Sample records for full blood count

  1. Interpretation of the full blood count in systemic disease--a guide for the physician.

    PubMed

    Leach, M

    2014-01-01

    The full blood count (FBC) is perhaps the single most common investigation performed in medical patients. It has the potential, when interpreted carefully and in relation to the clinical history, to provide very useful information to assist in diagnosis and management. Clinicians are often alerted to the presence of a primary haematological disorder by abnormalities in the FBC. For the purpose of this review these diseases will not be discussed in detail but the reader will be alerted to pointers which might indicate primary blood disorders throughout the text. The haematology laboratory in large teaching hospitals will often provide up to 1,500 automated FBC analyses each day. These are individually checked for 'flags' provided by the analyser which indicate values outside the normal range. It is clearly essential that clinical information is provided with the request as this will influence how the result is handled by scientific and medical staff. Furthermore, significant abnormalities will generate a blood film request and the report will be most useful when interpreted in light of the patient's working diagnosis. In cases where a diagnosis is not yet known, even brief information on presentation, for example 'collapse with hypotension', 'fever on return to UK', 'weight loss and anorexia', can all be important and help the lab provide clinicians with guidance. This short review aims to provide physicians with a workable guide to the interpretation of some of the commoner findings in the full blood count. Some of these will be very familiar to you but some will not. This review is not meant to be exhaustive as the rare minutiae will obscure the essential core material. Your haematology colleagues are always happy to help and available for assistance in difficult or problematic cases. I have not specified normal ranges in relation to each entity as these will be defined by your local laboratory. PMID:24995446

  2. The use of the white cell count and haemoglobin in combination as an effective screen to predict the normality of the full blood count

    PubMed Central

    OSEI-BIMPONG, A; McLEAN, R; BHONDA, E; LEWIS, S M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The utility of the full blood count (FBC) is vast with each parameter serving as a tool to aid diagnosis and monitor disease progression. However, the effectiveness of the test is hampered because of increased workload and lack of interpretation. In the effort to redress this issue, the combined use of the white blood cell count (WBC) and haemoglobin in predicting the normality of the FBC is evaluated. Method FBC data were collated from 2191 patients and classified into two groups depending on whether the WBC and the haemoglobin were within the reference range. Blood films were examined on the abnormal FBC samples in each group and graded on morphology. Results The FBC was normal in 89.6% of cases in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin with subtle abnormalities in the remainder; 1+ grading of abnormal morphology in 93%. However, when the WBC and/or haemoglobin was abnormal, the remaining FBC was significantly abnormal (P < 0.05) and the corresponding blood films were grossly abnormal; 2+/3+ grading in 96% of cases. Conclusion We concluded that in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin, the FBC is normal in almost all cases and measuring these two parameters could be used as an effective screen to predict FBC normality. PMID:21883968

  3. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  4. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  5. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The skin should be cleaned with alcohol or iodine before the test. The patient should be seated ... which has many causes including: Blood loss Iron deficiency Deficiences of vitamin B12 or folic acid Bone ...

  6. Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

  7. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15?L of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  8. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS

    E-print Network

    DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 ABSTRACT In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea haretll(us haretll(us. the percentages reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from February 1969 through July 1969 from the Boothbay

  9. Prognostic Value of Elevated White Blood Cell Count in Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Schillaci; Matteo Pirro; Giacomo Pucci; Tiziana Ronti; Gaetano Vaudo; Massimo R. Mannarino; Carlo Porcellati; Elmo Mannarino

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to vascular injury and atherogenesis, and has been described in association to high blood pressure (BP). However, as yet the prognostic significance of white blood cell (WBC) count in the setting of uncomplicated hypertension has not been investigated.Methods: In the Progetto Ipertensione Umbria Monitoraggio Ambulatoriale (PIUMA) study, 1617 white patients with essential hypertension (aged

  10. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  11. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM’s captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  12. Effect of Streess on Blood Leucocyte and Milk Somatic Cell Counts in Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Wegner; J. D. Schuh; F. E. Nelson; G. H. Stott

    1976-01-01

    Blood and milk samples from Holstein cows were examined for total blood leucocyte count, differential blood leuco- cyte count, milk quality test, and somatic cell count in milk while the cows were stressed by corticotropin injection, con- finement in a heat-humidity chamber, or environmental-heat stress by exposure during the hot summer months of June through November in southern Arizona. All

  13. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

  14. Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice

    PubMed Central

    Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. PMID:24575274

  15. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood. PMID:20041968

  16. In vitro Assessment of Haemocyte and Thrombocyte Count from the Blood Clam of Anadara inequivalvis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suganthi; S. Bragadeeswaran; K. Prabhu; S. Sophia Rani; S. Vijayalakshmi; T. Balasubramanian

    The identificatio n and characterization of blood components and clotting time of Anadara inequivalvis were studied, specific identification procedure were made on the mollusc blood which have haemocytes and platelets. In order to find out more informations from blood components, clotting time, haemocyte count, platelet count and platelets aggregation, studies were carried out briefly. Our results illustrate the WBC and

  17. Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Julia C

    2011-01-01

    As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

  18. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  19. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

  20. Influence of Calicophoron microbothrium amphistomosis on the biochemical and blood cell counts of cattle.

    PubMed

    Mavenyengwa, M; Mukaratirwa, S; Monrad, J

    2010-12-01

    Sixteen Tuli steers aged 1 year were subdivided into four equal groups (I-IV) and infected with Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Group I received a low dose (LD) of 5000 metacercariae, group II a medium dose (MD) of 15,000 metacercariae, group III a high dose (HD) of 25,000 metacercariae while group IV was the non-infected control (C) group. The experimental animals were monitored daily for clinical signs while ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood and serum samples were collected every 7 days until day 28 post-infection, when sample collection was terminated. Samples were processed for full blood count, eosinophils and blood biochemical values for calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein and albumin. Moderate to severe diarrhoea developed in the MD and HD groups at day 21 post-infection. The diarrhoea coincided with a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total plasma protein, calcium and phosphorus levels, particularly in the MD group. Similarly, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the packed cell volume (PCV), the haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) levels occurred in the MD and HD groups from day 21 post-infection, while a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the circulating eosinophils occurred between 7 and 21 days post-infection in the LD and the HD groups. PMID:20109245

  1. Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Beck

    2006-12-08

    Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

  2. Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a counting system and number operations. Suggests six distinct areas in a "number" subject: one-to-one correspondences; simple counting process; complicated counting process; addition and multiplication; algorithms for the operations; and the decimal system. (YP)

  3. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  4. Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

    Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

  5. Blood Monocyte Count Is a Predictor of Total and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Kato; Takako Takita; Mitsuyoshi Furuhashi; Yukitaka Maruyama; Hiromichi Kumagai; Akira Hishida

    2008-01-01

    An increase in white blood cell (WBC) count is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, few studies have assessed the association of specific WBC subtypes with mortality. We prospectively studied the predictive value of WBC subtypes for total and cardiovascular death in 333 HD patients (age 63 ± 12 years; HD duration 129 ± 109 months)

  6. Full counting statistics of avalanche transport: An experiment J. Gabelli and B. Reulet

    E-print Network

    Full counting statistics of avalanche transport: An experiment J. Gabelli and B. Reulet Laboratoire of total charge Me with M 1. This avalanche is a statistical process, since the e-h pair creation occurs the measurement of higher order cumulants of the current fluctuations in an avalanche diode with a stationary dc

  7. DETERMINATION OF CARBON14 AND TRITIUM IN BLOOD AND OTHER WHOLE TISSUES. LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF TISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Herberg

    1960-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of carbon-14 and tritium in blood, heart, ; kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and muscle tissue was investigated. The dissolution ; of tissues into two different solvent systems and their counting are discussed. ; The effect of dilution of such solvent and color quenched solutions is shown. ; Some counting efficiencies obtained for carbon-14, tritium, and suIfur-35 in

  8. Preoperative White Blood Cell Count and Risk of 30-Day Readmission after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; Landis, R. Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Malenka, David J.; DiScipio, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4–16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000–12,000 and >12,000?mm3) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%–12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000–12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery. PMID:23970996

  9. Preoperative white blood cell count and risk of 30-day readmission after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremiah R; Landis, R Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S; Dacey, Lawrence J; Boss, Richard A; Helm, Robert E; Horton, Susan R; Hofmaster, Patricia; Jones, Cheryl; Desaulniers, Helen; Westbrook, Benjamin M; Duquette, Dennis; Leblond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D; Magnus, Patrick C; Malenka, David J; Discipio, Anthony W

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4-16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000-12,000 and >12,000?mm(3)) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%-12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000-12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery. PMID:23970996

  10. White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

  11. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  12. Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.

    PubMed

    Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load. PMID:25500519

  13. Variation in blood leucocytes, somatic cell count, yield and composition of milk of crossbred goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mainak Das; Mahendra Singh

    2000-01-01

    Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,

  14. Obesity and the White Blood Cell Count: Changes with Sustained Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Dixon; Paul E O' Brien

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition, and elevated white blood cell counts (WBC) have widely recognized\\u000a associations with inflammatory conditions. The authors explored the relationship between the WBC and degree of obesity, basic\\u000a anthropometry, and clinical and biochemical markers of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, and with weight loss following\\u000a Lap-Band surgery. Methods: 477 patients with complete biochemical and

  15. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  16. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  17. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals' absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  18. On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100,000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement. PMID:25631744

  19. Equation of motion method for Full Counting Statistics: Steady state superradiance

    E-print Network

    Malte Vogl; Gernot Schaller; Eckehard Schöll; Tobias Brandes

    2012-08-31

    For the multi-mode Dicke model in a transport setting that exhibits collective boson transmissions, we construct the equation of motion for the cumulant generating function. Approximating the exact system of equations at the level of cumulant generating function and system operators at lowest order, allows us to recover master equation results of the Full Counting Statistics for certain parameter regimes at very low cost of computation. The thermodynamic limit, that is not accessible with the master equation approach, can be derived analytically for different approximations.

  20. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  1. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  2. An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2014-09-01

    Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

  3. Majorana zero modes choose Euler numbers - revealed by full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2015-03-01

    We consider a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a Majorana zero mode and two normal leads and study transport properties of the system. We investigate the full counting statistics of charge tunneling events which allows one to extract information about current fluctuations in the system. Using Keldysh path-integral approach, we compute the cumulant generating function for the quantum dot with Majorana and normal lead couplings. We first consider a non-interacting spinless QD, and find that for the symmetric dot-lead couplings, the zero-frequency cumulants exhibit a universal pattern (Euler polynomial), independent of the microscopic parameters. For a spinful QD, the Coulomb interaction effects are discussed for both strong interaction (single-electron occupancy regime) and weak interactions (perturbative regime). In the latter case, the interactions do not change the universal pattern at small voltage bias. Compared to the case without Majorana coupling, we show that, while the tunneling conductance might exhibit zero-bias anomaly due to Majorana or Kondo physics, the full counting statistics are qualitatively different in the presence of the Majorana coupling.

  4. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  5. Full-counting statistics for molecular junctions: Fluctuation theorem and singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, Y.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Ueda, A.; Aharony, A.

    2013-03-01

    We study the full-counting statistics of charges transmitted through a single-level quantum dot weakly coupled to a local Einstein phonon which causes fluctuations in the dot energy. An analytic expression for the cumulant generating function, accurate up to second order in the electron-phonon coupling and valid for finite voltages and temperatures, is obtained in the extended wide-band limit. The result accounts for nonequilibrium phonon distributions induced by the source-drain bias voltage, and concomitantly satisfies the fluctuation theorem. Extending the counting field to the complex plane, we investigate the locations of possible singularities of the cumulant generating function, and exploit them to identify regimes in which the electron transfer is affected differently by the coupling to the phonons. Within a large-deviation analysis, we find a kink in the probability distribution, analogous to a first-order phase transition in thermodynamics, which would be a unique hallmark of the electron-phonon correlations. This kink reflects the fact that although inelastic scattering by the phonons once the voltage exceeds their frequency can scatter electrons opposite to the bias, this will never generate current flowing against the bias at zero temperature, in accordance with the fluctuation theorem.

  6. Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN WAIN; VO ANH HO; AMANDA M. WALSH; NGUYEN THI; TUYET HOA; CHRISTOPHER M. PARRY; NICHOLAS J. WHITE

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median

  7. Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.

  8. Full counting statistics of energy fluctuations in a driven quantum resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Clerk, A. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We consider the statistics of time-integrated energy fluctuations of a driven bosonic single-mode resonator, as measured by a quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, using the standard Keldysh prescription to define higher moments. We find that, due to an effective cascading of fluctuations, these statistics are surprisingly nonclassical: the low-temperature, quantum probability distribution is not equivalent to the high-temperature classical distribution evaluated at some effective temperature. Moreover, for a sufficiently large drive detuning and low temperatures, the Keldysh-ordered quasiprobability distribution characterizing these fluctuations fails to be positive-definite; this is similar to the full counting statistics of charge in superconducting systems. We argue that this indicates a kind of nonclassical behavior akin to that tested by Leggett-Garg inequalities.

  9. Full counting statistics and shot noise of cotunneling in quantum dots and single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    We develop a conceptually simple scheme based on a master-equation approach to evaluate the full-counting statistics (FCS) of elastic and inelastic off-resonant tunneling (cotunneling) in quantum dots (QDs) and molecules. We demonstrate the method by showing that it reproduces known results for the FCS and shot noise in the cotunneling regime. For a QD with an excited state, we obtain an analytic expression for the cumulant generating function (CGF) taking into account elastic and inelastic cotunneling. From the CGF we find that the shot noise above the inelastic threshold in the cotunneling regime is inherently super-Poissonian when external relaxation is weak. Furthermore, a complete picture of the shot noise across the different transport regimes is given. In the case where the excited state is a blocking state, strongly enhanced shot noise is predicted both in the resonant and cotunneling regimes.

  10. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells: guidelines for blood volume to process, based on CD34-positive blood cell count in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Anguita-Compagnon, A T; Dibarrart, M T; Palma, J; Paredes, L; Mosso, C; Montalva, R; Salas, L; Araos, D; Delgado, I; Majlis, A

    2010-01-01

    We report 189 mobilizations and 489 collections of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) performed in 139 autologous transplantation patients and in 28 donors for allogeneic transplantations whose ages ranged from 2-68 years. We observed a correlation (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.64) between CD34-positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units examined to estimate PBSC. In a subset of 287 collections (97 adults and 49 children) we obtained peripheral blood (PB) CD34-positive cell counts at 2 to 4 hours before leukapheresis. We noted a correlation between PB CD34-positive cell counts before leukapheresis and the number of CD34-positive cells per kilogram of body weight collected in the whole apheresis of the day (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.82). An even better correlation was obtained between PB CD34-positive cells preapheresis and the yield of each individual blood volume (BV) processed (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.87). Healthy donors and patients in each age group behaved similarly. In addition, the collection yield was greater among children than adults. These findings allowed us to develop a simple predictive model to estimate the BV to process for a target dose of CD34-positive cells per kilogram, based on the level of PBSC before apheresis in children and adults. PMID:20172346

  11. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  12. Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Barton; Howard W Wiener; Ronald T Acton

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown. METHODS: We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total

  13. Evaluation of the effect of one stage versus two stage full mouth disinfection on C-reactive protein and leucocyte count in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pabolu, Chandra Mohan; Mutthineni, Ramesh Babu; Chintala, Srikanth; Naheeda; Mutthineni, Navya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy is carried out in quadrant basis with 1-2 week interval. This time lag may result in re-infection of instrumented pocket and may impair healing. Therefore, a new approach to full-mouth non-surgical therapy to be completed within two consecutive days with full-mouth disinfection has been suggested. In periodontitis, leukocyte counts and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are likely to be slightly elevated, indicating the presence of infection or inflammation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of one stage and two stage non-surgical therapy on clinical parameters along with CRP levels and total white blood cell (TWBC) count. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients were selected and were divided into two groups. Group 1 received one stage full mouth dis-infection and Group 2 received two stages FMD. Plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, serum CRP and TWBC count were evaluated for both the groups at baseline and at 1 month post-treatment. Results: The results were analyzed using the Student t-test. Both treatment modalities lead to a significant improvement of the clinical and hematological parameters; however comparison between the two groups showed no significant difference after 1 month. Conclusion: The therapeutic intervention may have a systemic effect on blood count in periodontitis patients. Though one stage FMD had limited benefits over two stages FMD, the therapy can be accomplished in a shorter duration. PMID:24174726

  14. Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhan-Sheng; Song, Zhan-Chun; Bai, Jing-Hui; Li, Fei; Wu, Tao; Qi, Ji; Hu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC) and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM. Methods This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined. Results The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54–6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17–5.28, P = 0.024). Conclusion A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications. PMID:23690689

  15. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score???3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61?±?9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate?>?100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level?>?1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count?>?11,000/µL, use of ?-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count?>?11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio?=?3.028; 95% confidence interval?=?1.69-5.40, p?blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI. PMID:26060384

  16. Serum Uric Acid, Alanine Aminotransferase, Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cell Count Levels in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simavl?, Hüseyin; Bucak, Yasin Yücel; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdurmu?, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation (PEX), the most common cause of secondary glaucoma, has not been clearly identified, but there is increasing evidence that points out the role of oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used blood parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and uric acid (UA) levels, in subjects with PEX. Materials and Methods. This study is performed in a state hospital between November 2011 and December 2012. Retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent cataract surgery was performed. Thirty-one healthy subjects with PEX and 34 healthy subjects without PEX were evaluated. Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were recorded. Student's t-test was used to compare the two groups. Results. The mean age was 73.6 ± 14.1 years in PEX group and 70.1 ± 12.7 in control group (p = 0.293). Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels did not show a statistically significant difference among PEX and control groups (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusion. Serum levels of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were similar in subjects with and without PEX. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise role of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA in the pathogenesis of PEX.

