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1

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (the ... lungs to the rest of the body. These measurements are usually done to test for anemia, a ...

2

[Complete blood counts: new parameters].  

PubMed

Performing a complete blood count analysis is a daily routine necessary for a good care of patients. Nowadays, modern blood analyzers provide on top of classical blood values, several additional parameters. In this paper, using short case presentations, we discuss how to interpret these results and integrate them in the clinical context. PMID:24313051

Lambert, J-F; Vollenweider, P

2013-10-30

3

Understanding Blood Counts  

MedlinePLUS

... myeloma, and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. LLS funds lifesaving blood cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy | Security | Copyright | Link Policy | Disclaimer | Refund Policy | Public Disclosure | ...

4

White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

1972-01-01

5

Low white blood cell count and cancer  

MedlinePLUS

When your blood is tested, ask for your white blood cell count. When your white blood cell count is low, do what you can to prevent infections. Know the signs of infection and what to do if you see them.

6

Full counting statistics and field theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the relations between the full counting statistics and the field theory of electric circuits. We demonstrate that for large conductances the counting statistics is determined by non-trivial saddle-point of the field. Coulomb effects in this limit are presented as quantum corrections that can stongly renormalize the action at low energies.

Yuli V. Nazarov

2007-01-01

7

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

9

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

10

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

11

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

12

Full Counting Statistics of Spin Currents  

E-print Network

We discuss how to detect fluctuating spin currents and derive full counting statistics of electron spin transfers. It is interesting to consider several detectors in series that simultaneously monitor different components of the spins transferred. We have found that in general the statistics of the measurement outcomes cannot be explained with the projection postulate and essentially depends on the quantum dynamics of the detectors.

Antonio Di Lorenzo; Yuli V. Nazarov

2003-12-01

13

White blood cell counts: reference methodology.  

PubMed

Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

2015-03-01

14

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

15

Full counting statistics of crossed Andreev reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the full transport counting statistics in a three-terminal tunnel device with one superconducting source and two normal-metal or ferromagnet drains. We obtain the transport probability distribution from direct Andreev reflection, crossed Andreev reflection, and electron transfer which reveals how these processes’ statistics are determined by the device conductances. The cross-correlation noise is a result of competing contributions from crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer, as well as antibunching due to the Pauli exclusion principle. For spin-active tunnel barriers that spin polarize the electron flow, crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer statistics exhibit different dependencies on the magnetization configuration and can be controlled by relative magnetization directions and voltage bias.

Morten, Jan Petter; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Belzig, Wolfgang; Brataas, Arne

2008-12-01

16

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites  

E-print Network

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites 1. Scanning for Leucocytozoon in bird blood in the blood, but are large parasites and can be spotted even under low power. 2. For Plasmodium slide box (Carolina blue box) that holds 25 slides. The bottom of the slide box has a layer of paper

Schall, Joseph J.

17

Full-counting statistics of random transition-rate matrices.  

PubMed

We study the full-counting statistics of current of large open systems through the application of random-matrix theory to transition-rate matrices. We develop a method for calculating the ensemble-averaged current-cumulant generating functions based on an expansion in terms of the inverse system size. We investigate how different symmetry properties and different counting schemes affect the results. PMID:24483426

Mordovina, Uliana; Emary, Clive

2013-12-01

18

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules.

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-03-01

19

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules  

PubMed Central

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-01-01

20

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules.  

PubMed

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-01-01

21

Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter

Claudio R. M. Mauricio; Fábio K. Schneider; L. Correia dos Santos

2010-01-01

22

Full counting statistics of charge transfer in Coulomb blockade systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer in mesoscopic systems has recently become a subject of significant interest, since it proves to reveal an important information about the system which can be hardly assessed by other means. While the previous research mostly addressed the FCS of noninteracting systems, the present paper deals with the FCS in the limit of strong

D. A. Bagrets; Yu. V. Nazarov

2003-01-01

23

Phase transitions in full counting statistics for periodic pumping  

E-print Network

We discuss the problem of full counting statistics for periodic pumping. The probability generating function is usually defined on a circle of the "physical" values of the counting parameter, with its periodicity corresponding to charge quantization. The extensive part of the generating function can either be an analytic function on this circle or have singularities. These two cases may be interpreted as different thermodynamic phases in time domain. We discuss several examples of phase transitions between these phases for classical and quantum systems. Finally, we prove a criterion for the "analytic" phase in the problem of a quantum pump for noninteracting fermions.

Dmitri A. Ivanov; Alexander G. Abanov

2010-07-16

24

A note on the Full Counting Statistics of paired fermions  

E-print Network

We study the trace of the exponentials of general fermion bi-linears, including pairing terms, and including non Hermitian forms. In particular, we give elementary derivations for determinant and pfaffian formulae for such traces, and use these to obtain general expressions for the full counting statistics in states associated with quadratic Hamiltonians including BCS-like pairing terms and fermion parity in a prescribed region or set of modes. We also derive pfaffian expressions for state overlaps and counting statistics in states built out of the vacuum by creation of pairs of particles.

Israel Klich

2014-09-14

25

Full counting statistics for noninteracting fermions: joint probability distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint probability distribution in the full counting statistics (FCS) for noninteracting electrons is discussed for an arbitrary number of initially separate subsystems which are connected at t = 0 and separated again at a later time. A simple method to obtain the leading-order long-time contribution to the logarithm of the characteristic function is presented which simplifies earlier approaches. New explicit results for the determinant involving the scattering matrices are found. The joint probability distribution for the charges in two leads is discussed for Y junctions and dots connected to four leads.

Inhester, L.; Schönhammer, K.

2009-11-01

26

Full counting statistics for noninteracting fermions: joint probability distributions.  

PubMed

The joint probability distribution in the full counting statistics (FCS) for noninteracting electrons is discussed for an arbitrary number of initially separate subsystems which are connected at t = 0 and separated again at a later time. A simple method to obtain the leading-order long-time contribution to the logarithm of the characteristic function is presented which simplifies earlier approaches. New explicit results for the determinant involving the scattering matrices are found. The joint probability distribution for the charges in two leads is discussed for Y junctions and dots connected to four leads. PMID:21832488

Inhester, L; Schönhammer, K

2009-11-25

27

Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

2015-01-01

28

BLOOD COUNTS IN EXPERIMENTAL POLIOMYELITIS IN THE MONKEY  

PubMed Central

Blood counts were made on six series of monkeys before and at various intervals after the injection of active poliomyelitic virus. From the data thus obtained the variations in the circulating white cells have been followed in the several stages of the disease (a) before injection, (b) during the incubation period, (c) during the acute stage, including the stage of prostration, and (d) during recovery. On account of experimental conditions not all the monkeys were observed during the four periods, so that averages of counts in several monkeys are used for comparison. Averages of 121 counts on 40 normal monkeys are recorded. Immediately following the injection of the virus the relative and actual numbers of lymphocytes are slightly diminished. In many cases the curve continues sharply downward. In others from the 4th to the 6th day there is an actual increase for a brief period to a point somewhat in excess of the original count. With the onset of symptoms a lymphocytic crisis takes place. The curve then continues slightly downward, while the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes are relatively and actually increased at approximately the same time. During the stage of prostration the curve of the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes returns to almost normal, while the lymphocytic curve continues slightly downward. With recovery the lymphocytes slowly return to normal after several weeks. There is no evidence of lymphocytic stimulation after recovery. Eosinophilic, basophilic, large mononuclear, and transitional leucocytes follow the depressions and stimulations exhibited by the neutrophilic cells of the same series. The results here recorded are consistent with the observations of Peabody, Draper, and Dochez on human cases. The increase in the total number of circulating lymphocytes after the lymphocytic crisis is coincident with the passing of the acute stage. Additional evidence is presented to indicate that Smillie produced atypical but definite poliomyelitis in the monkey with cultivated virus. PMID:19868309

Taylor, Herbert D.

1919-01-01

29

All-digital full waveform recording photon counting flash lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current generation analog and photon counting flash lidar approaches suffer from limitation in waveform depth, dynamic range, sensitivity, false alarm rates, optical acceptance angle (f/#), optical and electronic cross talk, and pixel density. To address these issues Ball Aerospace is developing a new approach to flash lidar that employs direct coupling of a photocathode and microchannel plate front end to a high-speed, pipelined, all-digital Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) to achieve photon-counting temporal waveform capture in each pixel on each laser return pulse. A unique characteristic is the absence of performance-limiting analog or mixed signal components. When implemented in 65nm CMOS technology, the Ball Intensified Imaging Photon Counting (I2PC) flash lidar FPA technology can record up to 300 photon arrivals in each pixel with 100 ps resolution on each photon return, with up to 6000 range bins in each pixel. The architecture supports near 100% fill factor and fast optical system designs (f/#<1), and array sizes to 3000×3000 pixels. Compared to existing technologies, >60 dB ultimate dynamic range improvement, and >104 reductions in false alarm rates are anticipated, while achieving single photon range precision better than 1cm. I2PC significantly extends long-range and low-power hard target imaging capabilities useful for autonomous hazard avoidance (ALHAT), navigation, imaging vibrometry, and inspection applications, and enables scannerless 3D imaging for distributed target applications such as range-resolved atmospheric remote sensing, vegetation canopies, and camouflage penetration from terrestrial, airborne, GEO, and LEO platforms. We discuss the I2PC architecture, development status, anticipated performance advantages, and limitations.

Grund, Christian J.; Harwit, Alex

2010-08-01

30

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence  

PubMed Central

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-01-01

31

Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device  

E-print Network

As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

Zimmerman, Julia C

2011-01-01

32

Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte count in relation to blood bicarbonate concentration in peritoneal dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Metabolic acidosis negatively influences dietary intake, increases protein catabolism, and deteriorates nutritional status. In the present study, we evaluated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients whether parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium influence total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs), which are markers of the immunologic and nutritional status of dialyzed patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients, mean age 50.9 +/- 12.4 years, treated with PD for a mean of 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium were measured simultaneously with evaluation of TLC and SLCs. (Antigens CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD19, CD16+56 were determined using flow cytometry.) The study patients showed compensated metabolic acidosis (pH: 7.40 +/- 0.04; HCO3-: 22.9 +/- 2.4 mmol/L). Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations of bicarbonate blood concentration and base excess with TLC and with CD3, CD5, and CD8 cell counts, but not with CD19 and CD16+56 cell counts. The CD4 cell count correlated only with blood bicarbonate level. Patients on PD who show better correction of metabolic acidosis also show higher TLC and CD3, CD4, CD5, and CD8 cell counts. The numbers of B lymphocytes (CD19) and natural killer cells (CD16+56) are not directly related to bicarbonate blood concentration, at least in the examined range. PMID:16686281

Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

2005-01-01

33

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

34

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Mrs. Beck

2006-12-08

35

CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF  

E-print Network

count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

36

Correlation between Peripheral White Blood Cell Counts and Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the correlation between differential leukocyte counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. Methods: Fifty patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50 patients with diabetic ketosis (DK), 50 non-DK diabetic patients with stable glycemic control, and 50 normal controls were enrolled. Their total and differential leukocyte counts were measured and evaluated at admission and after treatment. Results: The patients with DKA and DK had higher plasma glucose levels (20.84±6.73 mmol/L, 15.55±2.6 mmol/L, respectively) and more median leukocytes (13325/mm3 and 6595/mm3, respectively) and median neutrophils (11124 /mm3 and 4125/mm3, respectively) but fewer median eosinophils (28/mm3 and 72/mm3, respectively) compared to non-DK and control groups (all p < 0.05). Acute infection increased the elevating extent. The median leukocyte counts in DK and non-DK patients (6595/mm3 and 6008/mm3, respectively) were within the normal range. The counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher but eosinophils lower in severe DKA cases than in mild/moderate cases (p < 0.05). When the DKA and DK and infection resolved, total leukocytes and neutrophils fell, but eosinophils increased. The counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were negatively correlated with arterial pH levels (r = -0.515, r = -0.510, r = -0.517, all p < 0.001, respectively) and positively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.722, r = 0.733, r = 0.632, all p < 0.05, respectively) in DKA patients. The arterial pH level was the most significant factor affecting total leukocytes in DKA (? = 0.467, p = 0.003). The diagnosis analysis showed that higher total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and lower eosinophil counts had a significant ability to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic emergencies. Conclusion: More total leukocytes and neutrophils but fewer eosinophils was significantly correlated with DKA and DK. Leukocyte counts can add valuable information to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic crisis and acute infection. PMID:23630441

Xu, Wei; Wu, Hai-feng; Ma, Shao-gang; Bai, Feng; Hu, Wen; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

37

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

38

Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Abstract The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r?=?0.9937, p?count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p?blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p?>?0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

2014-10-01

39

Interpreting Complete Blood Counts Soon After Birth in Newborns at Risk for Sepsis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A complete blood count (CBC) with white blood cell differential is commonly ordered to evaluate newborns at risk for sepsis. OBJECTIVES To quantify how well components of the CBC predict sepsis in the first 72 hours after birth. METHODS For this retrospective cross-sectional study we identified 67 623 term and late-preterm (?34 weeks gestation) newborns from 12 northern California Kaiser hospitals and 1 Boston, Massachusetts hospital who had a CBC and blood culture within 1 hour of each other at <72 hours of age. We compared CBC results among newborns whose blood cultures were and were not positive and quantified discrimination by using receiver operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios. RESULTS Blood cultures of 245 infants (3.6 of 1000 tested newborns) were positive. Mean white blood cell (WBC) counts and mean absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were lower, and mean proportions of immature neutrophils were higher in newborns with infection; platelet counts did not differ. Discrimination improved with age in the first few hours, especially for WBC counts and ANCs (eg, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for WBC counts was 0.52 at <1 hour and 0.87 at ?4 hours). Both WBC counts and ANCs were most informative when very low (eg, the likelihood ratio for ANC < 1000 was 115 at ?4 hours). No test was very sensitive; the lowest likelihood ratio (for WBC count ? 20 000 at ?4 hours) was 0.16. CONCLUSION Optimal interpretation of the CBC requires using interval likelihood ratios for the newborn’s age in hours. PMID:20974782

Thomas, B. Newman; Karen, M. Puopolo; Soora, Wi; David, Draper; Gabriel, J. Escobar

2011-01-01

40

Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research. PMID:23467296

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

2013-01-01

41

FULL ARTICLE It's in your blood: spectral biomarker candidates  

E-print Network

FULL ARTICLE It's in your blood: spectral biomarker candidates for urinary bladder cancer from analysis, cancer biomarker, urinary bladder cancer 1. Introduction Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the current major health burdens worldwide [1, 2]. As major risk factors, smoking and occupational exposure

Gerwert, Klaus

42

Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.  

PubMed

For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

2011-01-01

43

Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

1999-11-01

44

White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation. PMID:21546503

Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

2011-01-01

45

Full Counting Statistics of Strongly Non-Ohmic Transport through Single Molecules Jens Koch,1  

E-print Network

Full Counting Statistics of Strongly Non-Ohmic Transport through Single Molecules Jens Koch,1 M. E. Raikh,2 and Felix von Oppen1 1 Institut fu¨r Theoretische Physik, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Arnimallee statistics of charge transport through single molecules, strongly coupled to a weakly damped vibrational mode

von Oppen, Felix

46

Full Counting Statistics of a Superconducting Beam Splitter J. Borlin, W. Belzig, and C. Bruder  

E-print Network

Full Counting Statistics of a Superconducting Beam Splitter J. B¨orlin, W. Belzig, and C. Bruder Departement f¨ur Physik und Astronomie, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel, Switzerland (Dated: January 31, 2002) We study the statistics of charge transport in a mesoscopic three-terminal device with one super

Bruder, Christoph

47

Full Counting Statistics with Spin-sensitive Detectors reveals Spin-singlets  

E-print Network

We study the full counting statistics of electric current to several drain terminals with spin-dependent entrance conductances. We show that the statistics of charge transfers can be interpreted in terms of single electrons and spin-singlet pairs coming from the source. If the source contains transport channels of high transparency, a significant fraction of electrons comes in spin-singlet pairs.

Antonio Di Lorenzo; Yuli V. Nazarov

2005-06-03

48

Blood count and hematologic morphology in nonanemic macrocytosis: differences between alcohol abuse and pernicious anemia.  

PubMed

In order to find out if blood count parameters could help to differentiate between the two most common causes for nonanemic macrocytosis, alcohol abuse and vitamin B12 deficiency, we studied 18 nonanemic pernicious anemia patients and 136 alcohol abusers without deficiency of folate and with an erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV) value > or = 100 femtoliters. In addition to blood count reticulocytes, peripheral blood smear and marrow aspirates were examined. The combination of a low red cell count (< 4.0 x 10(12)/l) or a high red cell distribution width (E-CDW) value (> 15.0%) with a normal thrombocyte count and a normal thrombocyte mean cell volume (T-MCV) was found in 94.4% of the vitamin deficient patients but in only 14.6% of the abusers, in 25.0% of the folate deficient patients (n = 8), and in 26.9% of the patients without any cause for macrocytosis (n = 52). None of the peripheral blood smear or marrow findings exceeded this sensitivity, and the few highly specific findings had low sensitivities. Thus, the combination of the four blood count parameters proved to be, as compared to hematologic morphology, a good diagnostic tool in selecting patients for appropriate further diagnostic tests. All patients with macrocytosis should be asked about their alcohol consumption. Additionally, serum B12 vitamin should be measured at least when nonanemic macrocytosis is combined to a low red cell count or a high E-CDW and the thrombocyte count and T-MCV are normal. PMID:8216878

Seppä, K; Sillanaukee, P; Saarni, M

1993-01-01

49

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

2010-01-01

50

WBC count  

MedlinePLUS

Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... in the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 ...

51

Age-related changes in peripheral blood counts in humans  

PubMed Central

Anaemia has become a common concern in geriatric health. Since its prevalence varies quite significantly among different groups depending on factors such as ethnicity, lifestyle or fitness, the appropriateness of the current WHO definition of anaemia in the elderly may be questioned. We evaluated peripheral blood parameters from 1,724 individuals (908 women aged 18–101 years and 816 men aged 18–96 years), who were treated at the University of Heidelberg Medical Center with no known haematological history. Patients with a known malignant haematological or oncological disease or with chronic infection or inflammation were excluded. Patients with disorders affecting the kidneys, thyroid or stomach, as well as patients with a bleeding history, haemolysis or who had been previously diagnosed with anaemia were excluded from the study. Average haemoglobin levels for men beyond the age of 70 and for women beyond the age of 80 were found to fulfill the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia. While in our cohort ?20% of men and women between 60–69 years of age were by definition anaemic, these numbers steadily increased to 63% in females and 76% in males beyond the age of 90. Based on the results of our study and in accordance with the literature on this topic, we suggest age-adjusted criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly in conjunction with a geriatric assessment. PMID:22993635

MAHLKNECHT, ULRICH; KAISER, SIMONE

2010-01-01

52

Age-related changes in peripheral blood counts in humans.  

