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1

The Relationship between Media Consumption and Health-Related Anxieties after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster  

PubMed Central

Background The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster caused a global panic by a release of harmful radionuclides. In a disaster setting, misusage of contemporary media sources available today can lead to disseminated incorrect information and panic. The study aims to build a scale which examines associations between media and individual anxieties, and to propose effective media usages for future disaster management. Methods The University of Tokyo collaborated with the Fukushima local government to conduct a radiation-health-seminar for a total of 1560 residents, at 12 different locations in Fukushima. A 13 item questionnaire collected once before and after a radiation-seminar was used on factor analysis to develop sub-scales for multiple regression models, to determine relationships between the sub-scales and media type consumed. A paired t–test was used to examine any changes in sub-scale of pre- and post-seminar scores. Results Three sub-scales were revealed and were associated with different media types: was with rumors, while concern for the future was positively associated with regional-newspapers and negatively with national-newspapers. Anxiety about social-disruption was associated with radio. The seminar had a significant effect on anxiety reduction for all the three sub-scales. Conclusion Different media types were associated with various heightened concerns, and that a radiation seminar was helpful to reduce anxieties in the post-disaster setting. By tailoring post-disaster messages via specific media types, i.e., radio, it may be possible to effectively convey important information, as well as to calm fears about particular elements of post-disaster recovery and to combat rumors.

Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Matsumura, Tomoko; Muto, Kaori; Sato, Mikiko; Gilmour, Stuart

2013-01-01

2

An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster  

PubMed Central

On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout.

Mclaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

2012-01-01

3

Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands with high levels of radiation need to be replaced with uncontaminated soils below a depth of about 30 cm. If this exchange operation will be done, even though the 137Cs will be placed deeper, its slow migration rate will ensure that it never reaches the groundwater.

Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

2011-12-01

4

Selected Resources on the Fukushima Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 11, 2011, a massive 9.0 earthquake and resulting tsunami struck the east coast of Japan. The damage from this event caused catastrophic failure at several of the reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The release of radiation from the reactors has sparked health concerns in both Japan and around the world. As this is an ongoing

Kerry J. Cotter

2011-01-01

5

Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

Reyes, Jose, Jr.

2011-10-01

6

Spatiotemporal distribution of 137Cs in the sea surrounding Japanese Islands in the decades before the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011.  

PubMed

The historic spatiotemporal distribution of (137)Cs in the seawaters and sea-floor sediments adjacent to nuclear power plants in Japan are summarized, using data obtained over a period of time more than 20 years prior to the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Relatively uniform distributions of (137)Cs were observed both in the surface seawaters (1 m in depth) and in deeper seawaters (10 to 30 m above the seabed and ranging from tens to hundreds of meters in depth) independent of the geographical position, although lower concentrations were observed in significantly deeper bottom seawaters. Conversely, there were wide variations in (137)Cs levels between sediments, such that higher (137)Cs concentrations were observed in the deeper sampling locations. A mathematical model describing the successive transfer of (137)Cs from surface waters through deeper waters to sediments suggested that the transfer rate of (137)Cs from deep water to the sediments, and the loss rate from bottom sediments, were both greater than the transfer rate from surface water to deeper water. It was found that the calculated regression lines for (137)Cs depletion rates over time for surface waters, deeper waters, and sediments were approximately parallel when plotted on a semi-logarithmic coordinate system, regardless of the sampling location. A radionuclide depletion half-life was calculated to be 4 months to 16 years with the geometric mean of 2.22 y for the sediments in the Fukushima region, suggesting that nuclear contamination will be remediated over time through sediment redistribution processes such as remobilization, bioturbation, and migration due to sea currents. PMID:23872184

Watabe, Teruhisa; Oikawa, Shinji; Isoyama, Naohiko; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Misonoo, Jun; Morizono, Shigemitsu

2013-07-17

7

Decontamination work in the area surrounding Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: another occupational health challenge of the nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

This article describes occupational health measures for workers involved in decontamination of radioactive material discharged around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the explosions in 2011. Decontamination is performed by removing radioactive particles (mainly cesium) from surfaces of soil, grass and trees, and buildings. Measurement of radiation doses is necessary to reduce exposure, and to determine whether workers can work below dose limits. Protective equipment for decontamination is determined based on the concentration of radiation in contaminated soil and the exposure to dust. Health examinations by physicians are mandated for decontamination workers upon hiring and every 6 months. While there is no possibility of acute radiation injury from decontamination, workers may be anxious about the unclear effects of chronic low level radiation exposure on health. Measures to protect the decontamination workers are the top priority. PMID:22845725

Wada, Koji; Yoshikawa, Toru; Murata, Masaru

2012-01-01

8

FORUM Communicative Action in Response to a Nuclear Crisis: Representations of Fukushima across Communication Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2011 disaster at Japan's Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant poses important questions for environmental communication scholarship and practice. This forum examines questions that were emerging one month into the Fukushima crisis, when a panel examined its implications as part of North Carolina State University's second annual research symposium on Communication, Rhetoric, and Digital Media (details available at http:\\/\\/crdm.chass.ncsu.edu\\/symposium2011\\/). Expanding those

William J. Kinsella

2012-01-01

9

Needs for Robotic Assessments of Nuclear Disasters  

SciTech Connect

Following the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear reactor plant in Japan, the need for systems which can assist in dynamic high-radiation environments such as nuclear incidents has become more apparent. The INL participated in delivering robotic technologies to Japan and has identified key components which are needed for success and obstacles to their deployment. In addition, we are proposing new work and methods to improve assessments and reactions to such events in the future. Robotics needs in disaster situations include phases such as: Assessment, Remediation, and Recovery Our particular interest is in the initial assessment activities. In assessment we need collection of environmental parameters, determination of conditions, and physical sample collection. Each phase would require key tools and efforts to develop. This includes study of necessary sensors and their deployment methods, the effects of radiation on sensors and deployment, and the development of training and execution systems.

Victor Walker; Derek Wadsworth

2012-06-01

10

Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW), respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms. PMID:22496858

Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Akita, Kae; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2012-04-04

11

WHO's public health agenda in response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) has responded to the 2011 East-Japan earthquake and tsunami through the three levels of its decentralised structure. It has provided public health advice regarding a number of issues relating to protective measures, potassium iodide use, as well as safety of food and drinking water, mental health, travel, tourism, and trade. WHO is currently developing an initial health risk assessment linked to a preliminary evaluation of radiation exposure around the world from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Lessons learned from this disaster are likely to help future emergency response to multi-faceted disasters. PMID:22395036

van Deventer, Emilie; Del Rosario Perez, Maria; Tritscher, Angelika; Fukushima, Kazuko; Carr, Zhanat

2012-03-06

12

Elevated Radioxenon Detected Remotely Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first measurements of short-lived gaseous fission products detected outside of Japan following the Fukushima nuclear releases, which occurred after a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woods, Vincent T.

2011-04-21

13

Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

2013-01-01

14

The medical association activity and pediatric care after the earthquake disaster in Fukushima.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, a gigantic earthquake struck eastern Japan. Utilities such as electricity, water, gas and telecommunication were interrupted. In Koriyama, the City Hall collapsed and government administration offices had to be moved to a nearby baseball stadium that had been designed to include facilities for use during a pandemic. An operations center was set up in this stadium. As members of the Koriyama Medical Association, we following the disaster protocol and set up our operations center in the Koriyama Medical Care Hospital. One large hospital with 280 inpatients and another hospital with 150 inpatients had been heavily damaged. Transfer of those patients to other hospitals without the use of telecommunications was extremely difficult. Many doctors in member hospitals and clinics went out of their way to cooperate throughout the crisis. Up to 5,000 people from the radiation evacuation zone were rushed to Koriyama. They stayed in schools and community centers, where we provided them with healthcare. Even in Koriyama, which is 60?km away from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, radiation levels were high, especially for the first few weeks. Citizens were advised to stay at home and keep their doors and windows closed. These drastic measures and frequent earthquake aftershocks were very stressful, especially for children. To help prevent children from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a project team composed of various groups caring for children was developed, and this team took action to protect children. Through these efforts we hoped to provide children with an appropriate environment to grow normally, even in a zone of persistent low-level radiation. We demonstrated once again that our members' long history of mutual assistance and cooperation with the administration was the main cornerstone to overcome the crisis. PMID:22410536

Kikuchi, Shintaro; Kikuchi, Tatsuo

2012-01-01

15

"Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

2012-02-01

16

Xenon133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes,

A. Stohl; P. Seibert; G. Wotawa; D. Arnold; J. F. Burkhart; S. Eckhardt; C. Tapia; A. Vargas; T. J. Yasunari

2011-01-01

17

Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear industry needs advanced mechanisms of international oversight. The natural-technological disaster that happens in a particular country is a matter of concern of the global community. Hence, the urgent necessity is to develop and adopt a joint mechanism for international consultation in case of serious accident at a nuclear power plant. It is also necessary to work out the list of constraining provisions for building and operating nuclear plants in regions where potential risks of natural-technological catastrophes exist. These provisions should include risk estimate for every particular region, as well as the list of preventive measures to secure the safe operation of nuclear plants located at those sites. As it was stated before, the synergy effects of more than one potential hazard must be taken into account. The main goal of my report is to represent possible methods for mitigating nuclear safety risks associated with natural hazards and technological disasters, review the effectiveness of existing standards and oversight mechanisms, encourage a cooperative discussion of these issues.

Tutnova, T.

2012-04-01

18

The Fukushima Nuclear Event and its Implications for Nuclear Power  

SciTech Connect

The combined strong earthquake and super tsunami of 12 March 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant imposed the most severe challenges ever experienced at such a facility. Information regarding the plant response and status remains uncertain, but it is clear that severe damage has been sustained, that the plant staff have responded creatively and that the offsite implications are unlikely to be seriously threatening to the health, if not the prosperity, of the surrounding population. Re-examination of the regulatory constraints of nuclear power will occur worldwide, and some changes are likely, particularly concerning reliance upon active systems for achieving critical safety functions and concerning treatments of used reactor fuel. Whether worldwide expansion of the nuclear power economy will be slowed in the long run is perhaps unlikely and worth discussion.

Golay, Michael (MIT)

2011-07-06

19

The Fukushima Nuclear Event and its Implications for Nuclear Power  

ScienceCinema

The combined strong earthquake and super tsunami of 12 March 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant imposed the most severe challenges ever experienced at such a facility. Information regarding the plant response and status remains uncertain, but it is clear that severe damage has been sustained, that the plant staff have responded creatively and that the offsite implications are unlikely to be seriously threatening to the health, if not the prosperity, of the surrounding population. Re-examination of the regulatory constraints of nuclear power will occur worldwide, and some changes are likely, particularly concerning reliance upon active systems for achieving critical safety functions and concerning treatments of used reactor fuel. Whether worldwide expansion of the nuclear power economy will be slowed in the long run is perhaps unlikely and worth discussion.

20

Visual Communication in Times of Crisis: The Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows the development of visual communication through information visualization in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. While information aesthetics are often applied to large data sets retrospectively, the author developed new works concurrently with an ongoing crisis to examine the impact and social aspects of visual communication while events continued to unfold. The resulting work,

Rama C. Hoetzlein

2012-01-01

21

Visual Communication in Times of Crisis: The Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows the development of visual communication through information visualization in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. While information aesthetics are often applied to large data sets retrospectively, the author developed new works concurrently with an ongoing crisis to examine the impact and social aspects of visual communication while events continued to unfold. The resulting work,

Rama C. Hoetzlein

22

Does the Fukushima Accident Significantly Increase the Nuclear Footprint?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small land footprint of nuclear power has been one of its attractions, especially in comparison to land-intensive renewable energy sources that have begun entering widespread use. But what happens to that footprint when nuclear accidents are included? Adding the land impacts of the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents doubles nuclear's km2\\/GWh footprint, though it remains slightly less land-intensive than other

Clinton J. Andrews

2011-01-01

23

Old and new radionuclide presence in Romania after Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our laboratory measured the radionuclide presence in Transylvania region both after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The paper presents old and new data connected with these disasters obtained not only by us but also by others laboratories from Romania. It is an attempt to mark the mainly aspects regarding the radioactive contamination in our country connected with these catastrophes. After the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud passage over Romania on NE - SW direction brought relatively intesive radionuclide deposition. On this direction the highest deposition were found in the areas where this passage during April 30-st and May 1-st were accompanied by rainfalls. In the rain water and fresh sediment colected at May 1-st, 1986 and measured the next days, all radionuclide species from Chernobyl could be identified [1]. Additional measurements of 90Sr and 239/240Pu have been made several years later in different environmental samples (roof sediment, soil, pollen, sand, roof-water, street dust) collected in 1986 from Cluj-Napoca, Romania [2]. In the case of Fukushima disaster the air transport from west and north-west brought small quantities of radionuclides over the Romanian teritorry. Even if in this case the radioactive cloud was very dilluted, 131I could be clearly identified and measured in air, rain water and other products as: milk, vegetables, grass, fresh meat from the NW of Romania [3]. Measurements have been also conducted in Bucharest and Pitesti. During the last 5 years suplimentary 137Cs measurements were made in different areas as an attempt to use this radionuclide as soil and sediment tracer. [1]. C. Cosma, Some Aspects of Radioactive Contamination after Chernobyl Accident in Romania, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 251, 2, 221-226 (2002) [2]. C. Cosma, Strontium-90 Measurement without Chemical Separation in Samples after Chernobyl Accident, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 55, 1165-1171 (2000) [3]. C. Cosma, AR. Iurian, DC. Ni?, R. Begy R, C. Cîndea , Indicators of the Fukushima radioactive release in NW Romania, J Environ Radioact. 114:94-9. (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.020

Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra; Nita, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Prodan, Eugen

2013-04-01

24

Fictions of nuclear disaster  

SciTech Connect

This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

Dowling, D.

1987-01-01

25

Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland current (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS), have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring program. In samples of the second half of 2011 134Cs traces have been detected, suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout being deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-live 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box-models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the NE Atlantic allowed estimating that 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants, both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134Cs measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 ?Sv following the consumption of 10 kg fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

2013-03-01

26

[Risk of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters and its countermeasures].  

PubMed

Looking back at the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, the importance of the epidemiological study in human health risk management and the comprehensive radiation protection standard need to be emphasized; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Health Care Project (Fukushima Health Management Survey Project)" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. In this issue, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite the difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. PMID:23214073

Kumagai, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shunichi

2012-11-01

27

Southward transport of radiocesium discharged directly from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants across the Kuroshio Extension Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The massive Tohoku earthquake and consequent giant tsunami of March 11, 2011 resulted in global releases of radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (FNPPs). In the North Pacific Ocean, a large portion of Fukushima-derived radiocesium has been settled both through atmospheric deposition and direct discharge. Evaluation of Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes in the ocean is necessary to address risks to marine ecosystem and public health. Meanwhile the contaminants are potentially ideal tracers for material cycles and seawater circulation in the ocean. We present here Fukushima-derived radiocesium in seawaters at stations in the northwestern Pacific Ocean hundreds km away from FNPPs in February 2012. Surface and deeper samples (25-800 m) were collected into 20-L cubitainers using a bucket and a conductivity-temperature-depth rosette with water samplers, respectively. The sample were filtrated and acidified by nitric acid on board. Radiocesium in the seawater sample was concentrated onto ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP). The radiocesium in the AMP/Cs compound was measured using a gamma-spectrometry with well-type Ge detectors. Fukushima-derived radiocesium was found at all the stations from 20°N to 42°N about one year after the disaster. Concentration of radiocesium in the surface mixed layer (0 ~ 150-m depth approximately) was highest in the transition area between the subarctic and subtropical regions (~ 20 Bq/m3) because of the direct discharge of radiocesium from FNPPs into the transition area. The surface concentrations in the subarctic and subtropical regions were less than 5 and 1 Bq/m3, respectively, most of which were probably derived from the atmospheric deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Below the surface mixed layer the Fukushima-derived radiocesium decreases sharply and was not detected below 400-m depth at stations in the subarctic region and transition area. However at stations just south of the Kuroshio Extension Current, which is boundary between the transition area and subtropical region, we found obvious maxima of radiocesium just below the mixing layer and deeper penetration depth of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Water density range of the subsurface and deeper layers in the subtropical stations where the Fukushima-derived radiocesium was observed agrees with those of the mixing layers in the transition area where the relative high concentration of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was measured. These results suggest that the radiocesium discharged directly into the transition area have been transported southwardly to the subtropical region across the Kuroshio Extension Current during the past one year.

Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi; Aoyama, Michio

2013-04-01

28

[Complexities of the stress experienced by employees of the Fukushima nuclear plants].  

PubMed

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants suffered serious damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The employees of the plant worked very hard to stabilize the nuclear reactor and to prevent any secondary accidents. They were in one of the most severe situations in this disaster, but they were the people who hesitated most to request help for themselves. We started visiting the Fukushima Daini Plant office that was used as the frontline base for Daiichi Plant workers since July, 2011. These visits were held once or twice a month and we offered mental health support to the employees. We have completed interview with the total number of 339 plant workers by April, 2012. We offered several ways of mental support including clinical treatment, continuous counseling, or one time advice, depending on mental condition of each interviewee. Complexity of huge disaster and individuality of suffering from it were discussed in this article. Like local residents, many plant workers also experienced death/missing of family, loss of housing, refuge life, and dispersion of family. Furthermore, they have been suffering from various kinds of criticism and slander against Tokyo Electric Power Company. Many workers, even though they were not in management positions, seemed to have guilty conscience and sense of responsibility that forced them to stay in the risky working site. We could find some struggling coexistence of sense of guilt (as a causer of disaster) and sense of victim in their mind. It was suggested that continuous effort to listen and pay attention to their talk is important in order to support their mission to stabilize the power plant and to prevent them from over-stress and burnout. PMID:23367837

Sano, Shin-Ya; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Shigemura, Jun; Satoh, Yutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Fujii, Chiyo; Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Kuwahara, Tatsuro; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nomura, Soichiro

2012-01-01

29

Elevated radioxenon detected remotely following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

We report on the first measurements of short-lived gaseous fission products detected outside of Japan following the Fukushima nuclear releases, which occurred after a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The measurements were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), (46°16'47?N, 119°16'53?W) located more than 7000 km from the emission point in Fukushima Japan (37°25'17?N, 141°1'57?E). First detections of (133)Xe were made starting early March 16, only four days following the earthquake. Maximum concentrations of (133)Xe were in excess of 40 Bq/m(3), which is more than ×40,000 the average concentration of this isotope is this part of the United States. PMID:21530026

Bowyer, T W; Biegalski, S R; Cooper, M; Eslinger, P W; Haas, D; Hayes, J C; Miley, H S; Strom, D J; Woods, V

2011-04-21

30

Lessons from Fukushima for Improving the Safety of Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has revealed serious vulnerabilities in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power plants. While some aspects of the accident were plant- and site-specific, others have implications that are broadly applicable to the current generation of nuclear plants in operation around the world. Although many of the details of the accident progression and public health consequences are still unclear, there are a number of lessons that can already be drawn. The accident demonstrated the need at nuclear plants for robust, highly reliable backup power sources capable of functioning for many days in the event of a complete loss of primary off-site and on-site electrical power. It highlighted the importance of detailed planning for severe accident management that realistically evaluates the capabilities of personnel to carry out mitigation operations under extremely hazardous conditions. It showed how emergency plans rooted in the assumption that only one reactor at a multi-unit site would be likely to experience a crisis fail miserably in the event of an accident affecting multiple reactor units simultaneously. It revealed that alternate water injection following a severe accident could be needed for weeks or months, generating large volumes of contaminated water that must be contained. And it reinforced the grim lesson of Chernobyl: that a nuclear reactor accident could lead to widespread radioactive contamination with profound implications for public health, the economy and the environment. While many nations have re-examined their policies regarding nuclear power safety in the months following the accident, it remains to be seen to what extent the world will take the lessons of Fukushima seriously and make meaningful changes in time to avert another, and potentially even worse, nuclear catastrophe.

Lyman, Edwin

2012-02-01

31

Predicting the spread of nuclear radiation from the damaged Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan suffered a M9.0 earthquake and massive tsunami on March 11, 2011, which seriously damaged the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and caused\\u000a a nuclear crisis. The spread of nuclear radiation from the power plant through the atmosphere and ocean was predicted with\\u000a a short-term climate forecasting model and an ocean circulation model under some idealized assumptions. If nuclear matter\\u000a were

FangLi Qiao; GuanSuo Wang; Wei Zhao; JieChen Zhao; DeJun Dai; YaJuan Song; ZhenYa Song

2011-01-01

32

Estimation of the radioactive source dispersion from Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident detections of (133)Xe have been made in various locations. Using results of these remote measurements the Fukushima (133)Xe source term has been reconstructed and compared with previously reconstructed (137)Cs and (131)I source terms. The reconstruction is accomplished by applying atmospheric transport modeling and an adapted least square error method. The obtained results are in agreement with previous estimations of the Fukushima radionuclide source, and also serve as a proof of principle for source term reconstruction based on atmospheric transport modeling. PMID:23602581

Schöppner, Michael; Plastino, Wolfango; Povinec, Pavel; Nikkinen, Mika; Ruggieri, Federico; Bella, Francesco

2013-04-02

33

Fukushima Daiichi: implications for carbon-free energy, nuclear nonproliferation, and community resilience.  

PubMed

Implications of the nuclear power plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi are explored in this commentary. In addition to questions of nuclear reactor regulatory standards, broader implications on noncarbon-emitting energy production, nuclear nonproliferation objectives, and community resilience and emergency response against catastrophic events are explored. PMID:21608105

Hall, Howard L

2011-07-01

34

Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity.  

PubMed

The impacts on the ocean of releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants remain unclear. However, information has been made public regarding the concentrations of radioactive isotopes of iodine and cesium in ocean water near the discharge point. These data allow us to draw some basic conclusions about the relative levels of radionuclides released which can be compared to prior ocean studies and be used to address dose consequences as discussed by Garnier-Laplace et al. in this journal. The data show peak ocean discharges in early April, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. Interestingly, the concentrations through the end of July remain higher than expected implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources, such as groundwater or coastal sediments. By July, levels of (137)Cs are still more than 10,000 times higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan. Although some radionuclides are significantly elevated, dose calculations suggest minimal impact on marine biota or humans due to direct exposure in surrounding ocean waters, though considerations for biological uptake and consumption of seafood are discussed and further study is warranted. PMID:22013920

Buesseler, Ken; Aoyama, Michio; Fukasawa, Masao

2011-11-03

35

The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.  

PubMed

Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. PMID:22364923

Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

2012-02-22

36

Radioactivity from Fukushima nuclear accident detected in Lisbon, Portugal.  

PubMed

The radioactivity released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident was transported around the globe by atmospheric processes. Several artificial radionuclides were detected and measured in aerosols and atmospheric surface depositions in the Lisbon area during late March and early April 2011. The highest concentrations measured in aerosols were those of particulate (131)I, 1.39 ± 0.08 mBq m(-3). Cesium-134, (137)Cs and (132)Te were also determined but at lower concentrations. The total atmospheric depositions on the ground were higher on the first week of April with values for (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs of 0.92 ± 0.11, 0.59 ± 0.06, and 0.62 ± 0.12 Bq m(-2), respectively. The four artificial radionuclides measurable, (131)I, (132)Te (134)Cs, and (137)Cs, caused little radiation exposure to the members of the public, that was five orders of magnitude lower than the ionizing radiation effective dose limits for members of the public for one year (1 mSv y(-1)). PMID:22503401

Carvalho, F P; Reis, M C; Oliveira, J M; Malta, M; Silva, L

2012-04-13

37

2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.  

PubMed

After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d. PMID:22119330

Hirose, Katsumi

2011-11-26

38

Evidence of the radioactive fallout in the center of Asia (Russia) following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.  

PubMed

It was recently reported that radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident was detected in environmental samples collected in the USA and Greece, which are very far away from Japan. In April-May 2011, fallout radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I) released in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident were detected in environmental samples at the city of Krasnoyarsk (Russia), situated in the center of Asia. Similar maximum levels of (131)I and (137)Cs/(134)Cs and (131)I/(137)Cs ratios in water samples collected in Russia and Greece suggest the high-velocity movement of the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and the global effects of this accident, similar to those caused by the Chernobyl accident. PMID:21745703

Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

2011-07-13

39

Quantitative Assessment of Preventive Behaviors in France during the Fukushima Nuclear Crisis  

PubMed Central

Background The Fukushima nuclear disaster has generated worldwide concern on the risk of exposure to nuclear radiations. In Europe, health authorities had to issue statements about the lack of usefulness of iodine based preventive treatments within their borders. However a lack of confidence in official messages has developed in various European countries due to recent perceived failures in managing public health crises. The lay population preventive behaviors in this context are largely unknown. Consequently, to examine the effects of public health crisis on lay behaviors leading to pharmaceuticals purchases, we studied the sales of iodine-based products in France before, during and after the crisis. Methods We focused our study on 58 iodine-based drugs available with and without a physician prescription. Our data came from a stratified sample of 3004 pharmacies in metropolitan France. Our study period was from January 2010 to April 2012, with a focus on March-April 2011. We differentiated sales of drugs prescribed by physicians from sales of drugs obtained without a prescription. We used a CUSUM method to detect abnormal increases in sales activity and cross-correlations to assess shifts in sales timing. Results Sales of iodine-based nutritional complements, and later sales of iodine-based homeopathic remedies, substantially increased (up to 3-fold) during a period of 20 days. Their temporal patterns were correlated to specific events during the crisis. Prescriptions for iodine-based homeopathy increased (up to 35% of all sales). Iodine pills, strictly regulated by health authorities, have also been sold but on a very small scale. Conclusion These results indicate uncontrolled preventive behaviors resulting in the potentially unjustifiable consumption of available drugs. They have implications in public policy, and demonstrate the usefulness of drug sales surveillance for instantaneous evaluation of population behavior during a global crisis.

Crepey, Pascal; Pivette, Mathilde; Bar-Hen, Avner

2013-01-01

40

Disaster Scenarios at Nuclear Accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bevalac accelerator was created at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1974 to study dense nuclear matter. The possibility that Lee-Wick density isomers could be formed and destroy the Earth was considered by an internal committee which concluded that the possibility was remote and the experiments should proceed. This was mentioned in an article in Physics Today in 1993, which resulted

Joseph Kapusta

2005-01-01

41

RAPID RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response, including emergency soil and air filter samples. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed analyses on samples received from Japan in April, 2011 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to provide assistance to the government of Japan, following the nuclear event at Fukushima Daiichi, resulting from the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Of particular concern was whether it was safe to plant rice in certain areas (prefectures) near Fukushima. The primary objectives of the sample collection, sample analysis, and data assessment teams were to evaluate personnel exposure hazards, identify the nuclear power plant radiological source term and plume deposition, and assist the government of Japan in assessing any environmental and agricultural impacts associated with the nuclear event. SRNL analyzed approximately 250 samples and reported approximately 500 analytical method determinations. Samples included soil from farmland surrounding the Fukushima reactors and air monitoring samples of national interest, including those collected at the U.S. Embassy and American military bases. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of radionuclides, including strontium-89, strontium-90, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes. Technical aspects of the rapid soil and air filter analyses will be described. The extent of radiostrontium contamination was a significant concern. For {sup 89,90}Sr analyses on soil samples, a rapid fusion technique using 1.5 gram soil aliquots to enable a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of <1 pCi {sup 89,90} Sr /g of soil was employed. This sequential technique has been published recently by this laboratory for actinides and radiostrontium in soil and vegetation. It consists of a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion, pre-concentration steps using iron hydroxide and calcium fluoride precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ~0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA. Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were reported within twenty-four (24) hours of receipt using rapid techniques published previously. The r

Maxwell, S.

2012-11-07

42

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident due to Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 11 2011, Great Eastern Japan Earthquake hit Japan and caused the devastating damage. Fukushima Nuclear Power Station (NPS) also suffered damages and provided the environmental effect with radioactive products. The situation has been settled to some extent about two months after the accidents, and currently, the cooling of reactor is continuing towards settling the situation. Japanese NPSs are designed based on safety requirements and have multiple-folds of hazard controls. However, according to publicly available information, due to the lager-than-anticipated Tsunami, all the power supply were lost, which resulted in loss of hazard controls. Also, although nuclear power plants are equipped with system/procedure in case of loss of all controls, recovery was not made as planned in Fukushima NPSs because assumptions for hazard controls became impractical or found insufficient. In consequence, a state of emergency was declared. Through this accident, many lessons learned have been obtained from the several perspectives. There are many commonality between nuclear safety and space safety. Both industries perform thorough hazard assessments because hazards in both industries can result in loss of life. Therefore, space industry must learn from this accident and reconsider more robust space safety. This paper will introduce lessons learned from Fukushima nuclear accident described in the "Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety" [1], and discuss the considerations to establish more robust safety in the space systems. Detailed information of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS are referred to this report.