  17. Effect of a New Oral Contraceptive with Drospirenone on Vital Signs, Complete Blood Count, Glucose, Electrolytes, Renal, and Liver Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surasak Taneepanichskul

    vital signs, complete blood count, glucose, electrolytes, and renal and liver function. Material and Method: An open-label non-comparative clinical trial was conducted. One hundred women who were planning to use oral contraception for at least six months were recruited. The subjects received a blister pack which contained 21 tablets of 3 mg drospirenone \\/30 µg ethinyl estradiol for the first

  18. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

  19. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

  20. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

  1. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

  2. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  3. Full counting statistics in disordered graphene at the Dirac point: From ballistics to diffusion A. Schuessler,1

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    Full counting statistics in disordered graphene at the Dirac point: From ballistics to diffusion A analytically both on ballistic and diffusive sides. In the ballistic regime, we use a diagrammatic technique and noise in ballistic graphene flakes.9­11 Recent advances in preparation and transport stud- ies

  4. Complete blood count parameters may have a role in diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eskiciogluą, Fatma; Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Calik, Esat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and healthy pregnancy differ with respect to complete blood count parameters and these parameters can be used both to explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms and differentiate the two conditions from each other. Methods: The data obtained from 37 women with GTD and 61 healthy pregnancies (control group) regarding platelet (PLT), mean PLT volume (MPV) and PLT distribution width (PDW), and white blood cell (WBC) levels were evaluated. Patients with GTD were further subdivided into two groups composed of 20 partial mole (PM) and 17 complete mole (CM) cases. Results: PDW and WBC were lower in the GTD than the control. There were no differences for PLT and MPV. WBC was lower in PM and both WBC and PDW were lower in CM compared with control. ROC curve analysis revealed an area under curve (AUC) 75.5% for WBC and AUC 69.3% for PDW. A cut-off value was determined 8.19 for WBC with 81.0% sensitivity and 54.1% specificity. While, 15.85 were accepted for PDW, with 87.9% sensitivity and 44.4% specificity. Conclusion: Lower WBC in GTD may suggest that molar pregnancy requires a lower inflammatory reaction facilitating trophoblastic invasion. Lower PDW as an indicator of platelet activation in CM may suggest that CM requires less PLT activation than healthy pregnancy that needs stronger trophoblast invasion for normal placental development. Decreased PDW levels especially < 15.85 and WBC levels < 8.19 may alert clinicians for risk of GTD.

  5. Normal values for peripheral blood white cell counts in women of four different ethnic origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bain; M Seed; I Godsland

    1984-01-01

    Total and differential white cell counts were studied in 399 women living in the same community in Britain but drawn from four different ethnic groups. The groups were white (northern European), Indian, black (African and West Indian), and Oriental. The total white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were significantly lower in the black group than in each of the

  6. Transient hyperoxia and cerebral blood flow velocity in infants born prematurely and at full term

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Niijima; D B Shortland; M I Levene; D H Evans

    1988-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hyperoxia on the cerebral circulation of human infants. Using duplex Doppler we measured the changes in cerebral blood flow velocity in a group of full term (n = 15) and premature infants (n = 17, median gestational age 31 weeks) in response to a transient threefold increase in oxygen tension. Measurements of blood

  7. Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi. PMID:9620400

  8. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  9. Relation of admission white blood cell count to left ventricular remodeling after anterior wall acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Anne; Ennezat, Pierre V; Tricot, Olivier; Lallemant, Robert; Aumégeat, Valérie; Segrestin, Benoit; Quandalle, Philippe; Lamblin, Nicolas; Bauters, Christophe

    2007-07-15

    We investigated whether a high white blood cell (WBC) count on admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be associated with a higher risk of subsequent left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We included 107 patients with anterior AMI. Echocardiographic studies were performed at hospital discharge, at 3 months, and at 1 year after AMI. LV remodeling (>20% increase in end-diastolic volume) was observed in 27% of patients. WBC counts during hospitalization were higher in patients who subsequently underwent LV remodeling (p = 0.003 for WBC count on admission). The increase in end-diastolic volume from baseline to 1 year was greater for patients in the higher tertile of WBC count on admission (p = 0.04). When adjusting for baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics by multivariate analysis, WBC count on admission was independently associated with LV remodeling (odds ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.45, p = 0.018). In conclusion, a high WBC count on admission for AMI is an independent predictor of LV remodeling, even when predischarge echocardiographic variables are taken into account. PMID:17631066

  10. White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – The Tromsř Study

    PubMed Central

    Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Brćkkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsř Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer. PMID:24023876

  11. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  12. Association of White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein with Outcomes in Children Hospitalized for Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Derek J; Hall, Matthew; Auger, Katherine A; Tieder, Joel S; Jerardi, Karen E; Queen, Mary Ann; Statile, Angela M; Myers, Angela L; Shah, Samir S

    2015-07-01

    We examined the association between baseline peripheral white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) values with outcomes among 153 children hospitalized with pneumonia. In multivariable analyses, CRP, but not white blood cell count, was significantly associated with both fever duration and hospital length of stay. For every 1mg/dL increase in CRP, length of stay increased by 1 hour. PMID:25961893

  13. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Angeloni; Giorgia Nicolini; Manuela Merli; Francesca Nicolao; Giorgio Pinto; Teresa Aronne; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Oliviero Riggio

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivePolymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in ascitic fluid is the most useful test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We evaluated the validity of an automated blood cell counter for the PMN determination in ascitic fluid by comparing it with the traditional hematologic method with a light microscope in a manual counting chamber.

  14. White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

  15. Baseline total and specific differential white blood cell counts and 5-year all-cause mortality in community-dwelling older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean X. Leng; Qian-Li Xuea; Yi Huang; Luigi Ferrucci; Linda P. Fried; Jeremy D. Walston

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation is associated with many pathophysiologic processes and mortality in older adults. Increase in total white blood cell (WBC) counts is recognized as an important cellular marker of systemic inflammation. However, relationships of total WBC and individual differential counts with mortality in older adults, particularly in older women, have not been adequately evaluated. To address this

  16. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome According to the White Blood Cell Count in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kim, Chul-Hee; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development. PMID:23549805

  17. Complete Blood Count Alterations after Six Months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Özdemir, Cengiz; Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Ayd?n, ?enay; Alt?n, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The cardiovascular complications caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decrease after continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and red cell distribution width (RDW) are newly recognized tools for assessing cardiovascular risk. Methods: From a selection of patients with symptoms of nocturnal snoring and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, 36 males with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 30/h and 22 age-matched normal male controls with AHI < 5/h were included. Patients with OSA underwent another night of CPAP titration, and 11 patients were excluded at the 6-month evaluation due to poor compliance with the home CPAP therapy. Complete blood count parameters of compliant patients and the control group were evaluated. Results: Compared to controls, MPV values were significantly higher (p = 0.025) in OSA patients, but no significant differences in PDW or RDW were found (p > 0.05). Six months of CPAP therapy resulted in significantly lower MPV values but increased values of PDW and RDW in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that complete blood count parameters in OSA patients such as MPV, PDW and RDW change significantly after CPAP therapy. Citation: Sökücü SN, Özdemir C, Dalar L, Karasulu L, Ayd?n ?, Alt?n S. Complete blood count alterations after six months of continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):873-878. PMID:25126033

  18. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. ... to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how ... white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count.

  19. Dynamics of Blood Count after Rheohemapheresis in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Possible Association with Clinical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Koš?ál, Milan; Bláha, Milan; Rencová, Eva; Lánská, Miriam; Rozsíval, Pavel; Kratochvilová, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rheohemapheresis (RHF) is a method that can stop the activity of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, and the effects of the RHF procedures extend beyond the time of the individual procedures. Patients and Methods. We present the data for 46 patients with AMD treated with a series of 8 rheohemapheretic procedures. Blood count parameters were measured before the first and the last procedures. The clinical effect was judged by changes in the drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) area before and after the rheopheretic sessions. Results. Rheopheresis caused a decrease in hemoglobin (P < 0.001), a decrease in leukocytes (P < 0.034), and an increase in platelets (P < 0.005). We found a negative correlation between the amount of platelets and their volume (P < 0.001, Pearson correlation coefficient: ?0.509). We identified the platelet/MPV ratio as a good predictor of the clinical outcome. Patients with a platelet/MPV ratio greater than 21.5 (before the last rheopheresis) had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.003, sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 80%). Conclusion. Several basic blood count parameters after RHF can be concluded to significantly change, with some of those changes correlating with the clinical results (reduction of the DPED area). PMID:24734249

  20. Laser Doppler blood flow imaging with a 64×64 pixel full custom CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D.; Nguyen, H. C.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Zhu, Y.; Crowe, J. A.; Morgan, S. P.; Clough, G. F.; Gill, C. A.

    2011-03-01

    Full field laser Doppler perfusion imaging offers advantages over scanning laser Doppler imaging as the effects of movement artifacts are reduced. The increased frame rate allows rapid changes in blood flow to be imaged. A custom made CMOS sensor offers several advantages over commercial cameras as the design can be optimized to the detected signals. For example, laser Doppler signals are known to have a bandwidth from DC up to ~20KHz and be of a low modulation depth. Therefore a design that can amplify the AC component and have a sampling rate and an antialiasing filter appropriate to the signal bandwidth would be beneficial. An additional advantage of custom made sensors is that on-chip processing of blood flow allows the data bottleneck that exists between the photo-detector array and processing electronics to be overcome, as the processed data can be read out from the image sensor to a PC or display at a low data rate. A fully integrated 64x64 pixel array for imaging blood flow is presented. On-chip analog signal processing is used to amplify the AC component, normalize the AC signal by the DC light intensity and provide anti-aliasing. On-chip digital signal processing is used to implement the filters required to calculate blood flow. The imaging array has been incorporated into a device that has been used in a clinical setting. Results are presented demonstrating changes in blood flow in occlusion and release tests.

  1. White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

  2. Probing the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot via full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot.

  3. Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the ...

  4. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrz?bski, Zbigniew; Zar?bska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimi?ski, ?ukasz; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  5. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Angeloni; Giorgia Nicolini; Manuela Merli; Francesca Nicolao; Giorgio Pinto; Teresa Aronne; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Oliviero Riggio

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in ascitic fluid is the most useful test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We evaluated the validity of an automated blood cell counter for the PMN determination in ascitic fluid by comparing it with the traditional hematologic method with a light microscope in a manual counting chamber.METHODS:A total of 130 ascitic fluid samples

  6. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C.; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crane, Paul K.; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B.; Carlson, Chris S.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e–55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy?/?). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn’s disease. PMID:22037903

  7. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  8. Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

  9. A rapid effect of handling on counts of white blood cells in a wintering passerine bird: a more practical measure of stress?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina C?rule; Tatjana Krama; Jolanta Vrublevska; Markus J. Rantala; Indrikis Krams

    Measuring circulating glucocorticoids is a widely used method to assess stress in animals. However, hormones must be sampled\\u000a within the first few minutes of capture, which makes it difficult to discriminate between hormone baseline levels and the\\u000a levels caused by capture and handling stress. The use of white blood cell (WBC) counts made from blood smears represents an\\u000a alternate method

  10. Short-Chain PEG Mixed-Monolayer Protected Gold Clusters Increase Clearance and Red Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carrie A.; Agrawal, Amanda C.; Balinski, Andrzej; Harkness, Kellen M.; Cliffel, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles have great potential as novel building blocks for the design of new drugs and therapeutics based on the easy ability to multifunctionalize them for biological targeting and drug activity. In order to create nanoparticles that are biocompatible in vivo, poly-ethylene glycol functional groups have been added to many previous multifunctionalized particles to eliminate non-specific binding. Recently, monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles with mercaptoglycine functionalities were shown to elicit deleterious effects on the kidney in vivo that were eliminated by incorporating a long-chain, mercapto-undecyl-tetraethylene glycol, at very high loadings into a mixed monolayer. These long-chain PEGs induced an immune response to the particle presumably generating an anti-PEG antibody as seen in other long-chain PEG-ylated nanoparticles in vivo. In the present work, we explore the in vivo effects of high and low percent ratios of a shorter chain, mercapto-tetraethylene glycol, within the monolayer using simple place-exchange reactions. The shorter chain PEG MPCs were expected to have better water solubility due to elimination of the alkyl chain, no toxicity, and long-term circulation in vivo. Shorter chain lengths at lower concentrations should not trigger the immune system into creating an anti-PEG antibody. We found that a 10% molar exchange of this short chain PEG within the monolayer met three of the desired goals: high water solubility, no toxicity, and no immune response as measured by white blood cell counts, but none of the short chain PEG mixed monolayer compositions enabled the nanoparticles to have a long circulation time within the blood as compared to mercapto-undecyl-ethylene glycol, which had a residence time of 4 weeks. We also compared the effects of a hydroxyl versus a carboxylic acid terminal functional group on the end of the PEG thiol on both clearance and immune response. The results indicate that short-chain length PEGs, regardless of termini, increase clearance rates compared to the previous long-chain PEG studies while carboxylated-termini increase red blood cell counts at high loadings. Given these findings, short-chain, alcohol-terminated PEG, exchanged at 10% was identified as a potential nanoparticle for further in vivo applications requiring short circulation lifetimes with desired features of no toxicity, no immune response, and high water solubility. PMID:21473648

  11. Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900?cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts. PMID:24876672

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

  13. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  14. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  15. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  16. Full-counting statistics of charge and spin transport in the transient regime: A nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gao-Min; Wang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    We report the investigation of full-counting statistics (FCS) of transferred charge and spin in the transient regime where the connection between central scattering region (quantum dot) and leads are turned on at t =0 . A general theoretical formulation for the generating function (GF) is presented using a nonequilibrium Green's function approach for the quantum dot system. In particular, we give a detailed derivation on how to use the method of path integral together with nonequilibrium Green's function technique to obtain the GF of FCS in electron transport systems based on the two-time quantum measurement scheme. The correct long-time limit of the formalism, the Levitov-Lesovik formula, is obtained. This formalism can be generalized to account for spin transport for the system with noncollinear spin as well as spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we have calculated the GF of spin-polarized transferred charge, transferred spin, as well as the spin transferred torque for a magnetic tunneling junction in the transient regime. The GF is compactly expressed by a functional determinant represented by Green's function and self-energy in the time domain. With this formalism, FCS in spintronics in the transient regime can be studied. We also extend this formalism to the quantum point contact system. For numerical results, we calculate the GF and various cumulants of a double quantum dot system connected by two leads in the transient regime. The signature of universal oscillation of FCS is identified. On top of the global oscillation, local oscillations are found in various cumulants as a result of the Rabi oscillation. Finally, the influence of the temperature is also examined.