PubMed

Anaemia has become a common concern in geriatric health. Since its prevalence varies quite significantly among different groups depending on factors such as ethnicity, lifestyle or fitness, the appropriateness of the current WHO definition of anaemia in the elderly may be questioned. We evaluated peripheral blood parameters from 1,724 individuals (908 women aged 18-101 years and 816 men aged 18-96 years), who were treated at the University of Heidelberg Medical Center with no known haematological history. Patients with a known malignant haematological or oncological disease or with chronic infection or inflammation were excluded. Patients with disorders affecting the kidneys, thyroid or stomach, as well as patients with a bleeding history, haemolysis or who had been previously diagnosed with anaemia were excluded from the study. Average haemoglobin levels for men beyond the age of 70 and for women beyond the age of 80 were found to fulfill the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia. While in our cohort ?20% of men and women between 60-69 years of age were by definition anaemic, these numbers steadily increased to 63% in females and 76% in males beyond the age of 90. Based on the results of our study and in accordance with the literature on this topic, we suggest age-adjusted criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly in conjunction with a geriatric assessment. PMID:22993635

Mahlknecht, Ulrich; Kaiser, Simone

2010-11-01

53

The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

2014-01-01

54

Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials in patients with benign or malignant ovarian tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether ovarian cancer patients had haematological anomalies compared to patients with benign ovarian tumours. Study design: Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials were measured in 70 patients suspected of having ovarian tumours. Postoperatively, 20 patients had metastatic ovarian cancer and 50 patients had benign ovarian tumours. A control group consisted

M. den Ouden; J. M. H. Ubachs; J. E. G. M. Stoot; J. W. J. van Wersch

1997-01-01

55

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

2004-01-01

56

Flow Cytometric White Blood Cell Differential Using CytoDiff is Excellent for Counting Blasts  

PubMed Central

Background The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. Methods In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing <10% blasts by manual counts were included. In total, 322 samples showed blasts on manual counts, ranging from 0.5% to 99%. The CytoDiff method was performed by flow cytometry (FC500; Beckman Coulter, USA) with a pre-mixed CytoDiff reagent and analyzing software (CytoDiff CXP 2.0; Beckman Coulter). Results The average time required to analyze 20 samples was approximately 60 min for manual counts, and the hands-on time for the CytoDiff method was 15 min. The correlation between the CytoDiff and manual counts was good (r>0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). Conclusions The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts. PMID:25553277

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon

2015-01-01

57

Full-phase photon-counting double-random-phase encryption.  

PubMed

We investigate a full-phase-based photon-counting double-random-phase encryption (PC-DRPE) method. A PC technique is applied during the encryption process, creating sparse images. The statistical distribution of the PC decrypted data for full-phase encoding and amplitude-phase encoding are derived, and their statistical parameters are used for authentication. The performance of the full-phase PC-DRPE is compared with the amplitude-based PC-DRPE method. The PC decrypted images make it difficult to visually authenticate the input image; however, advanced correlation filters can be used to authenticate the decrypted images given the correct keys. Initial computational simulations show that the full-phase PC-DRPE has the potential to require fewer photons for authentication than the amplitude-based PC-DRPE. PMID:24562039

Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

2014-02-01

58

Clinical comparison of high-resolution with high-sensitivity collimators in low-count cardiac gated blood pool studies  

SciTech Connect

We compared high-sensitivity (HS) and high-resolution (HR) collimators for 2.5-minute low-count acquisitions in 13 patients undergoing cardiac gated blood pool studies. High-count acquisitions served as standards. Ejection fractions calculated from low-count acquisitions were plotted against high-count acquisitions for each collimator; the variance of the HS plot was lower, and HS images were superior.

Kuni, C.C.; Johnson, T.K.; Boudreau, R.J.

1988-01-01

59

Full counting statistics of laser excited Rydberg aggregates in a one-dimensional geometry.  

PubMed

We experimentally study the full counting statistics of few-body Rydberg aggregates excited from a quasi-one-dimensional atomic gas. We measure asymmetric excitation spectra and increased second and third order statistical moments of the Rydberg number distribution, from which we determine the average aggregate size. Estimating rates for different excitation processes we conclude that the aggregates grow sequentially around an initial grain. Direct comparison with numerical simulations confirms this conclusion and reveals the presence of liquidlike spatial correlations. Our findings demonstrate the importance of dephasing in strongly correlated Rydberg gases and introduce a way to study spatial correlations in interacting many-body quantum systems without imaging. PMID:24483893

Schempp, H; Günter, G; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Hofmann, C S; Breyel, D; Komnik, A; Schönleber, D W; Gärttner, M; Evers, J; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M

2014-01-10

60

Equation of motion method for Full Counting Statistics: Steady state superradiance  

E-print Network

For the multi-mode Dicke model in a transport setting that exhibits collective boson transmissions, we construct the equation of motion for the cumulant generating function. Approximating the exact system of equations at the level of cumulant generating function and system operators at lowest order, allows us to recover master equation results of the Full Counting Statistics for certain parameter regimes at very low cost of computation. The thermodynamic limit, that is not accessible with the master equation approach, can be derived analytically for different approximations.

Malte Vogl; Gernot Schaller; Eckehard Schöll; Tobias Brandes

2012-08-31

61

Detection of coherent superpositions of phase states by full counting statistics in a Bose Josephson junction  

SciTech Connect

We study a Bose Josephson junction realized with a double-well potential. We propose a strategy to observe the coherent superpositions of phase states occurring during the time evolution after a sudden rise of the barrier separating the two wells. We show that their phase content can be obtained by the full counting statistics of the spin-boson operators characterizing the junction, which could be mapped out by repeated measurements of the population imbalance after rotation of the state. This measurement can distinguish between coherent superpositions and incoherent mixtures, and can be used for a two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of the phase content of the state.

Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J. [Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Universite Joseph Fourier-CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2009-10-15

62

On the problem of negative probabilities in time-resolved full counting statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the standard Keldysh formulation of full counting statistics breaks down, when trying to interpret it directly in terms of a probability for time-dependent currents, since it leads to negative probability density. We propose a positive operator valued measure, which effectively accounts for some detector dynamics, but reproduces the Keldysh result in the low-frequency limit. However, the detector dynamics adds a large white Gaussian detection noise, which should be visible in experiment. The original negative probability can be measured indirectly by two independent detectors.

Bednorz, Adam; Belzig, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

63

A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

64

Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis.

Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali

2015-01-01

65

On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.  

PubMed

This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100?000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement. PMID:25631744

Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

2015-03-01

66

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

2011-01-01

67

Full counting statistics for the number of electrons in a quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent real-time electron counting experiments, we evaluate the full counting statistics for the probability distribution of the electron number inside a quantum dot which is weakly coupled to source and drain leads. A non-Gaussian exponential distribution appears when there is no dot state close to the lead chemical potentials. We propose the measurement of the joint probability distribution of current and electron number, which reveals correlations between the two observables. We also show that for increasing strength of tunneling, the quantum fluctuations qualitatively change the probability distribution of the electron number. In this paper, we derive the cumulant generating functions (CGFs) of the joint probability distribution for several cases. The Keldysh generating functional approach is adopted to obtain the CGFs for the resonant-level model and for the single-electron transistor in the intermediate conductance regime. The general form for the CGF of the joint probability distribution is provided within the Markov approximation in an extension of the master equation approach [D. A. Bagrets and Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085316 (2003)].

Utsumi, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

68

Full counting statistics of energy fluctuations in a driven quantum resonator  

SciTech Connect

We consider the statistics of time-integrated energy fluctuations of a driven bosonic single-mode resonator, as measured by a quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, using the standard Keldysh prescription to define higher moments. We find that, due to an effective cascading of fluctuations, these statistics are surprisingly nonclassical: the low-temperature, quantum probability distribution is not equivalent to the high-temperature classical distribution evaluated at some effective temperature. Moreover, for a sufficiently large drive detuning and low temperatures, the Keldysh-ordered quasiprobability distribution characterizing these fluctuations fails to be positive-definite; this is similar to the full counting statistics of charge in superconducting systems. We argue that this indicates a kind of nonclassical behavior akin to that tested by Leggett-Garg inequalities.

Clerk, A. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2011-10-15

69

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

70

A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen

2014-01-01

71

Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans. PMID:23825535

Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei

2013-01-01

72

Blood clot formation under flow: the importance of factor XI depends strongly on platelet count.  

PubMed

A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production depends on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ~250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s(-1), thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency depends on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793

Fogelson, Aaron L; Hussain, Yasmeen H; Leiderman, Karin

2012-01-01

73

Blood Clot Formation under Flow: The Importance of Factor XI Depends Strongly on Platelet Count  

PubMed Central

A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production depends on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ?250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s?1, thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency depends on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793

Fogelson, Aaron L.; Hussain, Yasmeen H.; Leiderman, Karin

2012-01-01

74

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

75

[Extreme increase in the blood erythroblast count in a patient with iron-deficiency anemia and asplenia].  

PubMed

Bone marrow stress can provoke the presence of high erythroblast count in peripheral blood of patients with splenectomy, but is very rare in patients with normal spleen. Hypoxia occurring in patients with severe ferropenic anaemia could originate the occasional presence of erythroblasts in peripheral blood. An associated pathology should be excluded if there is a high normoblast count. We present the case of a 40 years old woman with ferropenic anaemia and a very high normoblast count. Hyperplastic polips were found in the gastric tissue as the cause for her anaemia. The absence of spleen explained the presence of erytroblasts. Further studies excluded the possibility of hemoglobinopathy and bone marrow studies were normal. Treatment with iron was successfully in correcting the hemoglobin levels and the normoblasts disappeared from peripheral blood also. A careful examination of the peripheral blood film and, specially the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies is the cornerstone of the possible diagnosis confirmed with the appropriate radiological studies. PMID:8779038

Ramos Fernández de Soria, R; Martín Núñez, G

1996-02-01

76

Quantization and fractional quantization of currents in periodically driven stochastic systems. II. Full counting statistics.  

PubMed

We study Markovian stochastic motion on a graph with finite number of nodes and adiabatically periodically driven transition rates. We show that, under general conditions, the quantized currents that appear at low temperatures are a manifestation of topological invariants in the counting statistics of currents. This observation provides an approach for classification of topological properties of the counting statistics, as well as for extensions of the phenomenon of the robust quantization of currents at low temperatures to the properties of the counting statistics which persist to finite temperatures. PMID:22519316

Chernyak, Vladimir Y; Klein, John R; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A

2012-04-21

77

Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

2008-01-01

78

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... The number of platelets in your blood can be affected by many ... Platelets may be counted to monitor or diagnose diseases, or ...

79

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2013-04-01

80

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2012-04-01

81

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2011-04-01

82

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2010-04-01

83

Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal. PMID:22494981

Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2012-01-01

84

A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

2014-01-01

85

Full range determination of ²²²Rn at the watershed scale by liquid scintillation counting.  

PubMed

(222)Rn has been increasingly used to identify groundwater contribution to surface water. Particular attention has been paid to analytical protocols and counting parameters used for liquid alpha scintillation measurements over a range of activities covering river and groundwater domains. Direct measurements and Rn-extraction protocols are optimized, and scintillometer efficiency is calibrated using international standards over the 0.5-35 Bq/L range. The interval of activities was performed in surface water and groundwater from a small Canadian watershed. PMID:23466700

Lefebvre, K; Barbecot, F; Ghaleb, B; Larocque, M; Gagné, S

2013-05-01

86

Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis - a prospective, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections. PMID:23398965

2013-01-01

87

Refined medullary blast and white blood cell count based classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias.  

PubMed

Since 2001, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is classified by the WHO as myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic neoplasm. Herein we tried to better describe CMML patients with regard to hematological characteristics and prognosis using data of the Duesseldorf registry. We created 6 CMML subgroups, by dividing dysplastic and proliferative CMML at the cut-off of white blood cell count of 13,000/?L and splitting these two groups into 3 subgroups: CMML 0 with <5% blasts (n=101), CMML I with 5-9% blasts (n=204) and CMML II with 10-19% blasts (n=81). For comparison we included patients with RCMD, RAEB I and II. The newly created CMML 0 group had better prognosis than CMML I and II, median survival times were 31 months (ms), 19ms and 13ms, respectively (p<0.001). Median survival times between the corresponding dysplastic and proliferative subgroups 0 and 1 differed significantly: CMML 0 dysplastic 48ms and CMML 0 proliferative 17ms (p=0.03), CMML I dysplastic 29ms and CMML I proliferative 15ms (p=0.008), CMML II dysplastic 17ms and CMML II proliferative 10ms (p=0.09). Outcome of CMML patients worsens with increasing medullary blasts and when presenting as proliferative type. Therefore it is justified to separate CMML with <5% medullary blasts. PMID:25444076

Schuler, E; Schroeder, M; Neukirchen, J; Strupp, C; Xicoy, B; Kündgen, A; Hildebrandt, B; Haas, R; Gattermann, N; Germing, U

2014-12-01

88

Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

2015-01-01

89

Full counting statistics for noninteracting fermions: exact finite-temperature results and generalized long-time approximation.  

PubMed

Exact numerical results for the full counting statistics (FCS) of a one-dimensional tight-binding model of noninteracting electrons are presented at finite temperatures using an identity recently published by Abanov and Ivanov. A similar idea is used to derive an explicit expression for the cumulant generating function for a system consisting of two quasi-one-dimensional leads connected by a quantum dot in the long-time limit, generalizing the Levitov-Lesovik formula for two single-channel leads to systems with an arbitrary number of transverse channels. PMID:21836194

Schönhammer, K

2009-12-01

90

Noninvasive blood-free full quantification of positron emission tomography radioligand binding.  

PubMed

Full quantification of a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand binding to its target is preferred because it requires the fewest assumptions, but generally involves measuring the concentration of free radioligand in the arterial plasma by collecting blood samples from the subject's radial artery during the scan, and performing metabolite analysis. This invasive, costly procedure deters subjects' participation, and requires specialized staff and equipment. Simultaneous estimation (SIME) can fully quantify binding using only PET data from multiple brain regions and one individual anchor value, which is based on a single arterial blood sample. Drawing this sample can still be challenging in clinical settings, particularly when using simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance scanners. Here we propose a methodology for full quantification of binding that does not require any blood samples. The methodology substitutes the SIME blood-based anchor with a value predicted using multiple linear regression of noninvasive, easy-to-collect variables related to the radioligand blood concentration, and individual metabolism, such as injected dose, body mass index, or body surface area. As a study case, we show here the methodology in comparison to analysis with full arterial-line blood sampling in a cohort of 23 available scans with [(11)C]CUMI-101, a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:25370860

Zanderigo, Francesca; Ogden, R Todd; Parsey, Ramin V

2015-01-01

91

Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2014-02-01

92

White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

93

The platelet count in EDTA-anticoagulated blood from patients with thrombocytopenia may be underestimated when measured in routine laboratories.  

PubMed

Spuriously low platelet counts (PCs) can be observed in normal blood samples anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)and, much less frequently, with citrate-tris-pyridossalphosphate (CPT),due to time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination. Accuracy in PC determination is essential as PC is one of the parameters that usually guides treatment for thrombocytopenic patients. PCs of 93 thrombocy to penic patients were measured in EDTA- or CPT-anticoagulated blood samples immediately after sampling (t0) and 90 min (t90) after storage at room temperature. The presence of platelet agglutinates in blood samples was determined by examining blood smears using optical microscopy.PCs decreased at t90 with both anticoagulants. Platelet agglutinates were present at t90 in 27% of EDTA-samples vs. 2% of CPT-samples with decreased PCs (P < 0.001). Based on PCs in EDTA-samples, 15 patients (16%) shifted from a lower bleeding risk at t0 to a higher bleeding risk category at t90 (P 5 0.019), compared to 5 (5%) patients, based on PCs in CPT-samples. Therefore, time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination in EDTA-blood samples may cause underestimation of PCs in thrombocytopenic patients, possibly leading to improper management. PMID:22674424

Podda, Gian Marco; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Mezzasoma, Anna Maria; Gresele, Paolo; Carpani, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Marco

2012-07-01

94

Complete Blood Count Alterations after Six Months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The cardiovascular complications caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decrease after continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and red cell distribution width (RDW) are newly recognized tools for assessing cardiovascular risk. Methods: From a selection of patients with symptoms of nocturnal snoring and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, 36 males with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 30/h and 22 age-matched normal male controls with AHI < 5/h were included. Patients with OSA underwent another night of CPAP titration, and 11 patients were excluded at the 6-month evaluation due to poor compliance with the home CPAP therapy. Complete blood count parameters of compliant patients and the control group were evaluated. Results: Compared to controls, MPV values were significantly higher (p = 0.025) in OSA patients, but no significant differences in PDW or RDW were found (p > 0.05). Six months of CPAP therapy resulted in significantly lower MPV values but increased values of PDW and RDW in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that complete blood count parameters in OSA patients such as MPV, PDW and RDW change significantly after CPAP therapy. Citation: Sökücü SN, Özdemir C, Dalar L, Karasulu L, Ayd?n ?, Alt?n S. Complete blood count alterations after six months of continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):873-878. PMID:25126033

Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Özdemir, Cengiz; Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Ayd?n, ?enay; Alt?n, Sedat

2014-01-01

95

White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

2015-03-01

96

The Influence of Age and Sex on the Cell Counts of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. Little is known about the normal levels of leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques. To obtain these data, 100 blood samples from Chinese rhesus macaques were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry through BD trucount tubes. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of leukocyte subpopulations was analyzed. The counts of CD3+T cells, CD3+CD4+T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells and B cells decreased with age, but those of monocytes, mDCs and pDCs had no significant correlation with age. Significant differences existed in the cell counts of most leukocyte subpopulations between the male and female groups except pDCs. Furthermore the values of the females were higher than those of the males. The study provided basic information about the leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques, and it may be valuable for immunobiological study of Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:20003819

Xia, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2009-01-01

97

A full-to-empty mode controller for the pneumatically-driven blood pump.  

