speed of the high speed shaft, is applied to the periphery of the bore. The field has longitudinally extending magnetic field components of opposite polarity so that around approximately 180 deg of the bore the field extends in one direction, while around the other 180 deg of the bore the field extends in the opposite direction. The rotor includes permanent magnet pole faces at opposite ends of the bore.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-05-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  4. Electric propulsion cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric cost model for mercury ion propulsion modules is presented. A detailed work breakdown structure is included. Cost estimating relationships were developed for the individual subsystems and the nonhardware items (systems engineering, software, etc.). Solar array and power processor unit (PPU) costs are the significant cost drivers. Simplification of both of these subsystems through applications of advanced technology (lightweight solar arrays and high-efficiency, self-radiating PPUs) can reduce costs. Comparison of the performance and cost of several chemical propulsion systems with the Hg ion module are also presented. For outer-planet missions, advanced solar electric propulsion (ASEP) trip times and O2/H2 propulsion trip times are comparable. A three-year trip time savings over the baselined NTO/MMH propulsion system is possible with ASEP.

  5. OTEC-1 - Electrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R. E.; Sonenshein, N.

    Electrical features of a U.S. DoE test ship for production of 1 MWth from an ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) are described. The ship, in operation off Keahole Point, Hawaii, is anchored in 1372 m deep water, and is fitted with a 655 m polyethylene intake. Power for the operation of the ship is derived from an on-board 5.4 MW generator directly connected to a 7000 HP synchronous motor. Three 200 HP induction motors can also be powered by the generator for the cargo pumps. Adaptations necessary for the ship's wiring and load-handling equipment are outlined, including the maintenance of access to two 400 kW auxiliary generators.

  6. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  7. ELECTRICAL PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, W.M.; Jeeves, T.A.

    1962-09-01

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit rs designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses. The circuit employs a series of direct connected bistable counting stages simultaneously pulsed by each input pulse and a delay means connected between each of the stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states, which stage, when in its initial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since the delay circuits between the stages prevents the immediate decay of the d-c state of each stage when the stages are pulsed, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse, thereby providing progressive stage-by-stage counting. (AEC)

  8. Tether electrical characteristics design report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.H.

    1989-03-24

    The design of a tether system for use in electric and magnetic fields requires an analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit of the baboon and tether. The response of this equivalent circuit to an electric or magnetic field is dependent on the connection of the tether system to the baboon. The tether will be designed so that the currents induced in the tethered baboon are approximately the same as those induce in an untethered baboon. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  10. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  11. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  12. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  13. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  15. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  16. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

  17. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Trends in international electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, P.; Vera, I.

    1995-12-31

    The electric power industry is expected to continue experiencing significant changes throughout the beginning of the next century as the world becomes increasingly dependent on electricity. Three major trends characterize the industry worldwide: growth in demand, changes in its structure, and shifts in generation fuel mix. Electricity will remain the fastest growing form of end-use energy worldwide throughout 2010. Non-OECD countries will experience the largest growth in electricity demand as governments attempt to satisfy electricity requirements indispensable to ensure economic development. Increasing world dependence on electricity is accompanied by dramatic changes in the electric power industry in key areas such as regulation structure, and ownership. These changes imply more competitive environments and greater efficiency. Another important trend expected to continue is the shifts in the fuel mix of world electricity generation. The next 15 years will be characterized by increasing shares of natural gas and renewable fuel consumption while nuclear, oil and coal shares will decrease. This paper summarizes major trends in international electricity markets and describes important developments in world regions such as North America, Europe, Asia and Central and South America.

  19. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  20. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.