  17. Impact of red blood cells count and high density lipoproteins with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Alon; Verdoia, Monica; Cassetti, Ettore; Barbieri, Lucia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    We have hypothesized that high red blood cells (RBC) count can potentially play an atheroprotective role in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. We, therefore, have investigated the relationship between high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) and RBC levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of mortality. Impaired lipid profile represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key factor in atherosclerosis disease development. RBC can mimic HDL's reverse cholesterol transportation with a potential atheroprotective role. Coronary angiography has been evaluated in 3,534 patients. Fasting samples were collected for haematology and lipids levels assessment. Coronary disease was defined for at least 1 vessel stenosis >50 %. Patients were divided according to HDL-C and RBC tertiles. Lower HDL-C was significantly associated to the prevalence of CAD (84.8 vs 78.5 vs 67.3 %, p ? 0.001; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.55 [1.3-1.8], p < 0.001) and severe CAD (30 % vs 30 % vs 24.4 %, p = 0.002; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.08 [1.01-1.16], p = 0.02), this relationship was maintained even dividing our population according to RBC tertiles (p < 0.001).In conclusion, HDL-C levels are directly related to RBC count and inversely to the prevalence and extent of coronary disease. Higher RBC levels can reduce the risk of CAD in patients with lower HDL-C levels, suggesting an important atheroprotective role. PMID:25680891

  18. Infused peripheral blood autograft absolute lymphocyte count correlates with day 15 absolute lymphocyte count and clinical outcome after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L F Porrata; M R Litzow; D J Inwards; D A Gastineau; S B Moore; A A Pineda; K L Bundy; D J Padley; D Persky; S M Ansell; I N M Micallef; S N Markovic

    2004-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count at day 15 (ALC-15) after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) is an independent prognostic factor for survival in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Factors affecting ALC-15 remain unknown. We hypothesized that dose of infused autograft lymphocytes (A-ALC) directly impacts upon ALC-15. A total of 190 consecutive NHL patients received A-ALC between 1993 and 2001. The primary

  19. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  20. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250693

  1. Prognostic effect of peripheral blood cell counts in advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP-like chemotherapy: A single institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; TASAKI, TOSHIKI; TAI, KATSUNORI; IKEGAYA, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, KAZUTAKA; NEGORO, EIJU; KISHI, SHINJI; YOSHIDA, AKIRA; IWASAKI, HIROMICHI; UEDA, TAKANORI

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to correlate blood cell counts (lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts) with early disease relapse following the attainment of complete remission (CR) by the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP)-like regimen in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In total, 30 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up period of 43 months. All the participating patients attained CR. In total, eight patients experienced relapse within two years of the diagnosis, and the three-year overall survival rate was recorded as 77%. The peripheral counts for lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, all of which have been reported to be prognostic in DLBCL, were assessed. None of these parameters were correlated with the incidence of early relapse or with the prognosis. The lymphocyte count was higher in the patients with durable remission than in those who relapsed, however, no significant differences were identified. Thus, the present study concluded that early disease relapse was not predicted by peripheral blood cell counts in advanced DLBCL that reached CR using the R-CHOP-like regimen. PMID:25621059

  2. Lymphocyte counts and functions in arterial and venous splenic blood of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Evidence for elimination of spontaneously DNA synthesizing cells in the spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, M; Holm, G; Askergren, J; Mellstedt, H

    1983-01-01

    Lymphocyte counts and functional competence of lymphocytes from arterial and venous splenic blood were studied in six patients with Hodgkin's disease subjected to splenectomy. One patient was untreated, four were tested after mantle field treatment and a sixth patient had a splenic relapse after total nodal radiotherapy. The percentage of E binding cells in splenic venous blood was lower than that of arterial blood though no significant differences were found in total lymphocyte or E binding cell counts. The spontaneous lymphocyte DNA synthesis was lower in venous than in arterial splenic lymphocytes in all patients. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced DNA synthesis was much lower in lymphocytes from splenic venous blood than in those from arterial blood in two patients and marginally decreased in another two. The pattern of concanavalin A response was similar to that of PWM. The elimination of lymphocytes over the spleen could not be related to the presence of lymphocytotoxic serum factors or to splenic weight or histologically verified tumour involvement. The results support the notion that some facets of the blood lymphocyte abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease may be explained by removal of functionally active lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen. It is also concluded that spontaneously activated lymphoid cells are detained in the spleen. PMID:6872314

  3. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  4. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  5. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chapters My Chapter All Chapters Contact Contact LLS Tech Support Work at LLS LLS en Espanol LLS ... Chapters My Chapter All Chapters Contact Contact LLS Tech Support Work at LLS Global LLS en Espanol ...

  6. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily chemotherapy that followed his diagnosis with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Though his treatments continue (3-1/2 years in total), ... Lymphoma Survivor The Woodlands, TX I was diagnosed with ...

  7. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B12 or folate deficiency , myelodysplasia, liver disease , hypothyroidism MCH Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (See reference range ) Mirrors ... in burn patients, and hereditary spherocytosis, a rare congenital disorder. RDW (Not always reported) RBC Distribution Width ...

  8. Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

    2006-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

  9. Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Rhiannon S.; Hyland, Catherine A.; Flower, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV) mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety. PMID:25408849

  10. Heterogeneous histochemical reaction pattern of the lectin Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia with blood vessels of human full-term placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Lang; Tom Hahn; Gottfried Dohr; Gerhard Skofitsch; Gernot Desoye

    1994-01-01

    Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS-I) stains vascular endothelium in various species. In humans, less than 10% of the specimens studied exhibit a reaction with BS-I. In the present histochemical study, the reactivity of BS-I with placental blood vessels and its correlation with the blood group from mother and newborn child was investigated. Acetone-fixed cryosections of representative tissue segments of human full-term

  11. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8?×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3?×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46? mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10 ?mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P?50 ?mg/L and WBC count >15?×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50? mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15?×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48 ?hours). PMID:25738473

  12. Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hänscheid; Matthias Längin; Bertrand Lell; Marc Pötschke; Sunny Oyakhirome; Peter G Kremsner; Martin P Grobusch

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. METHODS: Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment,

  13. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

  14. 70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

  15. Blood pressure in non-critically ill preterm and full-term neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijana Pejovic; Amira Peco-Antic; Jelena Marinkovic-Eric

    2007-01-01

    The neonatal period is a time of extensive hemodynamic changes. It is expected that these changes are most prominent in premature\\u000a infants during the first week of life. The aim of this study was to examine arterial blood pressure (BP) measured by an oscillometric\\u000a device in the first month of life in a stable premature population admitted to our neonatal

  16. Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood cell counts and the Dst

    E-print Network

    Dasso, Sergio

    Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood. Erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes play a key role in living systems because they are responsible is found in both series. KEY WORDS: Bio-geomagnetism, Dst index, erythrocytes, blood cells, space weather

  17. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratory’s routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  18. Is the blood basophil count sufficiently precise, accurate, and specific?: three automated hematology instruments and flow cytometry compared.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Erik K; Henriksson, Carola E; Holthe, Mette R; Urdal, Petter

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of the basophil count of 3 hematology instruments with a flow cytometric method (FCM) in which CD123 and CD193 were used as basophil markers. By analyzing 112 patient samples, we found the ADVIA 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL) and CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) to underestimate the number of basophils by approximately 50% and the Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) and ADVIA to overestimate the basophil count in some samples with pathologic leukocytes. All 3 instruments had large (25%-50%) analytic within-run coefficients of variation. Compared with the FCM, we found a relatively good correlation for the CELL-DYN basophil count (r = 0.81), an intermediate correlation for the Sysmex (r = 0.64), and a poor correlation for the ADVIA (r = 0.24). When excluding the 52 samples flagged for the presence of pathologic leukocytes, these correlations were found to be 0.84, 0.90, and 0.57, respectively. The basophil count of the 3 instruments is, at least presently, of unsatisfactory quality. PMID:22180481

  19. Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

  20. A study of blood flow dynamics in flap delay using the full-field laser perfusion imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zijing Du; Tao Zan; Hua Li; Qingfeng Li

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial to monitor spatio-temporal changes in the microcirculation of flaps. A laser speckle imaging technique based on speckle contrast analysis compensates for disadvantages and can assess regional blood flow distribution at high resolution. In this paper, temporal changes in circulation were investigated with full-field laser perfusion imaging (FLPI) in rat dorsal delay random flaps. Twenty Sprague–Dawley rats were

  1. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  2. The influences of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood cell counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Tsoy-Ing; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Chao, Tsu-Yi

    2006-01-01

    After surgery, breast cancer patients are offered adjuvant chemotherapy to avoid cancer cell spread. During chemotherapy process, neutrophils could fall relatively, and side effects could spike to the peak. Therefore, the medical care personnel should prevent the progression of the side effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The experiment group (n = 32) received a 21-day Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy, whereas the control group (n = 35) did not. White blood cells, platelet, and hemoglobin were measured on the day before chemotherapy and on days 8, 15, and 22 during chemotherapy. According to this study, there were significant differences in white blood cells (F = 115.76, P <.001), platelets (F = 25.29, P <.001), and hemoglobin (F = 15.39, P <.001) over the 3-week therapy between the experiment and control groups. Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy may decrease leukopenia in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It is recommended conducting more studies on qi-gong and then introducing it in clinical nursing practice at an appropriate time to promote quality of nursing care and quality of patient life. PMID:16565626

  3. A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C. [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

    1996-08-09

    Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of CD4 Count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan I Shapiro; David J Karras; Stephen H Leech; Katherine L Heilpern

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (white blood count×lymphocyte percentage) can be used to predict a low CD4 count. Methods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of consecutive CD4 count analyses performed between January 1, 1995, through December 1, 1995, at an urban university teaching hospital. Results of consecutive CD4 counts and simultaneously measured ALCs were

  5. Affordable CD4+ T cell counts by flow cytometry. II. The use of fixed whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Jani, V; Janossy, G; Iqbal, A; Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E F; Biberfeld, G; Glencross, D K; Scott, L; Reilly, J T; Granger, V; Barnett, D

    2001-11-01

    We tested the feasibility and precision of affordable CD4+ T cell counting in resource-poor settings using a recently standardised fixative, TransFix in whole blood (WB) by flow cytometry (FCM). The precision of the assays was established under optimal conditions for single-platform FCM such as the volumetric CytoronAbsolute and the bead-based FACSCan. Fresh WB samples from HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients were tested in Tanzania and South Africa, fixed and sent to the UK for reanalysis 7 days later. Correlation, bias and limits of agreements were analysed by linear regression and the Bland-Altman test. Absolute CD4+ T cell counts remained stable for at least 10 days when TransFix was added to WB in 1:10 dilution at 20-25 degrees C, and for 7 days when added in 1:10 or 1:5 dilution to samples stored to mimic 'tropical' conditions at 37 degrees C. Higher temperatures such as 42 degrees C were tolerated for only short periods since the recovery had decreased to 63% by day 3. The reproducibility of lymphocyte subset analysis remained unchanged by TransFix with coefficient of variations <6% for all T cell subsets. Absolute CD4+ T cell counts and CD4+ T cell % values on fixed samples in the UK showed a high correlation with the results using fresh samples in Tanzania (r=0.993 and 0.969, respectively) and with the samples handled in Johannesburg (r=0.991 and 0.981) with minimal bias. Primary CD4 gating using only a single CD4 antibody also remained accurate in TransFixed samples (r=0.999). Thus, TransFix permits optimal fixation and transport of WB samples in the developing world for FCM to local regional laboratories and for quality assurance in international centres. When used together with inexpensive primary CD4 gating, TransFix will allow reliable and affordable CD4+ T cell counting by FCM in resource-poor settings. PMID:11687248

  6. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  7. Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masato; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Yamada, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some specific atoms such as Fe and Zn were obtained from photon-counting calculations. An energy resolution of 220 eV at the Fe K{alpha} line was obtained from the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by the photon-counting method. The newly developed three-dimensional element mappings of the specific atoms were accomplished by the photon-counting method and a reconstruction technique using computed tomography.

  8. The effect of cigarettes smoking on the blood counts of T and NK cells in subjects with occupational exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Moszczy?ski, P; Rutowski, J; S?owi?ski, S

    1996-09-01

    The study was carried out in a population of 139 men, divided into two control groups: 40 non-smokers and 39 smokers not exposed to chemical compounds, and two groups exposed to them: 19 non-smokers and 41 cigarette smokers with occupational contact with organic solvents. The results of toxicological analyses of air and chromatographic analyses of solvents demonstrated the presence of benzene, toluene, xylene and their partly hydrogenated derivatives, paraffin hydrocarbons, oleins, naphthenes (components of painter's naphtha), monohydric and polyhydric alcohols (butanol, cyclohexanol, butylene glycol) esters (ethyleneglycol acetate, butyl acetate) and ketones (methylisobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone). In the time of the studies the TWA values for benzene were 0 to 38 mg x m-3 (0 to 12 ppm), with arithmetic mean averages of about 19 mg x m-3 (6 ppm) and for the level of benzene 0-351 mg x m-3 (0-110 ppm) with arithmetic mean annual averages of about 48 mg x m-3 (15 ppm). Mean phenol concentration in the urine of the workers in groups I, II, III and IV respectively was: 7.9 +/- 3.5; 10.0 +/- 5.8; 16.8 +/- 6.2 and 18.4 +/- 9.7 mg x l-1. Hippuric acid concentration in the urine of the workers in groups I to IV was: 496 +/- 326, 538 +/- 341, 982 +/- 420 and 1107 +/- 507 mg x l-1 respectively. The absolute counts were determined of T-cells (CD 3+), T-helper (CD 4+), T-suppressor (CD 8+) cells and natural killer (NK) cells (CD 16+) in the peripheral blood by indirect immunofluorescence. In the subjects with occupational exposure to organic solvents the counts of T-cells and NK-cells were reduced, and the number of T-suppressor cells was raised which resulted in a decrease of the T-helper/T-suppressor ratio. These changes were more pronounced in cigarette smokers. The assessment of the immunotoxic effect of organic solvents during occupational exposure should take into consideration the possibility of a synergistic action with tobacco and may be of practical use for monitoring the toxic effect of organic solvents on the lymphocyte system. PMID:8884050

  9. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies.

    PubMed

    Vaitkevi?ien?, Goda; Forestier, Erik; Hellebostad, Marit; Heyman, Mats; Jonsson, Olafur G; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Rosthoej, Susanne; Söderhäll, Stefan; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1-15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). Ten-year event-free (pEFS(10 y)) survival and overall (pOS(10 y)) survival were 0.75 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively. Although treatment intensity was determined by WBC, non-remission and relapsed patients still had significantly higher WBC than those in remission for B-cell precursor (BCP) (median WBC: 24.8 vs. 14.0 vs. 8.3 × 10(9) /L, P < 0.001), but not for T-lineage (T-ALL) (median WBC: 127.8 vs. 113.0 vs. 86.8 × 10(9) /L, P = 0.22). pEFS was inversely related to WBC for BCP (P < 0.001), but not for T-ALL. WBC was not associated with risk of event for BCP or T-ALL for patients with minimal residual disease at the end of induction (MRD(d29) ) <10(-3). In contrast, for MRD(d29) ? 10(-3) and <5% leukaemic blasts in bone marrow at day 29, the pEFS(5 y) for WBC < 100.0 (N = 152) vs. ? 100.0 (N = 19) was 0.76 vs. 0.50 (P = 0.001). That was the case both for BCP (pEFS(5 y) 0.76 vs. 0.58) and for T-ALL (pEFS(5 y) 0.71 vs. 0.38). Whether the inferior EFS for the subset of patients with high WBC and slow initial response to treatment reflects rare or overlooked cytogenetic aberrations as well as the factors that determine WBC levels at diagnosis awaits exploration. PMID:21077959

  10. The measurement of red blood cell volume change induced by Ca2+ based on full field quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Ji Yong; Yang, Wenzhong; Kim, Dug Young

    2009-02-01

    We present the measurement of red blood cell (RBC) volume change induced by Ca2+ for a live cell imaging with full field quantitative phase microscopy (FFQPM). FFQPM is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer combined with an inverted microscopy system. We present the effective method to obtain a clear image and an accurate volume of the cells. An edge detection technique is used to accurately resolve the boundary between the cell line and the suspension medium. The measurement of the polystyrene bead diameter and volume has been demonstrated the validity of our proposed method. The measured phase profile can be easily converted into thickness profile. The measured polystyrene bead volume and the simulated result are about 14.74 ?m3 and 14.14 ?m3, respectively. The experimental results of our proposed method agree well with the simulated results within less than 4 %. We have also measured the volume variation of a single RBC on a millisecond time scale. Its mean volume is 54.02 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.52 ?m3. With the proposed system, the shape and volume changes of RBC induced by the increased intracellular Ca2+ are measured after adding ionophore A23187. A discocyte RBC is deformed to a spherocyte due to the increased intracellular Ca2+ in RBC. The volume of the spherocyte is 47.88 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.19 ?m3. We have demonstrated that the volume measurement technique is easy, accurate, and robust method with high volume sensitivity (<0.0000452 ?m3) and this provides the ability to study a biological phenomenon in Hematology.

  11. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

  12. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  13. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Changes in Circulating Cytokines, Soluble Cytokine Receptors, and White Blood Cell Subset Counts in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) After Monoclonal Anti-TNF? Antibody Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiro Ohshima; Yukihiko Saeki; Toru Mima; Mitsuko Sasai; Katsuhiro Nishioka; Hiroshi Ishida; Masatoshi Shimizu; Masaki Suemura; Richard McCloskey; Tadamitsu Kishimoto

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the long-lasting efficacy of chimeric monoclonal anti-TNFa antibody (cA2) therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight patients with refractory RA were treated with a single infusion of cA2 and the changes in circulating cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFa, and IL-10), soluble cytokine receptors (TNF-RI, RII, and sIL-6R) and peripheral white blood cell (WBC) subset counts were followed

  15. Counting Quail

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    at least three counts. Helicopter surveys Aerial surveys (conducted from a helicopter or airplane) are commonly used to count deer and pronghorn antelope in Texas, and have been used recently to survey quail. Generally, a quail survey is conducted...