PubMed

Presented in this paper is a microprocessor-based controller developed based upon the theory of finite state automata to activate the pneumatically-driven diaphragm blood pump in the full-to-empty mode. Under normal situations, each pumping cycle of the blood pump can be divided into several phases in a proper sequence, and such phase information is contained in the driving air pressure waveform. The controller tries to match the sequential phases with the pressure waveform sampled at real time in an attempt to search for the end-ejection or end-filling of the blood pump. If either the end-ejection or the end-filling can be found, the controller sends triggering signals to the driving unit, and if the sampled pressure waveform can not be matched with the sequential phases or the controller fails to detect the end-ejection or end-filling, the controller activates the driving unit by the parameters of the last measured pumping cycle; thus, the driving unit triggers the blood pump without any stop. The result of laboratory bench tests demonstrates its ability in finding the end-ejection and end-filling points and the reliability of the fail-safe measure. PMID:1879132

Jiang, K Y; Wang, H S

1991-05-01

98

Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system  

SciTech Connect

We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn

2013-12-15

99

Circuit theory and full counting statistics of charge transfer through mesoscopic systems: A random-matrix approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a random-matrix description of full counting statistics of charge transfer through a quantum mesoscopic system at finite temperature in the presence two nonideal contacts. Using the exact map between random-matrix theory and the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model, we demonstrate, via explicit calculations, that the saddle-point equation, derived by applying the variational principle to the supersymmetric action, can be cast in the form of the two-terminal version of Nazarov’s circuit theory, thus giving it the status of a controlled approximation. For the case in which the mesoscopic system is a quantum dot at zero temperature, this circuit theory has recently been shown [A. L. R. Barbosa and A. M. S. Macêdo, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235307 (2005)] to reproduce exactly the asymptotic semiclassical limit of the Poisson kernel in perfect agreement with a diagrammatic approach for averaging over the unitary group. We report applications of our formalism to the description of charge transfer through a quantum dot, a quantum chain, and a quantum wire. We also discuss the role of different symmetry classes (orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic) and show how to use known exact connections between the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model and random scattering matrix theories to perform both perturbative and nonperturbative calculations. We believe that our results will help unify the various approaches being currently used in mesoscopic physics of hybrid devices within a single physically sound and mathematically rigorous theoretical scheme.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macedo-Junior, A. F.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2007-08-01

100

Sex Differences in Step Count-Blood Pressure Association: A Preliminary Study in Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWalking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for “dosing” daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) per 1,000 daily step increments.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTwo hundred and one subjects

Priya Manjoo; Lawrence Joseph; Louise Pilote; Kaberi Dasgupta; Conrad P. Earnest

2010-01-01

101

Full-counting statistics of charge and spin transport in the transient regime: A nonequilibrium Green's function approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the investigation of full-counting statistics (FCS) of transferred charge and spin in the transient regime where the connection between central scattering region (quantum dot) and leads are turned on at t =0 . A general theoretical formulation for the generating function (GF) is presented using a nonequilibrium Green's function approach for the quantum dot system. In particular, we give a detailed derivation on how to use the method of path integral together with nonequilibrium Green's function technique to obtain the GF of FCS in electron transport systems based on the two-time quantum measurement scheme. The correct long-time limit of the formalism, the Levitov-Lesovik formula, is obtained. This formalism can be generalized to account for spin transport for the system with noncollinear spin as well as spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we have calculated the GF of spin-polarized transferred charge, transferred spin, as well as the spin transferred torque for a magnetic tunneling junction in the transient regime. The GF is compactly expressed by a functional determinant represented by Green's function and self-energy in the time domain. With this formalism, FCS in spintronics in the transient regime can be studied. We also extend this formalism to the quantum point contact system. For numerical results, we calculate the GF and various cumulants of a double quantum dot system connected by two leads in the transient regime. The signature of universal oscillation of FCS is identified. On top of the global oscillation, local oscillations are found in various cumulants as a result of the Rabi oscillation. Finally, the influence of the temperature is also examined.

Tang, Gao-Min; Wang, Jian

2014-11-01

102

Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

103

Blood Galactose and Glucose Levels in Mothers, Cord Blood, and 48-Hour-Old Breast-Fed Full-Term Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although galactose is an important component in human lactose, there are few reports of its role in the newborn metabolism. Objective: To determine the relationship of blood galactose and glucose levels in mothers, cord blood, and breast-fed full-term newborn infants. Methods: Maternal and cord vein blood samples were obtained from 27 pregnant women at delivery, and from their breast-fed,

Grasiela Bossolan; Cleide E. P. Trindade; Rodrigo Crespo Barreiros

2007-01-01

104

Erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count are associated with aspirin resistance in high-risk vascular patients.  

PubMed

Recently the phenomenon of aspirin resistance has been object of several studies, but no data are available on the possible role of the haemorheologic parameters in affecting platelet function and resistance to antiplatelet agents. Aim of our study was to evaluate platelet function and haemorheology in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), receiving double antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. The study population included 301 (231M/70F; age: 66 +/- 13 yrs) consecutive adult patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, with diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. We assessed: whole blood viscosity (WBV) at shear rates of 0.512 s(-1) and 94.5 s(-1), plasma viscosity (PLV) at 94.5 s(-1) shear rate, erythrocyte deformability index (DI) and PFA-100 closure times with ADP (PFA/ADP) and epinephrine (PFA/EPI). We considered any PFA-100-EPI result < 203 sec (95th percentile of control distribution) to be indicative of aspirin resistance. 104/301 patients (34.5%) had PFA/EPI CTs in the reference range (group 1) whereas the remaining had values higher than 203 sec (group 2). WBV at 94.5 sec (-1) s.r. was similar in group 1 and 2 (WBV: 4.43 +/- 0.25 vs 4.45 +/- 0.61 mPa.sec, respectively). PLV and WBV at 0.512 sec (-1) s.r. were slightly higher, but not significantly, in group 1 than in group 2 (PLV: 1.47+/-0.13 vs 1.44 +/- 0.15 mPa.sec; p = 0.08 and WBV: 23.37 +/- 4.6 vs 22.54 +/- 3.90 mPa.sec; p = 0.07). DI was significantly lower in group 1 with respect to group 2 (4.05 +/- 2.93 vs 5.71 +/- 3.30, p < 0.0001). White blood count (WBC) was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11464 +/- 3504 vs 7867 +/- 2162, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that in patients with acute coronary syndromes the antiaggregant effect of aspirin is modulated not only by the direct action on platelets, but also by erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count. PMID:16899924

Mannini, Lucia; Marcucci, Rossella; Paniccia, Rita; Antonucci, Emilia; Giglioli, Cristina; Valente, Serafina; Gori, Anna Maria; Prisco, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Abbate, Rosanna

2006-01-01

105

Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

2011-01-01

106

Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

107

Recombinant glycosylated human interleukin-6 accelerates peripheral blood platelet count recovery in radiation-induced bone marrow depression in baboons.  

PubMed

This report was aimed at confirming the potential clinical use for a genetically engineered glycosylated human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) in hematopoiesis. Its tolerance and efficacy were assessed on hematopoietic restoration after neutron radiation-induced bone marrow injury on baboons, which represent an adequate model of parallelism for studying hematology in the human. The particular neutron radiation absorption pattern in the body allows the preservation of underexposed bone marrow areas that mimics an autotransplantation-like situation. An initial dose finding study (1 microgram up to 20 micrograms/kg/d for 8 consecutive days) in normal baboons established a dose-dependent response regarding the peripheral platelet count (range of increase, 1.5- to 4-fold). A significant elevation in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as a substantial reversible normochromic normocytic anemia, were observed for the highest doses only (10 and 20 micrograms/kg/d). All rhIL-6 administered doses were clinically well tolerated. In myelosuppressed baboons, a selected dose of 10 micrograms/kg/d of rhIL-6 for 13 consecutive days significantly lessened the degree of induced thrombocytopenia as compared with the control group (P = .01) and shortened the time to occurrence of the nadir, showing that the onset of recovery occurs much earlier, ie, an average of 5 days (P = .003), in the treated group. Moreover, this accelerated platelet recovery is evidenced by an 8-day shorter mean time back to baseline values (P = .03) in the rhIL-6--treated animals. At this dose no effect was observed on the WBC recovery pattern. Importantly rhIL-6 did not accentuate the radiation-induced anemia and was clinically well tolerated. All tested monkeys recovered from their induced pancytopenia and no animal loss was recorded. IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-1 blood measurements are reported. In conclusion, rhIL-6 is a potent thrombopoietic factor for the treatment of induced thrombocytopenia in nonhuman primates at a clinically well-tolerated dose. PMID:1638022

Herodin, F; Mestries, J C; Janodet, D; Martin, S; Mathieu, J; Gascon, M P; Pernin, M O; Ythier, A

1992-08-01

108

The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  

PubMed

Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

1992-12-01

109

A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

2015-01-01

110

Changes in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count, Liver Enzymes, and Magnesium after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is an established method for treatment of obesity, a condition of chronic inflammation with liver steatosis, characterised by increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), liver enzymes, and decreased magnesium (Mg). We investigated alterations, if any, in ESR, WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and Mg after RYGBP. Methods. 21 morbidly obese nondiabetic patients who underwent RYGBP surgery were evaluated preoperatively (baseline), then 1 year (1st followup) and 3.5 years (2nd followup) after RYGBP and compared to an untreated control group. Results. Body mass index, ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT were all significantly reduced at 1 year in the RYGBP group (30%, 35%, 20%, 45%, and 57%, resp.) while Mg increased by 6%, compared to control group (P = 0.001?0.009). Conclusions. Obese patients treated by RYGBP show sustained reductions in ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT possibly due to reduced liver steatosis and increased Mg. PMID:22235366

Johansson, Hans-Erik; Haenni, Arvo; Zethelius, Björn

2011-01-01

111

Prognostic effect of peripheral blood cell counts in advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP-like chemotherapy: A single institution analysis  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of the present study was to correlate blood cell counts (lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts) with early disease relapse following the attainment of complete remission (CR) by the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP)-like regimen in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In total, 30 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up period of 43 months. All the participating patients attained CR. In total, eight patients experienced relapse within two years of the diagnosis, and the three-year overall survival rate was recorded as 77%. The peripheral counts for lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, all of which have been reported to be prognostic in DLBCL, were assessed. None of these parameters were correlated with the incidence of early relapse or with the prognosis. The lymphocyte count was higher in the patients with durable remission than in those who relapsed, however, no significant differences were identified. Thus, the present study concluded that early disease relapse was not predicted by peripheral blood cell counts in advanced DLBCL that reached CR using the R-CHOP-like regimen. PMID:25621059

YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; TASAKI, TOSHIKI; TAI, KATSUNORI; IKEGAYA, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, KAZUTAKA; NEGORO, EIJU; KISHI, SHINJI; YOSHIDA, AKIRA; IWASAKI, HIROMICHI; UEDA, TAKANORI

2015-01-01

112

Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk in non-affective psychoses.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:25542737

Miller, Brian J; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2015-03-01

113

Vomiting blood  

MedlinePLUS

... What medicines do you take? Do you drink alcohol or smoke? Tests that may be done include: Blood work, such as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ( ...

114

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... or chronic bleeding RBC destruction (e.g., hemolytic anemia , etc.) Nutritional deficiency (e.g., iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency) Bone marrow disorders or damage Chronic inflammatory disease Kidney failure Known as polycythemia Dehydration Lung (pulmonary) disease ...

115

Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

2006-02-01

116

Cord-blood tyrosine levels in the full-term phenylketonuric fetus and the "justification hypothesis".  

PubMed Central

The "justification hypothesis" attributes mental retardation in phenylketonuria (PKU) to an inability of the heterozygous mother to deliver an appropriate amount of tyrosine to the PKU fetus who, in turn, is unable to correct for this deficiency because of its genetic constitution. We tested this hypothesis by measuring concentrations of tyrosine and phenylalanine in cord blood obtained at delivery from nine infants with PKU and five infants with persistent (non-PKU) hyperphenylalaninemia (PHP). For each of these specimens there were four control cord-blood specimens from infants born on the same day and, generally, in the same hospital. PKU and PHP groups were similar with respect to cord-blood tyrosine and phenylalanine values. There was no biologically significant deficiency of tyrosine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP deficiency of tyrosine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP groups (54 +/- 10 microM, mean +/- SD) compared with controls (61 +/- 16 microM, P = 0.13). On the other hand, phenylalanine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP groups was significantly increased (144 +/- 30 microM, mean +/- SD) compared with controls (128 +/- 24, P = 0.004). The mangitude of the differences in cord-blood tyrosine and phenylalanine between control and PKU subjects are so small that it is unlikely that they have any consequences for physical and mental development. The justification hypothesis, as it pertains to blood tyrosine at term, is not upheld. PMID:6934544

Scriver, C R; Cole, D E; Houghton, S A; Levy, H L; Grenier, A; Laberge, C

1980-01-01

117

Alemtuzumab Treatment of Intermediate-1 Myelodysplasia Patients Is Associated With Sustained Improvement in Blood Counts and Cytogenetic Remissions  

PubMed Central

Purpose Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and progression to leukemia. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology in some patients, in whom immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with horse antithymocyte globulin (h-ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA) can be effective. Because of the toxicities associated with h-ATG/CsA, we investigated an alternative regimen with alemtuzumab in MDS. Patients and Methods We conducted a nonrandomized, off-label, pilot, phase I/II study of alemtuzumab monotherapy in patients with MDS who were judged likely to respond to IST based on the following criteria: HLA-DR15–negative patients whose age plus the number of months of RBC transfusion dependence (RCTD) was less than 58; and HLA-DR15–positive patients whose age plus RCTD was less than 72. In total, 121 patients with MDS were screened, of whom 32 met eligibility criteria to receive alemtuzumab 10 mg/d intravenously for 10 days. Primary end points were hematologic responses at 3, 6, and 12 months after alemtuzumab. Results Seventeen (77%) of 22 evaluable intermediate-1 patients and four (57%) of seven evaluable intermediate-2 patients responded to treatment with a median time to response of 3 months. Four of seven evaluable responders with cytogenetic abnormalities before treatment had normal cytogenetics by 1 year after treatment. Five (56%) of nine responding patients evaluable at 12 months had normal blood counts, and seven (78%) of nine patients were transfusion independent. Conclusion Alemtuzumab is safe and active in MDS and may be an attractive alternative to ATG in selected patients likely to respond to IST. PMID:21041705

Sloand, Elaine M.; Olnes, Matthew J.; Shenoy, Aarthie; Weinstein, Barbara; Boss, Carol; Loeliger, Kelsey; Wu, Colin O.; More, Kenneth; Barrett, A. John; Scheinberg, Phillip; Young, Neal S.

2010-01-01

118

White Blood Cell Count, C-Reactive Protein and Incident Heart Failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To testthe hypothesis that inflammation measured by white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated positively with incident heart failure (HF). METHODS Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we conducted separate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for WBC (measured 1987 to 1989) and CRP (measured 1996 to 1998) in relation to subsequent heart failure occurrence. A total of 14,485 and 9,978 individuals were included in the WBC and CRP analyses, respectively. RESULTS There were 1647 participants that developed HF during follow up after WBC assessment and 613 developed HF after CRP assessment. After adjustment for demographic variables and traditional HF risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI)for incident HF across quintiles of WBC was 1.0, 1.10 (0.9-1.34), 1.27(1.05-1.53), 1.44(1.19-1.74), and 1.62(1.34-1.96) (p trend <0.001); hazard ratio across quintiles of CRP was 1.0, 1.03 (0.68-1.55), 0.99 (0.66-1.51), 1.40 (0.94-2.09) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) (p trend 0.002). Granulocytes appeared to drive the relation between WBCs and heart failure [hazard ratios across quintiles: 1.0, 0.93(0.76-1.15), 1.26 (1.04-1.53), 1.67(1.39-2.01) and 2.19 (1.83-2.61) (p trend <0.0001)], while lymphocytes or monocytes were not related. CONCLUSIONS Greater levels of WBC (especially granulocytes) and CRP are associated with increased risk of heart failure in middle-aged adults, independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:21784657

Bekwelem, Wobo; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Astor, Brad C.; Guild, Cameron; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Folsom, Aaron R.

2011-01-01

119

Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV) mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety. PMID:25408849

McBean, Rhiannon S.; Hyland, Catherine A.; Flower, Robert L.

2014-01-01

120

Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.  

PubMed

Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5?h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18?h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18?h PE), number of neutrophils (2?h PE) and monocytes (18?h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:24517839

Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

2014-02-01

121

FULL FIELD SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC SYSTEM BASED ON LINIK INTERFERENCE-MICROSCOPE FOR BLOOD CELL IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full field swept-source optical coherence tomographic (SS-OCT) system for high brightness images of human blood cells has been proposed. The swept-source OCT system consists of a broadband superluminiscent diode and an acousto-optic tunable filter. The system is then coupled with Linnik interferometer and an area detector to obtain a high resolution optically sectioned images of blood cells. The proposed

Tulsi Anna; Gyanendra Sheoran; Dalip Singh Mehtaa; Chandra Shakher

2008-01-01

122

Eosinophil count - absolute  

MedlinePLUS

An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.

123

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

124

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

125

Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.  

PubMed

The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.60. PMID:24064533

Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

2013-09-25

126

C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8?×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3?×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46?mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10?mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P?50?mg/L and WBC count >15?×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50?mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15?×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48?hours). PMID:25738473

Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A

2015-03-01

127

Differential counting of blood leukocytes using automated microscopy and a decision support system based on artificial neural networks--evaluation of DiffMaster Octavia.  

PubMed

The morphological appearance of blood cells has an established association to clinical conditions. A novel system, DiffMaster Octavia for differential counting of blood leukocytes, has been evaluated. The system consisted of a microscope, 3-chip color charge coupled device (CCD) camera, automated motorized stage holder, electronic hardware for motor and light control and software for automatic cell location and image processing for preclassification of blood cells using artificial neural networks. The DiffMaster test method, was evaluated on 322 routine blood samples (400 cells per sample) using manual microscopy as reference method. The results showed a correlation of determination (r(2)) of 0.8-0.98 for the normal cell classes and blast cells. The DiffMaster correctly preclassified 89% of all leukocytes with a good reproducibility. After verification of the cell classes, the agreement between the test and reference method was 91% whether the sample was abnormal or normal. The clinical sensitivity was 98% and specificity 82%. The sensitivity to identify blast cells was slightly higher with the DiffMaster than manual microscopy. Similar levels of short-term imprecision for the two methods were found for all cell classes. In conclusion this study shows that the DiffMaster can provide a decision support system which, together with a qualified morphologist, can generate leukocyte differential count reports of high quality. PMID:12755789

Swolin, B; Simonsson, P; Backman, S; Löfqvist, I; Bredin, I; Johnsson, M

2003-06-01

128

70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

2014-01-01

129

Full characterization of PDX, a neuroprotectin/protectin D1 isomer, which inhibits blood platelet aggregation.  