Miki, M.; Wada, M.; Takeuchi, N.

2012-01-01

43

Disaster Scenarios at Nuclear Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bevalac accelerator was created at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1974 to study dense nuclear matter. The possibility that Lee-Wick density isomers could be formed and destroy the Earth was considered by an internal committee which concluded that the possibility was remote and the experiments should proceed. This was mentioned in an article in Physics Today in 1993, which resulted in the authors being put on the Unabomber's list. The RHIC accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory began operation in 2000 to create quark-gluon plasma. Concerns that strange quark matter or mini-black holes could be formed that would destroy the Earth were aired in the Sunday Times of London in 1999, which resulted in an open committee review whose report was published in Reviews of Modern Physics.

Kapusta, Joseph

2005-04-01

44

Fukushima and the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

Buesseler, Ken

2013-04-01

45

Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

SciTech Connect

This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

Guss, P. P.

2012-07-16

46

News and Views: Perspectives for Nuclear Energy in Brazil After Fukushima  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than two decades after the Chernobyl accident, the world was experiencing a nuclear renaissance when an earthquake followed\\u000a by a tsunami, both of uncommon proportions, led to major releases of radiation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear central.\\u000a Many countries are now reevaluating decisions to expand their nuclear parks, a change of course motivated by a number of considerations.\\u000a Combined

José Goldemberg

2011-01-01

47

Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture—a preliminary review of current plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care

Suminori Akiba

2012-01-01

48

Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 ?Bq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. PMID:22200554

Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

2011-12-24

49

Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

Tong, P.; Zhao, D.; Yang, D.

2012-02-01

50

Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

Tong, P.; Zhao, D.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

51

News and Views: Perspectives for Nuclear Energy in Brazil After Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two decades after the Chernobyl accident, the world was experiencing a nuclear renaissance when an earthquake followed by a tsunami, both of uncommon proportions, led to major releases of radiation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear central. Many countries are now reevaluating decisions to expand their nuclear parks, a change of course motivated by a number of considerations. Combined with the same premises, lessons learned from the history of its nuclear program compel Brazil to turn to the renewable sources of energy at its disposal.

Goldemberg, José

2011-09-01

52

Fukushima, Facebook and Feeds: Informing the Public in a Digital Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The now-ubiquitous presence of the Internet and social media like Twitter, Facebook, and blogs enabled misinformation about the nuclear disaster at Fukushima to spread at the speed of electricity. It also allowed the public rapid access to large amounts of knowledge from unconventional classes of experts, and a unique opportunity to learn about nuclear power. The benefits of online information

Lara Pierpoint

2011-01-01

53

Physics from the News--Fukushima Daiichi: Radiation Doses and Dose Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nuclear disaster that was triggered by the Japanese earthquake and the following tsunami of March 11, 2011, continues to be the subject of a great deal of news coverage. The tsunami caused severe damage to the nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Daiichi, and this led to the escape of unknown quantities of radioactive material from the damaged…

Bartlett, A. A.

2011-01-01

54

Family Communication About Plans for Natural and Nuclear Disasters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes how 65 husband-wife couples (with children) discussed their plans for responding to natural (tornado) and nuclear disaster situations. The couples were interviewed in their homes, and their discussions were taperecorded and later tra...

K. L. Villard L. E. Rogers R. V. Farace

1972-01-01

55

Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method. PMID:23541790

Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

2013-03-16

56

PREPARATION FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychic reactions of human individuals and populations subjected to ; catastrophes are outlined, and ways are suggested for dealing with them at ; various phases of a national emergency. Two myths about disaster have been ; dispelled by recent research. First, the disaster-struck population is not ; completely dazed, dependent, and helpless, and second, there is relatively little ; panic

1962-01-01

57

Two year monitoring of soil and radiocesium redistribution at the hillslope scale after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident fallout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study started a few months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster, triggered by the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 and followed by a massive released of radionuclides in the environment. In order to monitor the redistribution of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs), known to strongly sorb to soil particles, 5m x 22m bounded runoff plots were installed near the main contamination plume, 35 km from the power plant. Five typical land use of the region were investigated: bare soil, steep uncultivated hillslope, grassland, abandoned grazing land and young cedar forest. Since July 2011, runoff volumes were recorded and exported sediments were collected and assessed for their radiocesium content by laboratory gamma spectrometry. The bare soil plot, most susceptible to erosion, was subject to complementary monitoring by in situ gamma spectrometry and land survey. From this intensive monitoring, it appeared that despite the heavy rains and typhoons, low amounts sediments and radiocesium were exported for the various land uses, with the exception of the bare soil conditions. For the later, the fine exported sediments continuously exhibited relatively high contamination, and the complementary monitoring revealed complex sub-processes, such as zones of accumulation of sediments with areal activities locally 3 times higher than the initial radiocesium deposit.

Patin, Jeremy; Onda, Yuichi; Yoda, Hiroki

2013-04-01

58

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-09-01

59

Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactivities of particulate 131I and 137Cs released from the Fukushima nuclear accident were monitored in a regional aerosol network including two high mountain sites (central Taiwan and Tibetan Plateau). The results were integrated with data measured elsewhere around the world, with special focus on the mid-latitudes. The hemispheric transport of the Fukushima radiation clouds (FRCs) by the westerlies took ˜18 days, displaying an exponential-like decrease eastward, with a dilution factor of at least five orders of magnitude following a full circuit around the globe. The initial two waves of FRCs may travel at different atitudes: the first one at ˜3-4 km, whereas the second one up to 5 km or more. 131I and 137Cs were fractionated during transport, with 137Cs concentrated in the shallower layer, susceptible to depositional removal, while 131I moving faster and higher. This accident may be exemplified to identify some atmospheric processes on the hemispheric scale.

Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huh, Chih-An; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Shuen-Hsin; Lin, Fei-Jan; Liu, Shaw Chen

2012-01-01

60

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident.

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-01-01

61

Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. PMID:23583088

Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

2013-03-16

62

Nuclear disaster management - the murmansk exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Jointly initiated by NATO Partnership for Peace and UN Department for Humanitarian Affairs, the EXERCISE '95 took place on the Kola peninsula near Murmansk, Russia. Organised by the Russian ministry for disaster management, the trigger incident was suppos...

C. Schmitzer

1995-01-01

63

Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima after the nuclear accident in March 2011.  

PubMed

Because of radioactive fallout resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, water discharge from many outdoor swimming pools in Fukushima was suspended out of concern that radiocesium in the pool water would flow into farmlands. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has reviewed the existing flocculation method for decontaminating pool water and established a practical decontamination method by demonstrating the process at eight pools in Fukushima. In this method, zeolite powder and a flocculant are used for capturing radiocesium present in pool water. The supernatant is discharged if the radiocesium concentration is less than the targeted level. The radioactive residue is collected and stored in a temporary storage space. Radioactivity concentration in water is measured with a NaI(Tl) or Ge detector installed near the pool. The demonstration results showed that the pool water in which the radiocesium concentration was more than a few hundred Bq L was readily purified by the method, and the radiocesium concentration was reduced to less than 100 Bq L. The ambient dose rates around the temporary storage space were slightly elevated; however, the total increase was up to 30% of the background dose rates when the residue was shielded with sandbags. PMID:23361418

Saegusa, J; Kurikami, H; Yasuda, R; Kurihara, K; Arai, S; Kuroki, R; Matsuhashi, S; Ozawa, T; Goto, H; Takano, T; Mitamura, H; Nagano, T; Naganawa, H; Yoshida, Z; Funaki, H; Tokizawa, T; Nakayama, S

2013-03-01

64

Environmental contamination and external radiation dose rates from radionuclides released from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analysed by gamma spectrometry. Six artificial radionuclides ((131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs) were detected in soil samples around FNPP. Calculated external effective doses from artificial radionuclide contamination in soil samples around FNPP were 1.9-2.9 ?Sv h(-1) (8.7-17.8 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 22 March 2011. After several months, these calculated external effective doses were 0.25-0.88 ?Sv h(-1) (2.2-7.6 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 29 June 2011. The present study revealed that the detected artificial radionuclides around FNPP mainly shifted to long-lived radionuclides such as radioactive caesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) even though current levels are decreasing gradually due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides such as (131)I, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs. Thus, radiation exposure potency still exists even though the national efforts are ongoing for reducing the annual exposure dose closer to 1 mSv, the public dose limit. Long-term environmental monitoring around FNPP contributes to radiation safety, with a reduction in unnecessary exposure to the residents. PMID:22504310

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevitc, Alexander; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Takamura, Noboru

2012-04-13

65

Airborne fission products in the High Arctic after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

High-volume aerosol samples were collected at the Mt. Zeppelin Global Atmosphere Watch station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (78°58'N, 11°53'E). The samples were analysed to find out if the radionuclide emissions from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 could be detected also in the atmosphere of the High Arctic. Iodine-131 and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were observed from 25 March 2011 onwards. The maximum (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs activity concentrations were 810 ± 20, 659 ± 13, and 675 ± 7 ?Bq/m(3), respectively. The comparison between the measured (131)I activity concentrations at Mt. Zeppelin and those calculated with the SILAM dispersion model revealed that the timing of plume movements could be rather well predicted with the model. The activity concentration levels between the measurements and the model calculations deviated. This can be due to the inaccuracies in the source term. The (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio recorded in Svalbard was high compared to earlier incidents. The ratio was close to 1 which is in agreement with other studies of the Fukushima releases. This distinctive activity ratio in the Fukushima debris could be used as a tracer in Arctic radioecology studies if the activity concentrations are high enough to be detected. PMID:22300482

Paatero, Jussi; Vira, Julius; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Hatakka, Juha; Holmén, Kim; Viisanen, Yrjö

2012-02-01

66

Iodine isotopes in precipitation: temporal responses to (129)i emissions from the fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has released a large amount of radionuclides to the atmosphere, and the radioactive plume has been dispersed to a large area in Europe and returned to Asia. To explore long-term trend of the Fukushima-derived radioactive plume and the behavior of harmful radioiodine in the atmosphere, long-term precipitation samples have been collected over 2010-2012 at Fukushima, Japan for determination of long-lived (129)I. It was observed that (129)I concentrations of 1.2 × 10(8) atom/L in 2010 before the accident dramatically increased by ?4 orders of magnitude to 7.6 × 10(11) atom/L in March 2011 immediately after the accident, with a (129)I/(127)I ratio up to 6.9 × 10(-5). Afterward, the (129)I concentrations in precipitation decreased exponentially to ?3 × 10(9) atom/L by October 2011 with a half-life of about 29 days. This declining trend of (129)I concentrations in precipitation was interrupted around October 2011 by a new input of (129)I to the atmosphere following a second exponential decrease. Such a cycle has occurred three times until the present. This temporal variation can be attributed to alternating (129)I dispersion and resuspension from the contaminated local environment. A (129)I/(131)I atomic ratio of 16 ± 1 obtained from rainwater samples is comparable with a value estimated for surface soil samples. (129)I results from Denmark suggest an insignificant effect of (129)I released from Fukushima to the (129)I levels in Europe. PMID:24000802

Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Watanabe, Akira; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Luyuan

2013-09-12

67

Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether caused by acts of nature, human error or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat. The National Science Foundation works with the Administration and other federal agencies in a coordinated effort to anticipate disasters and minimize their effects. Research projects provide information on understanding the causes and predicting natural disasters, disaster preparation in the form of stronger buildings, infrastructure and cybersecurity, and disaster response.

68

Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

2012-06-01

69

Atmospheric transport modeling based estimation of radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant on March 2011, it is important to characterize radioactivity release into the environment. Several isotopes, amongst others caesium-137 and iodine-131, are monitored at multiple stations throughout the world by the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. In this paper it is demonstrated

Wolfango Plastino; Michael Schoppner; Francesco Bella; Mario De Vincenzi; Gerhard Wotawa; Pavel P. Povinec; Antonio Budano; Federico Ruggieri

2011-01-01

70

"What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.  

PubMed

Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history. PMID:22394214

Gallucci, Raymond

2012-03-06

71

Absorption of Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident by a Novel Algal Strain  

PubMed Central

Large quantities of radionuclides have leaked from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the surrounding environment. Effective prevention of health hazards resulting from radiation exposure will require the development of efficient and economical methods for decontaminating radioactive wastewater and aquatic ecosystems. Here we describe the accumulation of water-soluble radionuclides released by nuclear reactors by a novel strain of alga. The newly discovered green microalgae, Parachlorella sp. binos (Binos) has a thick alginate-containing extracellular matrix and abundant chloroplasts. When this strain was cultured with radioiodine, a light-dependent uptake of radioiodine was observed. In dark conditions, radioiodine uptake was induced by addition of hydrogen superoxide. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed a localization of accumulated iodine in the cytosol. This alga also exhibited highly efficient incorporation of the radioactive isotopes strontium and cesium in a light-independent manner. SIMS analysis showed that strontium was distributed in the extracellular matrix of Binos. Finally we also showed the ability of this strain to accumulate radioactive nuclides from water and soil samples collected from a heavily contaminated area in Fukushima. Our results demonstrate that Binos could be applied to the decontamination of iodine, strontium and cesium radioisotopes, which are most commonly encountered after nuclear reactor accidents.

Shimura, Hiroki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Ichijo, Masashi; Furuya, Fumihiko; Nakamura, Yuji; Kitahara, Ken; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yukawa, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

72

Absorption of radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident by a novel algal strain.  

PubMed

Large quantities of radionuclides have leaked from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the surrounding environment. Effective prevention of health hazards resulting from radiation exposure will require the development of efficient and economical methods for decontaminating radioactive wastewater and aquatic ecosystems. Here we describe the accumulation of water-soluble radionuclides released by nuclear reactors by a novel strain of alga. The newly discovered green microalgae, Parachlorella sp. binos (Binos) has a thick alginate-containing extracellular matrix and abundant chloroplasts. When this strain was cultured with radioiodine, a light-dependent uptake of radioiodine was observed. In dark conditions, radioiodine uptake was induced by addition of hydrogen superoxide. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed a localization of accumulated iodine in the cytosol. This alga also exhibited highly efficient incorporation of the radioactive isotopes strontium and cesium in a light-independent manner. SIMS analysis showed that strontium was distributed in the extracellular matrix of Binos. Finally we also showed the ability of this strain to accumulate radioactive nuclides from water and soil samples collected from a heavily contaminated area in Fukushima. Our results demonstrate that Binos could be applied to the decontamination of iodine, strontium and cesium radioisotopes, which are most commonly encountered after nuclear reactor accidents. PMID:22984475

Shimura, Hiroki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Ichijo, Masashi; Furuya, Fumihiko; Nakamura, Yuji; Kitahara, Ken; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yukawa, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

2012-09-12

73

Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations of TEPCO --Outline & lessons learned--  

PubMed Central

The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others.

TANAKA, Shun-ichi

2012-01-01

74

Traces of fission products in southeast Spain after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Traces of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured after the Fukushima nuclear accident between 23 March and 13 April 2011 in southeast Spain. The movement of the radioactive cloud toward southeast Spain was reconstructed based on the backward and forward trajectory cluster analyses. Polar maritime air masses which had originated over North America transported the radioactive plume toward the southeast Spain. Aerosols, rainwater, vegetables and cheese were analyzed to determine the radioactive risk. The highest concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air samples were 2.63 ± 0.12 mBq/m(3); 0.10 ± 0.03 mBq/m(3); 0.09 ± 0.02 mBq/m(3), respectively. After precipitation on April 3rd, the maximum concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in rainwater samples, 1.10 ± 0.16 mBq/L; 0.022 ± 0.003 mBq/L; 0.05 ± 0.03 mBq/L, respectively. As a consequence, (131)I was transferred to the human food chain, and found in chard and goat cheese, 0.97 ± 0.20 Bq/kg and 0.52 ± 0.08 Bq/kg, respectively. The traces of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected in the different samples were so low, that there is no impact on human health or the environment in Spain after the Fukushima nuclear accident. PMID:22336568

Piñero García, F; Ferro García, M A

2012-02-14

75

Continuously improving safety of nuclear installations: An approach to be reinforced after the Fukushima accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the Fukushima accident shows that the probability of a core meltdown accident in an LWR (Light Water Reactor) has been largely underestimated. The consequences of such an accident are unacceptable: except in the case of TMI2 (Three Mile Island 2) large areas around the damaged plants are contaminated for decades and populations have to be relocated for long periods. This article presents the French approach which consists in improving continuously the safety of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) on the basis of lessons learned from operating experience and from the progress in R&D (Research and Development). It details the key role played by IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire), the French TSO (Technical and scientific Safety Organization), and shows how the Fukushima accident contributes to this approach in improving NPP robustness. It concludes on the necessity to keep on networking TSOs, to share knowledge as well as R&D resources, with the ultimate goal of enhancing and harmonizing nuclear safety worldwide.

Repussard, Jacques; Schwarz, Michel

2012-05-01

76

Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an

M Kai

2012-01-01

77

NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members, supplemented by other LLNL scientists, invested over 5000 person-hours of time and generated over 300 analyses and predictions.

Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

2012-02-14

78

Retention of potentially mobile radiocesium in forest surface soils affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The fate of (137)Cs derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident fallout and associated radiological hazards are largely dependent on its mobility in the surface soils of forest ecosystems. Thus, we quantified microbial and adsorptive retentions of (137)Cs in forest surface (0-3 cm) soils. The K(2)SO(4) extraction process liberated 2.1%-12.8% of the total (137)Cs from the soils. Two soils with a higher content of clay- and silt-sized particles, organic carbon content, and cation exchange capacity showed higher (137)Cs extractability. Microbial biomass was observed in all of the soils. However, the (137)Cs extractability did not increase after destruction of the microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation, providing no evidence for microbial retention of the Fukushima-fallout (137)Cs. The results indicate that uptake of (137)Cs by soil microorganisms is less important for retention of potentially mobile (137)Cs in the forest surface soils compared to ion-exchange adsorption on non-specific sites provided by abiotic components. PMID:23256039

Koarashi, Jun; Moriya, Koichi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Mika

2012-12-19

79

Potential consequences of the Fukushima accident for off-site nuclear emergency management: a case study for Germany.  

PubMed

The Fukushima accident led to high radionuclide releases into the atmosphere for more than 3 weeks. This situation has not been assumed when the concepts of nuclear emergency preparedness were developed internationally. The results of simulations studying potential implications of Fukushima-like source terms on nuclear emergency preparedness are presented. Two hypothetical source terms are considered. Radiological consequences are assessed with the decision support system RODOS. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are based on meteorological monitoring data from June and December 2010, respectively, to study potential seasonal effects. Simulations are performed for two nuclear power plant sites in Northern and Southern Germany, respectively. These sites are chosen due to their differing meteorology and topography. Predicted radiation doses of members of the population are compared with dose reference levels actually recommended for initiating protective measures in Germany. Potential implications of general interest for nuclear emergency planning are discussed. PMID:23287436

Gering, F; Gerich, B; Wirth, E; Kirchner, G

2013-01-03

80

Psychosocial effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

The psychological factors surrounding the Chernobyl disaster include the sudden trauma of evacuation, long-term effects of being a refugee, disruption of social networks, illness, separation and its effects on families, children's perception and effects on their development and the threat of a long-term consequence with an endless future. Added to this was the breakdown of the Soviet Union with consequent collapse of health services, increasing poverty and malnutrition. These complexities made necessary new individual and social treatment methods developed in UNESCO Community Centres, within which some positives have resulted, such as the development of individual and group self help and the professions of counselling, social work and community development, practices which did not previously exist in the Soviet Union. PMID:17370858

Barnett, Lynn

81

Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential health effects are properly interpreted; the limitations of epidemiological studies for attributing radiation effects following low exposures are understood; any confusion on protection quantities and units is resolved; the potential hazard from the intake of radionuclides into the body is elucidated; rescuers and volunteers are protected with an ad hoc system; clear recommendations on crisis management and medical care and on recovery and rehabilitation are available; recommendations on public protection levels (including infant, children and pregnant women and their expected offspring) and associated issues are consistent and understandable; updated recommendations on public monitoring policy are available; acceptable (or tolerable) 'contamination' levels are clearly stated and defined; strategies for mitigating the serious psychological consequences arising from radiological accidents are sought; and, last but not least, failures in fostering information sharing on radiological protection policy after an accident need to be addressed with recommendations to minimise such lapses in communication. PMID:23803462

González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

2013-06-27

82

Observation of gamma-rays from fallout collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Gamma-ray pulse height distributions were measured for a fallout sample collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima accident in March 2011. The fallout was collected in a pan of water and then evaporated to dryness on a stainless-steel holder. The sample was measured by a germanium detector three times over a year. In the pulse height distribution of the initial measurement, approximately 140 peaks were observed in the 50-2048 keV energy region. Most of these peaks were either total absorption peaks or sum peaks of Te, I or Cs isotopes. Unlike fallout samples at the past nuclear accidents, nuclides such as Ce and Ru were not detected whereas (110m)Ag was prominently observed. The radioactivity concentration of (137)Cs was determined to be at least 1.4×10(4) Bq m(-2), approximately 14% of which was attributed to rainout. PMID:23524231

Saegusa, Jun; Kikuta, Yasuaki; Akino, Hitoshi

2013-02-27

83

Radioactive pollution in Athens, Greece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

As a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, which started on March 11, 2011, radioactive pollutants were transferred by air masses to various regions of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe. Very low concentrations of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne particulate matter were measured in Athens, Greece during the period of March 24 to April 28, 2011. The maximum air concentration of (131)I was measured on April 6, 2011 and equaled 490 ± 35 ?Bq m(-3). The maximum values of the two cesium isotopes were measured on the same day and equaled 180 ± 40 ?Bq m(-3) for (137)Cs and 160 ± 30 ?Bq m(-3) for (134)Cs. The average activity ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs in air was 3.0 ± 0.5, while the corresponding ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equaled 1.1 ± 0.3. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011. Traces of (131)I as a result of radioactive deposition were measured in grass, soil, sheep milk and meat. The total deposition of (131)I (dry + wet) was 34 ± 4 Bq m(-2), and of (137)Cs was less than 10 Bq m(-2). The maximum concentration of (131)I in grass was 2.1 ± 0.4 Bg kg(-1), while (134)Cs was not detected. The maximum concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in sheep milk were 1.7 ± 0.16 Bq kg(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.12 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Concentrations of (131)I up to 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1) were measured in sheep meat. Traces of (131)I were found in a number of soil samples. The radiological impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Athens region was practically negligible, especially as compared to that of the Chernobyl accident and also to that of natural radioactivity. PMID:22197531

Kritidis, P; Florou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Evangeliou, N; Gini, M; Sotiropoulou, M; Diapouli, E; Vratolis, S

2011-12-22

84

Estimation of the time-dependent radioactive source-term from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using atmospheric transport modelling.  

PubMed

Caesium-137 and Iodine-131 radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 were detected at monitoring stations throughout the world. Using the CTBT radionuclide data and the assumption that the Fukushima accident was the only source of these radionuclides, it was possible to estimate their time-dependent source-term fourteen days following the accident by using atmospheric transport modelling. A reasonable agreement was obtained between the modelling results and the estimated radionuclide release rates from the Fukushima accident. PMID:22137089

Schöppner, Michael; Plastino, Wolfango; Povinec, Pavel P; Wotawa, Gerhard; Bella, Francesco; Budano, Antonio; De Vincenzi, Mario; Ruggieri, Federico

2011-12-03

85

Challenges in Determining the Isotopic Mixture for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

As part of the United States response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant emergency, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management (CM) Teams were activated with elements deploying to Japan. The NNSA CM teams faced the urgent need for information regarding the potential radiological doses that citizens of might experience. This paper discusses the challenges and lessons learned associated with the analysis of field collected samples and gamma spectra in an attempt to determine the isotopic mixture present on the ground around the Plant. There were several interesting and surprising lessons to be learned from the sample analysis portion of the response. The paper discusses several elements of the response that were unique to the event occurring in Japan, as well as several elements that would have occurred in a U.S. nuclear reactor event. Sections of this paper address details of the specific analytical challenges faced during the efforts to analyze samples and try to understand the overall release source term.

Shanks, Arthur [Sandia National Laboratories; Fournier, Sean [Sandia National Laboratories; Shanks, Sonoya [Sandia National Laboratories

2012-05-01

86

2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them along the coasts. There are a few countries where nuclear installations are planned and hence, a critical analysis is required to know the realistic hazard due to earthquakes and tsunami in these countries. The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami generated due to Sumatra earthquake of M9.3 claimed more than 250,000 lives but did not caused a situation like in Japan. We studied the tsunami run-up heights and inundation along the east coast of India. The maximum run-up height of 5.2 meters was observed at Nagapattinam with lateral inundation up to 800 meters and the minimum was at Devanaampatnam with a lateral inundation up to 340 meters. At Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, the tsunami run-up height was 4.1 meters and water entered up to 360 meters inside the campus. Using the observed data we modeled several scenarios for Indian coast line for different earthquakes along the subduction zone of Andaman-Sumatra in the east and Makran in south Pakistan in the western side using N2 Tsunami Model. The results obtained for few critical structures will be presented with an overview of scenarios for other countries.

Chadha, R. K.

2011-12-01

87

Monitoring of aerosols in Tsukuba after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant incident in 2011.  

PubMed

Artificial radionuclides were released into the atmosphere by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident after a strong earthquake on 11 March 2011. Aerosol monitoring at the Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, was started 20 d after the incident. Radionuclides such as (99)Mo/(99m)Tc, (132)Te/(132)I, (129 m)Te/(129)Te, (131)I, (137)Cs, (136)Cs, (134)Cs, (140)Ba/(140)La, (110 m)Ag, and (95)Nb were observed and, with the exception of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, these radionuclides decreased to below the limit of detection in the middle of June. The activity ratio of atmospheric (134)Cs/(137)Cs in aerosols decreased over time almost following physical decays. Therefore, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in the averaged air mass in this study could be regarded as homogeneous although those of several reactors in the Nuclear Power Plant were not ascertained. A further research on the released (137)Cs and (134)Cs would be necessary for the sedimentology of lake sediment. PMID:22071363

Kanai, Yutaka

2011-11-08

88

Fate of radiocesium in sewage treatment process released by the nuclear accident at Fukushima.  

PubMed

The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 resulted in releases of radionuclides such as (134)Cs (half-life:T1/2=2.06yr), (137)Cs (T1/2=30.04yr) and (131)I (T1/2=8.05d) to the environment. For this paper, we observed the monthly variations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and stable Cs concentrations in influent, effluent, sewage sludge, and sludge ash collected from a sewage treatment plant 280km north of the FDNPP from July to December, 2011. Using the stable Cs results, we concluded the mass balance of Cs in the sewage treatment plant showed that about 10% of the Cs entering the sewage treatment plant would be transferred to the sewage sludge, and then Cs in the sewage sludge was totally recovered in the sludge ash. The behavior of Cs was similar to that of Rb, but it was not similar to that of K in the sewage treatment process. PMID:23838042

Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Ito, Ayumi; Tagami, Keiko; Umita, Teruyuki

2013-07-06

89

Psychological status of chernobyl nuclear power plant operators after the nuclear disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chief operators at the Chernobyl power plant were assessed at four time points after the nuclear disaster and compared to a comparable group of chief operators at another nuclear power station. MMPI findings demonstrated a significant increase over time in health concerns, depression, and other indicators of stress in those operators working at the station at the time of the

Victor S. Koscheyev; Vladimir K. Martens; Alexander A. Kosenkov; Michael A. Lartzev; Gloria R. Leon

1993-01-01

90

Radioactive impact in South Korea from the damaged nuclear reactors in Fukushima: evidence of long and short range transport.  