  16. Let's Count!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-20

    Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

  17. Count Around

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-23

    Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

  18. Photon counting.

    PubMed

    Morton, G A

    1968-01-01

    The fundamentals of photon counting using photomultipliers are described, including criteria for selecting suitable photomultipliers, some of the precautions that must be taken in using these devices, and methods of calculating the counting errors that may occur under various conditions of measurement. Problems of determining the time distribution of photons and, in particular, the coincident emission of photons which may be encountered in lasers and other simulated emission sources are also discussed. The question of photon counting with photoconductors is reviewed, and it is shown that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve photon counting with simple photoconductors. However, carrier multiplication with photoconductive multipliers should eventually make possible photon counting with photoconductors. Photoconductive multipliers in one form or another have high quantum efficiency and wide spectral response, and will almost inevitably replace photomultipliers for photon counting. PMID:20062394

  19. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bunn

    2010-10-30

    Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

  20. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different labs. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens. ...

  1. Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

    1984-01-01

    Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

  2. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

  3. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    thorsen

    2012-11-24

    We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

  4. Clock Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. McDuffee

    2008-11-12

    Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

  5. Compressed Counting

    E-print Network

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Counting is among the most fundamental operations in computing. For example, counting the pth frequency moment has been a very active area of research, in theoretical computer science, databases, and data mining. When p=1, the task (i.e., counting the sum) can be accomplished using a simple counter. Compressed Counting (CC) is proposed for efficiently computing the pth frequency moment of a data stream signal A_t, where 0= 0, which includes the strict Turnstile model as a special case. For natural data streams encountered in practice, this restriction is minor. The underly technique for CC is what we call skewed stable random projections, which captures the intuition that, when p=1 a simple counter suffices, and when p = 1+/\\Delta with small \\Delta, the sample complexity of a counter system should be low (continuously as a function of \\Delta). We show at small \\Delta the sample complexity (number of projections) k = O(1/\\epsilon) instead of O(1/\\epsilon^2). Compressed Counting can serve a basic building block...

  6. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  7. Biodiversity Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

    In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

  8. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  9. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K12, Inc.

    2011-03-23

    In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

  10. Platelet Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tests , Blood Smear , von Willebrand Factor , HIT Antibody , Coagulation Factors , PT and INR , PTT , JAK2 Mutation At ... function of platelets, and other tests that evaluate coagulation such as PT and PTT . If results are ...

  11. Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.

    E-print Network

    Loughry, Jim

    Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

  12. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    areese

    2008-09-25

    Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

  13. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  14. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

  15. Biodiversity Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

  16. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Contribute to the FABC ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... Our Partners PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  17. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Contribute to the FABC ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... someone's future. PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  18. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  19. Leukocyte Count and Vascular Risk in Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Ovbiagele; Michael J. Lynn; Jeffrey L. Saver; Marc I. Chimowitz

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few data exist about the prognostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC) count among patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between WBC count and vascular risk in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease(WASID) study. Methods: The relationships between baseline serum WBC count (categorized into quartiles) and both ischemic

  20. Counting whole numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hirst

    2007-10-12

    Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

  1. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  2. Peripheral circulation in the newborn: Interaction of peripheral blood flow, blood pressure, blood volume, and blood viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Linderkamp; I. Strohhacker; H. T. Versmold; H. Klose; K. P. Riegel; K. Betke

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood flow and systolic blood pressure (strain-gauge plethysmograph), blood volume (Evans blue) and whole blood viscosity (cone-plate viscometer) have been measured in 66 premature and full-term infants 6 to 144h of age. Blood flow and blood volume were moderately decreased in the infants with respiratory distress. Highly significant (Pr=0.77), blood pressure and blood volume (r=0.50), peripheral resistance and blood

  3. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  4. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

  5. First hepatitis B virus full-length genomic study among blood donors from Argentina: unexpected mutations in the circulating subgenotypes' proteins.

    PubMed

    Delfino, C M; Berini, C; Pedrozo, W; Malan, R; Blejer, J; Oubińa, J R; Biglione, M M; Mathet, V L

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health concern. The circulation of strains carrying mutations in the viral proteins implies both clinical and therapeutics challenges. HBV complete genomes (HBV-CGs) were reported from injecting drug users and HBV chronically infected patients from Argentina-including Amerindians-although no studies were conducted in blood donors. Here, we described HBV-CG sequences from the latter population. Some of the HBV sequences classified as B2 and C2 subgenotypes clustering together with Asian isolates, while others, such as D3, F1b, and F4, were homologous to European and Latin America sequences. New substitutions for all analyzed open reading frames and changes in the HBsAg hydrophobicity profiles were detected. Several HBV-CG subgenotypes are described for the first time in this population. Mutations observed in X, PreS, and P proteins have been associated with advanced liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and/or natural resistance to nucleos(t)ide antiviral treatment. It deserves to be highlighted that these substitutions were detected in a population without epidemiological risk factors for viral infection, and most importantly, without any previous antiviral treatment (natural resistance). Regarding the remaining mutations, further research is warranted in order to determine their clinical and therapeutics relevance. PMID:25537951

  6. Digital image analysis of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and accurate counts of red blood cells (RBCs), nucleated RBCs, platelets, and white blood cells (WBCs) (total and differential WBCs) are important requirements for a hematology laboratory. The detection of abnormal blood cell populations and the recognition of pathologic distributions of leukocytes are also of clinical importance. Manual microscopy counts are still required when a sample is flagged by the hematology analyzer and are still the reference method for WBC differential counts. Automated microscopy analyzers can provide accurate WBC differential counts, which may replace manual microscopy, but should not replace the eye of the cytologist. PMID:25676375

  7. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Nalls; David J. Couper; Toshiko Tanaka; Frank J. A. van Rooij; Ming-Huei Chen; Albert V. Smith; Daniela Toniolo; Neil A. Zakai; Qiong Yang; Andreas Greinacher; Andrew R. Wood; Melissa Garcia; Paolo Gasparini; Yongmei Liu; Thomas Lumley; Aaron R. Folsom; Alex P. Reiner; Christian Gieger; Vasiliki Lagou; Janine F. Felix; Henry Völzke; Natalia A. Gouskova; Alessandro Biffi; Angela Döring; Uwe Völker; Sean Chong; Kerri L. Wiggins; Augusto Rendon; Abbas Dehghan; Matt Moore; Kent Taylor; James G. Wilson; Guillaume Lettre; Albert Hofman; Joshua C. Bis; Nicola Pirastu; Caroline S. Fox; Christa Meisinger; Jennifer Sambrook; Sampath Arepalli; Matthias Nauck; Holger Prokisch; Jonathan Stephens; Nicole L. Glazer; L. Adrienne Cupples; Yukinori Okada; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoichiro Kamatani; Koichi Matsuda; Tatsuhiko Tsunoda; Toshihiro Tanaka; Michiaki Kubo; Yusuke Nakamura; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Naoyuki Kamatani; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tönjes; Inga Prokopenko; Thomas Illig; Kushang V. Patel; Stephen F. Garner; Brigitte Kuhnel; Massimo Mangino; Ben A. Oostra; Swee Lay Thein; Josef Coresh; H.-Erich Wichmann; Stephan Menzel; JingPing Lin; Giorgio Pistis; André G. Uitterlinden; Tim D. Spector; Alexander Teumer; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Stefania Bandinelli; Timothy M. Frayling; Aravinda Chakravarti; Cornelia M. van Duijn; David Melzer; Willem H. Ouwehand; Daniel Levy; Eric Boerwinkle; Andrew B. Singleton; Dena G. Hernandez; Dan L. Longo; Nicole Soranzo; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Bruce M. Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Tamara B. Harris; Christopher J. ODonnell; Santhi K. Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten

  8. Obesity and Immune Cell Counts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie; Tien, Phyllis C.; Feldman, Joseph; Shin, Ja Hyun; Fennie, Kristopher; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Bacon, Melanie C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objective Obesity is common in women and associated with a number of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, and cancer. We explore the relationship between obesity and immune cell counts in women. Design Longitudinal study of 322 women from 1999 through 2003 enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Methods Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9), obese (BMI 30 - 34.9), and morbid obesity (BMI ?35). CD4 and CD8 counts and percents, total lymphocyte and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured annually using standardized techniques. A mixed model repeated measures analysis was performed using an autoregressive correlation matrix. Results At the index visit, 61% of women were African-American; mean age was 35 years, and median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Immunologic parameters were in the normal range (median CD4 count: 995 cells/mm3; CD8 count: 488 cells/mm3; total lymphocyte count: 206 cells/mm3; median WBC: 6 × 103 cells/mm3). In multivariate analyses, being overweight, obese or morbidly obese were independently associated with higher CD4, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts than being normal weight; morbid obesity was associated with a higher CD8 count. The strongest associations between body weight and immune cell counts were demonstrated in the morbidly obese. Conclusion Increasing body weight is associated with higher CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts in women. Investigation into the impact of obesity on immune function and long term adverse outcomes is needed. PMID:17570264

  9. Counting Collections to 100

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy Saslow

    2013-01-01

    In this 6-minute video Theresa Tse's grade 1 students develop strategies for counting to 100 and beyond as they engage in activities designed to help them understand the structure of our number system. They participate in choral skip counting, counting collections of objects, grouping, and finding complements to 100. The page includes viewer reflection questions and a link to a transcript of the video (doc).

  10. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    PubMed

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  11. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  12. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ...

  13. Counting coins and value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Christian

    2007-03-21

    Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

  14. Synchronized Counting Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussien Aly; Z. Meral Özsoyoglu

    1989-01-01

    A direct extension to the counting method is presented which can deal efficiently with both acyclic and cyclic relations. The extension to cycle cases, called the synchronized counting method, is simulated and studied using a Petri net model. Worst-case analysis shows that n2 semijoin operations are required, where n is the number of nodes in the graph representing the relevant

  15. Counting Your Lucky Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Ricles

    2013-01-30

    In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

  16. Cluster of differentiation 4+ cell count mean value, reference range and its influencing factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seronegative pregnant women in Lagos

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, A. A.; Dosunmu, A. O.; Adediran, A.; Adewunmi, A. A.; Rabiu, K. A.; Osunkalu, V.; Ajibola, S.; Uche, E. I.; Adelekan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immunity in pregnancy is physiologically compromised and this may affect cluster of differentiation four (CD4) count levels. It is well established that several factors affect CD4 count level in pregnancy. This study aims to determine the effects of maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education as they influence CD4 count in pregnancy and also to determine the mean and reference range of CD4 count in pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Ante-natal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. About 5 mls of blood was collected into Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid (EDTA) bottles from HIV-negative pregnant women in various gestational ages of pregnancy. CD4+ cell count and full blood count of all samples were done within 3 hours of collection. The descriptive data was given as means ± standard deviation (SD). Pearson's chi-squared test and correlation were used for analytical assessment. Results: A total of 74 pregnant women were recruited. The age range was 19–41 years and a mean age of 30.42 ± 5.34 years. The CD4+ cell count was not statistically significant when compared with participants ages P = 0.417, neither with gestational ages P = 0.323, nor with parity P = 0.247 nor level of education P = 0.96. An overall mean CD4+ cell count was 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l and the range was 193–1370 cells/?l. Conclusion: Maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education had no significant effects on CD4+ cell count levels in pregnancy. The mean CD4+ cell count of HIV-negative pregnant women in Lagos is 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l. PMID:24791043

  17. Using carbohydrate counting in diabetes clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, S J; Kulkarni, K D; Daly, A E

    1998-08-01

    Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach used with clients who have diabetes that focuses on carbohydrate as the primary nutrient affecting postprandial glycemic response. The concept of carbohydrate counting has been around since the 1920s, but it received renewed interest after being used as 1 of 4 meal planning approaches in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In the trial, carbohydrate counting was found to be effective in meeting outcome goals and allowed flexibility in food choices. Recent practice pattern surveys have shown an increasing interest in and use of carbohydrate counting for medical nutrition therapy for persons with diabetes. Carbohydrate counting can be used by clients with type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Three levels of carbohydrate counting have been identified based on increasing levels of complexity. Level 1, or basic, introduces clients to the concept of carbohydrate counting and focuses on carbohydrate consistency. Level 2, or intermediate, focuses on the relationships among food, diabetes medications, physical activity, and blood glucose level and introduces the steps needed to manage these variables based on patterns of blood glucose levels. Level 3, or advanced, is designed to teach clients with type 1 diabetes who are using multiple daily injections or insulin infusion pumps how to match short-acting insulin to carbohydrate using carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. All 3 levels emphasize portion control and offer opportunities for using creative teaching methods, such as "food labs," and use of a variety of carbohydrate resource tools and publications. In this article, glycemic effects of protein, fat, and fiber intake are discussed for persons with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Decision trees are introduced for each level of carbohydrate counting and show the usual progression through each level. Carbohydrate counting as a meal planning approach offers variability of food choices with the potential for improving glycemic control. Research opportunities are available for those interested in comparing carbohydrate counting with other meal planning approaches for clients with diabetes and the effects on clinical outcomes. PMID:9710660

  18. Band neutrophil count and the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Tsukasa Mori; Tomoki Kawano; Suminori Kono; Jun Sasaki; Kikuo Arakawa

    1996-01-01

    It has been consistently shown that the total blood leukocyte count is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Few studies, however, have addressed the relation between differential leukocyte counts and coronary artery disease. We investigated the relation of total and differential leukocyte counts to angiographically determined coronary atherosclerosis. The study included 486 subjects (335 men, 151 women) who

  19. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  20. Great Backyard Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cornell University

    Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

  1. Semantical Counting Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Noilhan; Miklos Santha

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. Counting functions can be defined syntactically or semantically depending on whether they count the number of witnesses in\\u000a a non-deterministic or in a deterministic computation on the input. In the Turing-machine-based model these two ways of defining\\u000a counting were proven to be equivalent for many important complexity classes. In the circuit-based model it was done for #P,\\u000a but

  2. Quality Counts Certificate 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin

    2007-01-31

    Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal...

  3. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  4. Christmas Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-01

    The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

  5. On forecasting counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brajendra C. Sutradhar

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting for a time series of low counts, such as forecasting the number of patents to be awarded to an industry, is an important research topic in socio-economic sectors. Recently (2004), Freeland and McCabe introduced a Gaussian type stationary correlation model-based forecasting which appears to work well for the stationary time series of low counts. In practice, however, it may

  6. Machine Instruction Count Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Gaffney Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Machine Instruction Count Program (MIC Program) was originally developed in 1978 to produce 'operator' and 'operand' counts of object programs written for the AN\\/UYK-7 military computer. In 1981, its capability was expanded so that it could apply to the AN\\/UYS-1 (or “Advanced Signal Processor”) military computer. The former machine, made by UNIVAC, hosts the IBM-developed software for the sonar

  7. HawkCount

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

  8. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  9. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

  10. Blood clotting

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  11. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

  12. AN EXTENSIBLE COMPUTER VISION APPLICATION FOR BLOOD CELL RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    1 AN EXTENSIBLE COMPUTER VISION APPLICATION FOR BLOOD CELL RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS G of blood cell count reports is of paramount importance in the healthcare industry. The traditional method and analyzing blood cells. Keywords: Microscopic Image Analysis, Standard Blood Cell Count, Differential White

  13. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  14. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  15. Counting on Frank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.

  16. Fraction Counting Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-17

    Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

  17. Quality Counts Exhibitor Card 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth

    2004-01-27

    This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, as well as the logo...

  18. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  19. Counting or Playing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronsil, Matt

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how children learn to understand the decimal system in very concrete ways, while having fun using beads. When counting the beads, the children learn 5,491 is not simply "five thousand four hundred and ninety-one" but actually 5 thousands, 4 hundreds, 9 tens, and 1 unit. They begin to understand that as they get 10 units,…

  20. Radioactive Counting Clocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar Radhakrishnan; Amit Lal

    2006-01-01

    We report on a radioactive counting clock (RCC) based on radioactive beta emissions from nickel-63 thin films. We present a theoretical analysis of the clock that uses the radioactive source (physics package) to lock and stabilize the frequency of a voltage-to-frequency converter (local oscillator). We present frequency stability measurements of the RCC over 10 days of clock operation. We analyze

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF HEMATOZOA IN BLOOD SMEARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph D. Godfrey; Alan M. Fedynich; Danny B. Pence

    1987-01-01

    Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites\\/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or

  2. A whole blood control for the Coulter Model S.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, L O; Jones, W G; Fisher, J; Cavill, I

    1978-01-01

    The white cell count, red cell count, haemoglobin, and mean cell volume of a new preserved whole blood preparations used as a control material for the Coulter Model S were found to be stable for at least two months. This material provides a cheap and stable whole blood control which is now in routine use in 18 laboratories throughout Wales. PMID:627617

  3. Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through veins and arteries . Some blood clotting, or coagulation , is ... Venous clots are those that form in the veins. Venous clots typically form slowly over a period ...