E-print Network

chemical characterization (e.g. GC-MS, HPLC and LC-MS/MS) indicated that PDX is 10(S),17(S)-dihydroxy-docosahexa- 4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-enoic acid [3-5] in T helper type 2-skewed peripheral blood mononuclear cells separation. Stereochemistry of carbon 10 was assessed by HPLC and GC-MS approaches, and the mechanism

Boyer, Edmond

130

Detection of colon polyps by a novel, polymer pattern-based full blood test  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have shown that early screening for the presence of pre-cancerous colon polyps and their subsequent removal decreases the risk of developing colon cancer. Colonoscopy is currently the most effective screening method, but due to the invasive nature of the procedure many patients avoid forgo testing. Futhermore, the procedure itself requires perfect execution by the gastroenterologist. Against this backdrop, a non-invasive blood screening method for the detection of colon polyps that has higher sensitivity than current screening techniques would be beneficial in the early identification of patients at risk for colon cancer. A prospective, double-blinded, controlled clinical study was designed to demonstrate the diagnostic performance of Polyp Specific Polymer analysis, a novel laboratory methodology. The primary objective of this clinical trial was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the Polyp Specific Polymer analysis for colon polyps using colonoscopy and histological tests as the diagnostic accuracy standards. Secondary objectives of this trial included estimating positive and negative predictive values for colon polyps, investigating reliability, determining covariates influencing diagnostic accuracy and obtaining absolute and relative frequencies of valid test results. In patients undergoing screening colonoscopy and histology examination, a sensitivity of 72.4% and a specificity of 62.3% could be proven. These results indicate that using this improved screening method it is possible to effectively identify the highest-risk candidates for endoscopy, thereby advancing the goal of decreasing the incidence or mortality of colorectal cancer in the selected population. Moreover, this diagnostic tool has potential socio-economic implications, conserving healthcare resources by enabling higher patient selectivity for endoscopy and eventual transfer to curative prevention via polypectomy. By combining the best-established low-risk screening elements together with a validated, highly sensitive blood test as described in this study, a steadfast increase in the estimation of colorectal cancer-risk before colonoscopy can be expected. PMID:24180554

2013-01-01

131

Estimation of inbreeding and effective population size of full-blood Wagyu cattle registered with the American Wagyu Cattle Association.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to examine the population structure of full-blood (100%) Wagyu cattle registered in the United States with the American Wagyu Association, with the aim of estimating and comparing the levels of inbreeding from both pedigree and genotypic data. A total of 4132 full-blood Wagyu cattle pedigrees were assessed and used to compute the inbreeding coefficients (FIT and FST ) and the effective population size (Ne ) from pedigree data for the period 1994 to 2011. In addition to pedigree analysis, 47 full-blood Wagyu cattle representing eight prominent sire lines in the American Wagyu cattle population were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Genotypic data were then used to estimate genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH ) by calculating runs of homozygosity. The mean inbreeding coefficient based on the pedigree data was estimated at 4.80%. The effective population size averaged 17 between the years 1994 and 2011 with an increase of 42.9 in 2000 and a drop of 1.8 in 2011. Examination of the runs of homozygosity revealed that the 47 Wagyu cattle from the eight prominent sire lines had a mean genomic inbreeding coefficient (FROH ) estimated at 9.08% compared to a mean inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree data of 4.8%. These data suggest that the mean genotype inbreeding coefficient of full-blood Wagyu cattle exceeds the inbreeding coefficient identified by pedigree. Inbreeding has increased slowly at a rate of 0.03% per year over the past 17 years. Wagyu breeders should continue to utilize many sires from divergent lines and consider outcrossing to other breeds to enhance genetic diversity and minimize the adverse effects of inbreeding in Wagyu. PMID:24373025

Scraggs, E; Zanella, R; Wojtowicz, A; Taylor, J F; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J; de Avila, J M; Neibergs, H L

2014-02-01

132

Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

2014-01-01

133

Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients. PMID:25002891

Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen

2014-01-01

134

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

135

Clinical usefulness of the hematopoietic progenitor cell counts in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood stem cell harvest.  

PubMed Central

Although enumeration of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood (PB) on the day of apheresis predicts the quantity of those cells collected, the flow cytometric techniques used are complex and expensive, and several hours are required to obtain the result in the clinical practice setting. The Sysmex SE-9000 automated haematology analyzer provides an estimate of immature cells, called hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of HPC in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) harvest. Studies were performed on 628 aphereses from 160 patients with hematologic or solid malignancies. Spearman's rank statistics was used to assess correlation between HPC, WBC, mononuclear cells (MNC), and CD34+ cells. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for cutoff value of HPC, and predictive values of the chosen cutoff value of HPC for different target CD34+ cell collections were calculated. The PB HPC had a stronger correlation (rho=0.592, p<0.001) with collected CD34+ cells than did PB WBC and PB MNC. The ROC curve showed that the best cutoff value of HPC was 50 x 10(6)/L for the target CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg with sensitivity of 75%. Positive and negative predictive values of HPC > or =50 x 10(6)/L for CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg were 59.7% and 81.1%, respectively. In the clinical practice setting, applying variable cutoff values of HPC would be a useful tool to predict the optimal timing of PBPC collection. PMID:12589083

Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Sung-Bae; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Shin; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin; Park, Keon Uk; Suh, Cheolwon

2003-01-01

136

Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope  

SciTech Connect

A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some specific atoms such as Fe and Zn were obtained from photon-counting calculations. An energy resolution of 220 eV at the Fe K{alpha} line was obtained from the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by the photon-counting method. The newly developed three-dimensional element mappings of the specific atoms were accomplished by the photon-counting method and a reconstruction technique using computed tomography.

Hoshino, Masato; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Yamada, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

2007-07-15

137

Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

2014-09-19

138

Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

2013-01-01

139

Complete blood count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema

140

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

141

Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

142

Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Ms. Popwell

2010-09-20

143

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2011-08-23

144

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Ms. Bunn

2010-10-30

145

Post hoc analysis of the relationship between baseline white blood cell count and survival outcome in a randomized Phase III trial of decitabine in older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background In a Phase III trial, 485 patients (?65 years) with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 5 days every 4 weeks or a treatment choice (supportive care or cytarabine 20 mg/m2 subcutaneously for 10 days every 4 weeks). Materials and methods We summarized overall and progression-free survival by baseline white blood cell count using two analyses: <1, 1–5, >5×109/L; ?10 or >10×109/L. Results There were 446 deaths (treatment choice, n=227; decitabine, n=219). Median overall survival was 5.0 (treatment choice) versus 7.7 months (decitabine; nominal P=0.037). Overall survival differences between white blood cell groups were not significant; hazard ratios (HRs) favored decitabine. Significant progression-free survival differences favored decitabine for groups 1–5×109/L (P=0.005, HR =0.67), greater than 5×109/L (P=0.027, HR =0.71), and up to 10×109/L (P=0.003, HR =0.72). Conclusion There was a trend toward improved outcome with decitabine, regardless of baseline white blood cell count. PMID:25678833

Arthur, Christopher; Cermak, Jaroslav; Delaunay, Jacques; Mayer, Ji?í; Mazur, Grzegorz; Thomas, Xavier; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Jones, Mark M; Berrak, Erhan; Kantarjian, Hagop

2015-01-01

146

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

147

Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Ms. McDuffee

2008-11-12

148

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

149

Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.  

PubMed

Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

2013-08-01

150

Use of the TIMI frame count in the assessment of coronary artery blood flow and microvascular function over the past 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction, the TIMI frame count method has contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary\\u000a artery disease. In this article, the evolution of the TFC method and its applicability in the assessment of various therapeutic\\u000a modalities are described.

Vijayalakshmi Kunadian; Caitlin Harrigan; Cafer Zorkun; Alexandra M. Palmer; Katherine J. Ogando; Leah H. Biller; Erin E. Lord; Scott P. Williams; Michelle E. Lew; Lauren N. Ciaglo; Jacqueline L. Buros; Susan J. Marble; William J. Gibson; C. Michael Gibson

2009-01-01

151

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

152

Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.

153

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

154

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

155

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

156

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

157

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

158

Comparison of pre-cryopreserved and post-thaw-and-wash-nucleated cell count on major outcomes following unrelated cord blood transplant in children.  

PubMed

Engraftment and OS after umbilical CBT is highly dependent on the TNC. The contribution of the wash step to cell loss and ultimately the dose of cells available for transplant is not well described. To investigate the amount of cell loss after washing and its impact on major outcomes compared to pre-cryopreserved TNC, we analyzed data from patients prospectively enrolled on a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute sponsored cord blood transplant study between 1999 and 2003. There were 310 patients ?18 yr of age with malignant (N = 218) or non-malignant (N = 92) disease enrolled on this trial. Only single CBU were used. All CBU were thawed and washed using an identical process. The median TNC after thawing and washing (PTW) was 5.43 × 10(7) /kg (79% recovery of cells). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was significantly higher in patients receiving a PTW TNC ?2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidence of TRM was higher among patients receiving post-thaw-and-wash TNC <2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.039). In conclusion, receiving a PTW TNC of <2.5 × 10(7) /kg resulted in worse neutrophil engraftment and increased transplant-related mortality compared to a PTW TNC of ?2.5 × 10(7) /kg. PMID:22533817

McManus, Meghann Pine; Wang, Li; Calder, Cassie; Manes, Becky; Evans, Misty; Bruce, Kathryn; Ho, Richard H; Domm, Jennifer; Frangoul, Haydar

2012-08-01

159

Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

1994-01-01

160

Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.  

PubMed

Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

2015-03-01

161

Multiscale Simulation of Cardiovascular flows on the IBM Bluegene\\/P: Full Heart-Circulation System at Red-Blood Cell Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first large-scale simulation of blood flow in the coronary artieries and other vessels supplying blood to the heart muscle, with a realistic description of human arterial geometry at spatial resolutions from centimeters down to 10 microns (near the size of red blood cells). This multiscale simulation resolves the fluid into a billion volume units, embedded in a

Amanda Peters; Simone Melchionna; Efthimios Kaxiras; Jonas Lätt; Joy K. Sircar; Massimo Bernaschi; Mauro Bisson; Sauro Succi

2010-01-01

162

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

163

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.  

E-print Network

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

Loughry, Jim

164

Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

2010-07-01

165

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

166

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... be detected include metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes, and/or blasts. If results indicate a problem, a wide variety ... Immature forms include metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes, and/or blasts. Further work-up (e.g., bone marrow biopsy ) ...

167

White blood cell count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... any continued bleeding. How to prepare for the test: Adults: No special preparation is necessary. Infants and children: The physical and psychological preparation you can provide for this or any ...

168

Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.

2014-01-01

169

FULL-THICKNESS SMALL INTESTINE NECROSIS WITH MIDGUT VOLVULUS, DISTRIBUTED IN A PATCHY FASHION, IS REVERSIBLE WITH MODERATE BLOOD FLOW: RESUMPTION OF NORMAL FUNCTION TO NON-VIABLE INTESTINE  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Midgut volvulus is a highly life-threatening condition that carries a high risk of short gut syndrome. We report a case of catastrophic neonatal midgut volvulus in which second-look laparotomy revealed apparently non-viable remnant small intestine but with a moderate blood supply. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis was distributed in a patchy fashion, with non-viable and necrotic areas distributed so widely that no portion of the intestine could be resected. A section of full-thickness necrotic intestine preserved at surgery was able to regenerate, and normal function was restored over a period of 1 month. This case indicated that intestinal resumption may be dependent on blood flow. Even when intestinal viability is questionable, preservation enables the chance of regeneration if moderate blood flow is present. PMID:25741048

AMANO, HIZURU; UCHIDA, HIROO; KAWASHIMA, HIROSHI; TANAKA, YUJIRO; KISHIMOTO, HIROSHI

2014-01-01

170

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

171

Birth season and environmental influences on blood leucocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in rural Gambian infants  

PubMed Central

Background In rural Gambia, birth season predicts infection-related adult mortality, providing evidence that seasonal factors in early life may programme immune development. This study tested whether lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by automated full blood count and flow cytometry in cord blood and at 8, 16 and 52 weeks in rural Gambian infants (N = 138) are affected by birth season (DRY = Jan-Jun, harvest season, few infections; WET = Jul-Dec, hungry season, many infections), birth size or micronutrient status. Results Geometric mean cord and postnatal counts were higher in births occurring in the WET season with both season of birth and season of sampling effects. Absolute CD3+, CD8+, and CD56+ counts, were higher in WET season births, but absolute CD4+ counts were unaffected and percentage CD4+ counts were therefore lower. CD19+ counts showed no association with birth season but were associated with concurrent plasma zinc status. There were no other associations between subpopulation counts and micronutrient or anthropometric status. Conclusion These results demonstrate a seasonal influence on cell counts with a disproportionate effect on CD8+ and CD56+ relative to CD4+ cells. This seasonal difference was seen in cord blood (indicating an effect in utero) and subsequent samples, and is not explained by nutritional status. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis than an early environmental exposure can programme human immune development. PMID:18462487

Collinson, Andrew C; Ngom, Pa Tamba; Moore, Sophie E; Morgan, Gareth; Prentice, Andrew M

2008-01-01

172

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

173

Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

Brookshire, Cathy A.

174

Response Count Summer Flextime Survey  

E-print Network

Response Percent Response Count 45.2% 33 54.8% 40 73 1 Summer Flextime Survey skipped question Did often did you use it? 9-11 weeks Only once answered question Summer Flextime Survey 5-8 weeks Answer Survey skipped question Did you have any difficulty working your full schedule in four days? Answer

175

Peripheral circulation in the newborn: Interaction of peripheral blood flow, blood pressure, blood volume, and blood viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood flow and systolic blood pressure (strain-gauge plethysmograph), blood volume (Evans blue) and whole blood viscosity (cone-plate viscometer) have been measured in 66 premature and full-term infants 6 to 144h of age. Blood flow and blood volume were moderately decreased in the infants with respiratory distress. Highly significant (Pr=0.77), blood pressure and blood volume (r=0.50), peripheral resistance and blood

O. Linderkamp; I. Strohhacker; H. T. Versmold; H. Klose; K. P. Riegel; K. Betke

1978-01-01

176

First hepatitis B virus full-length genomic study among blood donors from Argentina: unexpected mutations in the circulating subgenotypes' proteins.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health concern. The circulation of strains carrying mutations in the viral proteins implies both clinical and therapeutics challenges. HBV complete genomes (HBV-CGs) were reported from injecting drug users and HBV chronically infected patients from Argentina-including Amerindians-although no studies were conducted in blood donors. Here, we described HBV-CG sequences from the latter population. Some of the HBV sequences classified as B2 and C2 subgenotypes clustering together with Asian isolates, while others, such as D3, F1b, and F4, were homologous to European and Latin America sequences. New substitutions for all analyzed open reading frames and changes in the HBsAg hydrophobicity profiles were detected. Several HBV-CG subgenotypes are described for the first time in this population. Mutations observed in X, PreS, and P proteins have been associated with advanced liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and/or natural resistance to nucleos(t)ide antiviral treatment. It deserves to be highlighted that these substitutions were detected in a population without epidemiological risk factors for viral infection, and most importantly, without any previous antiviral treatment (natural resistance). Regarding the remaining mutations, further research is warranted in order to determine their clinical and therapeutics relevance. PMID:25537951

Delfino, C M; Berini, C; Pedrozo, W; Malan, R; Blejer, J; Oubiña, J R; Biglione, M M; Mathet, V L

2015-04-01

177

An automated reticulocyte counting method: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

We evaluated the counting of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood with a newly developed flow cytometer type of automated counter that performs a single test within 60 s. The volume of sample needed is 100 microliters and the cells are stained with auramine-O in the counter. The mean within-run reproducibility was 4.66% (CV, n = 50), and dilution of blood gave highly linear results with an r value of 0.996. Correlation was good between manual reticulocyte counts and those performed with the counter (r = 0.893). Samples with large numbers of leucocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets did not interfere with the automated reticulocyte counting, and provided accurate and precise data. PMID:2687609

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Kojima, K; Niri, M; Setoguchi, K

1989-04-01

178

The platelet count and mean platelet volume.  

PubMed

The Coulter Model S-Plus Counter provides a measure of the platelet count and the mean platelet volume (MPV). An analysis of 5000 unselected blood specimens showed an inverse relationship between the number of circulating platelets and their MPV. In nearly 95% of normal adults the platelet count varied from 150 to 450 X 10(9)/l and the MPV from 7.0 to 10.5 fl. Thrombocytosis was found in iron deficiency anaemia, after trauma and acute blood loss and in rhematoid arthritis. Although there is a normal platelet distribution in pregnancy, patients with pre-eclampsia and uncomplicated hypertension in late pregnancy tended to have lower platelet counts and larger platelets than controls. A variable platelet pattern was found in infection, renal failure and treated malignant disease. PMID:7248189

Giles, C

1981-05-01

179

Blood Types  

MedlinePLUS

... immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. ... Cells Platelets Plasma White Blood Cells and Granulocytes Blood Transfusions Types of Blood Transfusions Reasons People Receive Blood ...

180

Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 near Full-Length Proviral Genomes Identifies High Rates of BF1 Recombinants Including Two Novel Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a Disseminating 71_BF1 among Blood Donors in Pernambuco, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n?=?26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Methods Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Results Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. Conclusions The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil. PMID:25401747

Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C.; Busch, Michael P.; Sanabani, Sabri S.

2014-01-01

181

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Florida Center for Instructional Technology Clipart ETC

2010-07-19

182

Point-of-care, portable microfluidic blood analyzer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in MEMS technology have provided an opportunity to develop microfluidic devices with enormous potential for portable, point-of-care, low-cost medical diagnostic tools. Hand-held flow cytometers will soon be used in disease diagnosis and monitoring. Despite much interest in miniaturizing commercially available cytometers, they remain costly, bulky, and require expert operation. In this article, we report progress on the development of a battery-powered handheld blood analyzer that will quickly and automatically process a drop of whole human blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs), fluorescence analysis of labeled WBC subsets, and counting a reproducible fraction of the red blood cells (RBCs) by light scattering. The whole blood (WB) analyzer is composed of a micro-mixer, a special branching/separation system, an optical detection system, and electronic readout circuitry. A droplet of un-processed blood is mixed with the reagents, i.e. magnetic beads and fluorescent stain in the micro-mixer. Valve-less sorting is achieved by magnetic deflection of magnetic microparticle-labeled WBC. LED excitation in combination with an avalanche photodiode (APD) detection system is used for counting fluorescent WBC subsets using several colors of immune-Qdots, while counting a reproducible fraction of red blood cells (RBC) is performed using a laser light scatting measurement with a photodiode. Optimized branching/channel width is achieved using Comsol Multi-Physics™ simulation. To accommodate full portability, all required power supplies (40v, +/-10V, and +3V) are provided via step-up voltage converters from one battery. A simple onboard lock-in amplifier is used to increase the sensitivity/resolution of the pulse counting circuitry.