PubMed

Traces of long-lived fallout-derived radioisotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were found in wet and dry deposition samples collected from the west and east coasts of South Korea from March to May 2011 following the release of radionuclides from the damaged nuclear power plants in Fukushima, Japan. The analysis of air mass back trajectory and atmospheric pressure systems indicated that the Fukushima-derived radiocaesium had predominantly reached South Korea from the west by surface westerlies from 11 March to 5 April; however, after 6 April, air masses arrived from Japan directly due to a high pressure system that developed to the east of Japan. Spatial variation of deposition fluxes of radiocaesium in South Korea was partly attributed to the presence of local longitudinal orography. PMID:23006667

Hong, G H; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Lozano, R L; Kim, Y I; Lee, H M; Kim, S H; Yeh, S-W; Bolívar, J P; Baskaran, M

2012-09-24

91

(137)Cs Trapped by Biomass within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

Analysis of (137)Cs trapped in biomass in highly contaminated zones is crucial in predicting the long-term fate of (137)Cs following the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We surveyed forest 20-50 km from the plant in July and September 2011 to evaluate (137)Cs trapped in biomass within 20 km of the plant. We determined the ambient dose rate and collected forest soils and twigs at 150 sampling points. Removability from the canopy was evaluated by washing leaves and branches with water and organic solvents. The biomass of the forest canopy was then calculated. (137)Cs fallout was simulated with an atmospheric transport model. The modeled dose rate agreed with observations (n = 24) (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Washing experiments demonstrated that unremovable portions accounted for 53.9 ± 6.4% of (137)Cs trapped by deciduous canopy (n = 4) and 59.3 ± 13.8% of (137)Cs trapped by evergreen canopy (n = 10). In total, it was estimated that 74.5 × 10(12) Bq was trapped by canopy in the forest within the no-go zone, with 44.2 × 10(12) Bq allocated to unremovable portions, and that 0.86% of the total release was trapped in biomass as of September 2011. PMID:23889208

Koizumi, Akio; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

2013-08-23

92

Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic ? emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012.

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

2012-01-01

93

Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident. PMID:22266366

Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

2012-01-20

94

Radioactive fallout in the United States due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident.  

PubMed

The release of radioactivity into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine -131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific Ocean and reached the United States on 17-18 March 2011. Consequently, an elevated level of fission products (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in air, water, and milk samples collected across the United States between March 17 and April 4, 2011. The continuous monitoring of activities over a period of 25 days and spatial variations across more than 100 sampling locations in the United States made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. For the entire period, the highest detected activity values ranged from less than 1 m Bq m(-3) to 31 m Bq m(-3) for the particulate (131)I, and up to 96 m Bq m(-3) for the gaseous (131)I fraction. PMID:22456673

Thakur, P; Ballard, S; Nelson, R

2012-03-29

95

Sulfate aerosol as a potential transport medium of radiocesium from the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

To date, areas contaminated by radionuclides discharged from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident have been mapped in detail. However, size of the radionuclides and their mixing state with other aerosol components, which are critical in their removal from the atmosphere, have not yet been revealed. We measured activity size distributions of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in aerosols collected 47 days after the accident at Tsukuba, Japan, and found that the activity median aerodynamic diameters of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the first sample (April 28-May 12) were 0.54 and 0.53 ?m, respectively, and those in the second sample (May 12-26) were both 0.63 ?m. The activity size distributions of these radiocesium were within the accumulation mode size range and almost overlapped with the mass size distribution of non-sea-salt sulfate aerosol. From the analysis of other aerosol components, we found that sulfate was the potential transport medium for these radionuclides, and resuspended soil particles that attached radionuclides were not the major airborne radioactive substances at the time of measurement. This explains the relatively similar activity sizes of radiocesium measured at various sites during the Chernobyl accident. Our results can serve as basic data for modeling the transport/deposition of radionuclides. PMID:22533383

Kaneyasu, Naoki; Ohashi, Hideo; Suzuki, Fumie; Okuda, Tomoaki; Ikemori, Fumikazu

2012-05-10

96

Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic ? emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

2012-07-22

97

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2012-09-01

98

Effects of radioactive caesium on bull testes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident on the testis from 2 bulls. Estimated dose of internal exposure in one bull was 0.7-1.2?mGy ((134)Cs) and 0.4-0.6?mGy ((137)Cs) and external exposure was 2.0?mGy ((134)Cs) and 0.8?mGy ((137)Cs) (196 days). Internal dose in the other was 3.2-6.1?mGy ((134)Cs) and 1.8-3.4?mGy ((137)Cs) and external dose was 1.3?mGy ((134)Cs) and 0.6?mGy ((137)Cs) (315 days). Sperm morphology and spermatogenesis were within normal ranges. (134, 137)Cs radioactivity was detected but Cs was not detectable in the testis by electron probe microanalysis. Thus, adverse radiation-induced effects were not observed in bull testes following chronic exposure to the above levels of radiation for up to 10 months. Since we could analyse a limited number of testes, further investigation on the effects of ionizing radiation on spermatogenesis should be extended to more animals. PMID:24100305

Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kino, Yasushi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Fukumoto, Motoi; Takahashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Uematsu, Emi; Tong, Bin; Yamada, Takahisa; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sato, Eimei; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

2013-10-08

99

Effects of radioactive caesium on bull testes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident on the testis from 2 bulls. Estimated dose of internal exposure in one bull was 0.7–1.2?mGy (134Cs) and 0.4–0.6?mGy (137Cs) and external exposure was 2.0?mGy (134Cs) and 0.8?mGy (137Cs) (196 days). Internal dose in the other was 3.2–6.1?mGy (134Cs) and 1.8–3.4?mGy (137Cs) and external dose was 1.3?mGy (134Cs) and 0.6?mGy (137Cs) (315 days). Sperm morphology and spermatogenesis were within normal ranges. 134, 137Cs radioactivity was detected but Cs was not detectable in the testis by electron probe microanalysis. Thus, adverse radiation-induced effects were not observed in bull testes following chronic exposure to the above levels of radiation for up to 10 months. Since we could analyse a limited number of testes, further investigation on the effects of ionizing radiation on spermatogenesis should be extended to more animals.

Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kino, Yasushi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Fukumoto, Motoi; Takahashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Uematsu, Emi; Tong, Bin; Yamada, Takahisa; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sato, Eimei; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

2013-01-01

100

In Time of Emergency. A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack and Natural Disasters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major emergency affecting a large number of people may occur anytime and any place. Natural disasters such as a flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard or earthquake, or an enemy nuclear attack on the United States may all constitute a major emergency. In any type of general disaster, lives can be saved if people are prepared for the…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

101

Monitoring Cs-134 and 137 released by Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in ground, soil, and stream waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant accident occurred in March 2011, large amount of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and was fallen onto ground by rainfall. Few researches have monitored radioactive cesium dynamics in whole hydrological cycle system such as groundwater, soil water, spring water and stream water. Thus, the purpose of this study is to monitor concentration of radioactive cesium in those waters in time series in the headwaters. We have performed an intensive monitoring at three small mountainous catchments in Yamakiya district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture, locating 35 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant since June 2011, also we consider the movement of radioactive cesium and its relation with the hydrological cycle.

Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Hada, Manami; Ishwar, Pun; Abe, Yutaka

2013-04-01

102

Size distributions of airborne radionuclides from the fukushima nuclear accident at several places in europe.  

PubMed

Segregation and radioactive analysis of aerosols according to their aerodynamic size were performed in France, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany, and Greece after the arrival of contaminated air masses following the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. On the whole and regardless of the location, the highest activity levels correspond either to the finest particle fraction or to the upper size class. Regarding anthropogenic radionuclides, the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged between 0.25 and 0.71 ?m for (137)Cs, from 0.17 to 0.69 ?m for (134)Cs, and from 0.30 to 0.53 ?m for (131)I, thus in the "accumulation mode" of the ambient aerosol (0.1-1 ?m). AMAD obtained for the naturally occurring radionuclides (7)Be and (210)Pb ranged from 0.20 to 0.53 ?m and 0.29 to 0.52 ?m, respectively. Regarding spatial variations, AMADs did not show large differences from place to place compared with what was observed concerning bulk airborne levels registered on the European scale. When air masses arrived in Europe, AMADs for (131)I were about half those for cesium isotopes. Higher AMAD for cesium probably results from higher AMAD observed at the early stage of the accident in Japan. Lower AMAD for (131)I can be explained by the adsorption of gaseous iodine on particles of all sizes met during transport, especially for small particles. Additionally, weathering conditions (rain) encountered during transport and in Europe in March and April contributed to the equilibrium of the gaseous to total (131)I ratio. AMAD slightly increased with time for (131)I whereas a clear decreasing trend was observed with the AMADs for (137)Cs and (134)Cs. On average, the associated geometric standard deviation (GSD) appeared to be higher for iodine than for cesium isotopes. These statements also bear out a gaseous (131)I transfer on ambient particles of a broad size range during transport. Highest weighted activity levels were found on the 0.49-0.95 ?m and on the 0.18-0.36 ?m size ranges in France and in Poland, respectively. The contribution from resuspension of old deposited (137)Cs was assessed for the coarse particle fractions only for the first sampling week. PMID:24001315

Masson, Olivier; Ringer, Wolfgang; Malá, Helena; Rulik, Petr; Dlugosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Meisenberg, Olivier; De Vismes-Ott, Anne; Gensdarmes, François

2013-09-18

103

Radiation doses received by adult Japanese populations living outside Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011, following the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant failures.  

PubMed

Data on the concentration of radionuclides in air for March following the reactor failures at the Fukushima NPP were available for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo. Gamma dose data for the same/close locations and for fixed locations in other prefectures were also obtained. Gamma dose data was used to calculate the cumulative gamma dose, during 2 weeks (15th-28th March) following the power plant failures. Corresponding doses were calculated for sites in other Japanese prefectures - except Fukushima Prefecture, for which equivalent monitoring data was not published. For Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo air concentration data and ICRP dose coefficients were used to calculate inhalation committed effective doses (CED, E(50)) and thyroid equivalent doses (H) for adult members of the public. Average ratios of gamma dose to inhalation CED and inhalation CED from iodine isotopes to thyroid equivalent dose, determined for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo, were then used to predict these quantities for sites in other prefectures. Cumulative gamma dose profiles were used to identify dose increments that could be attributed to Fukushima releases within 11 prefectures (excluding Fukushima Prefecture). The most impacted of these were located in Gunma, Ibaraki, Tochigi and Saitama Prefectures - to the south of Fukushima - and in Miyagi Prefecture - to the north of Fukushima. Calculated total doses ranged from 16 ?Sv in Shizuoka (Shizuoka) to 400 ?Sv in Ibaraki (Mito). The total doses calculated for the major population centres of Tokyo and Chiba were 97 ?Sv and 80 ?Sv, respectively. For all prefecture locations the largest calculated contribution to total dose, during the period of assessment, was from inhalation (~80%). Estimated thyroid equivalent doses ranged from 5.9 mSv in Ibaraki to 200 ?Sv in Shizuoka. All total doses calculated were probably overestimates - since no allowances were made for shielding and shelter during the passage of radioactive clouds. Minor contributions to dose from the ingestion of contaminated food and water were not calculated. PMID:22770771

Priest, N D

2012-07-07

104

Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles

2012-01-01

105

Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

On 11 March 2011, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and a substantial tsunami struck off the northeast coast of Japan. The Fukushima nuclear power plants were inundated and stricken, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Provisional regulation values for radioactivity in food and drink were set on 17 March and were adopted from the preset index values, except that for radioiodines in water and milk ingested by infants. For radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and transuranic ? emitters, index values were defined in all food and drink not to exceed a committed effective dose of 5 mSv/year. Index values for radioiodines were defined not to exceed a committed equivalent dose to the thyroid of 50 mSv/year, and set in water, milk and some vegetables, but not in other foodstuffs. Index values were calculated as radioactive concentrations of indicator radionuclides ((131)I for radioiodines, (134)Cs and (137)Cs for radiocesiums) by postulating the relative radioactive concentration of coexisting radionuclides (e.g., (132)I, (133)I, (134)I, (135)I and (132)Te for (131)I). Surveys were thence conducted to monitor levels of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Provisional regulation values were exceeded in tap water, raw milk and some vegetables, and restrictions on distribution and consumption began on 21 March. Fish contaminated with radioiodines at levels of concern were then detected, so that the provisional regulation value for radioiodines in seafood adopted from that in vegetables were additionally set on 5 April. Overall, restrictions started within 25 days after the first excess in each food or drink item, and maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg for (131)I, and a total of 82,000 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs). This paper focuses on the logic behind such food safety regulations, and discusses its underlying issues. The outlines of the food monitoring results for 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions will also be described. PMID:21996550

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

2011-10-11

106

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

2013-04-01

107

Biodosimetry of restoration workers for the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident.  

PubMed

The biological dose of nuclear workers engaged in emergency response tasks at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was estimated in the present study. As the national core center for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) received all individuals who were suspected of being overexposed to acute radiation. In the course of health examinations at NIRS, biological dosimetry was performed by the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Twelve individuals were examined from 21 March-1 July 2011. The results indicated that the estimated exposure doses for all individuals were lower than 30 mGy, with the mean value of about 101 mGy. These results by DCA were in accordance with those obtained by physical dosimetry based on personal dosimeter recording assessment. The results corroborate the fact that no acute radiation syndrome was observed among the workers examined. PMID:23982613

Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Akiyama, Miho; Kobashi, Gen; Itokawa, Masanari; Akashi, Makoto; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

2013-10-01

108

Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 ?m, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. PMID:22455974

Yamaguchi, N; Eguchi, S; Fujiwara, H; Hayashi, K; Tsukada, H

2012-03-27

109

Evidence of the radioactive fallout in France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima reactor explosion in Japan was detected in environmental samples collected in France. The presence of (131)I in aerosols (200±6 ?Bq m(-3)) collected at the Pic du Midi observatory, located at 2877 m altitude in the French Pyrénées, indicated that the Japanese radioactive cloud reached France between 22 and 29 March, i.e. less than two weeks after the initial emissions, as suggested by a (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio of 1.4. Cesium radioisotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were not detected in this sample but they were present in the aerosol sample collected the next week, i.e. between 29 March and 05 April (about 10 ?Bq m(-3)). We also report (131)I activities measured in grass (1.1-11 Bq kg(-1); fresh weight) and soil samples (0.4 Bq kg(-1)) collected in the Seine River basin between 30 March and 10 April. The (134)Cs from the damaged Fukushima power plant was also detected in grass collected in the Seine River basin between 31 March and 10 April (0.2-1.6 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight, with a (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio close to 1, which is consistent with Fukushima radioactive release). Despite the installation of a network of nested stations to collect suspended matter in the upstream part of the Seine River basin, (131)I was only detected in suspended matter (4.5-60 Bq kg(-1)) collected at the most upstream stations between 30 March and 12 April. Neither (131)I nor (134)Cs has been detected in environmental samples since the end of April 2011, because of the rapid decay of (131)I and the very low activities of (134)Cs (about 400 times lower than after Chernobyl accident). PMID:22348995

Evrard, Olivier; Van Beek, Pieter; Gateuille, David; Pont, Véronique; Lefèvre, Irène; Lansard, Bruno; Bonté, Philippe

2012-02-19

110

Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Shannon P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Debra C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coronado, Melissa A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dewart, Jean M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fuehne, David P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, Milan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lujan, Joan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacDonell, Carolyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-12

111

Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.  

PubMed

An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University. PMID:22353655

Kobayashi, Tsuneo

2011-01-01

112

Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

2011-12-02

113

Spatial and temporal variations and budget of radiocesium in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We determined the inventory of radiocesium released by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident to the North Pacific Ocean based on measurements of seawater samples collected in the North Pacific Ocean after the accident. Comparison of the observed inventory with the model-simulated results allowed us to obtain realistic values of 10-13 PBq for the total atmospheric deposition of 134Cs and 137Cs released by the FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific. Before the Fukushima accident, 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean was about 69 PBq, the 12 - 15 PBq of 137Cs newly added by atmospheric deposition and the 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq added by direct discharge, therefore increased the total 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by 22-27 %. We also determined that the total atmospheric release of 134Cs and 137Cs by the FNPP1 accident was about 14-17 PBq, respectively. Using global simulated results as boundary conditions, a 1-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was also carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99 %) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Kajino, Mizuo; Tanaka, Taichu; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Hayami, Hiroshi; Hamajima, Yasunori; Gamo, Toshitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiro; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Fukasawa, Masao; Chino, Masamichi

2013-04-01

114

Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the atmospheric behavior of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, we simulated the transport and deposition of iodine-131 and cesium-137 using a chemical transport model. The model roughly reproduced the observed temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates over 15 Japanese prefectures (60-400 km from the plant), including Tokyo, although there were some discrepancies between the simulated and observed rates. These discrepancies were likely due to uncertainties in the simulation of emission, transport, and deposition processes in the model. A budget analysis indicated that approximately 13% of iodine-131 and 22% of cesium-137 were deposited over land in Japan, and the rest was deposited over the ocean or transported out of the model domain (700 × 700 km2). Radioactivity budgets are sensitive to temporal emission patterns. Accurate estimation of emissions to the air is important for estimation of the atmospheric behavior of radionuclides and their subsequent behavior in land water, soil, vegetation, and the ocean.

Morino, Y.; Ohara, T.; Nishizawa, M.

2011-12-01

115

Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the atmospheric behavior of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, we simulated the transport and deposition of iodine-131 and cesium-137 using a chemical transport model. The model roughly reproduced the observed temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates over 15 Japanese prefectures (60-400 km from the plant), including Tokyo, although there were some discrepancies between the simulated and observed rates. These discrepancies were likely due to uncertainties in the simulation of emission, transport, and deposition processes in the model. A budget analysis indicated that approximately 13% of iodine-131 and 22% of cesium-137 were deposited over land in Japan, and the rest was deposited over the ocean or transported out of the model domain (700 × 700 km2). Radioactivity budgets are sensitive to temporal emission patterns. Accurate estimation of emissions to the air is important for estimation of the atmospheric behavior of radionuclides and their subsequent behavior in land water, soil, vegetation, and the ocean.

Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nishizawa, Masato

2011-09-01

116

The Fukushima nuclear crisis reemphasizes the need for improved risk communication and better use of social media.  

PubMed

The potential of social media has expanded far beyond the initial function of social communication among a network of friends. It has become an increasingly important tool in risk communication to allow the dissemination of timely and accurate information to global citizens to make more informed choices regarding a particular crisis. The Fukushima nuclear crisis is an example where the potential of social media was not fully tapped. This caused undue stress and distrust of authorities. While the use of social media in this crisis could have altered significantly the level of trust in authorities and others, two additional points should be considered. One point is the use of plain language versus scientific language in order to reach a wider audience. The other is an urgent need to improve public information especially in the event of a nuclear emergency and to enhance educational efforts and action by improving radiological protection communication from regulatory bodies and international agencies. These are points that also play a large role in the use of social media. PMID:22850236

Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Lean, Mei-Li

2012-09-01

117

Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

118

The fukushima dai-ichi accident: additional lessons from a radiological emergency assistance mission.  

PubMed

In response to the March 2011 earthquake-tsunami disaster and the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a special nongovernmental Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission flew to Japan from the United States. Invited by one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups and facilitated by a New York-based international disaster relief organization, the mission included an emergency physician, a health physicist, and a disaster management specialist. During the 10 d mission, team members conducted fieldwork in areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident; went to cities and towns in the 20-30 km Emergency Evacuation Preparation Zone around the damaged nuclear plant; visited other communities affected by the nuclear accident; went to evacuation shelters; met with mayors and other local officials; met with central government officials; exchanged observations, experiences, and information with Japanese medical, emergency response, and disaster management colleagues; and provided radiological information and training to more than 1,100 Japanese hospital and healthcare personnel and first responders. The mission produced many insights with potential relevance for radiological/nuclear emergency preparedness and response. The first "lessons learned" were published in December 2011. Since that time, additional broad insights from the mission and mission followup have been identified. Five of these new lessons, which focus primarily on community impacts and responses and public communication issues, are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:24077046

Becker, Steven M

2013-11-01

119

Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

2011-08-01

120

Continuing 137 Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of cesium-137 (137Cs) release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for the period until September 2012 was estimated. Publicly released data on 137Cs radioactivity in seawater near the power plant by Tokyo Electric Power Company strongly suggest a continuing release of radionuclides to the sea. The plant has an artificial harbour facility, and the exchange rate of harbour water with surrounding seawater was estimated by the decrease in radioactivity immediately after an intense radioactive water release. The estimated exchange rate of water in the harbour was 0.44 d-1 during the period from 6 to 19 April. The 137Cs radioactivity in the harbour water was substantially higher than that of seawater outside and remained relatively stable after June 2011. A quasi-steady state was assumed with continuous water exchange, and the average release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 93 GBq d-1 in summer 2011 and 8.1 GBq d-1 in summer 2012.

Kanda, J.

2013-09-01

121

After Fukushima Daiichi: New Global Institutions for Improved Nuclear Power Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comment argues for the importance of global institutions to regulate nuclear power. Nuclear power presents challenges across national borders irrespective of whether plants are maintained safely. There are international agreements in place on the disposal of nuclear waste, an issue of great concern in terms of environmental and health effects for any nuclear power policy. However, there remains a

Thom Brooks

2012-01-01

122

Environmental radioactivity analyses in Italy following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima power plants accident on the 11th March 2011, the radioactivity monitoring programme at the Italian ENEA research centres was activated in order to detect the possible new input of radionuclides through atmospheric transport and precipitation. Measurements of (131)I and (134,137)Cs were carried out on atmospheric particulate, atmospheric deposition, seawater and mussels and sheep milk. In the daily samples of air particulate, (131)I was detectable between March 28 and April 12, with extremely low concentrations (<1 mBq m(-3); the detection limit for (131)I was ~0.2 mBq m(-3)) while Cs isotopes were always below the detection limit (<0.2 mBq m(-3)). The two main episodes of (131)I atmospheric deposition were registered in La Spezia research centre, around March 28 and April 15, reaching values of 17.8 ± 1.1 and 8.0 ± 2.5 Bq m(-2) respectively; maximum values of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.11 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2), respectively, detected in Brasimone research centre in April (reference date April 15). Mussels and seawater were collected in the Gulf of La Spezia: only mussels after the main (131)I deposition, on March 28, contained a measurable, although very small, amount of (131)I (0.18 ± 0.05 Bq kg(-1), detection limit (131)I = 0.03 Bq kg(-1) wet weight - soft parts). The (131)I was also detected in sheep milk in Rome (Casaccia research centre) until May 5, showing a maximum concentration of 4.9 ± 0.4 Bq L(-1). As for other European Countries for which data are available, activity levels remain of no concern for public health. PMID:22265846

Barsanti, M; Conte, F; Delbono, I; Iurlaro, G; Battisti, P; Bortoluzzi, S; Lorenzelli, R; Salvi, S; Zicari, S; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

2012-01-21

123

Transfer of 137Cs and 134Cs from litter into soil's of Japanese cypress forest after Fukushima nuclear accident in Karasawayama catchment, Tochigi prefecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mega earthquake that rampaged north-east Japan on March 11, 2011 and the triggered subsequent tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power plant and resulted the discharge of about 770,000 terabecquerel radionuclide materials to the atmosphere. The distribution and deposition of the radionucides are then governed by the wind and rain following the release. When the cloud of radionuclide material by-pass the forest ecosystem (as radiodust-sinker), radionuclides are trapped and deposited to the forest floor through dry, litter, wet depositions. Litter-fall, as a key process of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem, plays a great role in transferring canopy-trapped radionuclides to the forest soil. And so, we are monitoring the of Fukushima derived 137Cs deposition rate through litter to forest soil's of Japanese cypress(Chamaecyparis obutsa Sieb.et Zucc.) forests located approximately 160 km from the crippled nuclear power plant. For this purpose, five litter traps (1m2 areas each) were set up at one meter above the ground in the forest stand at the end of March 2011. Fukushima-derived 137Cs is then estimated from 134Cs:137Cs ratio as all 134Cs is originated from Fukushima. Within the two months of the accident, mean 134Cs:137Cs ratio was 0.8 in cypress litter. The inventories of both 137Cs and 134Cs in the upper 2cm forest soil were found 5089 Bq m-2 and 3571 Bq m-2, respectively. As a result, the amount of Fukushima-derived 137Cs deposition in upper 2cm soil layer by cypress litter is 4464 Bq m-2. This value account 88% of the total inventories of 137Cs in the upper 2cm soils and the other depositional paths (dry and wet fall) including old 137Cs cover only 12%. The transfer rate of 137Cs and 134Cs from canopy-litter to soil could be depend on litter's radionuclide adsorption strength (canopy and leaves architecture), the rate, amount of litter fall and its residence time in the canopy and forest floor. However, the results strongly confirmed that litter is the dominate delivery truck and track of atmospheric-canopy (atmo-canopy) radionuclides materials to forest floor unlike of other land use types. Additionally, the values demonstrated that high concentrations of the radionuclide materials are still clutched on forest canopy. Such type of study has a great and immediate implication on forest production scheme.

Mengistu, T. T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Gomi, T.

2011-12-01

124

Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started very early, possibly immediately after the earthquake and the emergency shutdown on 11 March at 06:00 UTC. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude exactly when spraying of water on the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 started. This indicates that emissions were not only coming from the damaged reactor cores, but also from the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 and confirms that the spraying was an effective countermeasure. We also explore the main dispersion and deposition patterns of the radioactive cloud, both regionally for Japan as well as for the entire Northern Hemisphere. While at first sight it seemed fortunate that westerly winds prevailed most of the time during the accident, a different picture emerges from our detailed analysis. Exactly during and following the period of the strongest 137Cs emissions on 14 and 15 March as well as after another period with strong emissions on 19 March, the radioactive plume was advected over Eastern Honshu Island, where precipitation deposited a large fraction of 137Cs on land surfaces. The plume was also dispersed quickly over the entire Northern Hemisphere, first reaching North America on 15 March and Europe on 22 March. In general, simulated and observed concentrations of 133Xe and 137Cs both at Japanese as well as at remote sites were in good quantitative agreement with each other. Altogether, we estimate that 6.4 TBq of 137Cs, or 19% of the total fallout until 20 April, were deposited over Japanese land areas, while most of the rest fell over the North Pacific Ocean. Only 0.7 TBq, or 2% of the total fallout were deposited on land areas other than Japan.

Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

2011-10-01

125

Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude exactly when spraying of water on the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 started. This indicates that emissions were not only coming from the damaged reactor cores, but also from the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 and confirms that the spraying was an effective countermeasure. We also explore the main dispersion and deposition patterns of the radioactive cloud, both regionally for Japan as well as for the entire Northern Hemisphere. While at first sight it seemed fortunate that westerly winds prevailed most of the time during the accident, a different picture emerges from our detailed analysis. Exactly during and following the period of the strongest 137Cs emissions on 14 and 15 March as well as after another period with strong emissions on 19 March, the radioactive plume was advected over Eastern Honshu Island, where precipitation deposited a large fraction of 137Cs on land surfaces. The plume was also dispersed quickly over the entire Northern Hemisphere, first reaching North America on 15 March and Europe on 22 March. In general, simulated and observed concentrations of 133Xe and 137Cs both at Japanese as well as at remote sites were in good quantitative agreement with each other. Altogether, we estimate that 6.4 PBq of 137Cs, or 19% of the total fallout until 20 April, were deposited over Japanese land areas, while most of the rest fell over the North Pacific Ocean. Only 0.7 PBq, or 2% of the total fallout were deposited on land areas other than Japan.

Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

2012-04-01

126

Deposition records in lake sediments in western Japan of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

Sediment trap observations of lakes in western Japan before and after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident indicate that changes in the radioactive Cs discharge are influenced by fluctuations in precipitation and geomorphological conditions in each catchment. Contributions of FDNPP-derived (134,137)Cs to the sediment decreased from 19-48% to 10-15% within a few months, implying that the major transport processes of FDNPP-derived (134,137)Cs have changed from direct fallout to transport by soil particles. PMID:23582493

Ochiai, Shinya; Nagao, Seiya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Itono, Taeko; Kashiwaya, Kenji; Fukui, Kotaro; Iida, Hajime

2013-03-26

127

Estimation of immediate fallout after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant by using HPGe detector and EGS5 code.  

PubMed

After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we managed to carry out emergency measurements of the radioactive fallout. The included nuclides were identified via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Quantifications of each radionuclide in the fallout were determined based on the efficiency calibrations and relevant corrections. The collected samples had a variety of shapes, densities, and compositions. EGS5 Monte Carlo code was used for the flexible estimation of these parameters. The measurement results show the temporal changes in the fallout quantity about a month after the accident. PMID:23570955

Unno, Yasuhiro; Yunoki, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio

2013-03-16

128

Radiocesium distribution in the tissues of Japanese Black beef heifers fed fallout-contaminated roughage due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.  