  4. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  5. Bilirubin - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by the liver. This article discusses the laboratory test that is done to measure bilirubin in the blood. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. ...

  6. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...

  7. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

  8. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  9. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  10. Great Backyard Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

  11. Let's Count to 5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grace M. Burton

    2000-01-01

    In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

  12. Garden Butterflies Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

  13. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  14. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  15. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  16. Letters to Analytical Chemistry Microfluidic CD4+ T-Cell Counting Device Using

    E-print Network

    Sia, Samuel K.

    This letter demonstrates a microfluidic platform for enumerating CD4+ T-lymphocytes from whole blood using are based on clinical symptoms and absolute CD4 counts.7 In addition to identifying the onset of AIDS in HIV

  17. Count the Vowels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

  18. Blood Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Series Eight locations, one great program - the only official Highlights of ASH ® . Satellite Symposia ASH offers satellite ... Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the ...

  19. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  20. BLOOD FLOW

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ARNEL DELA CRUZ

    2012-06-28

    The lesson is design to describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engaged, analytical and inquisitive in learning about the mechanism of blood flow and the importance of this in our body. In addition, the lesson engages the student to test variables that may affect blood flow.

  1. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... suction to check for blood in the stomach X-rays If you have vomited a lot of blood, you may need emergency treatment. This may include: Administration of oxygen Blood transfusions EGD with application of laser or other modalities to stop the ...

  2. Digital coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  3. Quantification of hematozoa in blood smears.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R D; Fedynich, A M; Pence, D B

    1987-10-01

    Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or from the number of fields of view examined. Doubling the number of erythrocytes counted (1) decreased the overdispersed frequency distribution patterns in only 25% of the replicate counts for numbers of H. maccallumi/100 erythrocytes for a series of 2,000 versus 4,000 erythrocytes counted; and (2) did not significantly increase the accuracy for determining parasite intensities. Thus, the number of erythrocytes that must be counted to determine parasite intensities could be considerably reduced from the 10,000 or 20,000 estimated for most studies, and still provide an accurate determination of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes in datasets collected from hosts with moderate to high levels of parasitemia. This resulted in a decreased amount of time expended by the observer on each blood smear examined. With two equivalently trained individuals, differences between observers examining the same blood smears were minimal. This study suggests an approach by which a more standardized methodology for quantifying blood parasite intensities could be developed. PMID:3119870

  4. K.CC Counting Mat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

  5. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  6. Counting Books: Make Your Own!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    On the first night, I saw 5 stars in the desert. On the second night, I saw 10… What do you think I saw on the third night? Combine arts and crafts, literacy, and math by making a counting book. The activity comes with suggestions for what to count by, depending on level of challenge needed. Younger learners can count forward or backward by 1’s; older learners can base their counting books on multiples, fractions, or other number patterns. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

  7. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  8. % Read and echo names; count them. var count : int := 0

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    % Read and echo names; count them. var count : int := 0 % How many names so far? put "Please type a series of names." put "Tell me 'quit' at the end" loop put "Next name? " .. var person : string get, " people." 1 #12; Let's use the name­entering program. turingx example1.t Please type a series of names

  9. Youth Count: Exploring How KIDS COUNT Grantees Address Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia; Gaines, Elizabeth; Ferber, Thaddeus; Yohalem, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the 2004 Kids Count Databook essay, "Moving Youth From Risk to Opportunity," this new report highlights the history of data collection, challenges and innovative strategies of 12 Annie E. Casey Foundation KIDS COUNT grantees in their work to serve the needs of older youth. (Contains 3 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY

    E-print Network

    salmon (0. keta). The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, and the blood glucose, chloride. and calcium levels fell; and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the blood urea and nonprotein nitrogen

  11. Preschooler's Counting in Peer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Reagan P.

    For this experiment, part of a larger study on preschoolers' counting competence, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds played a counting game with their peers after becoming familiar with the game during structured interviews with an adult. It was expected that the symmetrical nature of peer interaction would allow children to display quantitative knowledge in…

  12. KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

  13. COUNTING IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF COMPLEX

    E-print Network

    BĂĽrgisser, Peter

    COUNTING IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF COMPLEX ALGEBRAIC VARIETIES Peter B¨urgisser and Peter Scheiblechner Abstract. We present an algorithm for counting the irreducible com- ponents of a complex algebraic the irreducible components of the complex zero set of given polynomials f1, . . . , fr C[X1, . . . , Xn

  14. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, X Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Wroe, Andrew J; Gridley, Daila S; Kennedy, Ann R

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  15. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts

    E-print Network

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    TOTAL BUILDING AIR MANAGEMENT: WHEN DEHUMIDIFICATION COUNTS Robert L. Chllton Vice President Sales ClimateMaster, hc. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT Industry trends toward stringent indoor air quality codes, spearheaded by ASHRAE 62... STUDY OVERVIEW The project described in this paper is a 200,000 square foot supercenter located in Moore, Oklahoma. Within the building envelope are contained a complete super market and a retail store with a full range of household goods, dry...

  16. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Templates One-on-One Recruitment Solutions Flyers and Posters Community Outreach Solutions Thank You Note Templates Flyers and Posters Answering Donor Questions Blood Drive Sponsor Stories Sponsor ...

  17. Porphyrins - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Protoporphyrin levels; Porphyrins - total; Coproporphyrin levels; PROTO test ... amounts in human blood. They are: Coproporphyrin Protoporphyrin (PROTO) Uroporphyrin Protoporphyrin is normally found in the highest ...

  18. Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Horlitz; Annabelle Lucas; Markus Sprenger-Haussels; Jörg Hoheisel

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundDuplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers

  19. Sampling Site Matters When Counting Lymphocyte Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naďve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes. PMID:22848485

  20. Current markers of the Athlete Blood Passport do not flag microdose EPO doping.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, Michael; Gough, Clare E; Garnham, Andrew; Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The Athlete Blood Passport is the most recent tool adopted by anti-doping authorities to detect athletes using performance-enhancing drugs such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). This strategy relies on detecting abnormal variations in haematological variables caused by doping, against a background of biological and analytical variability. Ten subjects were given twice weekly intravenous injections of rhEPO for up to 12 weeks. Full blood counts were measured using a Sysmex XE-2100 automated haematology analyser, and total haemoglobin mass via a carbon monoxide rebreathing test. The sensitivity of the passport to flag abnormal deviations in blood values was evaluated using dedicated Athlete Blood Passport software. Our treatment regimen elicited a 10% increase in total haemoglobin mass equivalent to approximately two bags of reinfused blood. The passport software did not flag any subjects as being suspicious of doping whilst they were receiving rhEPO. We conclude that it is possible for athletes to use rhEPO without eliciting abnormal changes in the blood variables currently monitored by the Athlete Blood Passport. PMID:21336951

  1. Nucleated red blood cells in meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaul Dollberg; Sharon Livny; Nina Mordecheyev; Francis B Mimouni

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is higher in infants who had meconium aspiration with respiratory symptoms compared with infants with asymptomatic meconium aspiration and controls.Methods: We compared the absolute nucleated RBC counts during the first 12 hours of life in three groups of term, vaginally delivered infants, including those who had meconium aspiration

  2. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  3. Counting Necklaces and Other Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Chris

    1990-01-01

    A method for helping students to find formulas involving symmetry under various conditions is explained. Necklace symmetries, orbit counting, tetrahedra and cubes, relationship patterns, and finding patterns are discussed. (CW)

  4. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  5. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manual Home Edition Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  6. Response Count Summer Flextime Survey

    E-print Network

    Response Percent Response Count 45.2% 33 54.8% 40 73 1 Summer Flextime Survey skipped question Did;Response Percent Response Count 9.1% 3 36.4% 12 27.3% 9 3.0% 1 24.2% 8 33 41skipped question If so, how often did you use it? 9-11 weeks Only once answered question Summer Flextime Survey 5-8 weeks Answer

  7. Electron counting in quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    V] G2[mV] -7.5 -7 -6.5 -6 34 34.5 35 35.5 1 10 100 Counts/s #12;Microwave emission of a QPC · VoltageElectron counting in quantum dots Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics ·Charge detection in quantum;Time-resolved detection of single electron transport source drain quantum dot kBT Schleser et al., APL

  8. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  9. Effects of Isotretinoin on the Platelet Counts and the Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Ugur Bilgin, Aynur

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the platelet counts and the mean platelet volume in patients who received isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Method. A total of 110 patients were included in this retrospective study. Complete blood count parameters were recorded prior to and three-months following the treatment. Results. Both platelet counts and the mean platelet volume were significantly decreased following the treatment. No significant differences were noted on the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count. Conclusion. Platelet counts and mean platelet volume significantly decreased following isotretinoin treatment. Since the decrease of platelet counts and the mean platelet volume was seen concomitantly, it is concluded that the effect of isotretinoin was through the suppression of bone marrow. PMID:24605049

  10. Amylase - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  11. Blood typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are slight but may include: Fainting or feeling light-headed Multiple punctures to locate veins Excessive bleeding Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

  12. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espańol ... Image Donating Blood KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Health Basics > ...

  13. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espańol ... Body Image Donating Blood KidsHealth > Teens > School & Jobs > Jobs ...

  14. The presence of a galactosamine substituent on the arabinogalactan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis abrogates full maturation of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells and increases secretion of IL-10.

    PubMed

    Wheat, William H; Dhouib, Rabeb; Angala, Shiva K; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Dobos, Karen; Nigou, Jérôme; Spencer, John S; Jackson, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Slow-growing and pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. are characterized by the presence of galactosamine (GalN) that modifies the interior branched arabinosyl residues of the arabinogalactan (AG) that is a major heteropolysaccharide cell wall component. The availability of null mutants of the polyprenyl-phospho-N-acetylgalactosaminyl synthase (Rv3631, PpgS) and the (N-acetyl-) galactosaminyl transferase (Rv3779) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has provided a means to elucidate the role of the GalN substituent of AG in terms of host-pathogen interactions. Comparisons of treating human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (hPMC-DCs) with wild-type, Rv3631 and Rv3779 mutant strains of Mtb revealed increased expression of DC maturation markers, decreased affinity for a soluble DC-SIGN probe, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TLR-2-mediated NF-?B activation among GalN-deficient Mtb strains compared to GalN-producing strains. Analysis of surface expression of a panel of defined or putative DC-SIGN ligands on both WT strains or either Rv3631 or Rv3779 mutant did not show significant differences suggesting that the role of the GalN substituent of AG may be to modulate access of the bacilli to immunologically-relevant receptor domains on DCs or contribute to higher ordered pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)/pattern recognition receptor (PRR) interactions rather than the GalN-AG components having a direct immunological effect per se. PMID:26048627

  15. 2.NBT Counting Stamps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The post office packages stamps like this: 10 stamps in each strip. 10 strips of 10 in each sheet. Yesterday Mike saw 4 full sheets, 7 strips, and 2 ex...

  16. A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4+ T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects

    E-print Network

    Demirci, Utkan

    counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. To address the limitations shear flow to specifically isolate CD4+ T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microlitres cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R2 = 0.93). This CD4

  17. Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Sedigheh; Kerman, Scott Reza Jafarian; Rohani, Farzaneh; Salari, Fereshteh

    2012-01-01

    Background The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications. Methods The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (?7000/mm3) and high (>7000/mm3); and then analyzed by Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate. Results The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm3. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001). According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm3 with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm3 with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication. Conclusion An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22334791

  18. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Counting on the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horrigan, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Released on December 29, 2002, and authored by John B. Horrigan and Lee Rainie, this 17-page report was sponsored by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. The report draws on a recent sample of 2,000 Americans who were queried about their Internet usage, including what type of information they expected to be able to find online. Overall, 97 percent of all Internet users surveyed expected to be able to find online information about either government, health care, news, or commerce, which can be compared to the 64 percent of non-Internet users who thought they would be able to find similar information online. Interestingly enough, 86 percent of all senior citizens who used the Internet also felt they would be able to find this type of information, compared to the much lower 41 percent of non-Internet using senior citizens. The full report also contains an important section detailing the report's methodology.

  20. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Weststrate; KH van het Hof; H van den Berg; EJM Velthuis-te-Wierik; C de Graaf; NJH Zimmermanns; K. R. Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga; WPHG Verboeket-van de Venne

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables.Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed in parallel for six months. Volunteers had free access to 44 different foods

  1. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  2. Young Blood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-04-04

    Old muscles heal faster when they're exposed to young blood. That's the conclusion of a recent experiment in mice, led by Stanford University neurologist Thomas Rando. His team found that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells in the muscles and livers of older mice. Those are the cells that generate new tissue. It's not clear what part of the young blood makes the difference, but Dr. Rando suspects it's a combination of factors. If scientists can solve the mystery, they may be able to develop new ways to help injuries and broken bones heal more quickly. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 6-8 grade level.

  3. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Apr 28,2015 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined ...

  4. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learn About Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, ... looking for a needle in a haystack. Rare Blood Types Red blood cells carry markers called antigens ...

  5. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? Click for more information Blood pressure is ... active. So it varies throughout the day. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A systolic blood pressure of 140 ...

  6. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePLUS

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  7. Blood (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, also called ... used in these ways. Back Continue Diseases of Red Blood Cells Most of the time, blood functions ...

  8. Blood Vessels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hirschi

    2007-11-20

    Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

  9. Lymphocyte recovery as a positive predictor of prolonged survival after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Kim; H-J Sohn; S-E Kim; H-J Kang; W-K Kim; J-S Lee; C Suh

    2004-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study on recovery and survival of patients with T-cell NHL after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT). Of a total of 39 patients with high-risk T-cell NHL, 33 were analyzed. Six patients who experienced early treatment mortality without full lymphocyte recovery were excluded. We chose absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery as 1000 cells\\/?l as a

  10. Automated counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid using the CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Janssen, Willy C M

    2002-11-01

    Counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid is currently performed manually. Because of the inherent analytical and economical disadvantages, we attempted to introduce a fully automated method. Therefore, we validated the Abbott CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser for counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid. The analyser was used in its standard configuration with the simple precaution of a preceding blank sample. As for leukocyte counting the analyser yielded high precision (CV approximately 5% above the upper reference limit), good linearity, low limit of detection (2/microl) and excellent correlation (r > 0.99) with the counting chamber method. The differential leukocyte count was equally accurate and precise, even in the low concentration range. Performance of the erythrocyte count was impaired by its high limit of detection (6/nl) and it appeared satisfactory only for detecting blood admixture due to traumatic puncture. The specificity of the analyser is excellent, since it correctly classified non-viable leukocytes and excluded yeast cells from the leukocyte count in a patient with cryptococcal meningitis. We conclude that the CellDyn-4000 is well suited for quickly and reliably counting leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid. Developing some software modifications might make the analyser useful also for performing erythrocyte counting in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:12521237

  11. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  12. Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

    2014-05-26

    Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

  13. Counting Bitangents with Stable Maps

    E-print Network

    David Ayala; Renzo Cavalieri

    2005-12-22

    This paper is an elementary introduction to the theory of moduli spaces of curves and maps. As an application to enumerative geometry, we show how to count the number of bitangent lines to a projective plane curve of degree $d$ by doing intersection theory on moduli spaces.

  14. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  15. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  16. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  17. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  18. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  20. Hexadecimal counting? Use your fingers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Srinivasan

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the note is to show how 'natural' the hexadecimal number system is and how one can count in this system using fingers at least as effortlessly as in the decimal system. The system uses the joints and tips of the four fingers of one hand.

  1. Optimization of a Cell Counting Algorithm for Mobile Point-of-Care Testing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an Android™ smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

  2. Blood gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the groin Brachial artery in the arm The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample ... must remain constant for 20 minutes before the test. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any blood-thinning ...

  3. Blood Types

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-03-14

    Broadcast Transcript: According to the Japanese, you can tell a lot about a person by their blood type: Type A is the farmer, calm and responsible; Type B is the hunter, independent and creative; Type AB is humanistic, cool and sociable; and Type O...

  4. SOME PHYSIOLOGIC BLOOD VALUES OF WILD DIVING DUCKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD M. KOCAN

    Blood samples were obtained from 54 canvasbacks (Ayt\\/zya valisineria), 30 lesser scaup (A. a\\/f mis), 3 ring-necks (A. collaris), and 3 buffieheads (Bucephala albeola), which were wintering on Chesapeake Bay. These blood samples were used for: red blood cell counts (cans. 2.56 x 10\\/mm3; scaup 2.45 x 10\\/mm3; ring-necks 2.50 x 10\\/mm; buffiehead 2.64 x 10\\/mm1), packed cell volume (cans.