Maleki, Teimour; Fricke, Todd; Quesenberry, J. T.; Todd, Paul W.; Leary, James F.

2012-03-01

183

Cord-blood lipoproteins, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity/resistance marker profile, and concurrence of dysglycaemia and dyslipaemia in full-term neonates of the Mérida Study.  

PubMed

Early alterations in glucose homeostasis increase the risk of developing insulin resistance and obesity later in life. The concurrence of altered lipids and insulin sensitivity/resistance markers at birth has been scarcely investigated. The study aimed to ascertain level ranges of homocysteine (tHcyt), arylesterase (AE), lipids/lipoproteins, and insulin resistance/sensitivity markers in full-term neonates and to determine the concurrence effect of dyslipaemia and dysglycaemia on those parameters at birth. Participants were 197 full-term, 2.5 to <4.0 kg, without foetal distress Spanish newborns from the Mérida Study. Parameter percentiles for males and females were stated. The effect of the concurrence high glucose/high triglycerides (high glucose/high TG) or high glucose/low cholesterol transported by HDL (HDL-c) on tHcyt, LDL-c, HDL-c, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), oxidised LDL (oxLDL), AE, glucose, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was studied. Females had higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-c, Apo A1, Lp(a) and HDL-c/Apo A1, but lower relative transport of TC (%TC) by the very low lipoprotein fraction than males. No gender differences were found for glucose, HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Neonates at the 2.5- to 2.999-kg range display more adequate HOMA-IR and QUICKI levels that their >3.0 kg counterparts. The concurrence of high glucose/high TG or high glucose/low HDL-c increased TC/HDL-c and HOMA-IR, but decreased, oxLDL, oxLDL/LDL-c and QUICKI with respect to that of low glucose/low TG or glucose/high HDL-c. The concurrence glucose/TG has predictive value for low QUICKI, whilst that of glucose/HDL-c for low QUICKI and high HOMA-IR, suggesting the importance of routine TG, HDL-c and glucose screening at birth as it would identify candidates for insulin resistance. PMID:23411637

Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

2013-07-01

184

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

185

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Mrs. Christian

2007-03-21

186

Counting Your Lucky Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

Shannon Ricles

2013-01-30

187

Project Profile MCBP InstantCount visit us at CR 4.431  

E-print Network

results against standard techniques (FACS, hematology analyzer, microscopy). What you could do (example blood tests analyzed in portable instruments designed for the use in rural areas in Africa (examples: CD white blood cell count (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes). White light interferometer

Twente, Universiteit

188

Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... time to test a person's Rh type. Blood Banks Blood banks collect, test, and store blood. They carefully screen ... Are the Risks of a Blood Transfusion?" ) Blood bank staff also screen each blood donation to find ...

189

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

190

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting.  

PubMed

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J

2012-01-23

191

Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted!  

E-print Network

! Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted! Become a Shadow Count Decoy Shadow Count 2012 What: Monday Jan. 30th ­ 31st (overnight), the NYC Department of Homeless Services (DHS) will send hundreds of volunteers all across the city to count NYC's unsheltered homeless people

Qiu, Weigang

192

Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted!  

E-print Network

! Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted! Become a Shadow Count Decoy Shadow Count 2013 What: Monday Jan. 28th ­ 29th (overnight), the NYC Department of Homeless Services (DHS) will send hundreds of volunteers all across the city to count NYC's unsheltered homeless people

Qiu, Weigang

193

Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count in saphenous vein grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Although the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade system is a widely used index of coronary blood flow, it has important limitations. We recently described a new continuous measure of blood flow in native coronary arteries, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count (TFC), and sought to extend this method to coronary artery bypass grafts. Methods We retrospectively analyzed

Eyas N. Al-Mousa; J. Theodore Dodge; Michael Rizzo; Christine McLean; Kathryn Ryan; John Moynihan; Mike Kelley; Susan J. Marble; Mukesh Goel; William L. Daley; C. Michael Gibson

1998-01-01

194

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

Cornell University

195

Blood sugar test - blood  

MedlinePLUS

... mg/dL or higher often means you have diabetes. Your health care provider will order a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

196

America's Blood Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

197

Counting glycans revisited.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for counting glycan topologies of order n that improves on previously described algorithms by a factor n in both time and space. More generally, we provide such an algorithm for counting rooted or unrooted d-ary trees with labels or masses assigned to the vertices, and we give a "recipe" to estimate the asymptotic growth of the resulting sequences. We provide constants for the asymptotic growth of d-ary trees and labeled quaternary trees (glycan topologies). Finally, we show how a classical result from enumeration theory can be used to count glycan structures where edges are labeled by bond types. Our method also improves time bounds for counting alkanes. PMID:23974240

Böcker, Sebastian; Wagner, Stephan

2014-10-01

198

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

2014-04-01

199

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

200

Blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

201

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ...

202

Blood transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

203

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... 16) Your Radiologist Explains Blood Clots What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. ... location and severity. top of page How are blood clots evaluated? Evaluation of your condition differs depending on ...

204

Full Counting Statistics: An elementary derivation of Levitov's formula  

E-print Network

We present a novel derivation of the original Levitov formula, for the statistics of charge transported between electron reservoirs. This is done by proving a trace formula, which relates certain traces in Fock space to single particle determinants. Using the present approach we find in addition several generalizations, such as a corresponding formula for Bosons.

I. Klich

2002-09-27

205

Whose interests count?  

PubMed

Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

2014-10-01

206

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

207

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, J.E.

1985-03-05

208

Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

2012-07-01

209

Logical Definability of Counting Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between counting functions and logical expressibility is explored. The most well studied class of counting functions is P, which consists of the functions counting the accepting computation paths of a nondeterministic polynomial-time Turing machine. For a logic L, L is the class of functions on finite structures (of a fixed signature) counting the tuples (T¯, c¯) satisfying a

Kevin J. Compton; Erich Grädel

1994-01-01

210

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants. PMID:25058337

Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Šálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trn?ný, Marek

2014-01-01

211

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

212

Counting on Frank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.

2010-01-01

213

Radioactive Counting Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a radioactive counting clock (RCC) based on radioactive beta emissions from nickel-63 thin films. We present a theoretical analysis of the clock that uses the radioactive source (physics package) to lock and stabilize the frequency of a voltage-to-frequency converter (local oscillator). We present frequency stability measurements of the RCC over 10 days of clock operation. We analyze

Shankar Radhakrishnan; Amit Lal

2006-01-01

214

Every Square Inch Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do scientists measure the abundance of rocky intertidal organisms? How does the subtidal zone differ from the rocky intertidal zone in organisms and abundance? Every Square Inch Counts is an activity that compares the rocky intertidal habitats of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to the subtidal benthic habitat in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

215

What Counts as Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

216

What's Blood?  

MedlinePLUS

... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

217

Blood Thinners  

MedlinePLUS

If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

218

Blood clotting  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

219

Female genital tract shedding of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 is associated with a majority population of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 in blood and declining CD4(+) cell counts.  

PubMed

This study compared HIV-1 genotypes shed over time (?3.5 years) in the vaginal secretions (VS) and blood plasma (BP) of 15 chronically infected women. Analysis of predicted coreceptor tropism (CCR5=R5, CXCR4=X4) for quasispecies shedding revealed three patterns: (1) viral quasispecies shed in both VS and BP were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points, (2) quasispecies shed in VS were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points but X4 quasispecies were identified in the BP at one or more time points, and (3) quasispecies shed in matched VS and BP both contained X4-tropic viruses. Overall, the frequency of X4 quasispecies circulation in VS was 2-fold less than in BP and detection of X4 virus in VS was more likely to occur when X4 quasispecies comprised more than 50% of BP viruses (p=0.01) and when declines in blood CD4(+) lymphocyte levels were the greatest (p=0.038). Additionally, the mean number of predicted N-glycosylation sites between matched VS and BP samples was strongly correlated (r=0.86, p<0.0001) with glycosylation densities in the following order (VS R5=BP R5 > BP X4 > VS X4). The X4 glycosylation densities may result from compartmentalization pressures in the female genital tract or the delayed appearance of these viruses in VS. Our results suggest that the presence of X4 virus in VS is associated with a threshold population of X4 quasispecies in BP, which are increasing during the HIV-induced failure of the human immune system. PMID:22369497

Haaland, Richard E; Sullivan, Sharon T; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Hart, Clyde E

2012-11-01

220

Mean platelet volume and platelet counts in type 2 Diabetes: Mellitus on treatment and non-diabetic mellitus controls in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Mean platelet volume and platelet counts are indicators of thrombotic potentials, and risk factors for microvascular complications in diabetics. This study aimed to establish variations in platelet counts and mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and non-diabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 non-diabetic controls. Four and half milliliters of blood was collected from diabetics and non diabetic controls into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. Full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KN-21N, (manufactured by Sysmex corporation Kobe, Japan) a three- part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample including platelet counts and mean platelet volume. Results The mean fasting blood sugar for the diabetics was 147.85±72.54 mg/dl and the controls 95.20±30.10 mg/dl. The mean platelet count for the diabetics was 235.29±76.81*109/L and controls, 211.32±66.44*109/L. The mean platelet volume, for the diabetics was 8.69±0.67 fl and the controls, 8.91±0.80 fl. There was a statistically significant difference in platelet counts of diabetics and healthy controls p =0.038 while none existed between the mean platelet volume in diabetics and healthy controls p = 0.593. Conclusion This study revealed a higher mean platelet count for diabetics on treatment than for non diabetic controls while mean platelet volume was lower in cases than controls. However, both parameters in diabetics on treatment were within the normal reference range for healthy individuals. PMID:25368731

Akinsegun, Akinbami; Akinola Olusola, Dada; Sarah, John-Olabode; Olajumoke, Oshinaike; Adewumi, Adediran; Majeed, Odesanya; Anthonia, Ogbera; Ebele, Uche; Olaitan, Okunoye; Olanrewaju, Arogundade; Kingsley, Aile

2014-01-01

221

Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

1999-01-01

222

Dinosaur Count and Sort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.

OMSI

2004-01-01

223

Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  

PubMed

Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

2014-10-01

224

Quality Counts Certificate  

E-print Network

Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal... Setting Livestock Project Impact on Red Meat Industry Responsibility of Producing a Safe Product Medication Usage and Labeling Animal Care and Well-Being Trustworthiness Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Citizenship 4-H 2?5 11-06 ...

Chilek, Kevin

2007-01-31

225

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Nicky Goulder

2013-01-01

226

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

227

[Photon counting CT].  

PubMed

Photon counting CT is a new technology that enables us to improve the quality of images by a conventional CT, in which the detection of transmitted photons is conducted by an integration of photon energies. This paper describes the features and advantages of the photon counting detection compared to the energy integration detection. They are (1) reduction of electrical noise and improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, (2) improvement of the image contrast using the weighting factors to images acquired with energy bins, (3) k-edge imaging by setting two energy bins at the k-edge of some contrast media such as gadopenteto megruminacid and gold-nanoparticles, and (4) material decomposition using the data acquired with multiple energy windows. For the material decomposition, the principal component analysis, singular value decomposition method, and the application of the artificial neural network are described. The photon counting CT technique has a potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy and introduce new clinical methods, however, much efforts are required to use this technology in the clinical situation. PMID:24893447

Ogawa, Koichi

2013-01-01

228

CORRESPONDENCE Why Vote-Count Reviews Don't Count  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Why Vote-Count Reviews Don't Count To the Editor: In general, there are two common approaches to a quantitative literature review: some form of meta-analysis or a vote count. The vote-analysis is not appropriate. I do not fault them for this-- reasonable people can differ about the appropriate application

229

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

230

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

231

Six-day stability of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in-vitro: A comparison of blood samples from healthy, iron-deficient, and thalassemic individuals.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Stability for up to 6 days' storage of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals has not yet been reported. This lack of knowledge challenges evaluation of the full blood count in referral samples for hemoglobinopathy evaluation. We therefore hereby present such sample stability data. Methods. We included fresh (less than 4 hours old) blood samples from eight healthy, eight iron-deficient, and 11 thalassemic individuals. A full blood count, including reticulocyte parameters, was performed on a Sysmex XE-2100 once daily during a 6-day storage period at room temperature. For healthy individuals, we also studied stability of refrigerated samples and investigated analytical and biological variation. Results. Hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were stable for 6 days in all diagnostic groups. Mean corpuscular volume increased less in samples from iron-deficient individuals while the number of reticulocytes increased more in samples from thalassemic, as compared to healthy individuals. Ret-He stability depended on its baseline value. Within-person biological variation in samples from healthy individuals was low both for erythrocyte parameters and for reticulocyte hemoglobin, while higher for reticulocyte counts. Conclusion. Results for hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are reliable in hemoglobinopathy investigation of referred samples for up to 6 days. Storage time-dependent changes of other erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in blood samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals differ from those of healthy individuals. PMID:25608597

Sudmann-Day, Åshild A; Piehler, Armin; Klingenberg, Olav; Urdal, Petter

2015-05-01

232

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Jayne Hartman

2012-07-23

233

QUANTIFICATION OF HEMATOZOA IN BLOOD SMEARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites\\/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or

Ralph D. Godfrey; Alan M. Fedynich; Danny B. Pence

1987-01-01

234

Self-consistent electron counting statistics.  

PubMed

We develop a self-consistent version of perturbation theory in Liouville space which seeks to combine the advantages of master equation approaches in quantum transport with the nonperturbative features that a self-consistent treatment brings. We describe how counting fields may be included in a self-consistent manner in this formalism such that the full counting statistics can be calculated. Non-Markovian effects are also incorporated. Several different self-consistent approximations are introduced and we discuss their relative strengths with a simple example. PMID:21406841

Emary, Clive

2011-01-19

235

Counting on and back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

236

Blood Smear  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood smears may be used to help diagnose malaria , a disease caused by a blood parasite . The ... a blood smear is examined under a microscope. Malaria rarely occurs in the U.S. and is usually ...

237

Blood Components  

MedlinePLUS

... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...

238

Blood gases  

MedlinePLUS

Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine ... taking a sample of blood from the wrist area. The health care provider will insert a small ...

239

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

240

Increased post-induction intensification improves outcome in children and adolescents with a markedly elevated white blood cell count (?200 × 10(9) /l) with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but not B cell disease: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ?200 × 10(9) /l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 10(9) /l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival. PMID:25308804

Hastings, Caroline; Gaynon, Paul S; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Seibel, Nita L

2015-02-01

241

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-01-01

242

Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes  

PubMed Central

Background One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized). Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86), 191 (standard deviation ±74.67), and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34) thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. PMID:23983482

Nasr, Rabih; Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; Azzi, Yorg Al; Naboush, Ali; Saad, Marc; Sayegh, Suzanne El

2013-01-01

243

Shape analysis of counts maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

2012-12-01

244

Blood investigation.  

PubMed

United Blood Services, the nation's second largest blood bank, continues to be scrutinized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hundreds of violations of Federal blood safety guidelines have been uncovered. The FDA found that United Blood Services was allowing HIV-positive people to donate blood because of substandard screening and supervision. The parent company signed a consent decree promising to improve its quality assurance program, strengthen employee training, and assess management controls. PMID:11363471

1996-05-17

245

Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

Millard, H.T., Jr.

1984-01-01

246

Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

247

Blood Profile Count in Greenland Seals of Different Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back in the 1930-1960s, commercial hunting pre- dominantly controlled the White Sea population of Greenland seals. At present, depletion of polar cod and capelin stocks are the main factors limiting the size of this population. The structure of the population also undergoes unfavorable changes. There is a trend toward a significant decrease in the number of young whelping females and

N. N. Kavtsevich

2001-01-01

248

Smoking, allergy, and the differential white blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dutch workers have proposed that people with asthma and those smokers who develop chronic airflow obstruction share a common allergic constitution. To study whether smoking itself is associated with indicators of allergy, we have examined 237 men aged 51-61 years (120 smokers, 73 ex-smokers, and 44 non-smokers) who were recruited to a long term study of lung function in 1974,

R G Taylor; E Gross; H Joyce; F Holland; N B Pride

1985-01-01

249

The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) database  

PubMed Central

Background The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person’s state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. Methods and results The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Conclusion This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration. PMID:24966694

Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Karlslund, Willy; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Felding, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

2014-01-01

250

Coinductive Counting with Weighted Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation; (3) the reduced automaton is used to compute an expression

Jan J. M. M. Rutten

2003-01-01

251

AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

252

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

253

The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background High red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is related to impairment of erythropoiesis, reflecting chronic inflammation and increased levels of oxidative stress, both of which are telltale signs of type 2 diabetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the RDW and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure, and compare the results from diabetics with nondiabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 nondiabetic controls. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from all of the diabetics and nondiabetic controls, and placed into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. A full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KX-21N, a three-part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample, including RDW. Blood pressure was measured during sample collection and in a sitting position. Results The mean fasting blood sugar level was 95.20±30.10 mg/dL in the controls, and 147.85±72.54 mg/dL in the diabetics. The mean blood pressures for diabetics was 138/90 mmHg and for non-diabetics 120/80 mmHg. The mean RDW-SD (RDW standard deviation) was 46.44±4.64 fl in the controls, and 46.84±3.18 in the diabetics. The mean RDW-CV (RDW coefficient of variation) was 14.74%±1.94% in controls, and 14.80±0.71 for diabetics. No statistically significant correlation was found between the RDW-SD and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure in the diabetics. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the RDW-CV and blood pressure in the diabetics. Conclusion A positive correlation between the RDW-CV and blood pressure was established in the diabetics in this study. PMID:25278786

Dada, Olusola Akinola; Uche, Ebele; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Odesanya, Majeed; John-Olabode, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Okunoye, Olaitan; Arogundade, Olanrewaju; Aile, Kingsley; Ekwere, Timothy

2014-01-01

254

Haematological and blood chemical values from Bothrops ammodytoides (ophidia-crotalidae) in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish reference haematological and blood chemistry parameters, blood samples were obtained from 50 healthy\\u000a specimens ofBothrops ammodytoides kept in captivity. The haematological parameters determined were: red blood cell count (RBC); total leucocyte (WBC) and differential\\u000a leucocyte cell count; thrombocyte count; haematocrit (PCV); haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. F. Gould; G. Malinskas; J. Gould; M. Scaglione; L. Scaglione; J. J. Heker; C. Simoncini; H. Dinápoli

1999-01-01

255

Quantification of hematozoa in blood smears.  