PubMed

This study examined the accumulation and tissue distribution of radioactive cesium nuclides in Japanese Black beef heifers raised on roughage contaminated with radioactive fallout due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 2011. Radiocesium feeding increased both (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels in all tissues tested. The kidney had the highest level and subcutaneous adipose had the lowest of radioactive cesium in the tissues. Different radioactive cesium levels were not found among parts of the muscles. These results indicate that radiocesium accumulated highly in the kidney and homogenously in the skeletal muscles in the heifers. PMID:22878206

Sasaki, Keisuke; Hayashi, Masayuki; Narita, Takumi; Motoyama, Michiyo; Oe, Mika; Ojima, Koichi; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Muroya, Susumu; Chikuni, Koichi; Aikawa, Katsuhiro; Ide, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Naoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Shioya, Shigeru; Takenaka, Akio

2012-08-07

129

Soil radiocesium distribution in rice fields disturbed by farming process after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent large tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. This resulted in serious damage to the reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Large amounts of radionuclides were released from the FDNPP, a proportion of which were deposited onto the ground. In this study, we investigated soil radiocesium contamination of rice fields in Aga and Minamiuonuma, Niigata, ~130 and 200 km away from the FDNPP, respectively, as Niigata is one of the largest rice growing regions in Japan. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of five rice fields in August and September, 5-6 months after the FDNPP accident. Results showed that radiocesium concentrations (the sum of Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the rice soil samples were ~300 Bq (kg dry soil)(-1). All samples contained a Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio of 0.68-0.96 after correction to March 11, 2011, showing that the radiocesium released from the FDNPP were deposited on these areas. Although the rice fields had been disturbed by farming processes after the FDNPP accident, the depth distribution of radiocesium concentrations in the plow layers showed higher concentrations in the upper soil layers. This suggests that spring tillage, flooding and puddling performed before rice transplantation may not disperse radiocesium deposited on the surface through the whole plow layer. In addition, the planar distribution of radiocesium concentrations was examined near the water inlet in one of the rice fields. Highest activities were found aligned with the direction of irrigation water discharge, indicating that radioactivity levels in rice fields may be elevated by an influx of additional radionuclides, probably in irrigation water, during farming. PMID:23000550

Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori

2012-09-20

130

Distribution of Artificial Radionuclides in Abandoned Cattle in the Evacuation Zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

PubMed Central

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment. In order to provide basic information for biokinetics of radionuclides and for dose assessment of internal exposure brought by the FNPP accident, we determined the activity concentration of radionuclides in the organs of 79 cattle within a 20-km radius around the FNPP. In all the specimens examined, deposition of Cesium-134 (134Cs, half-life: 2.065 y) and 137Cs (30.07 y) was observed. Furthermore, organ-specific deposition of radionuclides with relatively short half-lives was detected, such as silver-110m (110mAg, 249.8 d) in the liver and tellurium-129m (129mTe, 33.6 d) in the kidney. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between the radiocesium activity concentration in whole peripheral blood (PB) and that in each organ. The resulting slopes were organ dependent with the maximum value of 21.3 being obtained for skeletal muscles (R2?=?0.83, standard error (SE)?=?0.76). Thus, the activity concentration of 134 Cs and 137Cs in an organ can be estimated from that in PB. The level of radioactive cesium in the organs of fetus and infants were 1.19-fold (R2?=?0.62, SE?=?0.12), and 1.51-fold (R2?=?0.70, SE?=?0.09) higher than that of the corresponding maternal organ, respectively. Furthermore, radiocesium activity concentration in organs was found to be dependent on the feeding conditions and the geographic location of the cattle. This study is the first to reveal the detailed systemic distribution of radionuclides in cattle attributed to the FNPP accident.

Abe, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Nihei, Hidekazu; Sano, Yosuke; Irisawa, Ayumi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Motoi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Obata, Yuichi; Saigusa, Shin; Sekine, Tsutomu; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

2013-01-01

131

Evaluation of 129I mobility in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five soil cores from almost the same position in the crop field 20km apart from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (F1NPP) for a period of May 2011 to June 2012 were analyzed. We previously know that the sampling site soil was tilled and well mixed by a farmer to the depth of 30cm until just before the F1NPP accident. Under the condition it is speculated that the crop field soil had been made homogeneous and then contaminated by F1NPP accident, so that the direct accumulation from the accident should be clearly observed. This was confirmed by the observations that depth profiles of 127I concentration (measured by ICP-MS), as well as carbon content (measured by NC analyzer), of these soil cores were roughly constant. In contrast, 129I (measured by AMS) concentration (or specific activity) was particularly high at the top most layer and immediately decreased exponentially along with depth. And below 10 cm depth, it went constant. This enhancement in the top 10cm layer can be considered as the direct accumulation from the F1NPP after the accident. Considering constant level at lower layer (0.0474mBq kg-1) as a background, 129I inventory was estimated as 46mBq m-2 (3.3×1013 atoms m-2). Similar 129I profile was also found in the soil cores of even one year and three months after the F1NPP accident. From these observations, it is concluded that accidental origin 129I had migrated little downward over the years, although the field should have experienced several times of rain and snow. More than 80% of the accidental origin 129I was still present within the top 5cm and more than 90% within the top 10cm.

Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Tuchiya, Yoko Sunohara; Nakano, Chuichiro; Matsushi, Yuki; Maejima, Yuji; Nagai, Hisao

2013-04-01

132

Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

Bevelacqua, J. J.

2012-01-01

133

Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36.6 (20.1-53.1) PBq, or about 43% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude at the time when spraying of water on the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 started. This indicates that emissions may not have originated only from the damaged reactor cores, but also from the spent-fuel pool of unit 4. This would also confirm that the spraying was an effective countermeasure. We explore the main dispersion and deposition patterns of the radioactive cloud, both regionally for Japan as well as for the entire Northern Hemisphere. While at first sight it seemed fortunate that westerly winds prevailed most of the time during the accident, a different picture emerges from our detailed analysis. Exactly during and following the period of the strongest 137Cs emissions on 14 and 15 March as well as after another period with strong emissions on 19 March, the radioactive plume was advected over Eastern Honshu Island, where precipitation deposited a large fraction of 137Cs on land surfaces. Radioactive clouds reached North America on 15 March and Europe on 22 March. By middle of April, 133Xe was fairly uniformly distributed in the middle latitudes of the entire Northern Hemisphere and was for the first time also measured in the Southern Hemisphere (Darwin station, Australia). In general, simulated and observed concentrations of 133Xe and 137Cs both at Japanese as well as at remote sites were in good quantitative agreement. Altogether, we estimate that 6.4 PBq of 137Cs, or 18% of the total fallout until 20 April, were deposited over Japanese land areas, while most of the rest fell over the North Pacific Ocean. Only 0.7 PBq, or 1.9% of the total fallout were deposited on land areas other than Japan.

Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

2012-03-01

134

Medical relief activities, medical resourcing, and inpatient evacuation conducted by Nippon Medical School due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the government declared a nuclear emergency following damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A second hydrogen explosion occurred on March 14 at the plant's No. 3 reactor and injured 11 people. At that time the prime minister urged people living 20 to 30 km from the Daiichi plant to stay indoors. Under these circumstances, many residents of Iwaki City, which was largely outside the 30-km zone, left the city, making it difficult to get supplies to the remaining residents. The only transportation route open for supplies and medical resources was roads, and many drivers feared the rumor that the city was contaminated by radioactive materials and, so, refused to go there. Nippon Medical School (NMS) heard that medical resources were running short at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, which requested water, medications, food, fuel (gasoline), medical support, and the evacuation of 300 inpatients. As a first step, NMS decided to evaluate the situation at the hospital and, on March 16, the director of the NMS Advanced Emergency Center visited the hospital and helped provide triage for about 200 patients. Critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support were given priority for evacuation because they would be most at risk of not being able to evacuate should the Japanese government order an immediate evacuation of the city. We tried to evacuate the inpatients via an official framework, such as the Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), but DMAT could not support this mission because this hospital was not within the 30-km evacuation zone. Moreover, the Iwaki City government could not support the evacuation efforts because they were fearful of the rumor that Iwaki was contaminated by radioactive material. Ultimately, we realized that we had to conduct the mission ourselves and, so, contacted our colleagues in the Tokyo metropolitan area to prepare enough hospital beds. We evacuated 15 patients to 8 hospitals over a 5-day period. As a result, we could reduce the number of patients at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, and, thereby, the collapse of medical services in the city was avoided. In retrospect, someone might say the government--either central or local--should ideally have carried out this mission and created a system by which to do it. At the same time, however, to overcome any future bureaucratic issues, we should also prepare private networks, such as those used by NMS, because they can respond flexibly to unexpected large-scale disasters. PMID:22197874

Koyama, Atsushi; Fuse, Akira; Hagiwara, Jun; Matsumoto, Gaku; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Masuno, Tomohiko; Miyauchi, Masato; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

135

Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y(-1). The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y(-1) was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y(-1) is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the prevailing circumstances. A dialogue between radiation and other risk experts such as those dealing with chemical exposures is now needed. PMID:22394670

Kai, M

2012-03-06

136

[Blocking of the thyroid against I-131 following a nuclear disaster].  

PubMed

The Chernobyl accident, the recent terrorists' attacks and constant threats, have all once again evoked the fear of a nuclear disaster, in Israel and worldwide. Iodine-131 is a major fission product of nuclear reactors and is highly likely to be released into the atmosphere in severe nuclear disasters. The radioiodine is released as a gas, easily spreads over large areas and is easily absorbed via the respiratory system. Iodine-131 emits gamma and beta radiation in high energies, and is readily absorbed by the thyroid which is a target organ for iodine. The resulting exposure to the thyroid might be very high. A sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence in children was observed following the Chernobyl accident. This article reviews the medical knowledge about strategies and medications aimed at minimizing the absorption of radioiodine into the thyroid. In addition to regular safety means such as sheltering, restriction of locally produced food products and relocation of the population, the best prophylaxis against thyroid exposure is overloading the gland with stable iodine (as potassium iodide), as soon as possible. Recently, the Israeli government decided to distribute Potassium Iodide tablets to the population in the vicinity of the two nuclear research centers in the country. When this treatment is contraindicated, iodine free thionamides or potassium perchlorate are suggested. PMID:16082903

Kroizman-Sheiner, Einat; Brickner, Dov; Canfi, Ayala; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

2005-07-01

137

Release of plutonium isotopes into the environment from the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident: what is known and what needs to be known.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused serious contamination in the environment. The release of Pu isotopes renewed considerable public concern because they present a large risk for internal radiation exposure. In this Critical Review, we summarize and analyze published studies related to the release of Pu from the FDNPP accident based on environmental sample analyses and the ORIGEN model simulations. Our analysis emphasizes the environmental distribution of released Pu isotopes, information on Pu isotopic composition for source identification of Pu releases in the FDNPP-damaged reactors or spent fuel pools, and estimation of the amounts of Pu isotopes released from the FDNPP accident. Our analysis indicates that a trace amount of Pu isotopes (?2 × 10(-5)% of core inventory) was released into the environment from the damaged reactors but not from the spent fuel pools located in the reactor buildings. Regarding the possible Pu contamination in the marine environment, limited studies suggest that no extra Pu input from the FDNPP accident could be detected in the western North Pacific 30 km off the Fukushima coast. Finally, we identified knowledge gaps remained on the release of Pu into the environment and recommended issues for future studies. PMID:23899337

Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2013-08-14

138

Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.?18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ?150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products. PMID:22481111

D?ugosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

2012-04-05

139

Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.  

PubMed

The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 ?Bq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

2012-01-31

140

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

141

Testing of an automatic outdoor gamma ambient dose-rate surveillance system in Tokyo and its calibration using measured deposition after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

An in-situ fixed point radioactivity surveillance network has been developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. The network consists of a number of spectrometric NaI(Tl) detectors measuring, in real-time, ambient gamma dose-rate. The present paper describes the gamma dose-rate monitoring by one detector installed at the Canadian embassy in Tokyo during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Soil samples were collected for the measurement of fallout fission products inventories at each location where the NaI(Tl) detector was installed. The gamma-ray attenuation by the soil matrix was estimated by the information on the depth distribution of (137)Cs activities. The study demonstrated that the gamma dose-rates measured by the field NaI(Tl) spectrometric method agreed well with the laboratory results estimated by the inventories of fallout fission products deposited in the soil and the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil. PMID:23317566

Zhang, Weihua; Korpach, Ed; Berg, Rodney; Ungar, Kurt

2013-01-11

142

Temporal variation of monthly ¹³?Cs deposition observed in Japan: effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

Monthly (137)Cs depositions from March 2011 to April 2012 were reported at monitoring stations within about 250 km from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The monthly (137)Cs deposition at each station decreased with apparent half-lives of 11-14 d during the period from March to June 2011, and after July 2011 its decrease rates changed. Second peaks of the monthly (137)Cs deposition occurred in February-April 2012, which may be supported by resuspension of (137)Cs bearing particles. PMID:23602585

Hirose, Katsumi

2013-03-26

143

Isotopic ratio and vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil affected by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants.  

PubMed

The results of ? analyses of soil samples obtained from 50 locations in Fukushima prefecture on April 20, 2011, revealed the presence of a spectrum of radionuclides resulted from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). The sum ? radioactivity concentration ranged in more than 3 orders of magnitude, depending on the sampling locations. The contamination of soils in the northwest of the FDNPP was considerable. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios of the soil samples plotted as a function of the distance from the F1 NPPs exhibited three distinctive patterns. Such patterns would reflect not only the different deposition behaviors of these radionuclides, but also on the conditions of associated release events such as temperature and compositions and physicochemical forms of released radionuclides. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, on the other hand, was considered to only reflect the difference in isotopic compositions of source materials. Two locations close to the NPP in the northwest direction were found to be depleted in short-lived (136)Cs. This likely suggested the presence of distinct sources with different (136)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratios, although their details were unknown at present. Vertical ? activity profiles of (131)I and (137)Cs were also investigated, using 20-30 cm soil cores in several locations. About 70% or more of the radionuclides were present in the uppermost 2-cm regions. It was found that the profiles of (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios showed maxima in the 2-4 cm regions, suggesting slightly larger migration of the former nuclide. PMID:22634028

Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Muroya, Yusa; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Yuji; Nagasaki, Shinya; Okamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Katsumura, Yosuke; Tanaka, Satoru

2012-05-23

144

Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

2013-09-01

145

An inverse modeling method to assess the source term of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using gamma dose rate observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and more recently the Fukushima accident highlighted that the largest source of error on consequences assessment is the source term including the time evolution of the release rate and its distribution between radioisotopes. Inverse modeling methods, which combine environmental measurements and atmospheric dispersion models, have proven efficient in assessing source term due to an accidental situation (Gudiksen, 1989; Krysta and Bocquet, 2007; Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2012). Most existing approaches are designed to use air sampling measurements (Winiarek et al., 2012) and some of them also use deposition measurements (Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2013) but none of them uses dose rate measurements. However, it is the most widespread measurement system, and in the event of a nuclear accident, these data constitute the main source of measurements of the plume and radioactive fallout during releases. This paper proposes a method to use dose rate measurements as part of an inverse modeling approach to assess source terms. The method is proven efficient and reliable when applied to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP). The emissions for the eight main isotopes 133Xe, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 137mBa, 131I, 132I and 132Te have been assessed. Accordingly, 103 PBq of 131I, 35.5 PBq of 132I, 15.5 PBq of 137Cs and 12 100 PBq of noble gases were released. The events at FD-NPP (such as venting, explosions, etc.) known to have caused atmospheric releases are well identified in the retrieved source term. The estimated source term is validated by comparing simulations of atmospheric dispersion and deposition with environmental observations. The result is that the model-measurement agreement for all of the monitoring locations is correct for 80% of simulated dose rates that are within a factor of 2 of the observed values. Changes in dose rates over time have been overall properly reconstructed, especially in the most contaminated areas to the northwest and south of the FD-NPP. A comparison with observed atmospheric activity concentration and surface deposition shows that the emissions of caesiums and 131I are realistic but that 132I and 132Te are probably underestimated and noble gases are likely overestimated. Finally, an important outcome of this study is that the method proved to be perfectly suited to emergency management and could contribute to improve emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident.

Saunier, O.; Mathieu, A.; Didier, D.; Tombette, M.; Quélo, D.; Winiarek, V.; Bocquet, M.

2013-06-01

146

Rapid analysis of U isotopes in vegetables using ICP-MS: application to the emergency U monitoring after the nuclear accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the nuclear accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi power station in March, hydrogen explosions and reactor building\\u000a explosion resulted in releases of radionuclides in the environment. Severe radioactive cesium and iodine contaminations have\\u000a been observed in fallout deposition samples and soils in the East Japan. Radioactive cesium, iodine, uranium, and transuranic\\u000a radionuclides were set as the monitoring targets in food

Jian Zheng; Keiko Tagami; Shigeo Uchida

147

[Lung cancer in survivors of radiation exposure at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster].  

PubMed

Epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy of lung cancer in the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear disaster are discussed on the basis of the data released by the Federal Expert Committee. Lung cancer appeared to be the main death-causing factor. The disease was far advanced (stage IIIb and IV) in 85% of cases. The effectiveness of diagnosis can be raised if such compulsory measures as annual bronchoscopic screenings and sputum counts are carried out. Atypical cell counts have to be run in the sputum samples from all the survivors who took part in the salvaging operations of 1986-1987 and are suffering acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Particular attention should be paid to those who were working under severe dust-pollution conditions in summer. PMID:12926221

Zubovski?, G A; Khrisanfov, S A

2003-01-01

148

Atmospheric dispersion and ground deposition induced by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: A local-scale simulation and sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on March 2011, radioactive products were released in the atmosphere. Simulations at local scale (within 80 km of FNPP1) were carried out by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) with the Gaussian Puff model pX, during the crisis and since then, to assess the radiological and environmental consequences. The evolution of atmospheric and ground activity simulated at local scale is presented with a "reference" simulation, whose performance is assessed through comparisons with environmental monitoring data (gamma dose rate and deposition). The results are within a factor of 2-5 of the observations for gamma dose rates (0.52 and 0.85 for FAC2 and FAC5), and 5-10 for deposition (0.31 for FAC2, 0.73 for FAC5 and 0.90 for FAC10). A sensitivity analysis is also made to highlight the most sensitive parameters. A source term comparison is made between IRSN's estimation, and those from Katata et al. (2012) and Stohl et al. (2011). Results are quite sensitive to the source term, but also to wind direction and dispersion parameters. Dry deposition budget is more sensitive than wet deposition. Gamma dose rates are more sensitive than deposition, in particular peak values.

Korsakissok, I.; Mathieu, A.; Didier, D.

2013-05-01

149

Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 ?m diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. Possible caveats like late emissions and resuspension were found not to significantly affect the results. The estimated lifetimes from this study are within the much larger and uncertain range of previously observation-based studies of aerosol lifetimes (less than 4 days to more than a month). However, modelled aerosol lifetimes from air quality and climate models typically range 3-7 days which is substantially lower than the mean AM lifetimes obtained from this study. The difference points towards a too quick removal of AM aerosol in the models and further research on the cause of this discrepancy is warranted. Too short modelled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions. By running several major climate and air quality models for the Fukushima case, an evaluation of the models performance compared to the measurements can be directly obtained.

Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

2013-04-01

150

¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs radioactivity in soil and moss samples of Jeju Island after Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in surface soil and moss samples were investigated at 12 locations of Jeju Island, Korea. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil vary from less than MDA to 17 Bq/kg and from 12 Bq/kg to 109 Bq/kg, respectively. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in moss samples lie in the range 6 Bq/kg-39 Bq/kg and 15 Bq/kg-41 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity ratios (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the soil samples are much less than the reference value of about 1.0, but they are close to 1.0 in the moss samples. Average amount of (137)Cs added to the surface soil after the Fukushima accident is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.7 Bq/kg. The depth profile of (137)Cs specific activity has a lognormal shape with a peak between 5 cm and 7.5 cm below the ground. For the cored soil sample, (134)Cs was detected up to 3 cm below the ground. PMID:23578906

Park, Kyung-Ho; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Jik; Park, Jae Woo

2013-03-26

151

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-04-01

152

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The consideration of inflow is important to simulate the 137Cs activity in this model region in the later period of the simulation. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-08-01

153

Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.  

PubMed

Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011. PMID:21906779

Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

2011-09-08

154

The impact of oceanic circulation and phase transfer on the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011 is investigated using a numerical model. This model is a Lagrangian particle tracking - ocean circulation coupled model that has the capability of solving the concentration of radionuclides for those dissolved in seawater and those adsorbed in particulates and bottom sediments. Model results show the radionuclides dispersing rapidly to the interior of the North Pacific along the Kuroshio Extension once they enter a meso-scale eddy. However, radionuclides are also found to remain near the coast with their spatial pattern depending strongly on the oceanic circulation during the first month of the release. This is when most of the adsorption to bottom sediments occurs. If the offshore advection were weak during this period, many radionuclides will be adsorbed to bottom sediments and remain on the coast for some time. If vertical mixing is weak, less radionuclide reach the sea floor and get adsorbed to bottom sediments. More radionuclides will then disperse to the open ocean.

Choi, Y.; Kida, S.; Takahasi, K.

2013-02-01

155

The impact of oceanic circulation and phase transfer on the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011 is investigated using a numerical model. This model is a Lagrangian particle tracking-ocean circulation coupled model that is capable of solving the movement and migration of radionuclides between seawater, particulates, and bottom sediments. Model simulations show the radionuclides dispersing rapidly into the interior of the North Pacific once they enter a meso-scale eddy. However, some radionuclides also remain near the coast, with spatial distribution depending strongly on the oceanic circulation during the first month after the release. Major adsorption to bottom sediments occurs during this first month and many of these radionuclides remain on the sea floor once they are adsorbed. Model results suggest that weak offshore advection during the first month will increase the adsorption of radionuclides to bottom sediments and decelerate the dispersion to the open ocean. If vertical mixing is weak, however, fewer radionuclides reach the sea floor and adsorb to bottom sediments. More radionuclides will then quickly disperse to the open ocean.

Choi, Y.; Kida, S.; Takahashi, K.

2013-07-01

156

Lateral variation of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in surface seawater in and around the Japan Sea after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

A total of 82 surface seawater samples was collected in the Japan Sea and the southwestern Okhotsk Sea before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Analysis of (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations using low-background ?-spectrometry revealed that the (137)Cs concentration of the samples collected in June 2011 was 1.5-2.8mBq/L, which is approximately 1-2 times higher than the pre-accident (137)Cs level, while the (134)Cs concentration was less than detectable to 1mBq/L. In addition to (134)Cs being clearly detected (?1mBq/L), (137)Cs concentration in water samples from the northeastern Japan Sea (2-2.8mBq/L) was also higher than that from the coast in the southwestern Japan Sea (?1.5mBq/L). These higher concentrations in the northeastern Japan Sea could be ascribed to the atmospheric transport of nuclides from the FDNPP as aerosols and subsequent transport and dilution after delivery to the sea surface. PMID:22269444

Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Fujimoto, K; Takada, T; Isoda, Y

2012-01-24

157

Fukushima: probing the analytical and epistemological limits of risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fukushima catastrophe tragically epitomizes the limitations of dealing with natural and technical hazards. Remarkably yet;authorities’ review of the catastrophe continue to be limited to mistakes and responsibilities of practical risk management. Although state regulations are questioned;technical protection measures verified;and disaster management processes optimized;no deeper discussion about the actual analytical limits of risk analysis has been engaged thus far. What

Jonas Hagmann

2012-01-01

158

Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements

Michael McNaughton; Shannon P. Allen; Debra C. Archuleta; Burgandy Brock; Melissa A. Coronado; Jean M. Dewart; William F. Jr. Eisele; David P. Fuehne; Milan S. Gadd; Andrew A. Green; Joan J. Lujan; Carolyn MacDonell; Jeffrey J. Whicker

2012-01-01

159

Design requirements for innovative homogeneous reactor, lesson learned from Fukushima accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima disaster is the largest nuclear accident since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, but it is more complex as multiple reactors and spent fuel pools are involved. The severity of the nuclear accident is rated 7 in the International Nuclear Events Scale. Expert said that "Fukushima is the biggest industrial catastrophe in the history of mankind". According to Mitsuru Obe, in The Wall Street Journal, May 16th of 2011, TEPCO estimates the nuclear fuel was exposed to the air less than five hours after the earthquake struck. Fuel rods melted away rapidly as the temperatures inside the core reached 2800 C within six hours. In less than 16 hours, the reactor core melted and dropped to the bottom of the pressure vessel. The information should be evaluated in detail. In Germany several nuclear power plant were shutdown, Italy postponed it's nuclear power program and China reviewed their nuclear power program. Different news come from Britain, in October 11, 2011, the Safety Committee said all clear for nuclear power in Britain, because there are no risk of strong earthquake and tsunami in the region. Due to this severe fact, many nuclear scientists and engineer from all over the world are looking for a new approach, such as homogeneous reactor which was developed in Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1960-ies, during Dr. Alvin Weinberg tenure as the Director of ORNL. The paper will describe the design requirement that will be used as the basis for innovative homogeneous reactor. Innovative Homogeneous Reactor is expected to reduce core melt by two decades (4), since the fuel is intermix homogeneously with coolant and secondly we eliminate the used fuel rod which need to be cooled for a long period of time. In order to be successful for its implementation of the innovative system, testing and validation, three phases of development will be introduced. The first phase is Low Level Goals is really the proof of concept;the Medium Level Goal is Technical Goalsand the High Level Goals which is Business Goals.

Arbie, Bakri; Pinem, Suryan; Sembiring, Tagor; Subki, Iyos

2012-06-01

160

NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

2013-04-01

161

Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

162

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.  

PubMed Central

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters.

Maxwell, C

1982-01-01

163

Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs were detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations and 137Cs was detected at all stations. The high 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 mBq kg-1 were observed in the area where the northern part of Kuroshio extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147° E-175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio extension at 155° E and 175° 30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs which was decay corrected at 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

Kaeriyama, H.; Ambe, D.; Shimizu, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Ono, T.; Yonezaki, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsunaga, H.; Minami, H.; Nakatsuka, S.; Watanabe, T.

2013-02-01

164

Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg-1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147-175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

Kaeriyama, H.; Ambe, D.; Shimizu, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Ono, T.; Yonezaki, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsunaga, H.; Minami, H.; Nakatsuka, S.; Watanabe, T.

2013-06-01

165

Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

2013-04-01

166

Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.  

PubMed

A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants. PMID:20129905

Sturgis, Sue

2009-01-01

167

Operation Tomodachi: Answers, Data Products,and Lessons Learned from the U.S. Department of Energy's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to the Fukushima-Daiichi Reactor Accident  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show presents the DOE response to the Fukushima Diaiichi disaster, including aerial and ground monitoring, issues for which the team had not trained or planned for, and questions from decision makers.

Hopkins, R.

2012-07-11

168

Needs for disaster medicine: lessons from the field of the Great East Japan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. Context The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. Action The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Outcome Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. Discussion These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.

Foxwell, Alice Ruth; Bice, Steven; Matsui, Tamano; Ueki, Yutaka; Tosaka, Naoki; Shoko, Tomohisa; Aiboshi, Junichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

169

Dispersion of aerosol particles in the atmosphere: Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of dispersion and deposition of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is an essential issue, because they have an effect on the biosphere and atmosphere. Moreover, aerosol particles have different transport properties and chemical and physical transformations in the atmosphere compared to gas phase air pollutants. The motion of a particle is described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The large-scale dynamics in the horizontal direction can be described by the equations of passive scalar advection, but in the vertical direction a well-defined terminal velocity should be taken into account as a term added to the vertical wind component. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent diffusion has an important role in the particle dispersion, which is taken into account by adding stochastic terms to the deterministic equations above. Wet deposition is also an essential process in the lower levels of the atmosphere, however, its precise parameterization is a challenge. For the simulations the wind field and other necessary data were taken from the ECMWF ERA-Interim database. In the case of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (March-April 2011) radioactive aerosol particles were also released in the planetary boundary layer. Simulations (included the continuous and varying emission from the nuclear power plant) will be presented for the period of 14-23 March. Results show that wet deposition also has to be taken into consideration in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Furthermore, dynamical system characteristics are evaluated for the aerosol particle dynamics. The escape rate of particles was estimated both with and without turbulent diffusion, and in both cases when there was no wet deposition and also when wet deposition was taken into consideration.