  5. Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Metin; O. Türkozan; F. Kargin; Y. K. Basumoglu; E. Taskavak; S. Koca

    2006-01-01

    Metin K., O. Türkozan, F. Kargin, Y. K. Basimoglu, E. Taskavak, S. Koca: Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 49-55. The morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells, micronucleated erythrocytes counts and plasma biochemistry profile were examined in ten healthy captive European pond turtles Emys orbicularis. Blood samples

  6. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

  7. New media for detection and counting of Clostridia in foods.

    PubMed

    Dromigny, E; Bourrion, F; Rugraf, Y; Bolton, F J; Leden, N

    1997-01-01

    The growth of pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 12922) and Cl. sporogenes (PA 3679) in five non-selective media, fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM), rapid perfringens medium (RPM), Columbia broth Malthus (CBM), reinforced clostridial medium (RCM) and lactose sulphite (LS), was monitored using conductance measurements with a Malthus analyser. Only FTM and CBM gave useful results. The correlation of log10 plate counts on blood agar of the pure strain of Cl. sporogenes with detection times in FTM was highly significant (r = 0.96, n = 73), and with detection times in CBM less so (r = -0.909, n = 33). The correlation of log10 counts on tryptose sulphite neomycin medium (TSN) of wild strains of Cl. sporogenes and Cl. perfringens with detection times with FTM in meat was also highly significant (r = 0.933, n = 54). PMID:9024000

  8. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  9. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  10. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    E-print Network

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  11. Countdown: Counting with a Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when you’re anticipating a special event. Locate the date you’re waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  12. Constraint counting for frictional jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

  13. A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

    2015-02-01

    The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Moličre radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

  14. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

  15. Student Observation Network: Star Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this hands-on activity, students investigate whether people in different parts of the world see the same number of stars. They will learn how to construct a viewing tube, use it to count the stars in random samples of sky, make calculations, and record the data. They will then share their data online with other students from all over the world to find out why differences might occur.

  16. Counting Squares in a Square

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

  17. Somatic Cell Counts in Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. KENNEDY; M. S. SETHAR; A. K. W. TONG; J. E. MOXLEY; B. R. DOWNEY; Dairy Herd

    Between February and December, 1977, 133,493 test-day observations of somatic cell count were taken on 27,009 Holstein cows in 676 herds on the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Data were transformed to a log (natural) scale, and analyses were separate within lacta- tion age group (42, 3, 4, 5, and \\/>6 yr). Joint estimates of fixed effects of month of

  18. K.CC Counting Cup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials A plastic 24 ounce (or larger) cup. A collection of various counting manipulatives. Student booklets made from 10 sheets of plain white paper...

  19. KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

  20. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erd?s, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  1. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  3. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  9. Counting by ones, twos, and tens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Christian

    2007-03-21

    There are 2 connect the dot activities (counting by 2\\'s) and a missing number game. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: #1 Connect the dots. Game #2: #2 Connect the dots. Game #3: Pick the number that is missing. Game #4:Ant Parade--Skip Counting Game #5:The Counting Game--Skip Counting ...

  10. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  11. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

  12. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults ... if your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  14. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... stated as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to ...

  15. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ... blood is then sent to the hospital's blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. ...

  16. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transports water and nutrients to your body’s tissues. Red blood cells carry oxygen. Red blood cells are ... the presence or absence of certain substances on red blood cells. Blood types are inherited. Another important ...

  17. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whole blood, which takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double ... cells), and thrombocythemia (an excess of platelets). In red blood cell exchange, red blood cells are removed ...

  18. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  19. Best Practice Recommendation for Forecasting Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brajendra C. Sutradhar

    The existing techniques of forecasting a future count either treat the time series of counts as a Gaussian time series or use a random effects based dynamic Poisson model. The normality based approach may not yield valid forecasting, whereas the random effects based model usually generates a complex correlation structure for the time series of counts which may be impractical

  20. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  1. Design Editorial Finding and Counting Papers

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Finding and Counting Papers "Those who count count" an old on citation tracking in the sciences can be found in an article cited in another Wikidedia article (Bakkalbasi et al. Biomedical Digital Libraries 2006 3:7 doi: 10.1186/1742-5581-3-7) cited in http

  2. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  3. Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and

    E-print Network

    Heubach, Silvia

    Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions · A composition = 12 . . . m of n N

  4. Instanton Counting and Matrix Model

    E-print Network

    Ta-Sheng Tai

    2007-09-07

    We construct an Imbimbo-Mukhi type matrix model, which reproduces exactly the partition function of ${\\mathbb{CP}^1}$ topological strings in the small phase space, Nekrasov's instanton counting in ${\\cal{N}}=2$ gauge theory and the large $N$ limit of the partition function in 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a sphere. In addition, we propose a dual Stieltjes-Wigert type matrix model, which emerges when all-genus topological string amplitudes on certain simple toric Calabi-Yau manifolds are compared with the Imbimbo-Mukhi type model.

  5. K.CC Counting Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: This standard asks students to count with automaticity and meaning, and to be able to record their findings. Lastly, students need to be able to compar...

  6. K.CC Choral Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The teacher will need a 100 chart or large number line and a pointer. As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to ...

  7. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mřlmer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

  8. Decreased Platelet Count in Patients Receiving Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Buyun; Gong, Dehua; Xu, Bin; He, Qunpeng; Liu, Zhihong; Ji, Daxi

    2014-01-01

    Background A decreased platelet count may occur and portend a worse outcome in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We aim to investigate the incidence of decreased platelet count and related risk factors in patients receiving CRRT. Methods In this retrospective study, we screened all patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) at Jinling Hospital between November 2008 and October 2012. The patients were included who received uninterrupted CVVH for more than 72 h and had records of blood test for 4 consecutive days after ruling out pre-existing conditions that may affect the platelet count. Platelet counts before and during CVVH, illness severity, CVVH settings, and outcomes were analyzed. Results The study included 125 patients. During the 3-day CVVH, 44.8% and 16% patients had a mild decline (20–49.9%) and severe decline (?50%) in the platelet count,respectively; 37.6% and 16.0% patients had mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 50.1–100×109/L) and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count ?50×109/L), respectively. Patients with a severe decline in the platelet count had a significantly lower survival rate than patients without a severe decline in the platelet count (35.0% versus 59.0%, P?=?0.012), while patients with severe thrombocytopenia had a survival rate similar to those without severe thrombocytopenia (45.0% versus 57.1%, P?=?0.308). Female gender, older age, and longer course of the disease were independent risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count. Conclusions A decline in the platelet count and thrombocytopenia are quite common in patients receiving CVVH. The severity of the decline in the platelet count rather than the absolute count during CVVH may be associated with hospital mortality. Knowing the risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count may allow physicians to prevent such an outcome. PMID:24824815

  9. Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Frome; Matthew H. Smith; L. Gayle Littlefield

    1996-01-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts (â7%). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts

  10. Skin Tags: A Link Between Lesional Mast Cell Count/Tryptase Expression and Obesity and Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Attia, Enas AS; Osman, Wesam M; El Gendy, Marwa A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The etiology of skin tags (STs) is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs) involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control). Results: All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%). STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin (P < 0.001), with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions: STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting. PMID:23723485

  11. 2002 Kids Count Data Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of Americaâ??s children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

  12. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  13. Trends in cord blood banking

    PubMed Central

    Arrojo, Isidro Prat; Lamas, María del Carmen Hernández; Verdugo, Laura Ponce; Alfaro, Pascual Rizo; Pena, Rebeca Rodríguez; Gordo, Francisco Sánchez; Maldonado, Pilar Gómez; Gémar, Gracia García

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of hematopoietic precursor cells for transplantation. The creation of UCB banks in 1992 led to the possibility of storing units of UCB for unrelated transplants. The distribution of cell contents in historical inventories is not homogenous and many units are not, therefore, suitable for adults. The aim of this study was to analyse our UCB bank inventory, evaluate the units released for transplantation and calculate the cost of the current process per unit of UCB stored. Methods Three study periods were defined. In the first period, from January 1996 to January 2006, the total nucleated cell (TNC) count acceptable for processing was 4–6×108 and a manual processing system was used. In the second period, from October 2006 to July 2010, processing was automated and the acceptable TNC count varied from 8–10×108. In the third period, from January 2009 to June 2010, an automated Sepax-BioArchive procedure was used and the accepted initial TNC count was >10×108. Within each period the units were categorised according to various ranges of cryopreserved TNC counts in the units: A, >16.2×108; B1, from 12.5–16.1×108; B2, from 5.2–12.4×108; and C, <5.1×108. Results The third period is best representative of current practices, with homogenous TNC acceptance criteria and automated processing. In this period 15.7% of the units were category A and 25.5% were category B. Overall, the mean TNC count of units released for transplantation was 14×108 (range, 4.6×108 to 36.5×108). The cost of the processed UCB in 2009 was 720.41 euros per unit. Conclusion An UCB bank should store units of high-quality, in terms of the TNC count of units issued for transplantation, have a training programme to optimise the selection of donors prior to delivery, use similar volume reduction systems and homogenous recovery indices, express its indicators in the same units, use validated analytical techniques, and bear in mind ethnic minorities. PMID:22153685

  14. Estimating relative abundance from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

  15. Smoking status and differential white cell count in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan R. Smith; Ann-Louise Kinmonth; Robert N. Luben; Sheila Bingham; Nicholas E. Day; Nicholas J. Wareham; Ailsa Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw

    2003-01-01

    The total white blood cell (WBC) count is reported to be an independent predictor of mortality in several prospective studies. We investigated the association between total and differential WBC counts and cigarette smoking habit in a cross-sectional population-based study of 6902 men and 8405 women 39–79 years of age participating between July 1994 and 1997 in the European Prospective Investigation

  16. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count.

  17. Body fluid cell counts by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Linda M

    2015-03-01

    Automated cell counting for body fluids is gradually replacing manual cell counting by hemocytometer. Automation offers potential benefits of improved accuracy, efficiency, and standardization. The addition of body fluid modes to some hematology analyzers adapts the technology and software to meet the particular requirements of body fluid analysis. However, the functional sensitivity for low cell counts currently limits applicability of automated methods to all types of body fluid. Microscopic review is indicated when malignancy is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:25676374

  18. Neonatal Nucleated Red Blood Cells in Infants of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galit Sheffer-Mimouni; Francis B. Mimouni; Shaul Dollberg; Dror Mandel; Varda Deutsch; Yoav Littner

    Objective: The perinatal outcome of the infant of obese mother is adversely affected and in theory, may involve fetal hypoxia. We hypothesized that an index of fetal hypoxia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count, is elevated in infants of overweight and obese mothers. Study Design: Absolute NRBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in 41

  19. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  20. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Low blood pressure; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...

  1. CEA blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  2. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  3. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here ˘ cut here ˘ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  4. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  5. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  6. Understanding Blood Pressure

    E-print Network

    Understanding Blood Pressure · Monitorathomewithadigitalmonitor. · Useleftarmwithcorrectsizecuff. · Avoidcaffeine,alcohol,andtobacco. Steps to Follow FOR AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. Bottom number = Diastolic (force between heart beats) Top

  7. Fetal blood testing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Fetal blood testing is performed during labor to test the blood pH of the baby which can determine ... small puncture is made in the scalp and fetal blood droplets are collected in a thin glass tube. ...

  8. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  9. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  10. Reliability of automated platelet counts: comparison with manual method and utility for prediction of clinical bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J B; Yomtovian, R A; Dillman, C; Masarik, S R; Chongkolwatana, V; Creger, R J; Manka, A; Hammons, T; Lazarus, H M

    1995-04-01

    The 20 x 10(9)/L (20,000/microliters) threshold for prophylactic platelet transfusion may be unnecessarily high. The widespread use of this threshold may reflect lack of confidence in the reliability of low platelet counts. We evaluated the performance of automated platelet counts and their relation to clinical bleeding. First, we prepared serial blood dilutions with "target" platelet counts from 2 to 40 x 10(9)/L. For the 48 measurements on 2 x 10(9)/L "target" dilutions, values of 1 or 2 x 10(9)/L were obtained with the Sysmex NE-8000 analyzer (mean 1.44 x 10(9)/L; SD 0.31 x 10(9)/L). Similarly, for 5 x 10(9)/L "target" counts, automated counts were 3-6 x 10(9)/L (mean 4.42 x 10(9)/L; SD 0.18 x 10(9)/L). Similar results were observed with all other "target" levels, with coefficients of variation (CV) from 6.39% to 7.71% with 10-40 x 10(9)/L "target" values. Secondly, we compared triplicate automated and manual platelet counts on thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts from 4-30 x 10(9)/L. The triplicate automated platelet counts differed by no more than 5 x 10(9)/L among themselves, whereas the manual counts varied by as much as 30 x 10(9)/L. Mean platelet counts: automated, 14.40 x 10(9)/L (CV 10.12%); manual, 16.48 x 10(9)/L (CV 30.39%) (P = 0.038 for counts; P < 0.001 for CV). Finally, we prospectively evaluated bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients (1,809 patient-days of observation). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the automated platelet count and major and minor bleeding manifestations. Thus, automated platelet counts are highly reliable and accurately predict clinical bleeding. The use of automated analyzers should facilitate improved prophylactic platelet transfusion protocols. PMID:7717373

  11. Comment on: 'A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images'.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Robin

    2015-07-01

    In order to be able to calculate half-count images from already acquired data, White and Lawson published their method based on Poisson resampling. They verified their method experimentally by measurements with a Co-57 flood source.In this comment their results are reproduced and confirmed by a direct numerical simulation in Matlab. Not only Poisson resampling, but also two direct redrawing methods were investigated. Redrawing methods were based on a Poisson and a Gaussian distribution. Mean, standard deviation, skewness and excess kurtosis half-count/full-count ratios were determined for all methods, and compared to the theoretical values for a Poisson distribution.Statistical parameters showed the same behavior as in the original note and showed the superiority of the Poisson resampling method. Rounding off before saving of the half count image had a severe impact on counting statistics for counts below 100. Only Poisson resampling was not affected by this, while Gaussian redrawing was less affected by it than Poisson redrawing.Poisson resampling is the method of choice, when simulating half-count (or less) images from full-count images. It simulates correctly the statistical properties, also in the case of rounding off of the images. PMID:26147353

  12. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  13. Uncertainties in 4??–? coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??–? coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.

  14. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  15. People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

  16. Differential Leukocyte Count Method for Bovine Low Somatic Cell Count Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dosogne; F. Vangroenweghe; J. Mehrzad; A. M. Massart-Leën; C. Burvenich

    2003-01-01

    Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count (SCC) milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. The procedure consists of 1) 1.5 ml of diluted milk sam- ple (30%, vol\\/vol dilution with PBS), 2)

  17. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  18. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  19. Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim M. Graba

    1998-01-01

    An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles

  20. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  1. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

  2. Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

    2009-01-01

    Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

  3. Part count and design of robust systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Frey; Joseph Palladino; John Sullivan; Malvern Atherton

    2007-01-01

    Systems engineering frequently includes efforts to reduce part count with the goal of cutting costs, enhancing performance, or improving reliability. This paper examines the engineering practices related to part count, applying three different theories -- the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Axiomatic Design, and Highly Optimized Tolerance. Case studies from the jet engine industry are used to illustrate the complicated

  4. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  5. Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Arambula Cosio; J. A. Marquez Flores; M. A. Padilla Castaneda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2003-01-01

    In this work is described the development of an automatic color image segmentation and cell counting system for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system is designed to automatically count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokines DNA probes of pigs naturally parasitized with Taenia solium metacestodes and using in situ hybridization.