PubMed

Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or from the number of fields of view examined. Doubling the number of erythrocytes counted (1) decreased the overdispersed frequency distribution patterns in only 25% of the replicate counts for numbers of H. maccallumi/100 erythrocytes for a series of 2,000 versus 4,000 erythrocytes counted; and (2) did not significantly increase the accuracy for determining parasite intensities. Thus, the number of erythrocytes that must be counted to determine parasite intensities could be considerably reduced from the 10,000 or 20,000 estimated for most studies, and still provide an accurate determination of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes in datasets collected from hosts with moderate to high levels of parasitemia. This resulted in a decreased amount of time expended by the observer on each blood smear examined. With two equivalently trained individuals, differences between observers examining the same blood smears were minimal. This study suggests an approach by which a more standardized methodology for quantifying blood parasite intensities could be developed. PMID:3119870

Godfrey, R D; Fedynich, A M; Pence, D B

1987-10-01

256

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... important for other components such as platelets and plasma, where most of the red blood cells have ...

257

Young Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basketball team might look for "young blood" to pep up its starting lineup. Now, scientists are using young blood--literally--to revive aging muscles. This Science Update focuses on a study revealing that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells and faster healing in the muscles and livers of older mice.

Science Update (; )

2005-04-04

258

Blood Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... your vital signs (blood pressure, breathing, pulse, and temperature), and results from other tests and procedures. Outlook Blood tests have few risks. Most complications are minor and go away shortly after the tests are done. Rate This Content: Next >> January 6, 2012 Blood Tests ...

259

Relationship of Monocyte Count and Peripheral Arterial Disease Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although white blood cell (WBC) count has been consistently associated with cardiovascular end points, little information is available on the independent contribution of specific white blood cell types. The objective of this study is to assess the independent association of WBC types and other inflammatory markers with the presence of reduced ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), a marker of subclinical

Khurram Nasir; Eliseo Guallar; Ana Navas-Acien; Michael H. Criqui; Joao A. C. Lima

260

The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model  

PubMed Central

Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2014-01-01

261

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

National Center for Women and Information Technology

2012-12-13

262

Every Week Counts  

PubMed Central

In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses implications for reducing the incidence of nonmedically indicated deliveries before full-term. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

Budin, Wendy C.; Budin, Wendy C.

2013-01-01

263

Counting Necklaces and Other Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for helping students to find formulas involving symmetry under various conditions is explained. Necklace symmetries, orbit counting, tetrahedra and cubes, relationship patterns, and finding patterns are discussed. (CW)

Houghton, Chris

1990-01-01

264

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Carol Landis

265

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

266

Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

2011-10-15

267

2.NBT Counting Stamps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The post office packages stamps like this: 10 stamps in each strip. 10 strips of 10 in each sheet. Yesterday Mike saw 4 full sheets, 7 strips, and 2 ex...

2012-05-01

268

Pseudo-random single photon counting system: a high speed implementation and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new time-resolved method which combines the spread spectrum time-resolved method with single photon counting, pseudo-random single photon counting (PRSPC) has been proved to have the potential for high speed data acquisition due to high count rate achievable. A continuous wave laser modulated by a pseudo-random bit sequence is used to illuminate the sample, while single photon counting is used to build up the optical signal in response to the excitation. Periodic cross-correlation is performed to retrieve the temporal profile. Besides the high count rate, PRSPC also offers low system cost and portability which are not with the conventional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). In this paper, we report a high speed PRSPC system that can be used for real time acquisition of the temporal spread function (TPSF) of diffuse photons. We also present preliminary experimental work of human blood glucose testing studies by utilizing the PRSPC system.

Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Nanguang

2011-03-01

269

Systematic comparison of two methods to measure parasite density from malaria blood smears  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to directly compare the accuracy, reproducibility, and efficiency of three methods commonly used to measure blood-stage malaria parasite density from Giemsa-stained blood films. Parasites and white blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 154 thick films by two independent microscopists. Forty-six slides were read by counting parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) in the thin film. Using these

Wendy Prudhomme O’Meara; Shon Remich; Bernhards Ogutu; Martin Lucas; Ramadan Mtalib; Peter Obare; Frederick Oloo; Caroline Onoka; Joseph Osoga; Colin Ohrt; F. Ellis McKenzie

2006-01-01

270

Counting on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on December 29, 2002, and authored by John B. Horrigan and Lee Rainie, this 17-page report was sponsored by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. The report draws on a recent sample of 2,000 Americans who were queried about their Internet usage, including what type of information they expected to be able to find online. Overall, 97 percent of all Internet users surveyed expected to be able to find online information about either government, health care, news, or commerce, which can be compared to the 64 percent of non-Internet users who thought they would be able to find similar information online. Interestingly enough, 86 percent of all senior citizens who used the Internet also felt they would be able to find this type of information, compared to the much lower 41 percent of non-Internet using senior citizens. The full report also contains an important section detailing the report's methodology.

Horrigan, John B.

2002-01-01

271

Immunoelectrophoresis - blood  

MedlinePLUS

IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... to check the levels of certain immunoglobulins (or antibodies) associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This ...

272

Blood Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

1992-01-01

273

Leucocyte-depleted blood cardioplegia.  

PubMed

The effect of the depletion of leucocytes from cardioplegic and initial myocardial reperfusion blood on the inflammatory response and myocardial protection in patients with unstable angina undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was studied. Patients were allocated randomly to a leucocyte-depleted (LD) group or a control group. The LD group received continuous retrograde LD isothermic blood cardioplegia and the control group received isothermic blood cardioplegia. Blood samples were collected at seven time-points before, during and after the procedure. Total leucocyte counts of cardioplegia blood in the LD group were significantly lower than in the control group, but systemic leucocyte and neutrophil counts after CPB did not differ between the groups. The levels of adhesion molecules, cytokines, elastase and malondialdehyde were significantly increased after CPB in both groups and reached peak values 2-6 h after surgery; no other significant differences were found. LD cardioplegia and myocardial reperfusion did not attenuate the endothelial and neutrophil-mediated components of the CPB-induced inflammatory response, which may lead to myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:17542406

Ozkara, C; Guler, N; Kutay, V; Guducuoglu, H; Kiymaz, A; Ozcan, S

2007-01-01

274

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Sujay K. Ashok; Suresh Nampuri; Jan Troost

2013-02-05

275

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound state...

Ashok, Sujay K; Troost, Jan

2013-01-01

276

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

277

Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

2015-01-01

278

A Normal Platelet Count May Not Be Enough: The Impact of Admission Platelet Count on Mortality and Transfusion in Severely Injured Trauma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Platelets play a central role in hemostasis after trauma. However, the platelet count of most trauma patients does not fall below the normal range (100-450 ×109/L), and as a result, admission platelet count has not been adequately investigated as a predictor of outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between admission platelet count and outcomes after trauma. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 389 massively transfused trauma patients. Regression methods and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to test the association between admission platelet count and 24 hour mortality and units of PRBCs transfused. Results For every 50 × 109/L increase in admission platelet count, the odds of death decreased 17% at 6 hours (p=0.03, 95% CI 0.70-0.99) and 14% at 24 hours (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.75-0.98). The probability of death at 24 hours decreased with increasing platelet count. For every 50 × 109/L increase in platelet count, patients received 0.7 fewer units of blood within the first 6 hours (p=0.01, 95% CI -1.3- -0.14) and one less unit of blood within the first 24 hours (p=0.002, 95% CI -1.6 - -0.36). The mean number of units of PRBCs transfused within the first 6 and 24 hours decreased with increasing platelet count. Conclusions Admission platelet count was inversely correlated with 24 hour mortality and transfusion of PRBCs. A normal platelet count may be insufficient after severe trauma, and as a result, these patients may benefit from a lower platelet transfusion threshold. Future studies of platelet number and function after injury are needed. PMID:21814101

Brown, Lisa M.; Call, Mariah S.; Margaret Knudson, M.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

2011-01-01

279

Effects of Isotretinoin on the Platelet Counts and the Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Acne Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the platelet counts and the mean platelet volume in patients who received isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Method. A total of 110 patients were included in this retrospective study. Complete blood count parameters were recorded prior to and three-months following the treatment. Results. Both platelet counts and the mean platelet volume were significantly decreased following the treatment. No significant differences were noted on the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count. Conclusion. Platelet counts and mean platelet volume significantly decreased following isotretinoin treatment. Since the decrease of platelet counts and the mean platelet volume was seen concomitantly, it is concluded that the effect of isotretinoin was through the suppression of bone marrow. PMID:24605049

Ugur Bilgin, Aynur

2014-01-01

280

In situ control of cardiotomy suction reduces blood trauma.  

PubMed

Cardiotomy suction is known for its deleterious effects on formed and unformed blood elements. The authors investigated an "intelligent" remote controlled automatic suction system. A suction cannula with an optic sensor at its tip was connected to a special closed cardiotomy reservoir. Contact with blood immediately generated a reservoir vacuum from 0 to -100 mmHg, permitting aspiration until the blood was no longer detected (automatic shut off). Blood trauma was evaluated in a bovine model, comparing the automatic suction system vs standard continuous aspiration (control) adjusted to -100 mmHg. After full systemic heparinization, five calves (weight, 62.5 +/- 4.4 kg) for the automatic suction system group, and four (weight, 62.8 +/- 5.1 kg) for the control group, were equipped with a jugular cannula connected via a roller pump to the cardiotomy reservoir. Through a small thoracotomy, a standardized hole was created in the right atrium, allowing for a blood loss of approximately 400 ml/min. The suction cannula was placed into the chest cavity in a fixed position. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals for cell count and chemistry. Lactate dehydrogenase values, for the automatic suction system and the control groups, respectively, expressed as percent of baseline value, were 88 +/- 14 vs 116 +/- 22 after 1 hr; 94 +/- 16 vs 123 +/- 23 after 2 hr; and 97 +/- 19 vs 140 +/- 48 after 3 hr (p < 0.05). Values for free hemoglobin in plasma (percent of baseline value), for the automatic suction system and the control groups, respectively, were 102 +/- 18 vs 200 +/- 69 after 1 hr; 98 +/- 29 vs 163 +/- 37 after 2 hr; and 94 +/- 37 vs 179 +/- 42 after 3 hr (p < 0.05). Compared with a standard continuous aspiration system, in situ regulation of suction significantly reduces blood trauma. PMID:9804455

Tevaearai, H T; Mueller, X M; Horisberger, J; Augstburger, M; Bock, H; Knorr, A; von Segesser, L K

1998-01-01

281

Howell-Jolly body counting as a measure of splenic function. A reassessment.  

PubMed

Non-surgical and surgical asplenia predisposes to fatal infections; therefore, simple, non-invasive and repeatable tests for assessing splenic function are required, even in non-specialized medical institutions. Howell-Jolly bodies are the most characteristic peripheral blood abnormality after splenectomy, but their counting is not considered a reliable measure of splenic function. In this study, in a group of splenectomized subjects and of patients with non-surgical hyposplenism, we have compared counting of Howell-Jolly bodies, stained by both the May-Grünwald/Giemsa method and the Feulgen reaction, with pitted cell counting which is considered a reliable technique for the assessment of splenic hypofunction. A significant correlation has been found between Howell-Jolly body counts, stained by either technique, and pitted cell counts (P less than 0.0001). Through Howell-Jolly bodies were never detectable when pitted cell counts fell between 4 and 8%, values consistent with a very mild splenic hypofunction, for pitted cell counts above 8% their increase was always associated with increasing Howell-Jolly body counts. These data suggest that, although pitted cell counting represents a more sensitive method for evaluating splenic function, Howell-Jolly body counting may still be regarded as a simple and reliable technique for identifying and monitoring those cases associated with a real risk of overwhelming infections. PMID:2125541

Corazza, G R; Ginaldi, L; Zoli, G; Frisoni, M; Lalli, G; Gasbarrini, G; Quaglino, D

1990-01-01

282

Blood Transfusion and Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

283

Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

2014-03-01

284

The Ratio of Monocytes to Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Increased Susceptibility to Clinical Malaria in Kenyan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children bear the brunt of the disease and though older children and adults suffer relatively fewer clinical attacks, they remain susceptible to asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. A better understanding of the host factors associated with immunity to clinical malaria and the ability to sustain asymptomatic P. falciparum infection will aid the development of improved strategies for disease prevention. Methods and Findings Here we investigate whether full differential blood counts can predict susceptibility to clinical malaria among Kenyan children sampled at five annual cross-sectional surveys. We find that the ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes, measured in peripheral blood at the time of survey, directly correlates with risk of clinical malaria during follow-up. This association is evident among children with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection at the time the cell counts are measured (Hazard ratio (HR) ?=? 2.7 (95% CI 1.42, 5.01, P ?=? 0.002) but not in those without detectable parasitaemia (HR ?=? 1.0 (95% CI 0.74, 1.42, P ?=? 0.9). Conclusions We propose that the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, which is easily derived from routine full differential blood counts, reflects an individual's capacity to mount an effective immune response to P. falciparum infection. PMID:23437368

Warimwe, George M.; Murungi, Linda M.; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Nyangweso, George M.; Wambua, Juliana; Naranbhai, Vivek; Fletcher, Helen A.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Bejon, Philip; Osier, Faith H. A.; Marsh, Kevin

2013-01-01

285

Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.  

PubMed

Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

2014-05-26

286

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2011-05-03

287

Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

288

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

289

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

290

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school dropouts; and (8)…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

291

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

292

KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

293

Counting Bitangents with Stable Maps  

E-print Network

This paper is an elementary introduction to the theory of moduli spaces of curves and maps. As an application to enumerative geometry, we show how to count the number of bitangent lines to a projective plane curve of degree $d$ by doing intersection theory on moduli spaces.

David Ayala; Renzo Cavalieri

2005-12-22

294

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

295

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

296

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

297

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

298

Blood Typing  

MedlinePLUS

... causing anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma ... need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ...

299

Moving blood.  

PubMed

Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

Pelis, K

1997-01-01

300

Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

2010-02-01

301

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of early number. A child or teacher can place a number of objects on the screen and then move the objects to group them, drag them onto a number line or track, into a hoop to create sets of objects, or into a 10 by 10 grid. This applet lends itself well to group work with a projector. Clicking on the info button allows the user to mouse over items to learn how to use them.

2011-01-01

302

Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting  

PubMed Central

Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

2010-01-01

303

Optimization of a Cell Counting Algorithm for Mobile Point-of-Care Testing Platforms  

PubMed Central

In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an Android™ smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

2014-01-01

304

A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Molière radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

2015-02-01

305

Original article Morphological alterations of blood platelets  

E-print Network

Original article Morphological alterations of blood platelets induced by platelet activating factor ― The influence of platelet activating factor (PAF) was investigated in vivo on the ultra- structure of bovine platelets, and on the platelet count. The effect of an intravenous administration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

307

The Mayan Long Count Calendar  

E-print Network

The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

Chanier, Thomas

2013-01-01

308

Constraint counting for frictional jamming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

2012-02-01

309

Counting Squares in a Square  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

2011-01-01

310

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

311

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

312

Blood viscosity in phocid seals: possible adaptations to diving.  

PubMed

1. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of phocid seal red blood cells (RBC) are elevated compared to those of most terrestrial mammalian species. The influence of these characteristics on blood flow was revealed by viscosity (VIS) measurements. 2. RBC morphology and VIS of whole blood from 7 harbor seals and 5 northern elephant seals were compared with blood of the domestic pig. Samples were analysed for RBC count, white blood cell (WBC) count, total plasma proteins, hematocrit (HCT), MCV and MCHC. Viscosity measurements were made at shear rates from 11.5 to 230.4 s-1 on a Wells-Brookfield cone-plate viscometer at 37 degrees C. 3. Mean values for HCT (%), MCV (micron 3) and MCHC (%) were, respectively: elephant seal: 57, 176, 44; harbour seal: 53, 105, 38; domestic pig: 28, 54, 34. Pig blood was reconstituted to match seal blood HCTs. VIS determinations showed that seal and pig blood conform to the general mammalian dependence of VIS upon shear rate and HCT. 4. Seal blood VIS was 28% (harbour seal) and 16% (elephant seal) less than pig blood VIS at low shear (P less than 0.05). Seal blood carried more hemoglobin per unit volume than did pig blood reconstituted to the same HCT. Fewer, larger RBC with higher MCHC, and hence elevated oxygen storage, accompanied by reduced VIS and reduced flow resistance near stasis suggests that this feature of phocid seal blood is an adaptation to circulatory redistribution during long dives. PMID:2760283

Wickham, L L; Elsner, R; White, F C; Cornell, L H

1989-01-01

313

Blood Coagulation Meter: A Low Cost Viscoelasticity based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood coagulation is an essential defense mechanism of the human body. In case of injury, it prevents excessive blood loss and reduces the chances of infection. In conditions like Hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease, clotting is insufficient. The coagulation process depends on certain clotting factors as well as the platelet count. A coagulometer is a device that measures the rate

B. Ghosh; B. Ramachandran; S. Anand; A. Salhan; L. D'Almeida

2008-01-01

314

Young Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Old muscles heal faster when they're exposed to young blood. That's the conclusion of a recent experiment in mice, led by Stanford University neurologist Thomas Rando. His team found that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells in the muscles and livers of older mice. Those are the cells that generate new tissue. It's not clear what part of the young blood makes the difference, but Dr. Rando suspects it's a combination of factors. If scientists can solve the mystery, they may be able to develop new ways to help injuries and broken bones heal more quickly. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 6-8 grade level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-04-04

315

Blood Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

1999-01-01

316

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Mrs. Hirschi

2007-11-20

317

High-order counting statistics and interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full counting statistics concerns the stochastic transport of electrons in mesoscopic structures [1]. Recently it has been shown that the charge transport statistics for noninteracting electrons in a two-terminal system is always generalized binomial: it can be decomposed into independent single-particle events, and the zeros of the generating function are real and negative [2]. In this talk I show how the zeros of the generating function move into the complex plane due to interactions and demonstrate how the positions of the zeros can be detected using high-order factorial cumulants [3]. As an illustrative example I discuss electron transport through a Coulomb blockade quantum dot for which the interactions on the quantum dot are clearly visible in the high-order factorial cumulants. These findings are important for understanding the influence of interactions on counting statistics, and the characterization in terms of zeros of the generating function provides a simple interpretation of recent experiments, where high-order statistics have been measured [4]. [4pt] [1] Yu. V. Nazarov, ed., Quantum Noise in Mesoscopic Physics, NATO Science Series, Vol. 97 (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) [2] A. G. Abanov and D. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 086602 (2008), Phys. Rev. B 79, 205315 (2009) [3] D. Kambly, C. Flindt, and M. B"uttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075432 (2011) -- Editors' Suggestion [4] C. Flindt, C. Fricke, F. Hohls, T. Novotn'y, K. Netocn'y, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10116 (2009)

Flindt, Christian

2012-02-01

318

Counting by ones, twos, and tens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are 2 connect the dot activities (counting by 2\\'s) and a missing number game. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: #1 Connect the dots. Game #2: #2 Connect the dots. Game #3: Pick the number that is missing. Game #4:Ant Parade--Skip Counting Game #5:The Counting Game--Skip Counting ...