Haszpra, Tímea; Lagzi, István; Tél, Tamás

2013-04-01

170

The time series analysis of the radionuclide emissions from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant by online global chemistry transport model and inverse model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in March 2011 emitted a large amount of radionuclide. The important feature of this accident was that the source position was evidently clear, however, time and vertical emission variations were unknown (in this case, it was known that the height of emission was not so high in altitude). In such a case, the technique of inverse model was a powerful tool to gain answers to questions; high resolution and more precise analysis by using prior emission information with relatively low computational cost are expected to be obtainable. Tagged simulation results by global aerosol model named MASINGAR (Tanaka et al., 2005) were used; the horizontal resolution was TL319 (about 60 km). Tagged tracers (Cs137) from lowest model layer (surface to 100m) were released every three hours with 1Tg/hr which accumulated daily mean. 50 sites' daily observation data in the world (CTBTO, Ro5, Berkeley, Hoffmann and Taiwan) were collected. The analysis period was 40 days, from 11 March to 19 April. We tested two prior emission information. The first information was JAEA posterior emission (Chino et al., 2011) and the second was NILU prior emission (not posterior) (Stohl et al.,2011) as our observation data were almost similar to their study. Due to consideration for observation error and space representation error, the observation error was set as 20%. Several sensitivity tests were examined by changing prior emission flux uncertainties. As a result, Cs137 estimated the total emission amount from 11 March to 19 April as 18.5PBq with the uncertainty of 3.6PBq. Moreover, the maximum radio nuclei emission occurred during 15 March, which was larger than prior information. The precision of the analysis was highly dependent on observation data (quantity and quality) and precision of transport model. Possibility to obtain robust result by using multi-model ensemble results with inverse model was also considered. The results of this study are available for modification of many processes of aerosol transport models. In the future, the combination of regional chemistry transport model and higher time resolution observation data in order to obtain robust emission time series of radionuclide is being planned.

Maki, Takashi; Tanaka, Taichu; Kajino, Mizuo; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Mikami, Masao

2013-04-01

171

Saurer Regen, Waldsterben, Klimakatastrophe - Bietet die Kernenergie einen Ausweg (Acid Rain, Destruction of Forests, Climatic Disaster - Does Nuclear Energy Offer a Way Out).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An information conference on 'Acid Rain, Destruction of Forests, Climatic Disasters--Does Nuclear Energy Offer a Way Out.' was held in Zurich-Oerlikon on 14 and 15 May 1984, at which 13 papers were read by Swiss and German scientists. The papers discussed...

R. Gehrig F. Gassmann H. Oeschger W. Klose H. U. Wanner

1984-01-01

172

Analysis of a Nuclear Accident: Fission and Activation Product Releases from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Facility as Remote Indicators of Source Identification, Extent of Release, and State of Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of several radionuclides within environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Company website following the recent tsunami-initiated catastrophe were evaluated for the purpose of identifying the source term, reconstructing the release mechanisms, and estimating the extent of the release. 136Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs ratios identified Units 1-3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil close to the facility. A trend was observed between the fraction of the total core inventory released for a number of fission product isotopes and their corresponding Gibbs Free Energy of formation for the primary oxide form of the isotope, suggesting that release was dictated primarily by chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the primary containment vessels of the vented reactors. The absence of any major fractionation beyond volatilization suggested all coolant had evaporated by the time of venting. High estimates for the fraction of the total inventory released of more volatile species (Te, Cs, I) indicated the damage to fuel bundles was likely extensive, minimizing any potential containment due to physical migration of these species through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall. 238Pu/239,240Pu ratios close-in and at 30 km from the facility indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of Pu to surface soil at the source but that this contribution likely decreased rapidly with distance from the facility. The fraction of the total Pu inventory released to the environment from venting units 1 and 3 was estimated to be ~0.003% based upon Pu/Cs isotope ratios relative to the within-reactor modeled inventory prior to venting and was consistent with an independent model evaluation that considered chemical volatility based upon measured fission product release trends. Significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples are suggested as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Clark, Richard A.

2012-09-10

173

Mine Disasters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction-Timeline; Legislative History; Mining Disaster Facts; Disasters: 1900-Scofield M ines No. 1 & 4, Carbon County, UT; 1907-Monongah No. 6 & 7, South of Fairmont, WV; 1910-Cherry Mine, Cherry, IL; 1911-Banner Mine, Littleton, AL; 1912-...

2000-01-01

174

Abstract-U.S. Public Health Response to the Fukushima Radiological Emergency: One Agency's Perspective.  

PubMed

On 11 March 2011, northern Japan suffered first a magnitude 9.0 earthquake centered ~208 km off the eastern coast and then an ensuing tsunami. These natural events caused widespread destruction along the east coast of Japan. One location hit was the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor Complex. The destruction at this site initiated a cascade of events that led to multiple reactors overheating, core meltdown, and radionuclide releases causing widespread radioactive contamination of residential areas, agricultural land, and coastal waters. The public health and medical community in Japan faced many challenges as a result of these multiple events. Our sympathies go out to the Japanese people who will be dealing with the consequences of this incident for years to come.As the radionuclide releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor escaped into the atmosphere and the ocean, the impact of this disaster was felt around the world. Like many other nations, the U.S. public health system was concerned about the safety of both its citizens living in Japan and citizens residing in the United States as the radioactive materials released from Fukushima were detected in trace amounts as they traveled around the globe. As with any crisis, these events present opportunities to learn and prepare for similar incidents in the future. Events in both Japan and the United States during the response illustrated some U.S. preparedness gaps that had been anticipated previously and others that were newly identified. The Secretary of Health and Human Services has forwarded a report to the National Security Staff discussing public health preparedness gaps and challenges identified by the Fukushima incident. Some of these gaps include the following:•Equipment and personnel resources to monitor potentially exposed people for radioactive contamination are insufficient.•There is no public health authority to detain people contaminated with radioactive materials.•Public health and medical expertise and treatment capacities for response to radiation emergencies are limited.•There is an insufficient number of radiation health experts.•Public health communications regarding radiation emergency preparedness, health effects of radiation exposures, resilience, and response actions are inadequate.•National and international exposure standards for radiation measurements (and units) and protective action guides lack uniformity.•Access to radiation emergency monitoring data is limited and procedurally complex.•The policy on stockpiling potassium iodide in the Strategic National Stockpile should be revisited.This event was a major disaster for the people of Japan, but it was also a significant public health emergency for the U.S. public health community. We should capitalize upon this rare opportunity to improve our public health preparedness based on the experience of our Japanese colleagues and our own. PMID:24077048

Miller, Charles W; Whitcomb, Robert C; Buzzell, Jennifer; McCurley, M Carol; Ansari, Armin; Evans, Lynn

2013-11-01

175

Disaster types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to provide graduate students, researchers, and government and independent agencies with an overview of disaster types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Disaster types have been the subject of research by and concern to academicians and to government and independent agencies. The paper summarizes the views of researchers and agencies. Disaster types are collected from several sources such as

Ibrahim Mohamed Shaluf

2007-01-01

176

Aging Effect of (137)Cs Obtained from (137)Cs in the Kanto Loam Layer from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and in the Nishiyama Loam Layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb Explosion.  

PubMed

We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3 - 5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals. PMID:24107558

Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

177

Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

2012-01-01

178

The Fukushima radiological emergency and challenges identified for future public health responses.  

PubMed

On 11 March 2011, northern Japan was rocked by first a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the eastern coast and then an ensuing tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex was hit by these twin disasters, and a cascade of events was initiated that led to radionuclide releases causing widespread radioactive contamination of residential areas, agricultural land, and coastal waters. Radioactive material from Japan was subsequently transmitted to locations around the globe, including the U.S. The levels of radioactive material that arrived in the U.S. were never large enough to be a concern for health effects, but the presence of this material in the environment was enough to create a public health emergency in the U.S. The radiation safety and public health communities in the U.S. are identifying challenges they faced in responding to this incident. This paper discusses three of those challenges: (1) The growing shortage of trained radiation subject matter experts in the field of environmental transport and dosimetry of radionuclides; (2) the need to begin expressing all radiation-related quantities in terms of the International System of Units; and (3) the need to define when a radiation dose is or is not one of "public health concern." This list represents only a small subset of the list of challenges being identified by public health agencies that responded to the Fukushima incident. However, these three challenges are fundamental to any radiological emergency response. Addressing them will have a significant positive impact on how the U.S. responds to the next radiological emergency. PMID:22469934

Miller, Charles W

2012-05-01

179

Fukushima fallout in Northwest German environmental media.  

PubMed

Traces of short- and long-lived fallout isotopes ((131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) were found in environmental samples collected in Northwest Germany (rain water, river sediment, soil, grass and cow milk) from March to May 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. The measured concentrations are consistent with reported concentrations in air, amount of rainfall and expected values applying simple radioecological models. The [(134)Cs]/[(137)Cs] ratio reported for air (about 1) allows for discrimination between "recent" and "old"(137)Cs. Expected (136)Cs values fell below the detection limits of the instrumentation, despite large sample masses and long counting times. PMID:21689871

Pittauerová, Daniela; Hettwig, Bernd; Fischer, Helmut W

2011-09-01

180

Spatial variations of low levels of ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs in seawaters within the Sea of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

Our method based on low background ?-spectrometry enabled the measurement of low radiocesium concentrations in only 20 L of seawater. In May 2011 after deposition of radiocesium, (134)Cs concentration in surface water within the Sea of Japan was confirmed to be significantly small (<0.1-1 mBq/L) by the method. The concentration was not detected (<0.1 mBq/L) below 50 m depth. The Fukushima-derived radiocesium migrated from the surface water of the Sea of Japan without advection to below the thermocline. PMID:23602582

Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki; Oikawa, Shinji; Murakami, Takuma; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagao, Seiya; Hamajima, Yasunori; Misonoo, Jun

2013-03-28

181

Radiation disasters and children.  

PubMed

The special medical needs of children make it essential that pediatricians be prepared for radiation disasters, including 1) the detonation of a nuclear weapon; 2) a nuclear power plant event that unleashes a radioactive cloud; and 3) the dispersal of radionuclides by conventional explosive or the crash of a transport vehicle. Any of these events could occur unintentionally or as an act of terrorism. Nuclear facilities (eg, power plants, fuel processing centers, and food irradiation facilities) are often located in highly populated areas, and as they age, the risk of mechanical failure increases. The short- and long-term consequences of a radiation disaster are significantly greater in children for several reasons. First, children have a disproportionately higher minute ventilation, leading to greater internal exposure to radioactive gases. Children have a significantly greater risk of developing cancer even when they are exposed to radiation in utero. Finally, children and the parents of young children are more likely than are adults to develop enduring psychologic injury after a radiation disaster. The pediatrician has a critical role in planning for radiation disasters. For example, potassium iodide is of proven value for thyroid protection but must be given before or soon after exposure to radioiodines, requiring its placement in homes, schools, and child care centers. Pediatricians should work with public health authorities to ensure that children receive full consideration in local planning for a radiation disaster. PMID:12777572

2003-06-01

182

Avoiding Disaster Through the “Reconsideration Trigger”: Preventing Runaway Nuclear Power Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a prescription that could help to prevent the runaway projects that have so often made headlines. This topic is of special importance in Asia, which is currently the world center of nuclear power plant construction, with more than 100 nuclear construction projects either under way or planned. Although we begin with lessons learned from past nuclear power

Hamid A. Rafizadeh; Bud Baker

2009-01-01

183

Care of children in a natural disaster: lessons learned from the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan earthquake was one of the most devastating natural disasters ever to hit Japan. We present features of the disaster and the radioactive accident in Fukushima. About 19,000 are dead or remain missing mainly due to the tsunami, but children accounted for only 6.5 % of the deaths. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons set up the Committee of Aid for Disaster, and collaborated with the Japanese Society of Emergency Pediatrics to share information and provide pediatric medical care in the disaster area. Based on the lessons learned from the experiences, the role of pediatric surgeons and physicians in natural disasters is discussed. PMID:23996147

Yonekura, Takeo; Ueno, Shigeru; Iwanaka, Tadashi

2013-10-01

184

[Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].  

PubMed

The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan. PMID:22661028

Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

2012-06-01

185

Enhanced analysis methods to derive the spatial distribution of 131I deposition on the ground by airborne surveys at an early stage after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

This paper applies both new and well tested analysis methods to aerial radiological surveys to extract the I ground concentrations present after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. The analysis provides a complete map of I deposition, an important quantity incalculable at the time of the accident due to the short half-life of I and the complexity of the analysis. A map of I deposition is the first step in conducting internal exposure assessments, population dose reconstruction, and follow-up epidemiological studies. The short half-life of I necessitates the use of aerial radiological surveys to cover the large area quickly, thoroughly, and safely. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) performed aerial radiological surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. This work reports on analyses performed on a subset of the initial survey data by a joint Japan-U.S. collaboration to determine I ground concentrations. The analytical results show a high concentration of I northwest of the NPP, consistent with the previously reported radioactive cesium deposition, but also shows a significant I concentration south of the plant, which was not observed in the original cesium analysis. The difference in the radioactive iodine and cesium patterns is possibly the result of differences in the ways these materials settle out of the air. PMID:23799504

Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E; Reed, Michael S; Blumenthal, Daniel J

2013-08-01

186

Estimation of internal exposure of the thyroid to (131)I on the basis of (134)Cs accumulated in the body among evacuees of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.  

PubMed

Namie Town was heavily contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. The thyroid equivalent dose for residents who lived in Namie was estimated using results of whole body counting examinations which were carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency a few months after the nuclear accident. Photon peaks of (131)I and (134)Cs were previously measured by the authors using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and that information was used to estimate the (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio of total intake in the present study. The maximum values of (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio corresponding to thyroid uptake factors of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 were evaluated to be 0.9, 2.6 and 8.7, respectively. The maximum value of the (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio was used to obtain the most conservative thyroid equivalent dose estimation. The maximum internal exposure of the thyroid to (131)I on the basis of (134)Cs accumulated in the body measured by the whole body counter was estimated to be 18mSv. This value was much smaller than 50mSv that the International Atomic Energy Agency recommends as the dose at which exposed persons should take stable iodine tablets. PMID:24103348

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Akiba, Suminori; Kurihara, Osamu; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Momose, Takumaro; Nakano, Takashi; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-10-06

187

Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part I: Source term estimation and local-scale atmospheric dispersion in early phase of the accident.  

PubMed

The atmospheric release of (131)I and (137)Cs in the early phase of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident from March 12 to 14, 2011 was estimated by combining environmental data with atmospheric dispersion simulations under the assumption of a unit release rate (1 Bq h(-1)). For the simulation, WSPEEDI-II computer-based nuclear emergency response system was used. Major releases of (131)I (>10(15) Bq h(-1)) were estimated when air dose rates increased in FNPP1 during the afternoon on March 12 after the hydrogen explosion of Unit 1 and late at night on March 14. The high-concentration plumes discharged during these periods flowed to the northwest and south-southwest directions of FNPP1, respectively. These plumes caused a large amount of dry deposition on the ground surface along their routes. Overall, the spatial pattern of (137)Cs and the increases in the air dose rates observed at the monitoring posts around FNPP1 were reproduced by WSPEEDI-II using estimated release rates. The simulation indicated that air dose rates significantly increased in the south-southwest region of FNPP1 by dry deposition of the high-concentration plume discharged from the night of March 14 to the morning of March 15. PMID:22406754

Katata, Genki; Ota, Masakazu; Terada, Hiroaki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

2012-03-08

188

Deciphering the Measured Ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

Matsui, T.

2011-12-01

189

Damage to Facilities caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Heavy Rain in Niigata and Fukushima Prefectures and Recovery Situation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two natural disasters, the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and Heavy Rain in Niigata and Fukushima Prefectures in July of the same year, inflicted enormous damage on Tohoku Electric Power Company's electric facilities and disturbed power supply. Although some facilities have completely recovered from the damage, the rest in catastrophically affected areas is still in the midst of recovery efforts. This paper presents damage to facilities caused by the natural disasters and recovery situation.

Watanabe, Naoto; Esashika, Kimiya; Oyamada, Hiroshi

190

Learning from the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster: insights from a special radiological emergency assistance mission.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, the eastern portion of Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami that killed more than 15,700 people, left thousands of others hurt or missing, and caused widespread destruction. In addition, the Great East Japan Disaster seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station, knocking out power, severely affecting communications, and causing a loss of cooling to some reactor cores. Significant quantities of radioactive materials were released, a "no go" zone was created around the crippled reactors, and thousands of people were evacuated. With concern about the radiological emergency growing, one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups issued a request for assistance to a U.S.-based international disaster relief organization. After consultations with the Japanese, a special Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission was assembled. The mission, which traveled to Japan in April 2011, had several aims: (1) to rapidly assess the situation on the ground, (2) to exchange information, experiences, and insights with Japanese colleagues, and (3) to provide radiological information and practical refresher training to Japanese healthcare professionals and first responders. In addition to achieving these aims and laying the groundwork for future cooperation, the mission produced dozens of insights and lessons. These have potential relevance not only for future large-scale radiation accidents, but also for radiological and nuclear terrorism situations. They also have more general relevance for emergency planning, preparedness, and response. In this article, several of the most salient insights and lessons are highlighted. PMID:22074381

Becker, Steven M

2011-11-10

191

Images of disaster: perception and acceptance of risks from nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public response to risks of nuclear energy is investigated. A quantitative description of the attitudes, perceptions, and expectations of some members of the antinuclear public is given. Sample studies of the public at large were not made; most of the data in the paper comes from survey made at the University of Oregon and another with members of the Eugene,

P. Slovic; S. Lichtenstein; B. Bischhoff

1979-01-01

192

Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.  

PubMed

Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. PMID:22721917

Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

2012-06-19

193

Disaster Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to practice math while reviewing science! Disaster math has five great mathematical problems that discuss the effects and aftermath of earthquakes. When you are finished attempting the problems you can check your score!

2010-01-01

194

Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is provided by ThinkQuest, a global network of students, teachers, parents, and technologists dedicated to youth-centered learning on the internet. This site highlights the following natural disasters: famine, cyclones, brushfires, drought, volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Information provided about these disasters includes where they occur, how they occur, and case studies of each type. A worksheet is included for students to fill out as they navigate the site.

195

Abstract-what happened at fukushima and lessons learned.  

PubMed

The earthquake, which occurred at 2:46 p.m. on Friday, 11 March 2011 on the east coast of northern Japan, is believed to be the one of the largest earthquakes in recorded history. Following the quake on Friday afternoon, the plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Daini, Higashidori, Onagawa, and Tokai Daini sites were affected, and emergency systems were activated. The Tohoku earthquake caused a tsunami, which hit the east coast of Japan and caused a loss of all on- and off-site power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site, leaving it without any emergency power. The resultant damage to fuel, reactor, and containment caused a release of radioactive materials to the region surrounding the plants. Although not directly affected, the U.S. nuclear power industry will take lessons from this accident. The American Nuclear Society (ANS) formed a special committee to examine the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. The committee was charged to provide a clear and concise explanation of the accident events, health physics, and accident cleanup as well as safety-related issues that emerged. The committee also evaluated actions that ANS should consider to better communicate with the public during a nuclear event. The committee used publicly available source material from the Japanese industry and government as well as their reports to the international community. The committee views do not reflect any major inconsistencies regarding accident events, health physics, and accident cleanup. The safety-related recommendations identified by the committee are consistent with what has been noted in the reports already issued from many regulatory agencies. Finally, the committee focused on risk communication as a major issue that the ANS needs to address in the future. PMID:24077045

Corradini, Michael L

2013-11-01

196

Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - Implications for Cyclone induced lift and TIL physical-chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of Xe-133 rich planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO2, NOx, HNO3,NOy), which were found to have increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important influence of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL, particularly influencing aerosol formation in the TIL.

Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Lindemann, Sigfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjolla, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

2013-04-01

197

Disaster preparedness. An international perspective.  

PubMed

Establishing a national disaster medical system requires considering the goals and appropriate expenditure levels for emergency preparedness. The United States has placed a relatively low priority on national programs for disaster response. Such programs have been controversial because of their relationship to civil defense against nuclear attack. Switzerland and the Soviet Union have long-established, elaborate medical response systems that should be studied. PMID:4062092

Orient, J M

1985-12-01

198

Concerns of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members about troubles at the nuclear power plant: experience from the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, 16 July 2007, in Japan.  

PubMed

An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 10:13 on 16 July 2007. The earthquake was followed by the sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, delaying the reconstruction of community lifelines. The earthquake affected the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plants (NPPs), the biggest NPP site in the world. The earthquake caused damage to NPPs, resulting in a small amount of radioactive materials being released into the air and the sea. However, no significant effects were detected in the public and the environment. As medical response to this earthquake, 42 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were sent to hospitals and first-aid care centers at the NPP site. In order to evaluate the perceptions of the deployed DMAT personnel regarding concerns about the health effects of radiation and information about the damage to NPPs, questionnaires were sent to 40 facilities that dispatched DMATs to the earthquake area. Most of them were concerned with the effects of radiation, and adequate information about the problems at the NPPs was not communicated to them. This preliminary study suggests that communication of information is extremely important for DMAT members in the case of disasters, in particular if there exists a possibility of radiation exposure, since radiation cannot be detected by our senses. DMAT members are critical to any mass casualty incident, whether caused by humans or nature. We have learned from this earthquake that there is urgent need for an all-hazards approach, including a "combined disaster" strategy, which should be emphasized for current disaster planning and response. This is the first report on DMATs deployed to an earthquake site with damage to NPPs. PMID:20445385

Akashi, Makoto; Kumagaya, Ken; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hirose, Yasuo

2010-06-01

199

Fukushima to receive Smith Medal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1990 Waldo E. Smith Medal for extraordinary service to geophysics will be given to Naoshi Fukushima, who earned an international reputation for his pioneering work in geomagnetic disturbance and ionospheric electric currents. Now retired from the University of Tokyo, Japan, Fukushima is being cited for his public service to international geophysics, and, in particular, his contributions to the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, of which he was Secretary General from September 1975 to August 1983.The Smith Medal will be presented as part of the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Night festivities, Wednesday, December 5, in San Francisco, Calif. Three James B. Macelwane Medals, the John Adam Fleming Medal, and the Maurice Ewing Medal will also be presented (see Eos, February 20, 1990, p. 294).

200

After Fukushima: managing the consequences of a radiological release.  

PubMed

Even amidst the devastation following the earthquake and tsunami in Japan that killed more than 20,000 people, it was the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that led the country's prime minister, Naoto Kan, to fear for "the very existence of the Japanese nation." While accidents that result in mass radiological releases have been rare throughout the operating histories of existing nuclear power plants, the growing number of plants worldwide increases the likelihood that such releases will occur again in the future. Nuclear power is an important source of energy in the U.S. and will be for the foreseeable future. Accidents far smaller in scale than the one in Fukushima could have major societal consequences. Given the extensive, ongoing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry assessment of nuclear power plant safety and preparedness issues, the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC focused on offsite policies and plans intended to reduce radiation exposure to the public in the aftermath of an accident. This report provides an assessment of Japan's efforts at nuclear consequence management; identifies concerns with current U.S. policies and practices for "outside the fence" management of such an event in the U.S.; and makes recommendations for steps that can be taken to strengthen U.S. government, industry, and community response to large-scale accidents at nuclear power plants. PMID:22578018

Fitzgerald, Joe; Wollner, Samuel B; Adalja, Amesh A; Morhard, Ryan; Cicero, Anita; Inglesby, Thomas V

2012-05-11

201

Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 MELCOR Investigation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy sponsored a Fukushima Daiichi accident study as a collaboration between Sandia, Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Idaho National Laboratories. The purpose of the effort was to compile relevant data, reconstruct the accident progression using computer codes, assess the codes predictive capabilities, and to identify future data needs. The following summarizes MELCOR simulations performed at ORNL on Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3.

Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Francis, Matthew W [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL

2012-01-01

202

Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the T?hoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

2013-08-01

203

Surviving Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

Henke, Karen Greenwood

2008-01-01

204

Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011.  

PubMed

Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of (131)I, (134)Cs, or (137)Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe. PMID:22356354

Wetherbee, Gregory A; Gay, David A; Debey, Timothy M; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Nilles, Mark A

2012-02-22

205

Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

2012-01-01

206

Los Alamos Air Monitoring Data Related to the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is collecting air data and analyzing the data for fission products. At present, we report preliminary data from three high-volume air samplers and one stack sampler. Iodine-131 (I-131) is not optimally measured by our standard polypropylene filters. In addition to the filter data, we have one measurement obtained from a charcoal cartridge. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides are adequate for a preliminary assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi do not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos.

McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

207

Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column seawater samples collected during the international expedition in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002-3.5 Bq L-1, 0.01-0.8 ? Bq L-1, and 0.05-0.15 Bq L-1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represent an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 30 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are in reasonable agreement with predictions obtained from the Ocean General Circulation Model, which indicates that the radionuclides have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward. The 137Cs inventory in the water column (the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E) due to the Fukushima accident is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq. The amount of 129I and 3H released and deposited on the NW Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident was estimated to be about 7 GBq and 0.1 PBq, respectively. Due to a suitable residence time in the ocean, Fukushima-derived radionuclides will provide useful tracers for isotope oceanography studies on the transport of water masses in the NW Pacific Ocean.

Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; Breier, R.; Buesseler, K.; Chang, C. C.; Golser, R.; Hou, X. L.; Ješkovský, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kaizer, J.; Nakano, M.; Nies, H.; Palcsu, L.; Papp, L.; Pham, M. K.; Steier, P.; Zhang, L. Y.

2013-04-01

208

Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

2012-11-01

209

Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

2012-05-01

210

Ecological Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On September 11, 2001, as this book was on its way to press, disaster struck once again. Two hijacked airplanes, fully loaded\\u000a with passengers and fuel crashed into the World Trade Center in New York and another into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.\\u000a A fourth airplane crashed into the countryside of Pennsylvania, apparently missing its intended target, but nevertheless killing

Johan M. Havenaar

211

77 FR 24538 - Fukushima-Related Orders Modifying Licenses; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. EA-12-050, EA-12-051; ASLBP No. 12-918-01-EA-BD01] Fukushima-Related Orders Modifying Licenses; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the...

2012-04-24

212

Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume  

PubMed Central

Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefevre, Irene; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottle, Catherine; Bonte, Philippe

2013-01-01

213

Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.  

PubMed

Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

2013-10-29

214

Reference levels in the context of fukushima and related lessons learned.  

PubMed

About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

Sakai, Kazuo

2013-11-01

215

Radioxenon monitoring in Beijing following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.  

PubMed

This paper reports the brief process and results of radioxenon monitoring and analysis in Beijing following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The accident and release of volatile radionuclides were caused by 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The maximum concentrations of (133)Xe and (131 m)Xe were in excess of 0.90 Bq.m(-3) and 0.047 Bq.m(-3), respectively. The activity ratio of (131 m)Xe to (133)Xe and the dynamic trend of (133)Xe activity concentration were analyzed. PMID:23601858

Shilian, Wang; Qi, Li; Qinghua, Meng; Zhanying, Chen; Yungang, Zhao; Huijuan, Li; Huaimao, Jia; Yinzhong, Chang; Shujiang, Liu; Xinjun, Zhang; Yuanqing, Fan; Ling, Wan; Yun, Lou

2013-04-03

216

Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern hemisphere. Although the releases from the Fukushima NPP were pronounced, due to significant dilution of the radioactivity in the atmosphere as it was transported across the globe, the concentrations of radionuclides measured outside Japan were extremely low. The activities of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 in air were estimated to have diluted by a factor of 105 to 108 during trans-Pacific transport. This paper will present a compilation of the radionuclide concentrations measured across the northern hemisphere by various national and international monitoring networks. It will focus on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes will be discussed. Spatial and Temporal patterns and differences will be contrasted. The effects from this global radionuclide dispersal are reported and discussed. The activity ratios of ^131I/^137Cs and ^134Cs/^137Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and thus on the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected across the northern hemisphere have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental concern.

Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

2013-04-01

217

Radiostrontium in the western North Pacific: characteristics, behavior, and the Fukushima impact.  