  6. Optimization of direct cell counting in sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi L Gough; David A Stahl

    2003-01-01

    This study reports a method for optimizing direct counts of bacteria in sediment, designed to reduce the masking by sediment particles. The protocol was designed to determine appropriate dilution factors by incorporating counting statistics and was used to measure depth-associated changes in microbial abundance in metal-impacted freshwater sediments. We demonstrated a direct method to determine appropriate sample dilution for accurate

  7. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  8. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  12. Microfluidic Platform for Measuring Neutrophil Chemotaxis from Unprocessed Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Caroline N.; Hoang, Anh N.; Dimisko, Laurie; Hamza, Bashar; Martel, Joseph; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils play an essential role in protection against infections and their numbers in the blood are frequently measured in the clinic. Higher neutrophil counts in the blood are usually an indicator of ongoing infections, while low neutrophil counts are a warning sign for higher risks for infections. To accomplish their functions, neutrophils also have to be able to move effectively from the blood where they spend most of their life, into tissues, where infections occur. Consequently, any defects in the ability of neutrophils to migrate can increase the risks for infections, even when neutrophils are present in appropriate numbers in the blood. However, measuring neutrophil migration ability in the clinic is a challenging task, which is time consuming, requires large volume of blood, and expert knowledge. To address these limitations, we designed a robust microfluidic assays for neutrophil migration, which requires a single droplet of unprocessed blood, circumvents the need for neutrophil separation, and is easy to quantify on a simple microscope. In this assay, neutrophils migrate directly from the blood droplet, through small channels, towards the source of chemoattractant. To prevent the granular flow of red blood cells through the same channels, we implemented mechanical filters with right angle turns that selectively block the advance of red blood cells. We validated the assay by comparing neutrophil migration from blood droplets collected from finger prick and venous blood. We also compared these whole blood (WB) sources with neutrophil migration from samples of purified neutrophils and found consistent speed and directionality between the three sources. This microfluidic platform will enable the study of human neutrophil migration in the clinic and the research setting to help advance our understanding of neutrophil functions in health and disease. PMID:24962731

  13. The white blood cell response to splenectomy and bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, E J; Morris, J A; van Aalst, J; Hall, K S; Reed, G W; Koestner, J A

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the white blood cell (WBC) count to bacteraemia, and the risk of bacteraemia after splenectomy. The case series study was carried out at the Vanderbilt University Level I Trauma Center, and included 11,870 consecutive trauma admissions: 258 required a splenectomy (191) or splenorrhaphy (67). Bacteraemia was defined as the presence of a positive blood culture. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and logistical regression. Forty-two (22 per cent) of the splenectomy patients had positive blood cultures, while only six (9 per cent) of the splenorrhaphy patients had positive cultures. For the group of patients requiring a splenectomy, the mean WBC count was higher and more persistent in patients with bacteraemia. Logistical regression demonstrated that the type of surgery does not significantly correlate with bacteraemia after accounting for severity of injury (TRISS). The study conclusions were as follows (1) for the group of patients with bacteraemia after splenectomy, the peak WBC count was higher and more persistent than that which occurred in the group of patients without bacteraemia after splenectomy; (2) the WBC count cannot be used to predict bacteraemia for an individual patient, but a WBC count greater than 20,000 after 10 days should initiate a vigorous search for infection; (3) the severity of injury (and not splenectomy/splenorrhaphy) accounted for the increased risk of bacteraemia in population studied. PMID:8034344

  14. Coincidence detection of heterogeneous cell populations from whole blood with coplanar electrodes in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, U; Bashir, R

    2014-11-21

    Particle counting finds many industrial applications especially in medical healthcare. In particular, cell counting from whole blood is used pervasively for disease diagnostics. Microfluidic impedance cytometry is fast, requires a small volume of blood, can be used at point of care and can perform absolute enumeration of different cell types in the sample. Coincidence detection is very essential for accurate counting results and becomes more significant while counting specific target cells, e.g. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell count in HIV/AIDS patient blood samples. In heterogeneous samples, e.g. blood, cell differentiation for all coincidence occurrences is essential in addition to the coincidence detection for accurate cell enumeration. In this paper, we have characterized the coincidence detection with cell differentiation using a microfluidic impedance biochip. The pure population of leukocytes is obtained after all erythrocytes are lysed on-chip from whole blood. Leukocytes were counted electrically as they pass over coplanar microfabricated electrodes bonded to the 15 ?m × 15 ?m cross section counting channel while generating a bipolar pulse for each cell passage. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the electrical cell pulse and its coincidences. We show that coincidence detection can be characterized into three main types based on the range of time delay at which the coincidence occurs. We have also characterized cell differentiation for all the three coincidence types and show that multiple coincidences of different types can also occur. We used healthy and HIV-infected patient blood samples and used our coincidence detection technique to count CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and show the improvement in accuracy of cell counts compared to that without coincidence detection. We have also shown the improvement in the erythrocyte counting with coincidence detection in diluted whole blood samples. PMID:25231594

  15. Monitoring of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in mice by serial leukocyte counting using a microcavity array.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Asami, Marie; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2013-02-15

    Monitoring of hematotoxicity, which requires serial blood collection, is difficult to carry out in small animals due to a lack of non-invasive, individual animal-appropriate techniques that enable enumeration of leukocyte subsets from limited amounts of whole blood. In this study, a microfluidic device equipped with a microcavity array that enables highly efficient separation of leukocytes from submicroliters of whole blood was applied for hematotoxicity monitoring in mice. The microcavity array can specifically separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size and deformability between leukocytes and other blood cells. Mouse leukocytes recovered on aligned microcavities were continuously processed for image-based immunophenotypic analysis. Our device successfully recovered almost 100% of mouse leukocytes in 0.1 ?L of whole blood without the effect of serial blood collection such as changes in body weight and total leukocyte count. We assessed benzene-associated hematotoxicity in mice using this system. Mice were administered with benzene once daily and the depression of leukocyte numbers induced in individual mice was successfully monitored from tail vein blood collected every other day for 2 weeks. Serial monitoring of the leukocyte number in individual mice will contribute to the understanding of hematotoxicity and reduction of the number of animal experiment trials. PMID:22770906

  16. Apoptosis and necrosis of blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    milk somatic cell counts (SCC) are used as an indicator for bovine mastitis. Dur- ing mastitisShort note Apoptosis and necrosis of blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes in early, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) become the predominant cell type. Shortly after parturition, the severity

  17. Associations Between Haemonchus contortus Infection in Lambs and Blood Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the principal stomach worms of sheep, and infection is characterized by anemia. Estimates of the average blood loss per worm per day range from .003 to .05 ml. Studies have shown that high eosinophilia was correlated with low fecal egg count (FEC) and, therefore, res...

  18. Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood plasma and leukocytes into low cell count milk W Fang M Vikerpuur, M Sandholm Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty 1995; accepted 29 August 1995) Summary ― Milk from inflamed quarters is high in somatic cells

  19. BUN - blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  20. Neotyphodium Coenophialum Alters Blood Metabolites Involved in Nitrogen, Energy, and Minteral Metabolism in Growing Steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood metabolite changes in steers during summer-long grazing of toxic endophyte-infected pastures were investigated as a part of a larger study for determination of physiological genomic and metabolic pathways for alkaloid metabolism. Blood cell counts, differentials, and serum metabolites of grow...

  1. Blood Rheology and Hemodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oguz K. Baskurt; Herbert J. Meiselman

    2003-01-01

    Blood is a two-phase suspension of formed elements (i.e., red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), platelets) suspended in an aqueous solution of organic mole- cules, proteins, and salts called plasma. The apparent viscosity of blood depends on the existing shear forces (i.e., blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid) and is determined by hematocrit, plasma viscosity, RBC aggregation, and

  2. JAMA Patient Page: Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The donated blood is screened at the blood bank for blood type, antibodies that could cause harmful ... situation. FOR MORE INFORMATION • American Association of Blood Banks www.aabb.org • National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  3. Three Adult Cases of HPV-B19 Infection with Concomitant Leukopenia and Low Platelet Counts

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Marui, Nobuyuki; Matsuo, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We encountered three adult patients with flu-like symptoms diagnosed with human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) infection. Blood serum analysis also revealed leukopenia, with white blood cell counts (WBCs) of 1,000–2,000/mL and low platelet counts of 89–150 × 109/L. Typical skin rash was absent in one patient. Bone marrow examination of another patient showed hypoplastic marrow with <5% blast cells. All patients recovered without administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Therefore, HPV-B19 infection with leukopenia should be considered in adult patients with leukopenia during erythema infectiosum epidemics, even if typical clinical findings (ie, skin rash) are absent. Further, the fact that three cases were observed over the stated time period at our hospital, which is located in Nagoya city, showed a transition to a slightly higher level of incidence than the annual average. PMID:25780346

  4. Decreased plasma cytokines associate with low platelet counts in aplastic anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xingmin; Scheinberg, Phillip; Samsel, Leigh; Rios, Olga; Chen, Jichun; McCoy, J. Philip; Ghanima, Waleed; Bussel, James B.; Young, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We previously found plasma levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 (CXCL5), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be low in aplastic anemia (AA) patients and to be correlated with the platelet count. Objectives To study the association of CD40L, CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF with platelets. Patients/Methods We measured cytokines in the plasma of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and AA patients using the Luminex assay and confirmed the results in a mouse model and in vitro experiments. Results Both ITP and AA showed similarly low levels of CD40L, CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF, compared with healthy controls. In ITP, levels of these proteins were significantly greater in patients with higher platelet counts than in those with lower platelet counts. In a murine thrombocytopenia model, levels of CD40L, CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF decreased with platelet count after immune-mediated destruction, while the cytokine levels increased when the platelet count recovered. In vitro, concentrations of these cytokines in the supernatants of platelet suspensions were proportional to platelet numbers, and levels in sera prepared by simple blood coagulation were equivalent to those in platelet-rich plasma-converted sera. mRNA expression for CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF was higher in platelets than in megakaryocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, granulocytes, and non-megakaryocytic bone marrow cells. Conclusions Plasma CD40L, CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF are mainly platelet-derived, suggesting a role of platelets in immune responses and inflammation. Measurement of CD40L, CXCL5, CCL5, and EGF in human blood allowed testable inferences concerning physiology and pathophysiology in quantitative platelet disorders. PMID:22537155

  5. [European regulation on blood and blood components].

    PubMed

    Sandid, I

    2010-12-01

    The European regulation on blood and blood components is declined in four directives: the Directive 2002/98/EC known as "mother Directive" and three directives called "daughter Directives" 2004/33/EC, 2005/61/EC and 2005/62/EC. It constitutes a common basis of provisions of quality and safety of blood in the European Union (EU), thus guaranteeing this safety and this quality with the whole of the citizens circulating in Member States of the Union. It cannot prevent a Member State for maintaining or introducing more stringent protective measures. It encourages the anonymous, voluntary and unpaid blood donations. It envisages many provisions for the prospective blood donor eligibility, the blood collection, the testing, processing, storage, transport, distribution and issuing of blood and blood components and the haemovigilance. In the field of the haemovigilance, this European regulation widened the field of competence of the national systems to the notification of serious adverse events of the transfusion chain and the serious adverse reactions, which have occurred in the blood donors. The European directives were transposed in the French national law between 2004 and 2007 by legislative and lawful ways. PMID:21050786

  6. Genomic Structure of an Attenuated Quasi Species of HIV1 from a Blood Transfusion Donor and Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Deacon; A. Tsykin; A. Solomon; K. Smith; M. Ludford-Menting; D. J. Hooker; D. A. McPhee; A. L. Greenway; A. Ellett; C. Chatfield; V. A. Lawson; S. Crowe; A. Maerz; S. Sonza; J. Learmont; J. S. Sullivan; A. Cunningham; D. Dwyer; D. Dowton; J. Mills

    1995-01-01

    A blood donor infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and a cohort of six blood or blood product recipients infected from this donor remain free of HIV-1-related disease with stable and normal CD4 lymphocyte counts 10 to 14 years after infection. HIV-1 sequences from either virus isolates or patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells had similar deletions in the nef

  7. Full-Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid A.

    1991-01-01

    This review of the literature on full-text databases provides information on search strategy, performance measurement, and the benefits and limitations of full text compared to bibliographic database searching. Various use studies and uses of full-text databases are also listed. (21 references) (LAE)

  8. Low cost crowd counting using audio tones

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Pravein Govindan

    With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

  9. Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild

    E-print Network

    Hernandez Rivera, Javier

    In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...

  10. Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziv Bar-yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

    2002-01-01

    We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ?. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time\\/space tradeoffs.

  11. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  20. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  1. A Comparison of Pyronin Y-Methyl Green Stain and Methylene Blue Stain for Somatic Cell Count in Sheep Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Mirek; Stacey O’Donnell

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell count is a key method used to evaluate the quality of milk in today’s growing dairy sheep industry. Somatic cells are body cells, primarily the white blood cells, found in a milk sample. If an infection such as mastitis is present, the number of somatic cells in the milk increases (Gonzalo, et al. 1992). Producers routinely perform somatic

  2. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

  3. Dying dyons don't count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda C. N. Cheng; Erik P. Verlinde

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1\\/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1\\/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we

  4. Birth-Death and Bug Counting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm Kremer

    1983-01-01

    Many software reliability time-domain bug-counting models are, as fault counters, special cases of the stochastic process known as the death process. Generalization to a nonhomogeneous birth-death process achieves three ends: stochastic fault introduction, the synthesis of a time-dependent failure rate with imperfect debugging and fault introduction, and the mathematical unification of much bug-counting theory. Often, the price for generalization is

  5. Imaging morphodynamics of human blood cells in vivo with video-rate third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Kuo; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    With a video-rate third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy system, we imaged the micro-circulation beneath the human skin without labeling. Not only the speed of circulation but also the morpho-hydrodynamics of blood cells can be analyzed. Lacking of nuclei, red blood cells (RBCs) shows typical parachute-like and hollow-core morphology under THG microscopy. Quite different from RBCs, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appear in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. PMID:23162724

  6. Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Changes in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E J Lim; S C Peh

    Background: 47 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were studied retrospectively to determine their marrow and blood changes at diagnosis. Methods: The blood counts, blood films, marrow smears, trephine and tissue biopsies of patients at diagnosis were reviewed. The scheme proposed by the International Lymphoma Study Group (REAL) was utilised for lymphoma subclassification. Results and Conclusion: 21.3% had lymphoblastic lymphoma, 21.3%

  7. Atom Counting in Expanding Ultracold Clouds

    E-print Network

    Sibylle Braungardt; Mirta Rodríguez; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen; Maciej Lewenstein

    2011-03-09

    We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used as a method to infer the properties of the initially trapped states. We consider initial superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the initially trapped modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field are reflected in the counting distribution. We find that for detectors that are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function, the long-range correlations of the initial states can be distinguished by observing the counting statistics. We consider counting at one detector, as well as the joint probability distribution of counting particles at two detectors. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, insulating states with different occupation patterns, as well as supersolid states with different density distributions can be distinguished.

  8. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  9. A Survey on Counting Networks Brown University, Rhode Island, USA

    E-print Network

    Busch, Konstantin "Costas"

    A Survey on Counting Networks C. BUSCH Brown University, Rhode Island, USA M. HERLIHY Brown University, Rhode Island, USA Abstract In the counting problem, asynchronous concurrent processes repeatedly

  10. Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darbianne Shannon

    2012-07-13

    In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

  11. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Moore, J S

    1990-03-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice and are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20-25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7-12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five per cent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10-20 ml/kg, recipient weight, is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10-15 ml of blood/kg body weight at 2-4 week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood crossmatching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 ml of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, collapse, apnea, and opisthotonos. Intravenous epinephrine HCl 1:1000 can be administered (0.2 to 0.5 ml) intravenously or (4 to 5 ml) intramuscularly if clinical signs are severe. Pretreatment with antipyretics and slowing the administration rate may decrease the febrile response. Blood or plasma administered too rapidly will also result in signs of cardiovascular overload, acute heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Furosemide and slower administration of blood or plasma should alleviate this problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2178738

  12. Haptoglobin blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease Collection of blood (hematoma) Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia ...

  13. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cord blood may be found if the mother has diabetes. The newborn will be watched for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) after delivery. High levels of bilirubin could be due ... Mother taking sulfa drugs during pregnancy Rh incompatibility ...

  14. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Retinol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin A in your blood. (These conditions are uncommon in ... normal value means you do not have enough vitamin A in your blood. This may cause: Bone or ...

  15. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma - a rare tumor in the pancreas that produces ... If low blood sugar is caused by an insulinoma (insulin-releasing tumor), surgery to remove the tumor ...

  16. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mail this page Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices What does this test do? This is a test system for use at home to measure the amount ...

  17. What is Blood Pressure?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Z. Tharp

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about heart health (on page 34 of the PDF), learners measure their own blood pressure using an electronic blood pressure monitor with a self-inflating cuff (included in cost of materials) and learn about the health effects of high blood pressure. Learners also discover how to interpret the blood pressure number (diastolic vs. systolic) and healthy ranges. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and web resources.

  18. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... especially those who specialize in treating diabetes, have blood-analysis equipment in their office and will be able to analyze the results right away. Sometimes, though, the doctor also may send a blood sample to the lab. Risks The blood glucose ...

  19. Soft-metric based channel decoding for photon counting receivers

    E-print Network

    Marina Mondin; Fred Daneshgaran; Inam Bari; Maria Teresa Delgado; Stefano Olivares; Matteo G. A. Paris

    2014-12-02

    We address photon-number-assisted, polarization- based, binary communication systems equipped with photon counting receivers. In these channels information is encoded in the value of polarization phase-shift but the carrier has and additional degree of freedom, i.e. its photon distribution, which may be exploited to implement binary input-multiple output (BIMO) channels also in the presence of a phase-diffusion noise affecting the polarization. Here we analyze the performances of these channels, which approach capacity by means of iteratively decoded error correcting codes. In this paper we use soft-metric- based low density parity check (LDPC) codes for this purpose. In order to take full advantage of all the information available at the output of a photon counting receiver, soft information is generated in the form of log-likelihood ratios, leading to improved frame error rate (FER) and bit error rate (BER) compared to binary symmetric channels (BSC). We evaluate the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel and show the potential gains that may be provided by photon counting detectors in realistic implementations.