Mrs. Christian

2007-03-21

319

Arterial blood sample (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... rather than a vein is to measure blood gases. Because arterial blood is oxygenated blood flowing directly from the heart, analysis of arterial blood can determine the chemistry of the blood before it is used by ...

320

Blood (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) ... used in this way. Back Continue Diseases of Red Blood Cells Most of the time, blood functions ...

321

Blood Donation Process  

MedlinePLUS

... 13th International Cord Blood Symposium Specialist in Blood Bank Technology AABB-Fenwal Scholarships Calendar of Events Research ... You Donate To donate blood, find a blood bank near you using AABB’s blood bank locator. Then, ...

322

Types of Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with ... underway for Blood Transfusion, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Blood Transfusion in the News February 3, 2015 NHLBI Media ...

323

Blood pressure measurement  

MedlinePLUS

Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

324

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)  

MedlinePLUS

... they think about their blood pressure. Understanding Blood Pressure Every person needs blood pressure to live. Without ... women get this condition. How Does High Blood Pressure Affect the Body? High blood pressure adds to ...

325

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

326

Count-doubling time safety circuit  

DOEpatents

There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

327

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

328

SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

329

New nonparametric tests for panel count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analysis of panel count data is an important topic to a number of applied fields including biology, engineering, econometrics, medicine, and public health. Panel count data include observations on subjects over multiple time points where the response variable is a count or recurrent event process when only the numbers of events occurring between observation time points are available. The

Xingqiu Zhao

2008-01-01

330

Blood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View all Annual Meeting Abstracts Every year, more than 3,000 scientific abstracts are accepted for oral and poster presentation at the Society's annual meeting. Learn more Education ASH Academy The eLearning platform ...

331

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View all Annual Meeting Abstracts Every year, more than 3,000 scientific abstracts are accepted for oral and poster presentation at the Society's annual meeting. Learn more Education ASH Academy The eLearning platform ...

332

Blood Types  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: According to the Japanese, you can tell a lot about a person by their blood type: Type A is the farmer, calm and responsible; Type B is the hunter, independent and creative; Type AB is humanistic, cool and sociable; and Type O...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-03-14

333

Blood flow  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

334

Iron stores in regular blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Apart from challenging the bone marrow to increase its red cell production, thereby producing more blood for the donor, regular blood donation has been shown to have several benefits, one of which is preventing accumulation of body iron which can cause free radical formation in the body. This study was carried out to assess body iron stores in regular blood donors. Methods A total of 52 regular (study) and 30 first-time (control) volunteer blood donors were studied prospectively. Twenty milliliters of venous blood was drawn from each subject, 5 mL of which was put into sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid specimen bottles for a full blood count, including red blood cell indices. The remaining sample was allowed to clot in a plain container, and the serum was then retrieved for serum ferritin, serum iron, and serum transferrin receptor measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume in the study group (13.47 ± 2.36 g/dL and 42.00 ± 7.10, respectively, P = 0.303) were not significantly higher than in the control group (12.98 ± 1.30 g/dL and 39.76 ± 4.41, respectively, P = 0.119). Mean serum ferritin was 102.46 ± 80.26 ng/mL in the control group and 41.46 ± 40.33 ng/mL in the study group (P = 0.001). Mean serum ferritin for women in the study group (28.02 ± 25.00 ng/mL) was significantly lower than for women in the control group (56.35 ± 34.03 ng/mL, P = 0.014). Similarly, men in the study group had a lower mean serum ferritin (48.57 ± 45.17 ng/mL) than men in the control group (145.49 ± 87.74 ng/mL, P = 0.00). The mean serum transferrin receptor value was higher in the study group (1.56 ± 0.88 ?g/mL) than in the control group (1.19 ± 0.38 ?g/mL, P = 0.033). Conclusion These findings suggest that hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, and serum iron levels are not significantly affected by regular blood donation and that regular blood donors appear to have reduced iron stores compared with controls. PMID:23807865

Adediran, Adewumi; Uche, Ebele I; Adeyemo, Titilope A; Damulak, Dapus O; Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Akanmu, Alani S

2013-01-01

335

Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters  

PubMed Central

Changes in blood cell parameters are already a well-known feature of malarial infections. To add to this information, the objective of this study was to investigate the varying effects that different levels of parasite density have on blood cell parameters. Patients diagnosed with malaria at Phobphra Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2012 were recruited as subjects for data collection. Blood cell parameters of 2,024 malaria-infected patients were evaluated and statistically analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly higher, however, RBC count was significantly lower in patients with P. falciparum infection compared to those with P. vivax infection (p<0.0001). Leukocyte counts were also significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia. In terms of differential leukocyte count, neutrophil count was significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia (p<0.0001). On the other hand, both lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with high parasitemia (p<0.0001). RBC count and Hb concentration, as well as platelet count were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) and (p<0.0001), respectively. To summarize, patients infected with different malaria parasites exhibited important distinctive hematological parameters, with neutrophil and eosinophil counts being the two hematological parameters most affected. In addition, patients infected with different malarial densities also exhibited important changes in leukocyte count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during the infection. These findings offer the opportunity to recognize and diagnose malaria related anemia, help support the treatment thereof, as well as relieve symptoms of severe malaria in endemic regions. PMID:25807235

Kotepui, Manas; Piwkham, Duangjai; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

2015-01-01

336

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

337

Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.  

PubMed

Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting. PMID:25542972

Grishagin, Ivan V

2015-03-15

338

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

339

[Characteristics of blood cells during peripheral blood stem cell mobilization following chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to obtain a predictor of the timing for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection using routine blood cell counts. For that purpose, we compared recovery kinetics of peripheral blood cells and CD34+ cells in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were given granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for PBSC collection after CHOP therapy. Peaks in the monocyte/WBC ratio and reticulocyte high fluorescence ratio (HFR) were observed 2 to 3 days prior to the peak CD34+ cell count. In addition, the appearance of immature granulocytes in peripheral blood correlated well with increases in CD34+ PBSC number. These findings suggested the peak monocyte/WBC ratio, HFR, and immature granulocyte count can be used as predictors of the timing for PBSC harvests. PMID:10723236

Okada, Y; Ando, M; Kato, T; Taji, H; Kagami, Y; Ogura, M; Morishima, Y

2000-02-01

340

Importance of the TIMI frame count: implications for future trials  

PubMed Central

Although the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade classification scheme is widely used to assess angiographic outcomes, it is limited by poor reproducibility and its categoric nature. The corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) is a simple, more objective continuous variable index of coronary blood flow that can be broadly and inexpensively applied. This measure of the time for dye to traverse a coronary artery is both accurate (highly correlated with Doppler velocity measurements) and precise (reproducible). The method has been prospectively validated as providing independent risk stratification above and beyond the conventional TIMI flow grades. It has been shown to be a predictor of restenosis, and has been of value in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction. In view of the above and its ease of use, we anticipate that CTFC will become a widely used method to evaluate coronary blood flow. PMID:11714404

Appleby, Mark A; Michaels, Andrew D; Chen, Michael; Michael, C Gibson

2000-01-01

341

Jefferson's Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Website to the recent broadcast of the Frontline documentary "Jefferson's Blood" is unusually rich in content, perhaps because it was used post-airing to feature Frontline's presence on the Web. Exploring the history and current controversy over Jefferson's longtime relationship with his slave and mistress Sally Hemings, the site features video excerpts from the broadcast; extended documentation of the DNA debate over Jefferson's extant ancestry; memoirs of four of Jefferson's slaves; essays and interviews from well-known Jefferson scholars, such as Joseph Ellis and Annette Gordon-Reed; discussions by sociologists, historians, and journalists of the nation's historical response to mixed ancestry and its threat to the white mystique; annotated links to premium Jefferson Websites; a teacher's guide; and a good deal more. The site admirably confirms that, when it comes to the question of race in America, there are few historical narratives more telling or more complicated than the one Thomas Jefferson wrote in his own blood.

342

Count-based left ventricular volume determination utilizing a left posterior oblique view for attenuation correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the inherent error of the left ventricular volume measurement from the gated equilibrium blood pool scintigram utilizing the count-based technique. The study population consisted of 26 patients who had undergone biplane contrast ventriculography. The patients were imaged with a parallel-hole collimator in the left anterior oblique position showing the septum to best advantage. A reference

M. A. Rabinovitch; V. Kalff; K. Koral; W. Chan; J. E. Juni; B. Lerman; R. Lampman; J. Walton; D. Grassley; R. Vogel

1984-01-01

343

A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image. PMID:25880881

White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

2015-05-01

344

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY  

E-print Network

salmon (0. keta). The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, and the blood glucose, chloride. and calcium levels fell; and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the blood urea and nonprotein nitrogen characteristics changed little, blood proteins, glucose, and cholesterol decreased progressively, and lipid

345

Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

Thompson, Joselyn H.

346

Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course  

SciTech Connect

We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

1987-11-01

347

Decreased Platelet Count in Patients Receiving Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration: A Single-Center Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background A decreased platelet count may occur and portend a worse outcome in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We aim to investigate the incidence of decreased platelet count and related risk factors in patients receiving CRRT. Methods In this retrospective study, we screened all patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) at Jinling Hospital between November 2008 and October 2012. The patients were included who received uninterrupted CVVH for more than 72 h and had records of blood test for 4 consecutive days after ruling out pre-existing conditions that may affect the platelet count. Platelet counts before and during CVVH, illness severity, CVVH settings, and outcomes were analyzed. Results The study included 125 patients. During the 3-day CVVH, 44.8% and 16% patients had a mild decline (20–49.9%) and severe decline (?50%) in the platelet count,respectively; 37.6% and 16.0% patients had mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 50.1–100×109/L) and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count ?50×109/L), respectively. Patients with a severe decline in the platelet count had a significantly lower survival rate than patients without a severe decline in the platelet count (35.0% versus 59.0%, P?=?0.012), while patients with severe thrombocytopenia had a survival rate similar to those without severe thrombocytopenia (45.0% versus 57.1%, P?=?0.308). Female gender, older age, and longer course of the disease were independent risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count. Conclusions A decline in the platelet count and thrombocytopenia are quite common in patients receiving CVVH. The severity of the decline in the platelet count rather than the absolute count during CVVH may be associated with hospital mortality. Knowing the risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count may allow physicians to prevent such an outcome. PMID:24824815

Wu, Buyun; Gong, Dehua; Xu, Bin; He, Qunpeng; Liu, Zhihong; Ji, Daxi

2014-01-01

348

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of Americaâ??s children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

349

Well coincidence counting and analysis  

SciTech Connect

In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Y-12 Plant] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Y-12 Plant

1994-03-01

350

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

351

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

352

Evidence review: periprocedural use of blood products.  

PubMed

Blood product transfusion has not been subject to rigorous clinical study, and great practice variations exist. Of particular concern to hospitalists is the use of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets prior to invasive procedures to correct anemia or perceived bleeding risk. We summarize the known risks associated with periprocedural anemia, prolonged international normalized ratio (INR), and thrombocytopenia, as well as the effects of blood product administration on clinical outcomes. Clinical trial evidence argues for a restrictive red blood cell transfusion threshold (a hemoglobin level of 7-8 g/dL or symptomatic anemia) for most perioperative patients. There are no high-quality data to guide plasma and platelet transfusions around the time of procedures. Available data do not support the use of prothrombin time/INR to guide prophylactic administration of plasma, and there are scarce data to guide platelet use around the time of an invasive procedure. Therefore, we rely on current consensus expert opinion, which recommends administration of plasma in moderate- to high-risk procedures when INR is >1.5. We recommend platelet transfusion in low-risk procedures when platelet count is <20,000/?L, for average-risk procedures when platelet count is <50,000/?L, and for procedures involving the central nervous system when the platelet count is <100,000/?L. PMID:24124069

Hogshire, Lauren C; Patel, Manish S; Rivera, Edward; Carson, Jeffrey L

2013-11-01

353

Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

354

Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

355

A NOVEL LOW POWER ENERGY RECOVERY FULL ADDER CELL  

E-print Network

A NOVEL LOW POWER ENERGY RECOVERY FULL ADDER CELL R. Shalem1 , E. John2 and L. K. John1 1 count static energy recovery full adder (SERF) is presented in this paper. The power consumption adder design, namely the Static Energy-Recovery Full Adder (SERF). The proposed low power energy

John, Lizy Kurian

356

Special Blood Donation Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... whole blood, which takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation: In the so-called double ... cells), and thrombocythemia (an excess of platelets). In red blood cell exchange, red blood cells are removed ...

357

What Is Blood?  

MedlinePLUS

... transports water and nutrients to your body’s tissues. Red blood cells carry oxygen. Red blood cells are ... the presence or absence of certain substances on red blood cells. Blood types are inherited. Another important ...

358

Blood Transfusion (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ... blood is then sent to the hospital's blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. ...

359

Where to Donate Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

360

Blood donation before surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... or further tests. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

361

Cord Blood and Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... network Recruitment centers International donor centers Cord blood banks Cooperative registries Transplant centers Standards Donor centers Our ... umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have 209,000 cord blood units listed ...

362

Lead levels - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

363

Biology of Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Blood Cells Effects of Aging on the Blood Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > Biology of Blood 4 ...

364

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

365

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...

366

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Nov 17,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio like ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by ...

367

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ... as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to the ...

368

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

369

Counting Classes: Thresholds, Parity, Mods, and Fewness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counting classes consist of languages defined in terms of the number of acceptingcomputations of nondeterministic polynomial-time Turing machines. Well known examplesof counting classes are NP, co-NP, \\\\PhiP, and PP. Every counting class is a subsetof P#P[1], the class of languages computable in polynomial time using a single call toan oracle capable of determining the number of accepting paths of an

Richard Beigel; John Gill

1992-01-01

370

Reduced neutrophil count in people of African descent is due to a regulatory variant in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the

David Reich; Michael A. Nalls; W. H. Linda Kao; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Arti Tandon; Nick Patterson; James Mullikin; Wen-Chi Hsueh; Ching-Yu Cheng; Josef Coresh; Eric Boerwinkle; Man Li; Alicja Waliszewska; Julie Neubauer; Rongling Li; Tennille S. Leak; Lynette Ekunwe; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Joseph M. Zmuda; Herman A. Taylor; Elad Ziv; Tamara B. Harris; James G. Wilson

2009-01-01

371

Reduced Neutrophil Count in People of African Descent Is Due To a Regulatory Variant in the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the

David Reich; Michael A. Nalls; W. H. Linda Kao; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Arti Tandon; Nick Patterson; James Mullikin; Wen-Chi Hsueh; Ching-Yu Cheng; Josef Coresh; Eric Boerwinkle; Man Li; Alicja Waliszewska; Julie Neubauer; Rongling Li; Tennille S. Leak; Lynette Ekunwe; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Joseph M. Zmuda; Herman A. Taylor; Elad Ziv; Tamara B. Harris; James G. Wilson

2009-01-01

372

[Blood relationship].  

PubMed

In every-day medical practice, blood relationship of spouses hardly ever play an important part. Mainly for genetic counselors and pediatricians the question of consanguinity of a child's parents arises when either a rare, often hereditary, disorder is diagnosed for the first time in a family, or potential parents want information on the risk for hereditary diseases. A probability calculus based on the corresponding hereditary factors of the joint ancestors establishes how likely homozygotes for hereditary diseases among the offspring of [blood]-related spouses - often cousins of the first or second degree - is. Furthermore, proof of the parents' consanguinity may explain a child's unexpected hereditary disease [especially autosomal recessive disorders] and, at the same time, it means a higher risk of repetition for the affected child's desired siblings. Incest represents a special form of genetic risk; this question arises either in connection with the adoption of a child, which was conceived by an incestuous couple, or with such a child's own family planning later on. Even the parents' descent from an ethnically, politically, religiously or linguistically isolated background may gave a similar impact on the appearance of hereditary disorders: an accumulation of rare genes has to be taken into account; factors causing disorders have to be expected among these genes, too. In the following, all major aspects of the situations described above will be given in detail. PMID:8539657

Theile, U; Hoffmann, S

1995-12-01

373

Counting Wobbling Dual-Giants  

E-print Network

We derive the BPS equations for D3-branes embedded in AdS_5 X S^5 that preserve at least two supercharges. These are given in terms of conditions on the pullbacks of some space-time differential four-forms. Solutions to our equations are shown to describe all the known giant and dual-giant gravitons in AdS_5 X S^5. We then argue that the configuration spaces of dual-giants can be mapped to non-compact hyperbolic versions of complex projective spaces, in contrast with the giants, whose configuration spaces have been mapped to complex projective spaces. We quantize the configuration space of the 1/8-BPS dual-giants with two angular momenta in AdS_5 and one angular momentum in S^5 and find agreement with the partition function in the literature obtained both from counting appropriate 1/8-BPS configurations of giants and the boundary gauge theory considerations.

Sujay K. Ashok; Nemani V. Suryanarayana

2008-08-14

374

SPECT imaging of pulmonary blood flow in a rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small animal imaging is experiencing rapid development due to its importance in providing high-throughput phenotypic data for functional genomics studies. We have developed a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to image the pulmonary perfusion distribution in the rat. A standard gamma camera, equipped with a pinhole collimator, was used to acquire SPECT projection images at 40 sec/view of the rat thorax following injection of Tc99m labeled albumin that accumulated in the rat's lungs. A voxel-driven, ordered-subset expectation maximization reconstruction was implemented. Following SPECT imaging, the rat was imaged using micro-CT with Feldkamp conebeam reconstruction. The two reconstructed image volumes were fused to provide a structure/function image of the rat thorax. Reconstruction accuracy and performance were evaluated using numerical simulations and actual imaging of an experimental phantom consisting of Tc99m filled chambers with known diameters and count rates. Full-width half-maximum diameter measurement errors decreased with increasing chamber diameter, ranging from < 6% down to 0.1%. Errors in the ratio of count rate estimates between tubes were also diameter dependent but still relatively small. This preliminary study suggests that SPECT will be useful for imaging and quantifying the pulmonary blood flow distribution and the distribution of Tc99m labeled ligands in the lungs of small laboratory animals.