PubMed

The impact of the Fukushima-derived radiostrontium ((90)Sr and (89)Sr) on the western North Pacific Ocean has not been well established, although (90)Sr concentrations recorded in surface seawater offshore of the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were in some areas comparable to or even higher than (as those in December 2011 with 400 kBq m(-3)(90)Sr) the (137)Cs levels. The total amount of (90)Sr released to the marine environment in the form of highly radioactive wastewater could reach about 1 PBq. Long-term series (1960-2010) of (90)Sr concentration measurements in subtropical surface waters of the western North Pacific indicated that its concentration has been decreasing gradually with a half-life of 14 y. The pre-Fukushima (90)Sr levels in surface waters, including coastal waters near Fukushima, were estimated to be 1 Bq m(-3). To better assess the impact of about 4-5 orders of magnitude increased radiostrontium levels on the marine environment, more detail measurements in seawater and biota of the western North Pacific are required. PMID:22873743

Povinec, Pavel P; Hirose, Katsumi; Aoyama, Michio

2012-08-27

218

Assessing Potential Radiological Harm to Fukushima Recovery Workers  

PubMed Central

A radiological emergency exists at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant in Japan as a result of the March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the massive tsunami that arrived later. News media misinformation related to the emergency triggered enormous social fear worldwide of the radioactivity that is being released from damaged fuel rods. The heroic recovery workers are a major concern because they are being exposed to mostly gamma radiation during their work shifts and life-threatening damage to the radiosensitive bone marrow could occur over time. This paper presents a way in which the bone marrow equivalent dose (in millisieverts), as estimated per work shift, could be used along with the hazard function model previously developed for radiological risk assessment to repeatedly check for potential life-threatening harm (hematopoietic system damage) to workers. Three categories of radiation hazard indication are proposed: 1, life-threatening damage unlikely; 2, life-threatening damage possible; 3, life-threatening damage likely. Categories 2 and 3 would be avoided if the whole body effective dose did not exceed the annual effective dose limit of 250 mSv. For down-wind populations, hormetic effects (activated natural protective processes) are much more likely than are deleterious effects.

Scott, Bobby R.

2011-01-01

219

Assessing potential radiological harm to fukushima recovery workers.  

PubMed

A radiological emergency exists at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant in Japan as a result of the March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the massive tsunami that arrived later. News media misinformation related to the emergency triggered enormous social fear worldwide of the radioactivity that is being released from damaged fuel rods. The heroic recovery workers are a major concern because they are being exposed to mostly gamma radiation during their work shifts and life-threatening damage to the radiosensitive bone marrow could occur over time. This paper presents a way in which the bone marrow equivalent dose (in millisieverts), as estimated per work shift, could be used along with the hazard function model previously developed for radiological risk assessment to repeatedly check for potential life-threatening harm (hematopoietic system damage) to workers. Three categories of radiation hazard indication are proposed: 1, life-threatening damage unlikely; 2, life-threatening damage possible; 3, life-threatening damage likely. Categories 2 and 3 would be avoided if the whole body effective dose did not exceed the annual effective dose limit of 250 mSv. For down-wind populations, hormetic effects (activated natural protective processes) are much more likely than are deleterious effects. PMID:22013394

Scott, Bobby R

2011-06-16

220

Coping with Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

After surviving a disaster, people may feel dazed or even numb. They may also feel sad, helpless, or anxious. In spite of the ... places or people that remind you of the disaster. You might have trouble sleeping, eating, or paying ...

221

An overview on disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to provide graduate students, researchers, and government and independent agencies with an overview of disasters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Disasters have been the subject of research and a source of concern to academicians and government and independent agencies. In this paper disaster types are collected from several sources such as technical, general articles, internet web sites, and

Ibrahim Mohamed Shaluf

2007-01-01

222

Serving through Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

Kuzyk, Raya

2007-01-01

223

Planning for Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

Lewis, Steven

1996-01-01

224

The Role of the Consequence Management Home Team in the Fukushima Daiichi Response  

SciTech Connect

The Consequence Management Home Team is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration asset. It assists a variety of response organizations with modeling; radiological operations planning; field monitoring techniques; and the analysis, interpretation, and distribution of radiological data. These reach-back capabilities are activated quickly to support public safety and minimize the social and economic impact of a nuclear or radiological incident. In the Fukushima Daiichi response, the Consequence Management Home Team grew to include a more broad range of support than was historically planned. From the early days of the response to the continuing involvement in supporting late phase efforts, each stage of the Consequence Management Home Team support had distinct characteristics in terms of management of incoming data streams as well as creation of products. Regardless of stage, the Consequence Management Home Team played a critical role in the Fukushima Daiichi response effort.

Pemberton, W., Mena, R., Beal, W.

2012-05-01

225

The Role of the Consequence Management Home Team in the Fukushima Daiichi Response  

SciTech Connect

The Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT) is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration asset and played an important role in the U.S. response effort to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, ranging from the early days of the response to a continued involvement in supporting late phase efforts. Each stage of their work had distinct characteristics in terms of management of incoming data streams and creation of products. The CMHT assisted a variety of response organizations with modeling; radiological operations planning; field monitoring techniques; and the analysis, interpretation, and distribution of radiological data. In the Fukushima Daiichi response, the CMHT grew to include a broader range of support than was historically planned. Through their work, the social and economic impacts of a nuclear or radiological incident were minimized. The CMHT was an integral component of the response in Japan and acted as the central point from which all of the data and products flowed.

Pemberton, Wendy [Remote Sensing Laboratory at Nellis; Mena, RaJah [Remote Sensing Laboratory at Nellis; Beal, William [Remote Sensing Laboratory at Andrews

2012-05-01

226

Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: \\

W. Nabutola

2009-01-01

227

Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: \\

W. Nabutola; S. Scheer

2009-01-01

228

77 FR 45700 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 15, 2012...staff's proposed path for addressing the Fukushima Near Term Task Force (NTTF)...

2012-08-01

229

Spatiotemporal characteristics of internal radiation exposure in evacuees and first responders after the radiological accident in fukushima.  

PubMed

After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the reconstruction of early internal radiation doses in residents of Fukushima plays a major role in evaluating their future heath risk, including thyroid cancer by internal radioiodine. Internal radioactivity was measured using a whole body counter (WBC) at the Nagasaki University Medical School to evaluate the health risks of residents and short term visitors in Fukushima. Measurable (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected altogether in 49 out of 196 people who were in Fukushima prefecture at any time during March 11 and April 20, 2011. In 49 people, the 90 percentile of the thyroid equivalent dose by (131)I and the committed effective dose (total effective dose over a lifetime) by the sum of (134)Cs and (137)Cs was 3 mSv and 0.06 mSv, respectively. The radionuclide intakes in early evacuees who left Fukushima before March 16 were more than five times as high as in the responders who moved to Fukushima later. The intake ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs of the earlier evacuees was approximately three. The spatial analysis of 16 evacuees to the south indicated a reduction of internal radioactivity depending on the distance from the nuclear power plant. Among them, high internal (131)I radioactivity in 6 people in a particular evacuation route could be explained by the arrival of a radioactive cloud with a high airborne (131)I/(137)Cs ratio to the environment, as predicted by atmospheric dispersion simulations. Overall, the actual internal radioactivity assessed by a WBC examination comparatively agreed with the predicted airborne radioactivity. These results suggest that the accurate estimation of internal doses in the first week after the radiological accident is critical for the dose reconstruction. The evaluation of internal doses of residents based on their evacuation routes and the advanced estimation of airborne radioactivity from the atmospheric dispersion model should continue to be assessed. PMID:23952577

Morita, Naoko; Miura, Miwa; Yoshida, Masahiro; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Usa, Toshiro; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi; Matsuda, Naoki

2013-08-16

230

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below

C Maxwell

1982-01-01

231

Small Scale Assessment of Spatial and Vertical Redistribution of Fukushima Fallouts Radiocaesium in Contaminated Soil Using in-situ HPGe Gamma Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After Tohoku earthquake on March 11th 2011, the subsequent tsunami and the resulting Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster, gamma emitting particles, first release into the atmosphere, were quickly deposited on the soil surface, with potentially harmful level in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant. Thus, the evaluation of soil deposition pattern, depth migration and afterward radionuclides redistribution and export by erosion and hydrological processes is fundamental for contamination assessments and to plan future actions. Our study site is located 37km from Fukushima power plant, inside the evacuated zone. In this study, we used a bounded erosion plot of 22.1m x 5m to assess global export of sediments and 137Cs. This plot, previously cropped with tobacco, is morphologically divided into inter-rill areas separated by rills that formed into former wheel tracks. The bottom of the plot is subject to deposition of sediments. In order to determine and quantify the internal processes responsible of the export of sediment, the depth distribution of 137Cs is estimated using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Such a portable device, associated to the high radiation levels, allow an acquisition of spatially distributed data within the plot in a reasonable time (1 min/sample). At the same time, depth distribution of 137Cs are measured using the scrapper plate technique, adapted to obtain a fine resolution in the first, highly contaminated, centimeters of soil. Finally, 137Cs depth profiles, associated with in situ and laboratory gamma spectrums acquired with the portable detector, allow for the detector calibration. Although the initial deposit can reasonably be supposed homogeneous at the plot scale, the dataset obtained 3 months later shows high spatial and temporal variability due to erosion processes. Measurements with the portable HPGe detector proved to be useful at this small scale, avoiding the needs of a large number of soil samples, and our results are promising to understand erosion at larger scale where horizontal patterns of deposition and redistribution are usually supposed homogeneous over quite larger areas.

Patin, J.; Onda, Y.; Yoda, H.; Kato, H.

2011-12-01

232

The epidemiology of disasters.  

PubMed Central

Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based.

Lechat, M. F.

1976-01-01

233

Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by

Ryan M. Meyer; Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli

2012-01-01

234

Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations  

PubMed Central

The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 ± 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (239+240Pu activity concentration 0.49?Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

2013-01-01

235

Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 +/- 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (239+240Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

2013-10-01

236

Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations.  

PubMed

The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio (240)Pu/(239)Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 ± 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor ((239+240)Pu activity concentration 0.49?Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated. PMID:24136192

Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

2013-10-18

237

Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite significant progress in the application of science and technology to disaster reduction, communities are still challenged by disaster preparation, response, and recovery. We have reduced the number of lives lost each year to natural disasters, but...

2005-01-01

238

Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

2011-12-01

239

Observations of Fukushima fallout in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, grass samples were collected from 42 sites around Great Britain during April 2011. Iodine-131 was measurable in grass samples across the country with activity concentrations ranging from 10 to 55 Bq kg(-1) dry matter. Concentrations were similar to those reported in other European countries. Rainwater and some foodstuffs were also analysed from a limited number of sites. Of these, (131)I was only detectable in sheep's milk (c. 2 Bq kg(-1)). Caesium-134, which can be attributed to releases from the Fukushima reactors, was detectable in six of the grass samples (4-8 Bq kg(-1) dry matter); (137)Cs was detected in a larger number of grass samples although previous release sources (atmospheric weapons test and the 1986 Chernobyl and 1957 Windscale accidents) are likely to have contributed to this. PMID:22206699

Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J; Howard, D C; Wells, C; Tyler, A N; Bradley, S; Copplestone, D

2011-12-27

240

Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using "Auto-GPS" mobile phone data.  

PubMed

The first objective data showing the geographical locations of people in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained by an analysis of GPS (Global Positioning System)-enabled mobile phone logs, are presented. The method of estimation is explained, and the flow of people into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the accident is visualized. PMID:23666090

Hayano, Ryugo S; Adachi, Ryutaro

2013-01-01

241

Radiation Can Pose Bigger Cancer Risk for Children - UN Study  

MedlinePLUS

... report in 2011, the same year as Japan's Fukushima nuclear accident, although the world's worst such disaster ... rates were not expected to rise after the Fukushima accident. Studies into the 1986 accident at Chernobyl ...

242

[The consequences of the accident at the Fukushima NPP on the health and the environment].  

PubMed

Up to date information about the health consequences for the exposed workers of the major accident occurred on the 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power site are presented, together with the conclusions of scientific studies leading to the estimation of the projected doses to the population residing in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants. Finally are illustrated the main epidemiological studies already in progress or beginning soon in order to evaluate the potential health effects of the exposure of the Japanese people to ionising radiations. PMID:23393886

De Luca, G

243

Civilian Preparedness: Disaster Planning for Everyone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is an integral component of public health, patient care, and disaster preparedness. The spread of biologic, nuclear, and chemical weapons around the world has increased the potential of a terrorist attack using such weapons of mass destruction. Although the military has been aggressively evaluating the threat against soldiers for the past decade, American civilian population preparedness plans received little

Britt Durham

244

Disaster Preparedness Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for use by the staff of a community college library, this manual describes the natural, building, and human hazards which can result in disaster in a library and outlines a set of disaster prevention measures and salvage procedures. A list of salvage priorities, floor plans for all three levels of Bourke Memorial Library, and staff duties…

Michael, Douglas O.

245

Disaster Planning and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, power outages, and the threat of pandemics have highlighted our vulnerability to natural disasters. This vulnerability is exacerbated by many organizations' increasing dependence on computer, telecommunications, and other technologies, and trends toward integrating suppliers and business partners into everyday business operations. In response many organizations are implementing disaster recovery planning processes. In this

Holmes E. Miller; Kurt J. Engemann; Ronald R. Yager

246

PREDICTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 plus years, we have been dealing with several fundamental problems in prediction science. We believe that “the science of human natural disasters” (natural disasters affecting mankind) is not well addressed by the classical theory of dynamical systems. It is argued that there exist problems, when the theory of dynamic systems is used, related to (1) measurement

OuYANG SHOUCHENG; YI LIN; WU YONG

2000-01-01

247

Large-Scale Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

248

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

249

Transfer of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accident-derived radionuclides in forest environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the forest environment in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures. In this study, we analyzed radiocesium concentrations in rainwater, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall to characterize the transfer of the deposited radiocesium in various forest stands (evergreen conifers and broad-leaved forests), in Tochigi (Cs-137 fallout < 10 kBq/m^2) and Fukushima (Cs-137 fallout = 300-600 kBq/m^2) prefectures. Furthermore, in-situ measurement of radiocesium were conducted to delineate spatio-temporal variability of radiocesium in the canopy and forest floor. The result of this study demonstrated that a large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest were initially trapped by canopies, and subsequently transferred to forest floor in association with throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall. In the deciduous broad-leaved forest, the highest radioactivity was found at the forest floor; however, 25-40% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy of evergreen coniferous forests one year after the reactor accident.

Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

2013-04-01

250

Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK) international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002-3.5 Bq L-1, 0.01-0.8 ?Bq L-1, and 0.05-0.15 Bq L-1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4-7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1-0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which should improve when more data are available. Due to a suitable residence time in the ocean, Fukushima-derived radionuclides will provide useful tracers for isotope oceanography studies on the transport of water masses during the next decades in the NW Pacific Ocean.

Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; Breier, R.; Buesseler, K.; Chang, C. C.; Golser, R.; Hou, X. L.; Ješkovský, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kaizer, J.; Nakano, M.; Nies, H.; Palcsu, L.; Papp, L.; Pham, M. K.; Steier, P.; Zhang, L. Y.

2013-08-01

251

Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

2013-03-01

252

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

PubMed

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-08-01

253

Natural disasters and the lung.  

PubMed

As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. PMID:21244570

Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

2011-04-01

254

[Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].  

PubMed

The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at late dates after the Fukushima accident. PMID:23210176

Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

2012-01-01

255

Disaster planning for pediatrics.  

PubMed

Natural and man-made disasters are inevitable and appear to be more common in the current age. Substantial time and effort have been invested and millions of dollars spent on disaster prevention and management. An important oversight in this planning has been the special needs of children. The vulnerability of children and their physiologic characteristics place them at increased risk during a disaster. Importantly, reunification with family and assurance of safety in this vulnerable group is a priority. This paper addresses issues related to pediatric needs, the medical system's shortcomings in caring for children, and recommendations for action. PMID:21944691

Branson, Richard D

2011-09-01

256

Disaster planning for schools.  

PubMed

Community awareness of the school district's disaster plan will optimize a community's capacity to maintain the safety of its school-aged population in the event of a school-based or greater community crisis. This statement is intended to stimulate awareness of the disaster-preparedness process in schools as a part of a global, community-wide preparedness plan. Pediatricians, other health care professionals, first responders, public health officials, the media, school nurses, school staff, and parents all need to be unified in their efforts to support schools in the prevention of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from a disaster. PMID:18829818

2008-10-01

257

Terrorism, disasters, and security.  

PubMed

The purpose of this editorial is to explore the relationship between the new global emphasis on terrorism and the developing academic and practical fields of disaster management. It includes an appraisal of the place of terrorism among the various forms of disaster, a consideration of its relationship to risk assessment and its place in the practical handling of risks and incidents, and some reflections on the role of the private sector in security management. The influence on the current attitude toward managing the terrorism threat by the evolution of the disaster management field is considered and some of the problems with defining scenarios for counter-terrorism planning also are discussed. PMID:15141853

Alexander, David

258

Fukushima Accident: Sequence of Events and Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power station suffered a devastating Richter 9.0 earthquake followed by a 14.0 m tsunami on 11 March 2011. The subsequent loss of power for emergency core cooling systems resulted in damage to the fuel in the cores of three reactors. The relief of pressure from the containment in these three reactors led to sufficient hydrogen gas release to cause explosions in the buildings housing the reactors. There was probably subsequent damage to a spent fuel pool of a fourth reactor caused by debris from one of these explosions. Resultant releases of fission product isotopes in air were significant and have been estimated to be in the 3.7->6.3 x10^17 Bq range (˜10 MCi) for ^131I and ^137Cs combined, or approximately one tenth that of the Chernobyl accident. A synopsis of the sequence of events leading up to this large release of radioactivity will be presented, along with likely scenarios for stabilization and site cleanup in the future. Some aspects of the isotope monitoring programs, both locally and at large, will also be discussed. An assessment of radiological health risk for the plant workers as well as the general public will also be presented. Finally, the impact of this accident on design and deployment of nuclear generating stations in the future will be discussed.

Morse, Edward C.

2011-10-01

259

Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi Response  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This work encompassed: weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions, estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases, predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations, and source estimation and plume model refinement. An overview of NARAC response activities is provided, along with a more in-depth discussion of some of NARAC’s preliminary source reconstruction analyses. NARAC optimized the overall agreement of model predictions to dose rate measurements using statistical comparisons of data and model values paired in space and time. Estimated emission rates varied depending on the choice of release assumptions (e.g., time-varying vs. constant release rates), the radionuclide mix, meteorology, and/or the radiological data used in the analysis. Results were found to be consistent with other studies within expected uncertainties, despite the application of different source estimation methodologies and the use of significantly different radiological measurement data. A discussion of some of the operational and scientific challenges encountered during the response, along with recommendations for future work, is provided.

Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2012-05-01

260

Nuclear Power in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

Zhou, Yun

2012-02-01

261

Coping with Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... experienced trauma, has merely seen the event on television or has heard it discussed by adults, it ... contact with the disaster but witness it on television may develop distress. Recognize Risk Factors For many ...

262

International Disaster Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary program objectives are to provide earliest possible alleviation of suffering from foreign disasters, with the principal beneficiaries being those in developing countries least able to survive without outside assistance. The authors focus particula...

1985-01-01

263

Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Hazards Chapter 2 - Scuba Diving Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Josephine Malilay, Dahna Batts, Armin Ansari, Charles W. ... cautions about unique hazards in the affected area. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS Air Air pollution may be found in large ...

264

Disaster Response in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is prone to natural and man-made disasters. The number has been increasing every year because of the mixture of various factors such as adverse weather, population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. How the Republic of India organizes for ...

J. G. Turbiville P. Singh W. W. Mendel

2000-01-01

265

Disaster medicine in the 21st century: future hazards, vulnerabilities, and risk.  

PubMed

The prediction of future disasters drives the priorities, urgencies, and perceived adequacies of disaster management, public policy, and government funding. Disasters always arise from some fundamental dysequilibrium between hazards in the environment and the vulnerabilities of human communities. Understanding the major factors that will tend to produce hazards and vulnerabilities in the future plays a key role in disaster risk assessment. The factors tending to produce hazards in the 21st Century include population growth, environmental degradation, infectious agents (including biological warfare agents), hazardous materials (industrial chemicals, chemical warfare agents, nuclear materials, and hazardous waste), economic imbalance (usually within countries), and cultural tribalism. The factors tending to generate vulnerabilities to hazardous events include population growth, aging populations, poverty, maldistribution of populations to disaster-prone areas, urbanization, marginalization of populations to informal settlements within urban areas, and structural vulnerability. An increasing global interconnectedness also will bring hazards and vulnerabilities together in unique ways to produce familiar disasters in unfamiliar forms and unfamiliar disasters in forms not yet imagined. Despite concerns about novel disasters, many of the disasters common today also will be common tomorrow. The risk of any given disaster is modifiable through its manageability. Effective disaster management has the potential to counter many of the factors tending to produce future hazards and vulnerabilities. Hazard mitigation and vulnerability reduction based on a clear understanding of the complex causal chains that comprise disasters will be critical in the complex world of the 21st Century. PMID:12357562

Arnold, Jeffrey L

266

Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bhopal’s gas leak disaster is the worst recorded industrial disaster in human history. On the night between December 2–3,\\u000a 1984, methyl isocyanate leaked at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) factory at Bhopal, in central India, spreading into\\u000a the surrounding environment. This leak of an “extremely hazardous chemical” covered the city of Bhopal in a cloud of poisonous\\u000a gas over

R. Srinivasa Murthy

267

Natural and Technological Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disasters are very common. Worldwide, earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, technological accidents, and urban fires\\u000a occur daily. They tend to occur suddenly, without much warning, and cause massive destruction, sometimes killing or injuring\\u000a large numbers of people within a short time. In 1999 alone, natural disasters killed over 60,000 people in Turkey, 10,000\\u000a people in India, and 25,000 people in Venezuela

Daya Somasundaram; Fran H. Norris; Nozomu Asukai; R. Srinivasa Murthy

268

Measuring Radioactivity from Fukushima Daiichi in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

On March 11, 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was damaged by the tsunami that followed the 'Great East Japan Earthquake,' and the reactor subsequently leaked radioactive material. In response, LANL augmented the routine ambient (AIRNET) and stack (Rad-NESHAP) measurements with three high-volume samplers: No.167 at the Old White Rock Fire Station; No.173 at the TA-49 gate, and No.211 at the Los Alamos Medical Center. Previous accidents, such as the Three-Mile-Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986, indicated that the most likely releases were (a) the noble gases: krypton and xenon; and (b) the volatile elements: cesium, tellurium, and iodine. At the latitude of Fukushima, the predominant winds across the Pacific Ocean are from west to east, and models predicted that the plume would arrive in the western US on about March 18. By this time the shorter-lived isotopes would have decayed. Therefore, the expected radionuclides were xenon-133, cesium-134, cesium-136, cesium-137, tellurium-132, iodine-131, and iodine-132. As expected, cesium-134, cesium-136, cesium-137, tellurium-132, iodine-131, and iodine-132 were all detected by all three high-volume samplers during March 17-21. The concentrations peaked during the March 24-28 period. After this, concentrations of all nuclides declined. In general, the concentrations were consistent with those measured by the EPA RadNet system and many other monitoring systems throughout the world. At the time of writing, preliminary results from the AIRNET and Rad-NESHAP systems are being reported. More detailed results are described in LA-UR-11-10304 and will be reported in full in the annual environmental report for 2011. All previous releases from nuclear reactors have been dominated by noble gases, primarily krypton and xenon, which are not measured by the high-volume samplers or the AIRNET system. However, in sufficient concentrations these and other fission products would be detected by NEWNET. Consistent with this possibility, all NEWNET detectors recorded an increase of 0.2 {micro}R/h from March 19-1, followed by an additional increase of 0.1 {micro}R/h on March 24 (Figure 1). The consistency of the NEWNET stations is indicated by the error bars, which represent the standard error of the mean of the individual stations. Over the next 10 days, the NEWNET readings declined with approximately the 5-day half life of xenon-133, returning to near normal levels on April 2. After this, any further decrease was masked by high radon concentrations on April 3, by a weather system that moved into New Mexico on April 4, and by rainfall on April 6-9. Furthermore, it is likely that all NEWNET detectors responded to a gradually increasing trend in terrestrial radiation during the month of March as the ground dried out. It is difficult to distinguish the hypothetical effects of xenon-133 from the fluctuations of radon decay products. However, at present we do not have an alternative hypothesis for the sharp increase that was observed in all NEWNET stations from March 19-21. Perhaps some of the increase was caused by radon or terrestrial radiation, in which case the observed increase is an upper limit to that caused by releases from Fukushima. LANL data are consistent with those of the EPA RadNet monitoring system. The EPA has repeatedly stated that 'The levels detected are far below levels of concern.'

McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

269

The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.  

PubMed

The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

2012-08-01

270

Disaster Assistance: Access to Disaster Help and Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Keywords... Advanced Search Find Apply Check Home Get Disaster Assistance Take Questionnaire Browse by Category Browse by Federal Agency Application Checklist Forms Disaster Information News Feeds Immediate Needs Moving Forward Community ...

271

Stealth Disasters and Geoethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility for their own lives (autonomy), they have relevant information in useable form. To minimize harm to others and the environment (non-maleficence), we can design and implement sustainable ways to extract resources and dispose of waste. To advance the welfare of humankind (beneficence), we can work with engineers on innovative uses for commodities that are easily-obtained, and on replacements for rare ones. And, we can strive toward social justice by recognizing that social, ethical, legal and political issues regarding resource use may be far more difficult than the geotechnical ones, and work within the (sometimes frustrating) framework for resolution of those issues. Referring back to the four stages of co-existence with natural disasters (preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation), the global scope of stealth disasters raises far more geoethical issues than we have encountered with natural disasters. Just as we have learned (e.g., Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the U.S.) that inter-agency response is crucial to successful management of natural disasters, we can expect that global cooperation in management and governance will be essential to the management of stealth disasters. It is imperative that research and education of current and future geoscientists in universities recognize the newly developing role of the geosciences in stealth disasters and that we train our students for a future within this context.

Kieffer, Susan W.

2013-04-01

272

Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

"Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

Neuzil, C E

2013-01-01

273

Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

2013-04-01

274

Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the March 2011 Fukushima disaster, large amounts of water contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a half-life of 30.1 years, Cs-137 has the potential to travel large distances within the ocean. Using an ensemble of regional eddy-resolving simulations, this study investigates the long-term ventilation pathways of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have been rapidly diluted below 10,000 Bq/m3 by the energetic Kuroshio Current and Kurushio Extension by July 2011. Based on our source function of 22 Bq/m3, which sits at the upper range of the published estimates, waters with Cs-137 concentrations >10 Bq/m3 are projected to reach the northwestern American coast and the Hawaiian archipelago by early 2014. Driven by quasi-zonal oceanic jets, shelf waters north of 45°N experience Cs-137 levels of 10-30 Bq/m3 between 2014 and 2020, while the Californian coast is projected to see lower concentrations (10-20 Bq/m3) slightly later (2016-2025). This late but prolonged exposure is related to subsurface pathways of mode waters, where Cs-137 is subducted toward the subtropics before being upwelled from deeper sources along the southern Californian coast. The model suggests that Fukushima-derived Cs-137 will penetrate the interior ocean and spread to other oceanic basins over the next two decades and beyond. The sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the source function and to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability is discussed.

Rossi, Vincent; Van Sebille, Erik; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Garçon, Véronique; England, Matthew H.

2013-10-01

275

Citizen Involvement in Disaster Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Responding and recovering from large scale disasters is extremely labor intensive. Unfortunately, a problem confronting all communities is inability to employ on a regular basis the large number of personnel needed to effectively manage large scale disast...

M. M. Gonzalez

2005-01-01

276

Emergency and Disaster Information Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hungarian National Association of Radio Distress-Signalling and Infocommunications (RSOE) operates Emergency and Disaster Information Service (EDIS) within the frame of its own website which has the objective to monitor and document all the events on the Earth which may cause disaster or emergency. Our service is using the speed and the data spectrum of the internet to gather information. We are monitoring and processing several foreign organisation's data to get quick and certified information. The EDIS website operated together by the General-Directorate of National Disaster Management (OKF) and RSOE, in co-operation with the Crisis Management Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provides useful information regarding emergency situations and their prevention. Extraordinary events happening in Hungary, Europe and other areas of the World are being monitored in 24 hours per day. All events processed by RSOE EDIS are displayed real time - for the sake of international compatibility - according to the CAP protocol on a secure website. To ensure clear transparency all events are categorized separately in the RSS directory (e.g. earthquake, fire, flood, landslide, nuclear event, tornado, vulcano). RSOE EDIS also contributes in dissemination of the CAP protocol in Hungary. Beside the official information, with the help of special programs nearly 900-1000 internet press publication will be monitored and the publication containing predefined keywords will be processed. However, these "news" cannot be considered as official and reliable information, but many times we have learnt critical information from the internet press. We are screening the incoming information and storing in a central database sorted by category. After processing the information we are sending it immediately via E-Mail (or other format) for the organisations and persons who have requested it (e.g. National Disaster Management, United Nations etc.). We are aspiring that the processed data will be validated and reliable in all cases, to avoid the possible panic situation caused by unreal information. That is why we are trying to create and keep contact with all organisations, which can provide validated information for us, to operate the RSOE EDIS. Certainly we are publishing all incoming data and information at our website to provide up-to-date information to the citizens as well as we are publishing useful knowledge for them. We have a knowledge database, which contains all necessary information, which can help the citizens in an emergency situation. For the prevention and the most relevant information we are willing to amend our published data with the population information.