  20. Automated imaging, identification, and counting of similar cells from digital hologram reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Mihaela; Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Costescu, Julia; Kusko, Mihai; Paun, Irina Alexandra; Scarlat, Eugen

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents our method, which simultaneously combines automatic imaging, identification, and counting with the acquisition of morphological information for at least 1000 blood cells from several three-dimensional images of the same sample. We started with seeking parameters to differentiate between red blood cells that are similar but different with respect to their development stage, i.e., mature or immature. We highlight that these cells have different diffractive patterns with complementary central intensity distribution in a given plane along the propagation axis. We use the Fresnel approximation to simulate propagation through cells modeled as spheroid-shaped phase objects and to find the cell property that has the dominant influence on this behavior. Starting with images obtained in the reconstruction step of the digital holographic microscopy technique, we developed a code for automated simultaneous individual cell image separation, identification, and counting, even when the cells are partially overlapped on a slide, and accurate measuring of their morphological features. To find the centroids of each cell, we propose a method based on analytical functions applied at threshold intervals. Our procedure separates the mature from the immature red blood cells and from the white blood cells through a decision based on gradient and radius values.

  1. Sedimentation Counting and Morphology of Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Harold W.

    1965-01-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373–1386. 1965.—The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO4 prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 m?) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 × 106). Images PMID:5321487

  2. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  3. SAVE A LIFE...DONATE BLOOD!! STANFORD BLOOD CENTER

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    SAVE A LIFE...DONATE BLOOD!! STANFORD BLOOD CENTER SLAC Blood Drive Wednesday, August 23rd 8:00am-INS WELCOME! Requirements for Donating Blood: · Must be at least 17 years of age · Must weigh at least 110

  4. Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: Low CD4 counts and risk of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Parisi, Michele [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Grossman, Stuart [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)]. E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Patients with primary brain tumors are often treated with high doses of corticosteroids for prolonged periods to reduce intracranial swelling and alleviate symptoms such as headaches. This treatment may lead to immunosuppression, placing the patient at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The risk of contracting some types of infection may be reduced with prophylactic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of low CD4 counts and whether monitoring CD4 counts during and after radiotherapy (RT) is warranted. Methods and Materials: CD4 counts were measured during RT in 70 of 76 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Grade III and IV astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with corticosteroids and seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Weekly CD4 measurements were taken in the most recent 25 patients. Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg p.o. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or dapsone (100 mg p.o. daily) in those with sulfa allergy was prescribed only if patients developed a low CD4 count. Carmustine chemotherapy wafers were placed at surgery in 23% of patients, evenly distributed between the groups. No patient received any other chemotherapy concurrent with RT. Results: CD4 counts decreased to <200/mm{sup 3} in 17 (24%) of 70 patients. For the 25 patients with weekly CD4 counts, all CD4 counts were >450/mm{sup 3} before RT, but 6 (24%) of 25 fell to <200/mm{sup 3} during RT. Patients with counts <200/mm{sup 3} were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (41% vs. 9%, p <0.01) and be hospitalized for infection (23% vs. 4%, p <0.05) during RT. Overall survival was not significantly different between the groups. All patients with low CD4 counts were treated with prophylactic antibiotics, and no patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. No patients developed a serious adverse reaction to antibiotic therapy. The mean dose of steroids, mean minimal white blood cell count, and number of patients treated with Gliadel wafers were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study have confirmed the clinical impression that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and RT in patients with primary brain cancer is sufficient to result in severe immunosuppression and place these patients at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections. A protocol of prophylactic antibiotics for those at risk may help prevent a potentially fatal side effect of treatment. A prospective study is underway to determine the frequency, depth, and prognostic implications of this finding.

  5. Full Wave Rectification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Victoria Junior College contains an interactive simulation of full wave rectification. Slider bars allow the user to adjust capacitance and ohm levels. The simulation includes an animated graph.

  6. Cosmological constraints from Subaru weak lensing cluster counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamana, Takashi; Sakurai, Junya; Koike, Michitaro; Miller, Lance

    2015-06-01

    We present results of weak lensing cluster counts obtained from 11-degree2 Subaru/SuprimeCam data. Although the area is much smaller than previous work dealing with weak lensing peak statistics, the number density of galaxies usable for weak lensing analysis is about twice as large. The higher galaxy number density reduces the noise in the weak lensing mass maps, and thus increases the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of peaks of the lensing signal due to massive clusters. This enables us to construct a weak lensing selected cluster sample by adopting a high threshold S/N, such that the contamination rate due to false signals is small. We find six peaks with S/N > 5. For all the peaks, previously identified clusters of galaxies are matched within a separation of 1', demonstrating good correspondence between the peaks and clusters of galaxies. We evaluate the statistical error in the weak lensing cluster counts using mock weak lensing data generated from full-sky ray-tracing simulations, and find Npeak = 6 ± 3.1 in an effective area of 9.0 degree2. We compare the measured weak lensing cluster counts with the theoretical model prediction based on halo models and place the constraint on the ?m-?8 plane which is found to be consistent with currently standard ?CDM models. It is demonstrated that the weak lensing cluster counts can place a unique constraint on the ?8-c0 plane, where c0 is the normalization of the dark matter halo mass-concentration relationship. Finally we discuss prospects for ongoing/future wide field optical galaxy surveys.

  7. DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes of Inquiry

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes the LSP Modes of Inquiry; Whereas currently students are not allowed to use courses in the required support for their majors to satisfy LSP Modes of Inquiry requirements unless explicitly allowed

  8. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J.A.; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  9. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided. PMID:24464815

  10. State reduction in quantum-counting quantum nondemolition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milburn, G.J.; Walls, D.F.

    1984-07-01

    We show how quantum-counting quantum nondemolition measurements may be made using standard demolition counting techniques (e.g., photoelectron counting) for two oscillators coupled via a four-wave-mixing interaction. The analysis reveals how the state of one oscillator is reduced to a number eigenstate during the irreversible demolition counting process occurring in another coupled oscillator.

  11. A robust method for counting people in complex indoor spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Ye

    2010-01-01

    People counting systems have wide potential applications including video surveillance and public resources management. This paper describes a robust method for counting people in complex indoor spaces. The method has counted the number of people using a single camera in the indoor spaces through four modules: image pre-processing module, morphology processing module, image marking module and people counting module, in

  12. Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ynte H. Schukken; David J. Wilson; Francis Welcome; Linda Garrison-Tikofsky; Ruben N. Gonzalez

    2003-01-01

    In this article the use of somatic cell counts for monitoring udder health and milk quality is discussed. Somatic cell count dynamics at quarter, cow, herd and population level are discussed and illustrated with examples. Quarter and cow somatic cell counts directly represent the inflammatory status of the mammary gland. Herd and population somatic cell count are related to the

  13. Study on counting error in particle inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Mitsuaki; Ota, Kazuya; Taguchi, Takao; Suga, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    In EUV lithography (EUVL) it is important to protect a mask from the adhesion of particles because it is difficult to use a pellicle. At Selete, we evaluated a dual-pod carrier and reported on its ability to protect a mask from particles. In the evaluation the average number of particles added to the mask during several hundred handling-cycles was 0.4. Therefore, it is very important to precisely count the number of particle adders. However, according to the specification of the inspection tool, the counting error was greater than the average number of particle adders in the evaluation. In addition, it is known that the error increases for particles with a size near the detection limit. In the evaluation, we inspected a mask substrate four times and regarded signals detected multiple times as real particles. We studied the counting error by assuming that the detection probability followed a static statistical fluctuation. We found that the expected value of counting error was represented with the equation by the number of initial particles, particle adders, capture rate, and inspection times. Under our evaluation condition, even if no quasi-particles existed, the counting error by a single inspection was estimated to be approximately 4. However, the counting error by our evaluation (four inspections) was estimated to be approximately 0.05. Therefore, we found that the reliability by multiple inspections was much higher than that by a single inspection and that the number of particles near the detection limit could be found precisely by multiple inspections. * This work was supported by NEDO.

  14. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ... Common Are High Blood Pressure and Preeclampsia in Pregnancy? High blood pressure problems occur in 6 percent ...

  15. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the basic blood chemistry test include blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, which tell how well the kidneys ... amount of sugar in the blood. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a measure of how well the ...

  16. Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graba, James M.

    1998-10-01

    An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles affording optimum filtering. Although the input is a nonlinear function of position, the estimator is constructed in such a way as to maintain linearity.

  17. Blackboard biracks and their counting invariants

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Sam

    2010-01-01

    A blackboard birack is an algebraic structure with axioms encoding the blackboard-framed Reidemeister moves, incorporating quandles, racks, strong biquandles and semiquandles as special cases. In this paper we describe a family of blackboard biracks generalizing Alexander quandles, $(t,s)$-racks, Alexander biquandles and Silver-Williams switches, known as $(\\tau,\\sigma,\\rho)$-biracks. We define a counting invariant of unframed classical and virtual knots and links using labelings of link diagrams by finite blackboard biracks, and we give enhancements of the counting invariant using writhe vectors, image subbiracks, and birack polynomials.

  18. Power counting in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, M. Pavon

    2015-10-01

    The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.

  19. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  20. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  1. Bacterial Cell Counts in Goat Milk and Their Correlations with Somatic Cell Counts, Percent Fat, and Protein1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. W. Park; R. D. Humphrey

    1986-01-01

    Representative milk samples at morning and afternoon milking were collected periodically for 5 mo from 32 does in a Prairie View A&M University milking herd to test the concentrations of total bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcus counts and to determine the correlations among the bacterial cell counts, somatic cell counts, percent fat, and percent protein. Bacterial cell counts were assayed by

  2. Full moon and crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C P Thakur; D Sharma

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and

  3. Full-Fledged Indian

    E-print Network

    Hart, Josh Benjamin

    2010-04-26

    Lee Stafford is in his seventh summer as a counselor at Camp Arrowdance. While Lee enjoys his status as one of the most popular staff members at camp, he begins to wonder if he's in danger of going "Full-Fledged Indian", ...

  4. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...

  5. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  6. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, collapse, apnea, and opisthotonos. Intravenous epinephrine HCl 1:1000 can be administered (0.2 to 0.5 mL) intravenously or (4 to 5 mL) intramuscularly (preferable) if clinical signs are severe. Pretreatment with antipyretics and slowing the administration rate may decrease the febrile response. Blood or plasma administered too rapidly will also result in signs of cardiovascular overload, acute heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Furosemide and slower administration of blood or plasma should alleviate this problem. Administration rates have been suggested starting from 10 mL/kg/hr; faster rates may be necessary in peracute hemorrhage. Plasma should be administered when failure of absorption of passive maternal antibody has occurred or when protein-loosing enteropathy or nephropathy results in a total protein of less than 3 g/dL or less than 1.5 g albumin/dL. Plasma can be stored at household freezer temperatures (-15 to -20 degrees C) for a year; coagulation factors will be destroyed after 2 to 4 months when stored in this manner. To maintain viability of coagulation factors, plasma must be stored at -80 degrees C for less than 12 months. When administering plasma, a blood donor set with a built-in filter should always be used. When bovine plasma is thawed, precipitants form in the plasma and infusion of these microaggregates may result in fatal reactions in the recipient. PMID:10573816

  7. Periodic oscillation of blood leukocytes, platelets, and hemoglobin in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhijian; Hao, Yushu; Qin, Tiejun; Han, Zhongchao

    2003-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a rare myeloproliferative disease in which autonomous, clonal proliferation of eosinophilic precursors results in persistent increase of eosinophils in the blood and bone marrow. A case of CEL spontaneous oscillation of white blood cell (WBC) count is presented. The cycle of WBC variation comprised about 60 days. Similar cyclic variations were noted in his platelet count, hemoglobin level and bone marrow cellularity, as well as in the spleen size, which was directly correlated with the WBC count. The numbers of bone marrow erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and the serum level of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were also regularly changed during the oscillation of WBC. Bone marrow hyperplasia was accompanied with the increase in peripheral WBC count, suggesting that the variation of cell production caused the cyclic oscillation. PMID:12479858

  8. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

  9. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  10. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  11. Reading the World of University : What Counts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Green; Gloria Latham

    2000-01-01

    This paper will address the issues encountered by first year students in reading and reshaping the culture of university. The interim findings of a six year study will be dismantled in order to uncover what counts in the experience of first year university and the ramifications for educational practice and discourse. Feedback from staff continues to indicate that there is

  12. Probing cosmology with weak lensing peak counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. Kratochvil; Zoltan Haiman; Morgan May

    2010-01-01

    We propose counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters. Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints that are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. As

  13. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

  14. Mass Terms, Count Nouns, and Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Burge

    From early childhood we learn to distinguish compact, enduring things from the stuffs of which they are constituted. We count\\u000a the former and measure the latter. We treat things as stable points of reference for action and experience; stuffs we think\\u000a of as amorphous and protean.

  15. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  16. Clinical utility of the band count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Joanne Cornbleet

    2002-01-01

    Enumeration of band neutrophils as an indicator of acute infection is in- grained in clinical practice. Clinicians still use elevated band counts (bandemia) as evidence for serious bacterial infection, and even may view sequential changes as a correlate of response or nonresponse to therapy. Surprisingly, the clinical folklore of the band persists despite little mention of its diagnostic utility in

  17. COUNTING NONINTERSECTING LATTICE PATHS WITH TURNS

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    COUNTING NONINTERSECTING LATTICE PATHS WITH TURNS C. Krattenthaler Institut f¨ur Mathematik der points and a given total number of North-East turns. These formulas are important for the computation with given starting and end points and a given total number of turns in certain regions. If one forgets about

  18. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  19. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  20. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  1. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  2. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  3. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  4. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  5. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  6. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  7. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  8. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  9. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  10. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

  11. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

    This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

  12. Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  14. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  15. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Stéphane; Schbath, Sophie; Vandewalle, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use. PMID:17346349

  16. ABC Learn Online: Count Us In

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ABC Learn Online hosts this website with many interactive games designed to help children learn basic number concepts. Basic concepts addressed include: counting, sorting, addition, subtraction, and identifying patterns. PC and Mac versions of games are also available for free to download. A section on Other Activities describes some activities that teachers can try in their classrooms.

  17. An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

  18. Counting on in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie White, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "Counting On" program has evolved from a series that began in 1999 and which continued to expand and change until the current manifestation. The program has always had a twin learning focus upon both students and teachers. Thus it seeks to improve student mathematical outcomes while building capacity within the teachers by improving their…

  19. Primary Place. Math Projects That Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, Larry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Offers elementary math-centered recycling activities and ideas on transforming throwaways into valuable classroom resources. The math activities teach estimating, counting, measuring, weighing, graphing, patterning, thinking, comparing, proportion, and dimensions. The recycling ideas present ways to use pieces of trash to create educational games.…

  20. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  1. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

  2. Some recent progress in count time series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Fokianos

    2011-01-01

    We review some regression models for the analysis of count time series. These models have been the focus of several investigations over the last years, but only recently simple conditions for stationarity and ergodicity were worked out in detail. This advancement makes possible the development of the maximum-likelihood estimation theory under minimal assumptions.

  3. Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

  4. COUNTING DEAD BIRDS: EXAMINATION OF METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Philibert; G. Wobeser; R. G. Clark

    We studied three methods (line transect, circular quadrat, complete count) for esti- mating density of dead birds, using models of sparrows and meadowlarks placed at a density of 50 birds of each type\\/ha. Line transects with a 500-m search line were used in cultivated pasture and native prairie habitats. The number of birds found by individual searchers in line transects

  5. Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-

    E-print Network

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each

  6. http://tsunami.gov When seconds count...

    E-print Network

    http://tsunami.gov When seconds count... TsunamiReady communities are prepared! Schools, playgrounds, hospitals, factories and homes are often built in areas vulnerable to tsunamis. The Tsunami in coastal areas to reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. How can I learn more

  7. "Wake Up Brains" with Skip Counting Songs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 4-minute video teacher Jan Saul demonstrates how she incorporates music and kinesthetic activity in warm-up activities in her grade 3 class. The songs involve skip-counting, laying the foundation for memorization of multiplication facts. The page included a link to the vendor of the recordings and a transcript of the video (doc).

  8. Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

  9. Count data models for demographic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Winkelmann; Klaus F. Zimmermann

    1994-01-01

    Key demographic variables, such as the number of children and the number of marriages or divorces, can only take integer values. This papers deals with the estimation of single equation models in which the counts are regressed on a set of observed individual characteristics such as age, gender, or nationality. Most empirical work in population economics has neglected the fact

  10. Measuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    assessment. In this paper we take a fresh look at measuring vulnerability, where we sep- arate out the identi;1 Introduction Vulnerability has become an integral part of any deprivation assessment. In recent years there hasMeasuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach Indranil Dutta Ajit Mishra University

  11. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  12. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  13. Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

  14. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

  15. Kids Count in Indiana: 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the second in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. After an introduction and an explanation of the statistics, sections of the statistical report contain data on several indicators of well-being: (1) Indiana's children and their families, including population estimates, ethnicity,…

  16. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

  17. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  18. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  19. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  20. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…