Boszormenyi, Zsolt

2010-05-01

277

Ontologies for Disaster Management Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of natural disasters and man-made disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, air crashes, etc.,\\u000a have posed a challenge to the public and demonstrated the importance of disaster management. The success of disaster management,\\u000a amongst all, largely depends on finding and successfully integrating related information to make decisions during the response\\u000a phase. This information ranges from existing data to

Wei Xu; Sisi Zlatanova

278

The recommendations of the ICRP vis-à-vis the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident aftermath.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) created a Task Group (ICRP TG84) on the initial lessons learned from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs vis-à-vis the ICRP system of radiological protection. The ICRP TG84 is expected to compile lessons learned related to the efforts carried out to protect people against radiation exposure during and after the emergency exposure situation caused by the accident and, in light of these lessons, to consider ad hoc recommendations to strengthen the ICRP system of radiological protection for dealing with this type of emergency exposure. The Chairman of ICRP TG84 presents in this paper his personal views on the main issues being considered by the group at the time of the Fukushima Expert Symposium. ICRP TG84 expects to finalize its work by the end of 2012. PMID:22394644

González, Abel J

2012-03-06

279

78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-10-30

280

77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-29

281

77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-16

282

78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-21

283

78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-19

284

77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-10-18

285

77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-11-15

286

77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-12-17

287

78 FR 2694 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Cancellation of the January 18, 2013, ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on Fukushima scheduled for January 18, 2013 has been cancelled. The...

2013-01-14

288

78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

2013-05-10

289

77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-15

290

77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-29

291

77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-01

292

77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-09-28

293

Structural Sociology, Disaster, and Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This text presents a theory of social structure and relates it to studies of organization and disaster. An overview of recent work on hazards is provided, and disaster is interpreted as a sociological event. Basic research issues in disaster research are ...

G. A. Kreps

1984-01-01

294

Evaluating the Effects of Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other disaster-related psychopathology following natural and human-made disasters. A brief history of disaster research is provided, and instruments used in recent studies are discussed. Data from the author's research on the relationships of several of these measures to clinically assessed PTSD are provided. The importance of multimethod assessment of

Bonnie L. Green

1991-01-01

295

Responses to natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

Maggs, William Ward

296

Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.  

PubMed

This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

2013-01-01

297

Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.  

PubMed

The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements. PMID:22092572

Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

2011-11-17

298

78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on April 10, 2013...10 CFR 50.54(f) letters to address Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Report Task...

2013-03-25

299

77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 5, 2012...10 CFR 50.54(f) letters to address Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Report, Task...

2012-11-15

300

Nuclear energy 2011: A watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

2011 was a watershed for nuclear power. In March, all eyes focused on Japan, where the world’s third severe accident at a nuclear plant unfolded. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station will have a paradigm-changing impact on the global future of nuclear energy, though its scope and direction still remain to be seen. The author reviews reassessments

Mark Hibbs

2012-01-01

301

Operational disaster communications via satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communications in disaster areas are often disrupted or so overburdened as to be of little value. Prompt restoration of reliable communications is needed to assess the extent of the damage and then to coordinate and distribute supplies to minimize the suffering. Therefore, reliable communications equipment, that can be transported easily, needs to be an integral part of the disaster assessment, relief response, and rehabilitation teams. Since the mid 1970s, a number of responsible organizations have initiated satellite experiments and demonstrations of disaster communications response and restoration. Some of these demonstrations took place at actual disasters, where small ground terminal equipment was transported into ravaged areas and performed life-saving services. However, no coordinated disaster satellite communications system or network is operational at the current time. This paper discusses a proposed operational disaster communications response system, what needs to be implemented, and what barriers and issues need to be resolved before a disaster communications response system can be fully efficient and effective.

Helm, Neil R.; Wright, David

302

When Disaster Strikes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the experiences of school librarians with organizing volunteers, assessing the destruction, and recovery and rebuilding efforts after Hurricane Andrew. Information gathering, record keeping, public relations, public service, communication, and organization are highlighted; and the value of storytelling in coping with disaster is…

Champion, Sandra; Master, Christine

1993-01-01

303

Medical preparedness for disaster.  

PubMed

The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters-floods, earthquakes, tornado damage-should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

STEIN, J J

1959-05-01

304

Achievements or Disasters?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)|

Goodwin, MacArthur

2000-01-01

305

Enhancing canine disaster search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes canine augmentation technology (CAT) for use in urban search and rescue (USAR). CAT is a WiFi enabled sensor array that is worn by a trained canines deployed in urban disasters. The system includes, but is not limited to, cameras that provide emergency responders with real-time data to remotely monitor, analyze and take action during USAR operations. An

James Tran; Alexander Ferworn; Cristina Ribeiro; Mieso Denko

2008-01-01

306

Bracing for Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A freak blizzard, a mentally ill and armed student, a record-breaking flood. No matter how idyllic a campus may feel, no matter how cocooned the ivory tower, disaster can strike. If a campus is unprepared, it comes like a sucker punch, potentially turning a crisis into a tragedy of unimagined proportions--and causing reverberations that will be…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2011-01-01

307

Protecting against Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

Howell, Kevin R.

2006-01-01

308

An overview of the transfer of radionuclides to farm animals and potential countermeasures of relevance to Fukushima releases.  

PubMed

Initial information since the releases of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, shows that some animal food products are contaminated with 131I (mostly milk) and, to a lesser extent with 134Cs and 137Cs. Current knowledge on the transfer of these radioisotopes to animal products and available relevant countermeasures and management options to reduce radiation doses to humans are summarized. Much of this knowledge was obtained during the years of global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the response to the Chernobyl accident, in Ukraine in 1986. PMID:21608114

Beresford, Nicholas A; Howard, Brenda J

2011-07-01

309

Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

Boice, John D

2012-03-06

310

Benefit of effective communications in disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses what places populations in jeopardy as a consequence of disasters, especially in developing countries. It elucidates the factors that impede the effectiveness of agencies charged with disaster assistance. It gives background to the interrelationship of development, the environment, and disasters and notes of forums that are providing momentum for improving disaster communications in tandem with remote sensing for disaster applications.

Heath, Gloria W.; Winter, Alan E.

1990-10-01

311

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-07-01

312

Spanish experience on modeling of environmental radioactive contamination due to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident using JRODOS.  

PubMed

Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, decision support systems (DSS) for supporting response of the decision makers in emergencies have been developed and refined. Data available from real accidents are used to validate these systems, thus demonstrating their real capabilities and finally to improve them. This article presents the findings of the simulation exercises using JRODOS DSS performed in Spain after the first days of the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The investigation was carried out in two phases. The first phase is considered the early phase of the accident when few details of the real emissions are known (operational modeling). The second phase demonstrates how real measurements could be used (reconstructive modeling) to improve model predictions. Only major releases to the atmosphere, occurring during the first two weeks, were taken into account. Validation of the model was performed by direct comparison of the modeled results with real measurements. PMID:23067255

Dvorzhak, Alla; Puras, Carlos; Montero, Milagros; Mora, Juan C

2012-10-15

313

Radioactive impact of Fukushima accident on the Iberian Peninsula: evolution and plume previous pathway.  

PubMed

High activity concentrations of several man-made radionuclides (such as (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) have been detected along the Iberian Peninsula from March 28th to April 7th 2011. The analysis of back-trajectories of air masses allowed us to demonstrate that the levels of manmade radionuclide activity concentrations in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula come from the accident produced in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima. The pathway followed by the radioactive plume from Fukushima into Huelva (southwest of the Iberian Peninsula) was deduced through back-trajectories analysis, and this fact was also verified by the activity concentrations measured of those radionuclides reported in places crossed by this radioactive cloud. In fact, activity concentrations reported by E.P.A., and by IAEA, in several places of Japan, Pacific Ocean and United States of America are according to the expected ones from the air mass trajectory arriving at Huelva province. PMID:21683442

Lozano, R L; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Adame, J A; Casas-Ruíz, M; Sorribas, M; San Miguel, E G; Bolívar, J P

2011-06-16

314

Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20-40?km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70-150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant. PMID:23625055

Mizuno, Toshiaki; Kubo, Hideya

2013-01-01

315

China's Emergency Management Mechanisms for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency management mechanisms for disaster prevention and mitigation mainly include three parts: disaster prevention mechanism, disaster guarantee mechanism, and post-disaster relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction mechanisms. Prevention mechanism includes disaster warning mechanism, disaster emergency counterplan mechanism, disaster prevention and mitigation education mechanism. Guarantee mechanism includes organization guarantee, legal guarantee, rescue teams guarantee, rescue equipments support, disaster relief materials guarantee, relief funds

Huang Ang

2010-01-01

316

Hurricane! Coping With Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

Lifland, Jonathan

317

76 FR 56857 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00021  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12784 and 12785] Vermont Disaster VT-00021 AGENCY: U...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Vermont (FEMA-4022-DR), dated 09/01...Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Vermont: Addison, Bennington, Caledonia,...

2011-09-14

318

78 FR 48763 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00027  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13709 and 13710] Vermont Disaster VT-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4140-DR), dated 08/02/2013. Incident:...

2013-08-09

319

76 FR 36952 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00019  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12643 and 12644] Vermont Disaster VT-00019 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 1995-DR), dated 06/15/2011. Incident:...

2011-06-23

320

78 FR 37647 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00026  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13620 and 13621] Vermont Disaster VT-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4120-DR), dated 06/13/2013. Incident:...

2013-06-21

321

76 FR 72022 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00024  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12913 and 12914] Vermont Disaster VT-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4043-DR), dated 11/08/2011. Incident:...

2011-11-21

322

76 FR 619 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12429 and 12430] Vermont Disaster VT-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 1951-DR), dated 12/22/2010. Incident:...

2011-01-05

323

77 FR 39559 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00025  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13097 and 13098] Vermont Disaster VT-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4066-DR), dated 06/22/2012. Incident:...

2012-07-03

324

76 FR 56863 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00022  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12786 and 12787] Vermont Disaster VT-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4022-DR), dated 09/01/2011. Incident:...

2011-09-14

325

76 FR 42155 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00020  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12684 and 12685] Vermont Disaster VT-00020 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Vermont (FEMA- 4001-DR), dated 07/08/2011. Incident:...

2011-07-18

326

76 FR 42156 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00017  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12682 and 12683] Vermont Disaster VT-00017 AGENCY: U...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Vermont (FEMA-4001-DR), dated 07/08...Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Vermont: Addison, Chittenden, Essex,...

2011-07-18

327

77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13069 and 13070] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00059 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes...Counties: Woodward. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Major,...

2012-05-04

328

Natural Disasters: The Terror of Our Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website teaches students about natural disasters, including blizzards, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes, fires, and avalanches. There are photographs of each disaster and safety tips as well as definitions of the disasters and information about where they are found.

329

76 FR 38263 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00052  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notices] [Pages 38263-38264] [FR Doc No: 2011-16242...Disaster Declaration 12647 and 12648] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00052 AGENCY: U...Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-16242 Filed...

2011-06-29

330

76 FR 24555 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00045  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...24555-24556] [FR Doc No: 2011-10490... 12536 and 12537] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00045...disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR...Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Bryan, Choctaw...Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-10490...

2011-05-02

331

78 FR 62326 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00067  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13794 and 13795] Missouri Disaster MO-00067 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Missouri dated 10/08/2013. Incident: Severe...Pulaski, Taney. Contiguous Counties: Missouri: Camden, Christian, Douglas,...

2013-10-16

332

San Francisco disaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A silent film from May of 1906 that seeks to simulate the San Francisco fire and earthquake using a small-scale model of the city. The film's realism and accuracy are questionable-the flames reach unrealistic heights, and the real fire was more scattered than the flame shown-but it marks an early attempt to visualize and recreate the disaster. The film is available in Real Media, QuickTime and MPEG format.

Company, American M.

333

Response to hurricane disasters.  

PubMed

Unlike most natural and man-made disasters, preparation and planning for hurricanes is possible and effective. Medical needs can be disparate, given the large geographic area involved and the often-prolonged recovery phase. All aspects of medical response, from first responders to hospitals, can directly and negatively be affected by the storm. Planning and practice, however, can drastically improve the outcome. PMID:16781269

Shatz, David V; Wolcott, Katharine; Fairburn, Jennifer Bencie

2006-06-01

334

When disaster strikes.  

PubMed

In response to the healthcare issues resulting from Hurricane Katrina, The Nurse Practitioner has compiled information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to educate nurse practitioners (NPs) about previously uncommon illnesses presenting in the wake of the disaster, CDC recommendations on immunizations and infection prevention, and guidelines for providing proper wound care. Visit http://www.cdc.gov for full text of these articles. PMID:16217414

2005-10-01

335

Nuclear power and the public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion polls show that public support for nuclear power has declined since the Fukushima crisis began, not only in Japan but also in other nations around the world. People oppose nuclear power for a variety of reasons, but the predominant concern is the perception that it is a risky technology. Some communities that are closely associated with it even suffer

M. V. Ramana

2011-01-01

336

Facilitating Disaster Management Using SDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of spatial data and related technologies in disaster management has been well-known worldwide. One of the challenges concerned with such a role is access to and usage of reliable, accurate and up-to-date spatial data for disaster management. This is a very important aspect to disaster response as timely, up-to-date and accurate spatial data describing the current situation is

A. Mansourian; A. Rajabifard; M. J. Valadan Zoej; I. Williamson

337

Disaster management and physician preparedness.  

PubMed

There are an increasing amount and variety of disasters occurring throughout the United States. Many of these disasters require physicians to provide medical assistance. This article provides a brief introduction to disaster preparedness and its recent history and physicians' obligations, role, education, preparation, and response. It is the intent of this article to increase awareness and provide pathways for physician education and involvement. PMID:23263308

Kumar, Ajoy; Weibley, Eilene

2013-01-01

338

Transfusion service disaster planning.  

PubMed

The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel. PMID:19845076

Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

2008-01-01

339

Hurricane Preparedness: Family Disaster Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Hurricane Center's site for hurricane preparedness. Includes sample family disaster plan, checklist for supply kit, and links to background knowledge about storm surges, flooding, and high winds.

Center, National H.

2010-04-16

340

Aerial measurement of radioxenon concentration off the west coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima reactor accident.  

PubMed

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to (133)Xe was observed. Methods to extract (133)Xe count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding (133)Xe activity concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that (133)Xe concentrations on average lie in the range of 30-70 Bq/m(3). PMID:21745702

Sinclair, L E; Seywerd, H C J; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

2011-07-13

341

Operational disaster communications via satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communications in disaster areas are often disrupted or so overburdened as to be of little value. Prompt restoration of reliable communications is needed to assess the extent of the damage and then to coordinate and distribute supplies to minimize the suffering. Therefore, reliable communications equipment, that can be transported easily, needs to be an integral part of the disaster assessment,

Neil R. Helm; David Wright

1992-01-01

342

Emergency and Disaster Information Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hungarian National Association of Radio Distress-Signalling and Infocommunications (RSOE) operates Emergency and Disaster Information Service (EDIS) within the frame of its own website which has the objective to monitor and document all the events on the Earth which may cause disaster or emergency. Our service is using the speed and the data spectrum of the internet to gather information.

Zsolt Boszormenyi

2010-01-01

343

Self-Care After Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... and volunteers are also affected. Disasters can also impact members of the media, as well as citizens of the community, the country, and the world. Disasters can cause a number of different stress reactions in those affected. The steps that can be taken ...

344

Are human made disasters different?  

PubMed

The author distinguishes natural from human made disasters, and identifies their traumatic effects. He stresses the impact on both individuals and communities. Lessons learned from the NYC World Trade Center bombings are offered. He concludes with a universal prescription for responding to disasters. PMID:22670408

Sederer, L I

2012-03-01

345

Collateral damage in disaster workers.  

PubMed

Disaster workers are not immune to the negative personal and professional effects of their services at a disaster. For the purposes of this article, the intra and interpersonal disturbances that arise from disaster work are called "collateral damage. " The harmful effects may range from, among other reactions, feelings of disappointment, confusion, resentment, anger; and lack of appreciation to the more serious reactions such as anxiety attacks, severe social withdrawal, substance abuse, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder This article reviews some of the causative factors of personal distress and disruptions to teamwork in disaster relief operations. It suggests a variety of practical methods to reduce the potential of collateral damage among disaster response personnel. PMID:21957725

Mitchell, Jeffrey T

2011-01-01

346

Grid Computing for Disaster Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infamous 2004 Andaman tsunami has highlighted the need to be prepared and to be resilient to such disasters. Further, recent episodes of infectious disease epidemics worldwide underline the urgency to control and manage infectious diseases. Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) has recently formed the Disaster Research Nexus (DRN) within the School of Civil Engineering to spearhead research and development in natural disaster mitigation programs to mitigate the adverse effects of natural disasters. This paper presents a brief exposition on the aspirations of DRN towards achieving resilience in communities affected by these natural disasters. A brief review of the simulations of the 2004 Andaman tsunami, with grid application is presented. Finally, the application of grid technology in large scale simulations of disease transmission dynamics is discussed.

Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Majid, Taksiah A.; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

347

[Disaster medicine: mission Haiti].  

PubMed

On January 12th, 2010, an earthquake of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale striked the southwest of Haiti, including the capital Port-au-Prince, and provoked immense human and material damages. Estimated number of victims is 300000 wounded, 230000 dead and 1000000 homeless. This disaster generated at once an immense and urgent need for sanitary resources. In this context, an emergency medical humanitarian mission was engaged by the Swiss Confederation (humanitarian aid depending on the Development and Cooperation Direction); this article describes this emergency mission, its progress, the committed staff and means, and the type of treated patients. PMID:20545263

Gamulin, A; Villiger, Y; Hagon, O

2010-05-12

348

The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan.  

PubMed

There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? ¹³?,¹³?Cs 1000?kBq m?²) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm³ (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

2012-05-25

349

Inverse estimation of source parameters of oceanic radioactivity dispersion models associated with the Fukushima accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With combined use of the ocean-atmosphere simulation models and field observation data, we evaluate the parameters associated with the total caesium-137 amounts of the direct release into the ocean and atmospheric deposition over the Western North Pacific caused by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that occurred in March 2011. The Green's function approach is adopted for the estimation of two parameters determining the total emission amounts for the period from 12 March to 6 May 2011. It is confirmed that the validity of the estimation depends on the simulation skill near FNPP. The total amount of the direct release is estimated as 5.5-5.9 × 1015 Bq, while that of the atmospheric deposition is estimated as 5.5-9.7 × 1015 Bq, which indicates broader range of the estimate than that of the direct release owing to uncertainty of the dispersion widely spread over the Western North Pacific.

Miyazawa, Y.; Masumoto, Y.; Varlamov, S. M.; Miyama, T.; Takigawa, M.; Honda, M.; Saino, T.

2012-10-01

350

Transport simulation of the radionuclide from the shelf to open ocean around Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate radionuclide distribution in the ocean due to direct emission from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) for the period from 21 March to 6 May 2011. Dispersion of Cesium-137 is modeled by a transport equation with advection and diffusion by three dimensional ocean current. The ocean current data are provided from a data-assimilative, tide-resolving ocean general circulation model with horizontal resolution of 1/36°. Results show that the radionuclide expands from the shelf region into open ocean in April by the ocean currents and farther transported eastward along the Kuroshio Extension front in May. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the mesoscale geostrophic currents basically governed the transport processes in the open ocean after April. In the shelf region, on the other hand, the wind-driven currents facilitate the north-south extension of the radionuclide distribution through the repeated generations of the shelf waves. Influences of tide and river discharges cannot be neglected.

Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Masumoto, Yukio; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Miyama, Toru

2012-12-01

351

Inverse estimation of source parameters of oceanic radioactivity dispersion models associated with the Fukushima accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With combined use of the ocean-atmosphere simulation models and field observation data, we evaluate the parameters associated with the total caesium-137 amounts of the direct release into the ocean and atmospheric deposition over the western North Pacific caused by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that occurred in March 2011. The Green's function approach is adopted for the estimation of two parameters determining the total emission amounts for the period from 12 March to 6 May 2011. It is confirmed that the validity of the estimation depends on the simulation skill near FNPP. The total amount of the direct release is estimated as 5.5-5.9 × 1015 Bq, while that of the atmospheric deposition is estimated as 5.5-9.7 × 1015 Bq, which indicates broader range of the estimate than that of the direct release owing to uncertainty of the dispersion widely spread over the western North Pacific.

Miyazawa, Y.; Masumoto, Y.; Varlamov, S. M.; Miyama, T.; Takigawa, M.; Honda, M.; Saino, T.

2013-04-01

352

Needs assessment: are Disaster Medical Assistance Teams up for the challenge of a pediatric disaster?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric patients are likely victims in a disaster and are more vulnerable in a disaster than adults, yet they have been essentially overlooked in disaster management according to the Pediatric Institute of Medicine Report. We did a needs assessment of Disaster Medical Assistance Teams regarding pediatric issues. Results were as follows: pediatric patients comprise a significant percentage of disaster victims

Sharon E. Mace; Andrew I. Bern

2007-01-01

353

Characteristics of the 2005 Hurricane Katrina Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hurricane Katrina disaster which struck the southern United States in August 2005 caused catastrophic damage extending over a broad area in the southern part of this advanced nation. The characteristics of the flood disaster caused by Hurricane Katrina, especially in New Orleans, are summarized below. 1) Low Probability but High Consequences (LPHC) type disaster This disaster was of LPHC

Teruko SATO; Tadashi NAKASU; Takeshi MIZUTANI; Hiroaki TSUBOKAWA; Yayoi HARAGUCHI; Koji DAIRAKU; Atsushi KATO; Saburo IKEDA

354

Linking Disaster Preparedness and Organizational Response Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model is developed to specify the relationship between organizational disaster preparedness and effective disaster response. Specifying this relationship clarifies the theoretical significance of the concept of preparedeness. The model shows how the concept of disaster preparedness. The model shows how the concept of disaster preparedenss applies to a broad range of social services when circumstances overwhelm the usual

Mahasweta M. Banerjee; David F. Gillespie

1994-01-01

355

Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

2010-01-01

356

[Doctor's behavior in disasters].  

PubMed

When facing a disaster outside of hospitals, physicians have to work in unfamiliar surroundings. Self-protection is the first priority: be aware of possible dangers of traffic, explosions, electricity, structural collapse and toxic gas. Arriving first, one should safe the scene of accident (e.g. breakdown triagle, turn off electricity) and try to get a general idea of what has occured. After that, call the rescue services (in Switzerland dial 144). Only once this ist done, should one begin treating patients. If the rescue services are at scene, look for the commander, usually fitted out with a warning west "Einsatzleiter" ("chef d'intervention" in the french speaking part of Switzerland). Introduce yourself (name, profession, skills and material). In disasters, fields other than medicine are often more important. Nevertheless, doctors can help with logical thinking, strong and agile hands and attentive listening. One should only do the tasks assigned. In situations with mass casualities, morbidity and mortality can be reduced by special measures. The most important for physicians is the Triage. Triage is the sorting of patients based on their need for treatment and transport with the available resources. Triage ist usually run by the most experienced doctor. PMID:18399181

Wälchli, Peter

2008-01-01

357

US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

2002-05-01

358

Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses.

Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

2012-01-01

359

Oxygen supplies in disaster management.  

PubMed

Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

2013-01-01

360

Applicability of health physics lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident to the Fukushima Daiichi accident.  

PubMed

The TMI-2 and Fukushima Daiichi accidents appear to be dissimilar because they involve different reactor types. However, the health physics related lessons learned from TMI-2 are applicable, and can enhance the Fukushima Daiichi recovery effort. PMID:22230016

Bevelacqua, J J

2011-11-10

361

Environmental Remediation Strategic Planning of Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

SciTech Connect

Environmntal Remediation Assessment and other respons decision making on Environmental monitoring, experiments and assessment. Preliminary assessment to grasp the overall picture and determine critical locations, phenomena, people, etc. Using simple methods and models.

Onishi, Yasuo

2011-12-01

362

DISASTER CARE FOR 15 MILLION CALIFORNIANS  

PubMed Central

The urgency of the crisis following a nuclear attack staggers the imagination. We would have thousands or millions of survivors making a desperate struggle to survive. Safe water supplies and waste-disposal systems would be gone. In some areas, there would be little or no food or shelter. Yet California has already manned a medical arsenal that is second to none in the United States. We have stored 115 emergency hospitals at strategic points, and through the county medical associations we have appointed cadres including physicians, nurses and technicians. Plans have been made for workers who will assist in setting up the hospitals and first aid stations. In our future operations we will continue to place strong emphasis on the medical phase of our program of disaster care. The program would be just as essential in the event of major natural disaster as nuclear war. Our objective is a simple one. We are seeking to preserve the human resources which are necessary for recovery. California's medical profession, with the allied professions of nursing and technical skills, has a vital interest in continuing operations to the maximum extent even under the most trying conditions.

Robinson, Harold G.

1960-01-01

363

Discussion - Next Step for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography  

SciTech Connect

Specification of Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography (FMT): (1) 18-feet (5.5-m) drift tube, 2-inch (5-cm) diameter; (2) 108 tubes per layer; (3) Unit layer = 2 layer (detection efficiency: 0.96 x 0.96 = 92%); (4) 12 or 16 layer per module; (5) 16 layers allows momentum analysis at 30% level; (6) 2 module per super module (5.5 x 11 m{sup 2}); and (7) FMT = 2 super module. By deploying MMT next to a research reactor, we will be able to measure the impact of low level radiation fields on muon tomography and reconstruction processes. Radiation level during reactor operation is {approx}50 {micro}Sv/h which provides similar radiation environment of inside the FMT radiation shield at Fukushima Daiichi. We will implement coincidence algorithm on the FPGA board.

Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

364

Long-range transport of particulate radionuclides from the Fukushima NPP accident: sensitivity analysis for wet deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides from the nuclear accident in the NPP Fukushima in March 2011 were transported across the northern hemisphere within a period of 2-3 weeks. Data from the radionuclide stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) can be used to follow the spread of the plumes for a long time. These "tracers of opportunity" enable the modelling community to validate key model parameterizations, most prominently wet deposition. The validation efforts, however, are impaired by the fact that the release sequence is initially not established. Meanwhile, ongoing scientific work has narrowed down the time period of the release of key species as well as the total release rate. The Meteorological and Geophysical Service of Austria, ZAMG, used the FLEXPART model for near-real-time calculation of the radionuclide dispersion from Fukushima Daiichi from March to May 2011. Based on the estimates for the release sequence meanwhile available, first sensitivity analyses of the FLEXPART model results based on different sets of precipitation data and different washout coefficients are performed.

Wotawa, G.; Skomorowski, P.

2012-04-01

365

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)|

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

366

Bottom-up disaster resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake highlights some of the successes of government-led schemes to mitigate the impact of natural disasters. A stronger focus on individuals and local communities could reduce losses even further in the future.

Chan, Emily Y. Y.

2013-05-01

367

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

368

Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.  

PubMed

This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. PMID:24157398

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

2013-11-01

369

Disaster Recovery in Workplace Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not only do large-scale disasters disrupt the personal lives of individuals, they also disrupt work lives and workplaces.?\\u000a Much has been written about organizational changes associated with common occurrences, like leadership transitions, competitive\\u000a adaptations, and mergers and acquisitions.? Less is known about how people and workplaces cope with and recover from extraordinary\\u000a circumstances, like the Hurricane Katrina disaster.? This chapter

Tracey E. Rizzuto

370

Disaster medicine: an emerging specialty.  

PubMed

The diverse nature of natural and man-made disasters demands a wide range of medical skills and resources from any attendant clinician. Working in a hostile environment may also require armed protection. This article considers the types of disasters, their medical requirements and the training of doctors wishing to be involved in this field of medicine. It includes a description of the Diploma in the Medical Care of Catastrophes. PMID:10858806

Lumley, J; Ryan, J

2000-04-01

371

Mitigating disaster losses through insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses from natural disasters have increased in recent years due to growth of population in hazard-prone areas and inadequate enforcement of building codes. This article first examines why homeowners have not voluntarily adopted cost-effective protective measures and have limited interest in purchasing insurance. It then proposes a disaster-management program which utilizes insurance coupled with well-enforced building codes to reduce future

Howard Kunreuther

1996-01-01

372

Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.  

PubMed

Contamination of the marine environment following the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant represented the most important artificial radioactive release flux into the sea ever known. The radioactive marine pollution came from atmospheric fallout onto the ocean, direct release of contaminated water from the plant and transport of radioactive pollution from leaching through contaminated soil. In the immediate vicinity of the plant (less than 500 m), the seawater concentrations reached 68,000 Bq.L(-1) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and exceeded 100,000 Bq.L(-1) for (131)I in early April. Due to the accidental context of the releases, it is difficult to estimate the total amount of radionuclides introduced into seawater from data obtained in the plant. An evaluation is proposed here, based on measurements performed in seawater for monitoring purposes. Quantities of (137)Cs in seawater in a 50-km area around the plant were calculated from interpolation of seawater measurements. The environmental halftime of seawater in this area is deduced from the time-evolution of these quantities. This halftime appeared constant at about 7 days for (137)Cs. These data allowed estimation of the amount of principal marine inputs and their evolution in time: a total of 27 PBq (12 PBq-41 PBq) of (137)Cs was estimated up to July 18. Even though this main release may be followed by residual inputs from the plant, river runoff and leakage from deposited sediments, it represents the principal source-term that must be accounted for future studies of the consequences of the accident on marine systems. The (137)Cs from Fukushima will remain detectable for several years throughout the North Pacific, and (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio will be a tracer for future studies. PMID:22172688

Bailly du Bois, P; Laguionie, P; Boust, D; Korsakissok, I; Didier, D; Fiévet, B

2011-12-14

373

Atmospheric Transport Modelling Activities at CTBTO in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an accidental radioactive release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, a spatial location of the source term was known and some reasonable hypotheses were made concerning the time of the emission. Consequently, tests of the performance of an atmospheric transport model operational at CTBTO, FLEXPART, were made. Initially, FLEXPART was run daily in an analysis-forecast mode using NCEP meteorological fields to predict the dates when detections of the radioactive material at the IMS radionuclide stations should be expected. In parallel, ECMWF meteorological analyses were used to drive FLEXPART in a purely diagnostic mode to check for possible better matches between model outputs and radionuclide measurements than those forecast by the NCEP-driven runs. Secondly, once the operational forecasting period at CTBTO came to an end, the ATM activities have been re-focused on the problem of inferring source location from the radionuclide measurements. In addition to radionuclide measurements, a source location algorithm needs outputs of FLEXPART backtracking calculations, Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields. The SRS fields allow to make a link between radionuclide stations and possible source locations and are computed at CTBTO for each IMS radionuclide station on a daily basis. Various subsets of detections made in the aftermath of the Fukushima release were used to test source location algorithm implemented in our visualisation and analysis software, WEB-Grape. Finally, similar analyses were performed replacing CTBTO SRS fields with the SRS fields provided by the co-operating Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) of WMO. In fact, the RSMCs support abnormal detections of radionuclides within the IMS network with the SRS calculations performed using their own atmospheric transport models fed with their own meteorological fields. The added value of the SRS fields provided by the RSMCs shall be illustrated.

Krysta, M.; Coyne, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Gheddou, A.; Stöhlker, U.

2012-04-01

374

Horizontal distribution of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton in the northwestern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of the 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing tsunami on 11 March 2011, inflicted heavy damage on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP1). Fission products were emitted, falling over a broad range in the Northern Hemisphere, and water contaminated with radionuclides leaked into the ocean. In this study, we described the horizontal distribution of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton and in seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean (500-2100 km from the FNPP1) 10 months after the accident. 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in zooplankton and seawater from all the stations. Because of its short half-life, the 134Cs detected in our samples could only be derived from the FNPP1 accident. The highest 137Cs activity in zooplankton was the same order of magnitude as it was one month after the accident, and average activity was one or two orders of magnitude higher than 137Cs activities observed before the accident around Japan. Horizontally, the radiocesium activity concentrations in zooplankton were high at around 25° N while those in surface seawater were high at around the transition area between the Kuroshio and the Oyashio currents (36-40° N). We observed subsurface radiocesium maxima in density range of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and the occurrence of many diel vertical migratory zooplankton. These suggested that the high activity concentrations in the subtropical zooplankton at around 25° N were connected to the subsurface radiocesium and active vertical migration of zooplankton. However, the high activity concentrations of radiocesium in subsurface seawater did not necessarily correlate with the higher radiocesium activity in zooplankton. Activity concentrations of radiocesium in zooplankton might be influenced not only by the environmental radiocesium activity concentrations but also by other factors, which are still unknown.

Kitamura, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Kawakami, H.; Cruz, E. C.; Fujikura, K.

2013-08-01

375

Radioactivity of honeys from poland after the fukushima accident.  

PubMed

Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years. PMID:24002443

Borawska, Maria H; Kapa?a, Jacek; Pu?cion-Jakubik, Anna; Horemba?a, Justyna; Markiewicz-?ukowska, Renata

2013-09-04

376

Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of 137Cs released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of global ocean circulation models, with horizontal mesh sizes of 0.5°, 0.25° and 0.1°, are used to estimate the long-term dispersion by ocean currents and mesoscale eddies of a slowly decaying tracer (half-life of 30 years, comparable to that of 137Cs) from the local waters off the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. The tracer was continuously injected into the coastal waters over some weeks; its subsequent spreading and dilution in the Pacific Ocean was then simulated for 10 years. The simulations do not include any data assimilation, and thus, do not account for the actual state of the local ocean currents during the release of highly contaminated water from the damaged plants in March-April 2011. An ensemble differing in initial current distributions illustrates their importance for the tracer patterns evolving during the first months, but suggests a minor relevance for the large-scale tracer distributions after 2-3 years. By then the tracer cloud has penetrated to depths of more than 400 m, spanning the western and central North Pacific between 25°N and 55°N, leading to a rapid dilution of concentrations. The rate of dilution declines in the following years, while the main tracer patch propagates eastward across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the coastal waters of North America after about 5-6 years. Tentatively assuming a value of 10 PBq for the net 137Cs input during the first weeks after the Fukushima incident, the simulation suggests a rapid dilution of peak radioactivity values to about 10 Bq m-3 during the first two years, followed by a gradual decline to 1-2 Bq m-3 over the next 4-7 years. The total peak radioactivity levels would then still be about twice the pre-Fukushima values.

Behrens, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Böning, Claus W.

2012-09-01

377

Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of Cs-137 released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of global ocean circulation models, with horizontal mesh sizes of 0.5°, 0.25° and 0.1°, are used to estimate the long-term dispersion by ocean currents and mesoscale eddies of a slowly decaying tracer (half-life of 30 years, comparable to that of Cs-137) from the local waters off the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. The tracer was continuously injected into the coastal waters over some weeks; its subsequent spreading and dilution in the Pacific Ocean was then simulated for 10 years. The simulations do not include any data assimilation, and thus, do not account for the actual state of the local ocean currents during the release of highly contaminated water from the damaged plants in March-April 2011. An ensemble differing in initial current distributions illustrates their importance for the tracer patterns evolving during the first months, but suggests a minor relevance for the large-scale tracer distributions after 2-3 years. By then the tracer cloud has penetrated to depths of more than 400 m, spanning the western and central North Pacific between 25°N and 55°N, leading to a rapid dilution of concentrations. The rate of dilution declines in the following years, while the main tracer patch propagates eastward across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the coastal waters of North America after about 5-6 years. Tentatively assuming a value of 10 PBq for the net Cs-137 input during the first weeks after the Fukushima incident, the simulation suggests a rapid dilution of peak radioactivity values to about 10 Bq m³ during the first two years, followed by a gradual decline to 1-2 Bq m³ over the next 4-7 years. The total peak radioactivity levels would then still be about twice the pre-Fukushima values.

Behrens, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Böning, Claus W.

2013-04-01

378

75 FR 29370 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12168 and 12169] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032 AGENCY...major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11...disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, dated 05/11/2010 is hereby...

2010-05-25

379

76 FR 35937 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12599 and 12600] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY...major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1976-DR), dated 05/19...disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, dated 05/19/2011 is hereby...

2011-06-20

380

75 FR 30870 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12168 and 12169] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032 AGENCY...major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11...disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, dated 05/11/2010 is hereby...

2010-06-02

381

76 FR 32387 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12599 and 12600] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY...major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1976-DR), dated 05/19...disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of KENTUCKY, dated 05/19/2011 is hereby...

2011-06-06

382

75 FR 32821 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12194 and 12195] Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038 AGENCY...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--1917--DR), dated 05...disaster declaration for the State of Oklahoma, dated 05/24/2010 is hereby...

2010-06-09

383

Mechanics of a Meltdown Explained  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS article explains the technical problems a nuclear reactor can face, prompted by the March 2011 Fukushima plant disaster. The article explains how a nuclear reactor works and which specific components can break.

2011-05-12

384

Social and Ethical Considerations of Nuclear Power Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new urgency is emerging around nuclear power development and this urgency is accentuated by the post-tsunami events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. This urgency extends beyond these dramatic events in Japan, however, to many other regions of the world and situations where nuclear power development is receiving renewed attention as an alternative to carbon-based energy

John R. Parkins; Randolph Haluza-DeLay

2011-01-01

385

Designing against Disaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil and structural engineers face a challenging task when designing buildings and other infrastructure. They have to account for a multitude of safety issues related to fire, floods, and natural disasters. That challenge is twofold with the additional risk of terrorism, because blast protection could be a major concern for high-profile structures.California's Golden Gate Bridge is in the process of being retrofitted for enhanced seismic stability. Details of the project and status reports can be found on the bridge's homepage (1). The seismic retrofit will allow the bridge to withstand earthquakes of 8.3 on the Richter scale, as opposed to its previous limit of only 7.0. A publication of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (2) outlines the risks and impacts of catastrophic earthquakes, and suggests a long term plan for research. The report considers many aspects of the subject, from risk management to community resilience after an earthquake. In a research paper from California State University (3), a terrorist blast protection system for buildings is proposed. The author combines the concept of a Blast Protective Structural Shield with an Earthquake Protective Building Buffer, and the results of the system in several configurations are discussed. A video clip demonstrating the system's effectiveness is also given. This article from the American Society of Civil Engineers (4) looks at some of the most important advancements in civil engineering. The second half of the article is especially interesting, since it examines design innovations in dams, bridges, and more. The foundation of the World Trade Center, which endured the towers' collapse remarkable well, is also highlighted. Fire is one of the most common causes of building damage, and this report (5) focuses on testing structural assemblies for fire resistance. Published in December 2002, the report surveys existing facilities that are capable of this kind of testing and outlines the need for further testing. Technologies for fire suppression systems are the topic of this paper from Canada's Institute for Research in Construction (6). It describes several different methods, but notes that there is not necessarily one optimal technique. Rather, different fire suppression methods should be used depending on the situation. This news article (7) links terrorist attacks to natural disasters. Citing a University of Colorado professor, it states that engineers and other emergency management workers have to prepare for terrorism in the same way as they have for earthquakes and hurricanes. Engineers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories are using computers to simulate the impact of terrorist bombs on critical infrastructure. This article (8) describes how the simulations model buildings and dams to determine the possibility of structural collapse.

Leske, Cavin.

2003-01-01

386

Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the corner stone to sustained risk reduction. We are able to look at the ongoing work by UNISDR and other partners to develop DRR indicators to track progress toward the goals outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action adopted by 168 countries in Kobe, Japan in January 2005. In addition, we can look at various global examples. Therefore the true question we shall address is whether or not the DRR indicators form a virtuous circle was created with risk reduction with a series of positive events triggering a self-perpetuating pattern of other positive occurrences or a vicious circle.

Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

2010-05-01

388

The ABC's of disaster response.  

PubMed

The readiness of our healthcare facilities to respond to terrorist acts or naturally occurring epidemics and disasters has been at the center of public attention since September 11, 2001. The many other tragic events that have occurred throughout the world since then further reinforce the need for all healthcare facilities and medical personnel to increase their level of preparedness if they wish to optimize outcomes. Maximizing survival rates and minimizing disability during any MCI hinges on rapid, seamless, and coordinated response between first responders and first receivers. The Incident Command System and the HEICS are organizational tools that form the foundation for such a rapid and coordinated response. The ICS provides a simple and adaptable management structure that is capable of being expanded or contracted to meet the needs of a specific situation. The HEICS adapts the ICS into the hospital setting and, in addition to the benefits stated above; its use of the ICS nomenclature and terminology facilitates the communication and the sharing of resources between all agencies and health care institutions involved. A basic knowledge and understanding of the ICS principles and structure is essential for all individuals participating in a disaster response. Previous efforts at disaster preparedness have focused predominantly on the pre-hospital and rescue phase of the disaster response, but a complete and coordinated community response requires creation of integrated disaster plans. True readiness can only be achieved by testing and modifying these plans through integrated simulation drills and table top exercises. Hospital-wide drills are essential to educate all staff members as to their institutional plan and serve as the only substitute at present to first hand experience. At present, there is no evidence-based literature to define what constitutes the best medical response by medical personnel within a disaster setting. This information will likely evolve over the next several decades as we now recognize Disaster Medicine as a separate scientific and medical entity. In the interim, we can develop and modify our response plans based on the "lessons learned" from past experience. Prior events have demonstrated that general surgeons and surgical subspecialists are critical components to a successful hospital response for the vast majority of all mass casualty incidents. Thus, surgeons must take responsibility for increasing their knowledge and understanding of basic disaster management principles and must play an active role in developing their institutional disaster plans. PMID:16425620

O'Neill, P A

2005-01-01

389

75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...definition of disaster to include ice storms and blizzards, deferred the additional payment on net...existing practice of treating ice storms and blizzards as disasters. Because ice storms and blizzards have previously qualified under...

2010-03-25

390

Plate Tectonics: The Worst Natural Disasters!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces students to earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes. It includes reports about specific disasters as well as a quiz. Each report contains vocabulary words linked with their definitions and experiments to similate the natural disasters.

391

76 FR 70368 - Disaster Designation Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Housing Service, and Rural Utilities Service USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule...with simplified procedures for designating USDA Secretarial disaster areas. Proposed changes...severe drought situations, and change the USDA Secretarial disaster designation...

2011-11-14

392

78 FR 48763 - Florida Disaster #FL-00090  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Holmes, Walton, Washington. The Interest Rates are...Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster...

2013-08-09

393

Military Nurses' Experience in Disaster Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to understand the essence of military nurses lived experience of responding to disasters. Specific aims were to explore experiences of military nurses who had been deployed into disaster environments and to examine the impact...

F. M. Rivers

2008-01-01

394

Discovery of cyclone induced East-Asian pollution transport to the lower stratosphere by airborne measurements of Fukushima Xe-133 and SO2: Potential implications for aerosol and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel and decisive experiment to investigate cyclone induced transport of East-Asian polluted planetary boundary layer air to the lower stratosphere. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant complex accident (12-16 March 2011) we have carried out airborne measurements of Fukushima Xe-133, SO2, and other anthropogenic pollutants. The measurements took place over Europe at altitudes up to 12 km. Xe-133 served as an ideal tracer with a well defined lifetime (half-live: 5.25 days) and a well defined release point. In addition we have conducted detailed air mass transport model simulations. Shortly after the accident, the Fukushima plume was lifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with cyclone. Already on 23 March, our first airborne mission detected the Fukushima plume in the lower stratosphere und upper troposphere above Central-Europe. On 14 April our second airborne mission still detected the substantially aged and diluted plume, which now covered most of the Northern-Hemisphere. Since mid-latitude East-Asia represents an important and still growing source of fossil fuel combustion generated SO2, our findings have potentially important implications for UTLS aerosol formation and eventually even for climate and the climate-engineering controversy.

Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Aufmhoff, H.; Reiter, A.; Simgen, H.; Lindemann, S.; Rauch, L.; Kaether, F.; Schumann, U.

2012-04-01

395

Pediatric patients in a disaster: part of the all-hazard, comprehensive approach to disaster management.  

PubMed

Disasters affect all ages of patients from the newborn to the elderly. Disaster emergency management includes all phases of comprehensive emergency management from preparedness to response and recovery. Disaster planning and management has frequently overlooked the unique issues involved in dealing with the pediatric victims of a disaster. The following will be addressed: disaster planning and management as related to pediatric patients and the integration of pediatric disaster management as part of an all-hazard, comprehensive emergency management approach. Key recommendations for dealing with children, infants, and special needs patients in a disaster are delineated. PMID:22916449

Mace, Sharon E; Doyle, Constance; Fuchs, Susan; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Koenig, Kristi L; Sorrentino, Annalise; Johnson, Ramon W

2012-01-01

396

Ready or not, disasters happen.  

PubMed

The New York State Nurses Association was--as was the entire country--plunged into disaster response mode by 9:30 am on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. Although the association had engaged in limited disaster planning prior to this event, that planning was in terms of an internal disaster such as a fire in our headquarters building. There was no plan for responding to a community catastrophe of the magnitude being experienced. The association faced unique challenges--including the fact that our New York City offices are located near ground zero--but was fortunate in having expert resource persons on staff and available to organize a response. Since September, the association has applied the lessons learned from this experience and developed a comprehensive disaster plan for the future. The purpose of this article is to share those lessons learned with the community of nursing associations in the hope that others can use the information to build effective disaster plans of their own. PMID:12410630

Orr, Martha L

2002-01-01

397

Disaster chains initiated by the Wenchuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wenchuan earthquake caused numerous landslides and avalanches, which initiated causal chains of geological and ecological\\u000a disasters. Field investigations and field experiments were performed in the earthquake area in 2008 and 2009 to study the\\u000a disaster chains. Four types of disaster chains have been identified and seven cases have been studied. In the disaster chains,\\u000a each episode was caused by

Mengzhen Xu; Zhaoyin Wang; Lijian Qi; Le Liu; Kang Zhang

398

Long-term simulations of the 137Cs dispersion from the Fukushima accident in the world ocean.  

PubMed

The LAMER calculation code was used for simulation of the distribution of (137)Cs released after the Fukushima accident into the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The maximum (137)Cs concentration predicted for surface waters of the open NW Pacific Ocean in 2012 (21 Bq/m(3) at 38 °N, 164 °E) will be comparable to that observed during the early 1960s after atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The (137)Cs in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean will reach the US coast 4-5 y after the accident, however, the levels will be low (<3 Bq/m(3)). All the North Pacific Ocean will be labeled with Fukushima (137)Cs 10 y after the accident with concentrations below 1 Bq/m(3). Thirty years after the accident the (137)Cs levels in the Pacific and Indian Oceans will be below 0.1 Bq/m(3), i.e. undetectable on the present global fallout background. The effective dose commitment with ingestion of marine biota found in 2012 in the open NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 1.7 ?Sv/y, mostly delivered by (134,137)Cs. The estimated dose is by about a factor of 500 lower than the present dose limit for the public. PMID:22244453

Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

2012-01-12

399

Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Estimated Radiation Doses for the Return to Residents' Homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42–7.2 µSv/h (3.7–63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011–0.38 µSv/h (0.010–3.3 mSv/y) within the 20–30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents’ homes after the FNPP accident.

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

2012-01-01

400

Application of ICP-DRC-MS to screening test of strontium and plutonium in environmental samples at Fukushima.  

PubMed

An application of sequential automated SPE separation equipment coupled to the quadrupole-based ICPMS instrumentation with a dynamic reaction cell such as a screening test system of (90)Sr and Pu isotopes in environmental samples was developed in this work. So far, during the course of a large number of reports as to various specific radioactivities in environmental samples surveyed at radioactive contaminated area around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FDNPP), there is a much smaller number of reports on (90)Sr and Pu isotopes than that of (134)Cs and (137)Cs since the FDNPP accident, and then it would be expected to develop the simple analysis method of these isotopes instead of radiation measurements currently in use. In particular, a screening for (90)Sr in environmental samples has been accomplished using an isotopic ratio measurement mode in comparison with the characterization on the Solid Phase Elution (SPE) separation between strontium and zirconium isotopes around the mass-90 fraction. As a result, for a trial analysis of environmental samples of a muddy snow water and a soil which were collected at Fukushima, it was found that the present developed system makes it applicable for achieving up to the specific activity levels of several hundreds Bq/kg ((90)Sr) and about 1-2Bq/kg (Pu isotopes) as the screening test system. PMID:23673254

Sakama, M; Nagano, Y; Saze, T; Higaki, S; Kitade, T; Izawa, N; Shikino, O; Nakayama, S

2013-04-02

401

Evaluation of environmental contamination and estimated radiation doses for the return to residents' homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima prefecture.  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42-7.2 µSv/h (3.7-63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011-0.38 µSv/h (0.010-3.3 mSv/y) within the 20-30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents' homes after the FNPP accident. PMID:23049869

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

2012-09-26

402

Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters  

PubMed Central

Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe

Chhabra, Vivek

2009-01-01

403

Modeling the effects of port disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather or terrorism-related disasters at seaports can lead to significant economic losses from vessel and cargo delays. In times of such disasters, port capacities and optimal shipment routings would change rapidly, requiring near real-time analyses for planning response operations. To address this challenge, we offer a decision support system to help port networks analyze disaster response scenarios. As part of

Jomon Aliyas Paul; Michael J Maloni

2010-01-01

404

Disaster Tolerant Computer and Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster Tolerance is the characteristic attributed to a system that can withstand a catastrophic failure and still function with some degree of normality. Disaster tolerance of computer and communication systems is described and methods for modeling this form of system robustness are described. Definitions and descriptions of disaster tolerant computing and communications systems are provided and related to more familiar

Stephen A. SZYGENDA; Mitchell A. THORNTON

405

Disaster Planning. ALIC Bibliography 1990-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 228 titles in this bibliography on disaster planning focus on disaster recovery measures, disaster preparedness, and/or preventive measures for museums, libraries, and archives. The journal articles and reports listed include guidelines and manuals as well as descriptions of programs and/or products having to do with the prevention or…

Churchville, Lida Holland, Comp.; Hale, Catherine, Comp.

406

Drug Disaster Prevention Act:A proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Japan has experienced many drug disasters due to systematic errors of drug development and post-marketing management. Objective:To propose fundamental solutions to prevent future drug disasters. Design and Methods:Narrative, non-systematic review of drug disaster cases and books and articles on them, especially focusing to the case of \\

Takeo Saio; Chieko Kurihara

2008-01-01

407

Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an

Elena Petrova

2010-01-01

408

Modeling Regional Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common features of natural disasters are intense regional impacts and the need for assessing their economic impacts on the construction sectors. The years 2004 and 2005 were record-setting time for natural disasters with major disasters or catastrophic (Cat) events all around the world with dramatic consequences in human lives and economic losses around the world, affecting developed and developing countries.

A. Boissonnade; S. Hallegate; R. Muir-Wood; M. Schlumberger; T. Onur

2007-01-01

409

Religions, natural hazards, and disasters: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This editorial serves as an introduction to the special issue of Religion on Religions, Natural Hazards, and Disasters. It sets out some conceptual background and briefly reviews the existing literature on religion, natural hazards, and disasters. It also provides a brief assessment of the role of religious and groups in reducing the risk of disasters.

J. C. Gaillard; P. Texier

2010-01-01

410

Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer…

Lobb, Nancy

411

Proceedings: Wide-Area Disaster Preparedness Conference  

SciTech Connect

Representatives of electric utilities, government agencies, research groups, and private industry met at the Disaster Preparedness Conference to study and discuss the most effective ways to plan for disasters. This conference provided the industry with an important forum for the exchange of information concerning several types of disasters and the experiences of leading utilities in coping with them.

None

1991-05-01

412

Rapidly Deployable Broadband Communications for Disaster Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of a rapidly deployable backb one communications system for disaster response. Although work on the system began in 2000, it is in tended for disasters like those that occurred on Se ptember 11, 2001. It illuminates the disaster site with RF that supports high-capacity (100 base T or Gigabit Ethe rnet) links to the outside world.

Charles W. Bostian; Scott F. Midkiff; Timothy M. Gallagher; Christian J. Rieser; Thomas W. Rondeau

413

E. H. Butler Library Disaster Preparedness Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The plan presented in this manual is designed to minimize the potential for disaster in the E. H. Butler Library at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and to minimize damage to materials in the event of a disaster. In addition to providing an emergency instruction sheet and a disaster contact list, the manual covers salvage priorities,…

Vaughan, Barbara; And Others

414

GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

2013-04-01

415

Markov Model of Accident Progression at Fukushima Daiichi  

SciTech Connect

On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake followed by a tsunami caused loss of offsite power and disabled the emergency diesel generators, leading to a prolonged station blackout at the Fukushima Daiichi site. After successful reactor trip for all operating reactors, the inability to remove decay heat over an extended period led to boil-off of the water inventory and fuel uncovery in Units 1-3. A significant amount of metal-water reaction occurred, as evidenced by the quantities of hydrogen generated that led to hydrogen explosions in the auxiliary buildings of the Units 1 & 3, and in the de-fuelled Unit 4. Although it was assumed that extensive fuel damage, including fuel melting, slumping, and relocation was likely to have occurred in the core of the affected reactors, the status of the fuel, vessel, and drywell was uncertain. To understand the possible evolution of the accident conditions at Fukushima Daiichi, a Markov model of the likely state of one of the reactors was constructed and executed under different assumptions regarding system performance and reliability. The Markov approach was selected for several reasons: It is a probabilistic model that provides flexibility in scenario construction and incorporates time dependence of different model states. It also readily allows for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of different failure and repair rates of cooling systems. While the analysis was motivated by a need to gain insight on the course of events for the damaged units at Fukushima Daiichi, the work reported here provides a more general analytical basis for studying and evaluating severe accident evolution over extended periods of time. This work was performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy to explore 'what-if' scenarios in the immediate aftermath of the accidents.

Cuadra A.; Bari R.; Cheng, L-Y; Ginsberg, T.; Lehner, J.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Mubayi, V.; Pratt, T.; Yue, M.

2012-11-11

416

Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.  

PubMed

The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio. PMID:23548474

de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

2013-03-30

417

[Thyroid cancer: lessons of chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima].  

PubMed

Results of epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer incidence in Russia following the Chernobyl accident are presented in the article. Child population in territories contaminated with radionuclides who got thyroid dose from incorporated (131)I above 100-150 mGy, should be referred to a group at radiation risk. Prognostic estimates of increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the population living in close vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP were made with account for the Chernobyl data and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:24000666

Ivanov, V K; Tsyb, A F

2013-01-01

418

Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN): Preparing Families for Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the American Red Cross (n.d.), less than half of Americans have an emergency preparedness plan in place. Therefore, it is critical that the Cooperative Extension System takes a role in encouraging the development of family preparedness plans. The Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) has developed a family and consumer sciences…

Washburn, Carolyn; Saunders, Kristine

2010-01-01

419

Development of a simple-material discrimination method with three plastic scintillator strips for visualizing nuclear reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster is a series of equipment failures and nuclear meltdowns, following the T¯o hoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. We present a new method for visualizing nuclear reactors. Muon radiography based on the multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons has been performed. In this work, we discuss experimental results obtained with a cost-effective simple detection system assembled with three plastic scintillator strips. Actually, we counted the number of muons that were not largely deflected by restricting the zenith angle in one direction to 0.8o. The system could discriminate Fe, Pb and C. Materials lighter than Pb can be also discriminated with this system. This method only resolves the average material distribution along the muon path. Therefore the user must make assumptions or interpretations about the structure, or must use more than one detector to resolve the three dimensional material distribution. By applying this method to time-dependent muon radiography, we can detect changes with time, rendering the method suitable for real-time monitoring applications, possibly providing useful information about the reaction process in a nuclear reactor such as burnup of fuels. In nuclear power technology, burnup (also known as fuel utilization) is a measure of how much energy is extracted from a primary nuclear fuel source. Monitoring the burnup of fuels as a nondestructive inspection technique can contribute to safer operation. In nuclear reactor, the total mass is conserved so that the system cannot be monitored by conventional muon radiography. A plastic scintillator is relatively small and easy to setup compared to a gas or layered scintillation system. Thus, we think this simple radiographic method has the potential to visualize a core directly in cases of normal operations or meltdown accidents. Finally, we considered only three materials as a first step in this work. Further research is required to improve the ability of imaging the material distribution in a mass-conserved system.

Takamatsu, k.; Tanaka, h.; Shoji, d.

2012-04-01

420

Ethics in disaster management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India and actions taken by the geoscientific community to correctly inform about the real situation.

Parkash, S.

2012-04-01