Wietholt, Christian; Molthen, Robert C.; Johnson, Roger H.; Dawson, Christopher A.; Clough, Anne V.

2003-05-01

375

A simple splenic reticuloendothelial function test: counting erythrocytes with argyrophilic inclusions.  

PubMed

The presently accepted methods for evaluation of splenic reticuloendothelial (RE) function include 99mTc sulfur colloid spleen scan, antibody-coated autologous erythrocyte clearance, and pocked erythrocyte count. All methods involve special equipment and/or risk and inconvenience to patients. A simple method of assessing splenic RE function was developed by counting erythrocytes with argyrophilic inclusions using a simple silver stain and an ordinary microscope. To test the validity of this method, blood samples were collected from patients suspected of having hyposplenia or asplenia, including patients with history of splenectomy, sickle cell disease or trait, and newborns. Blood samples were also collected from normal adults and from patients without hyposplenia or asplenia as controls. The samples were tested by this method and compared to the pocked erythrocyte count that served as a gold standard. The results obtained by the two methods were found to be very comparable with little overlap between those from controls and patients with definite hyposplenia or asplenia. With the pocked erythrocyte count as the gold standard, this method has a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 97.1%. However, this method requires no special equipment. Staining can be applied to fresh blood smears as well as to Wright-stained smears, and the silver-stained smears are permanent. PMID:8623761

Tham, K T; Teague, M W; Howard, C A; Chen, S Y

1996-05-01

376

Counting cells with a low-cost integrated microfluidics-waveguide sensor.  

PubMed

The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device that enables low-cost and rapid counting of cells from a drop of blood. We demonstrate a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by ion exchange in glass that underlies a microfluidic structure for capturing cells. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated by the number of metal nanoparticles tagged to the cells because of the interaction of the metal particles with the evanescent field of the waveguide. Calibration of the sensor using bead-tagged lymphocytes captured from human blood showed that the sensor could semi-quantitatively count as few as 100 cells/µL of blood. This technology enables the enumeration of specifically captured cells, allowing for a point-of-care, hand-held device for fast and affordable cell counting in screening, remote, or resource-poor settings. PMID:22454696

Garcia, Daniel; Ghansah, Isaac; Leblanc, John; Butte, Manish J

2012-03-01

377

Time to stop counting the tablets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to assess compliance using both a pharmacologic indicator (low-dose phenobarbital) and a return tablet count in 225 patients who were taking part in three separate studies. There were 216 patients (96%) who kept a follow-up appointment after 28 days; 161 patients appeared to have good compliance (90% to 109%) by return tablet count. Of these 161 patients, 51

Thomas Pullar; Shubha Kumar; Hilary Tindall; Morgan Feely

1989-01-01

378

NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS,  

E-print Network

^i^^- fV/ NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS, AND COLORATION OF YELLOWSTONE grazing and forestry programs on federally owned range and commercial forest lands; protects fish and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS, AND COLORATION

379

Multiaxial cycle counting for critical plane methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical plane method has proven to be a popular analytical tool for estimating multiaxial fatigue. Based on the strain-life approach to fatigue, the method relies on a cycle counting routine to identify cycles and a damage model to assess damage for each cycle. Researchers have traditionally borrowed cycle counting methods from established uniaxial methods. This work will show how

T. E Langlais; J. H Vogel; T. R Chase

2003-01-01

380

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve  

E-print Network

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

381

On statistical models for fission track counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical basis for the usual analysis of fission track counts obtained by the external detector method is discussed and illustrated with examples. A consequence is that if any observed correlation between counts of spontaneous and induced tracks is due to heterogeneity in the density of uranium, then the model proposed by McGee and Johnson (1979)for assessing the experimental error

R. F. Galbraith

1981-01-01

382

Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

Erickson, Judith B.

383

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

384

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

385

People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such  

E-print Network

People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

de Villiers, Marienne

386

Estimating departure times from traffic counts using dynamic assignment  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic traffic assignment algorithm and observed traffic counts are used to estimate the distribution of departure times in a trip matrix. The objective is to find the maximum entropy distribution of departure times by origin zone subject to observed traffic counts on a subset of network links. The procedure results in the estimated number of trip departures from each origin in 10-15 minute time intervals of the full analysis period. Such an analysis period will typically range from one to three hours long. We first review the dynamic assignment algorithm developed and tested in a previous paper, and then describe its use with traffic counts to estimate the departure times of a trip matrix. We present an application to a Pittsburgh network in which trip departures are estimated for each 10-minute interval of a peak-hour survey trip matrix. Computational advances such as parallel computing will enable the procedure to be run on large networks while counts are being monitored. Such an application may provide near real-time detection of temporal trip departure profiles by origin zone. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Janson, B.N.; Southworth, F.

1989-05-01

387

Inaccuracy and imprecision of reticulocyte counting.  

PubMed

Reticulocyte count is an essential clinical test to detect erythropoietic activity. The test has been done manually with the use of one of three dyes: new methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue, and azure B. When reticulocyte counts with the different dyes were compared, correlation was good. When reticulocyte counts obtained by use of the dyes were compared with the count obtained by an automated counter, correlation was high. In a sampling study, the specimen prepared by a spinner method gave smaller variations than a wedge method. Intertechnologist bias was higher than inter-specimen or intra-specimen bias: The variation of the reticulocyte count was examined with from 200 to 2,000 cells; with 1,000 cells or more, variation was low. From these results, we concluded that more than 1,000 erythrocytes on one slide prepared by the spinner method should be analyzed. Clear standards for cell identification are also needed. PMID:2473434

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Yokomatsu, Y; Im, T S; Niri, M; Furota, A

1989-06-01

388

Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count.

Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1990-10-01

389

Full counting statistics of Andreev reflection: Signatures of a quantum transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing semiclassical circuit theory, we study the charge-transfer statistics of a quantum dot (chaotic cavity) connected to a normal metal and a superconducting reservoir via two non-ideal barriers. We assume the absence of a magnetic field and a low-energy regime so that the energy dependence of the Andreev reflection eigenvalues can be neglected. We calculate analytically the first three charge-transfer cumulants and the density of Andreev reflection eigenvalues. We observe an interesting signature in the charge-transfer cumulants of a quantum transition that takes place in the chaotic cavity [A. M. S. Macêdo and A. M. C. Souza, Phys. Rev. E 71, 066218 (2005)] associated with the formation of Fabry-Perot modes. Our results compare well with numerical simulations obtained from the scattering matrix formalism.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2009-07-01

390

Full Counting Statistics for a Single-Electron Transistor: Nonequilibrium Effects at Intermediate Conductance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the current distribution for a single-electron transistor with intermediate strength tunnel conductance. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and the drone (Majorana) fermion representation, we account for the renormalization of system parameters. Nonequilibrium effects induce a lifetime broadening of the charge-state levels, which suppress large current fluctuations.

Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Golubev, Dmitri S.; Schön, Gerd

2006-03-01

391

Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation  

PubMed Central

Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

2015-01-01

392

Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation.  

PubMed

Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

2015-01-01

393

Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk. PMID:25710019

2015-01-01

394

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

395

Relevance of the Number of Positive Bottles in Determining Clinical Significance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Blood Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated contaminants from blood cultures, yet they frequently cause true infections. Determining the clinical significance of CNS is difficult, and clinicians often consider the number of positive bottles within a set of blood culture bottles in their assessment. There- fore, in three separate studies, we counted the number of positive bottles within blood

MELVIN P. WEINSTEIN; LARRY G. REIMER; MICHAEL L. WILSON; L. BARTH RELLER

2001-01-01

396

Effect of marginal dietary zinc on blood fractions of rats  

SciTech Connect

Use of blood components as indices of zinc (Zn) status has been proposed. This study evaluated changes in whole blood counts and Zn concentration of blood fractions in rats fed marginal dietary Zn. Rats (175-199 gm) were divided into 2 groups after 1 wk acclimation on a 6 ppm soybean-based Zn ration: a low Zn group (n=72) fed the 6 ppm Zn ration ad lib, and a pair-fed Zn-adequate group (n=72) fed the same ration supplemented to 30 ppm Zn. RBC Zn, WBC/platelet Zn, RBC count. WBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wks on blood obtained by cardiac puncture. Samples from 2 rats were pooled for Zn determinations. Low Zn rats decreased food intake, failed to gain weight, and 29% exhibited hair loss and/or scaly paws. RBC count, Hb, and Hct increased with time in both groups: the increase in RBC count preceeded that of Hb. Despite this different rate of change, RBC Zn results were the same regardless of basis of expression. WBC count decreased with time in both groups. Differences in pooled RBC Zn values between or within groups were not significant. The greatest difference between groups occurred at wk 2 when pooled WBC/platelet Zn was low in both groups, body weight differences became significant, and hair loss was first seen in low Zn rats. However, convincing evidence for changes in blood fractions due to marginal dietary Zn intake is not apparent despite other evidence of Zn deficiency in the low Zn group.

Brenckle, L.B.; Rasmussen, A.I.

1986-03-05

397

Coughing up blood  

MedlinePLUS

... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

398

Blood in the semen  

MedlinePLUS

Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

399

Low Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... are normal for them. In other people, blood pressure drops below normal because of a medical condition or certain medicines. Some people may have symptoms of low blood pressure when standing up too quickly. Low blood pressure ...

400

Blood Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... and donation procedures, a growing number of blood banks have found blood donation by seniors to be ... must weigh at least 110 pounds . Most blood banks have no upper age limit. All donors must ...

401

Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

402

CEA blood test  

MedlinePLUS

Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

403

Blood Glucose Log  

MedlinePLUS

... cut here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... plan, physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

404

Blood Test: Glucose  

MedlinePLUS

... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Blood ... If You Have Questions What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

405

How Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Clotting Process How Blood Clots Bruising and Bleeding Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > Blood Clotting Process 4 ...

406

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... removes the cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which you ... t know that their cholesterol levels are too high. People who have high blood cholesterol have a ...

407

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) En ... Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

408

Low blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Low blood pressure; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

409

Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

2014-01-01

410

Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------4 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------5 Peel-Toronto

Toronto, University of

411

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2004 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

412

Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

413

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2001 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

414

Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

415

Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

416

Low cost crowd counting using audio tones  

E-print Network

With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

Kannan, Pravein Govindan

417

The Mayan Long Count Calendar Thomas Chanier  

E-print Network

-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 of Long Count Unit. 1 hal-00750006,version6-21Jan2014 #12;Period N [day] Prime factorization Mercury

Boyer, Edmond

418

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

419

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College joint work with Karim Belabas, Universit´e Bordeaux 1 Manjul Bhargava, Princeton University #12;Thanks to: Roger Baker, Henri Cohen, Michael Jacobson

Pomerance, Carl

420

Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

Graham, O.

1964-01-01

421

34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...34 If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...required to, make a second count of membership. (2) If the applicant chooses...

2011-07-01

422

34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...34 If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...required to, make a second count of membership. (2) If the applicant chooses...

2010-07-01

423

Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.  

PubMed

Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed-and sometimes practiced-as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood-shed or given-is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy. PMID:25467858

Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

2014-12-01

424

Rack Module Enhancements of Counting Invariants  

E-print Network

We introduce a modified rack algebra Z[X] for racks X with finite rack rank N. We use representations of Z[X] into rings, known as rack modules, to define enhancements of the rack counting invariant for classical and virtual knots and links. We provide computations and examples to show that the new invariants are strictly stronger than the unenhanced counting invariant and are not determined by the Jones or Alexander polynomials.

Haas, Aaron; Nelson, Sam; Yuen, Jonah; Zhan, Qingcheng

2010-01-01

425

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

426

Inverse correlation between cerebral blood flow measured by continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) MRI and neurocognitive function in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA)  

PubMed Central

Overt stroke, clinically “silent” cerebral infarct, and neurocognitive impairment are frequent complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Current imaging techniques have limited sensitivity and specificity to identify children at risk for neurocognitive impairment. We prospectively evaluated 24 children with SCA with a neurologic exam, complete blood count, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) MRI. Average CBF to gray matter was 112 ± 36 mL/100 g/min. We identified a strong inverse relationship between performance IQ and CBF (-1.5 points per 10 mL/100 g/min increase in CBF, P = .013). Elevated steady-state white blood cell count (? 14 × 109/L [14 000/?L]) was associated with lower full scale IQ (86 ± 9 vs 99 ± 10, P = .005). CASL MRI may identify children with neurocognitive impairment, before damage is evident by structural MRI or TCD. (Blood. 2006;108:379-381) PMID:16537809

Strouse, John J.; Cox, Christiane S.; Melhem, Elias R.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kraut, Michael A.; Razumovsky, Alexander; Yohay, Kaleb; van Zijl, Peter C.; Casella, James F.

2006-01-01

427

Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting  

PubMed Central

Background In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. Results We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. Conclusions These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled. PMID:24164709

2013-01-01

428

Power Counting to Better Jet Observables  

E-print Network

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

2014-09-22

429

Power counting to better jet observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

2014-12-01

430

Comparison of a modified thiazole orange technique with a fully automated analyser for reticulocyte counting.  

PubMed Central

Two independent methods for quantitating reticulocyte counts were compared. One used a modified thiazole orange technique and a flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACS); the other was a fully automated whole blood analyser (Sysmex R1000). Both methods gave comparable results with a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. Samples measured using the R1000 showed a negligible decrease in the reticulocyte count over five days at room temperature, although there was evidence of continuing intracellular maturation: with thiazole orange there was an apparent increase. A practical reference range of 20-70 x 10(9)/l was established from 89 normal subjects. The close correlation between the two independent estimates indicates the validity of the quantitation of the reticulocyte count and shows that automation allows significant changes within and below the normal range to be detected with a degree of reliability which was not previously possible. PMID:1864984

Bowen, D; Bentley, N; Hoy, T; Cavill, I

1991-01-01

431

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2012-01-01

432

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2010-01-01

433

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2011-01-01

434

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

435

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2014-01-01

436

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2014-04-01

437

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2012-04-01

438

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2013-04-01

439

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2010-04-01

440

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2013-04-01

441

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2012-04-01

442

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2011-04-01

443

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2014-04-01

444

Three Adult Cases of HPV-B19 Infection with Concomitant Leukopenia and Low Platelet Counts  

PubMed Central

We encountered three adult patients with flu-like symptoms diagnosed with human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) infection. Blood serum analysis also revealed leukopenia, with white blood cell counts (WBCs) of 1,000–2,000/mL and low platelet counts of 89–150 × 109/L. Typical skin rash was absent in one patient. Bone marrow examination of another patient showed hypoplastic marrow with <5% blast cells. All patients recovered without administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Therefore, HPV-B19 infection with leukopenia should be considered in adult patients with leukopenia during erythema infectiosum epidemics, even if typical clinical findings (ie, skin rash) are absent. Further, the fact that three cases were observed over the stated time period at our hospital, which is located in Nagoya city, showed a transition to a slightly higher level of incidence than the annual average. PMID:25780346

Yaguchi, Daizo; Marui, Nobuyuki; Matsuo, Masaki

2015-01-01

445

Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the “no blood

Philip Wong; Roger Pham; Carl Whitely; Marcus Soto; Kevin Salyers; Christopher James; Bernd A. Bruenner

2011-01-01

446

Full Wave Rectification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Victoria Junior College contains an interactive simulation of full wave rectification. Slider bars allow the user to adjust capacitance and ohm levels. The simulation includes an animated graph.

447

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Darbianne Shannon

2012-07-13

448

Microfluidic platform for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis from unprocessed whole blood.  

PubMed

Neutrophils play an essential role in protection against infections and their numbers in the blood are frequently measured in the clinic. Higher neutrophil counts in the blood are usually an indicator of ongoing infections, while low neutrophil counts are a warning sign for higher risks for infections. To accomplish their functions, neutrophils also have to be able to move effectively from the blood where they spend most of their life, into tissues, where infections occur. Consequently, any defects in the ability of neutrophils to migrate can increase the risks for infections, even when neutrophils are present in appropriate numbers in the blood. However, measuring neutrophil migration ability in the clinic is a challenging task, which is time consuming, requires large volume of blood, and expert knowledge. To address these limitations, we designed a robust microfluidic assays for neutrophil migration, which requires a single droplet of unprocessed blood, circumvents the need for neutrophil separation, and is easy to quantify on a simple microscope. In this assay, neutrophils migrate directly from the blood droplet, through small channels, towards the source of chemoattractant. To prevent the granular flow of red blood cells through the same channels, we implemented mechanical filters with right angle turns that selectively block the advance of red blood cells. We validated the assay by comparing neutrophil migration from blood droplets collected from finger prick and venous blood. We also compared these whole blood (WB) sources with neutrophil migration from samples of purified neutrophils and found consistent speed and directionality between the three sources. This microfluidic platform will enable the study of human neutrophil migration in the clinic and the research setting to help advance our understanding of neutrophil functions in health and disease. PMID:24962731

Jones, Caroline N; Hoang, Anh N; Dimisko, Laurie; Hamza, Bashar; Martel, Joseph; Irimia, Daniel

2014-01-01

449

Pathogen inactivation in blood products.  

PubMed

A combination of the economic importance of blood as a resource and the advent of the AIDS epidemic has led to a requirement for improved pathogen screening techniques for donated blood. However, due to window periods where infective agents cannot be detected, the ability to disinfect of blood and its derivatives plasma, platelets and red blood cell concentrates has assumed great importance. Whereas conventional disinfection techniques such as solvent-detergent treatment or ultra-violet irradiation may be employed in plasma or protein concentrates, the collateral damage associated with such treatments disallows their use with cellular fractions. In many ways the pathogen selectivity required here is akin to standard antimicrobial chemotherapy but is complicated by the requirement for activity against the full range of microbes--viruses, bacteria, yeasts and protozoa--rather than simply antibacterial or antiviral etc. The recent problems due to prion agents in the blood supply mean that such agents should also be included in any proposed disinfecting regimen. Several new approaches to microbial disinfection have been proposed by academia and the "blood industrials" : targeted chemotherapy, photochemotherapy and photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:11860353

Wainwright, Mark

2002-01-01

450

Associations Between Haemonchus contortus Infection in Lambs and Blood Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Haemonchus contortus is one of the principal stomach worms of sheep, and infection is characterized by anemia. Estimates of the average blood loss per worm per day range from .003 to .05 ml. Studies have shown that high eosinophilia was correlated with low fecal egg count (FEC) and, therefore, res...

451

Acupuncture Regulates Leukocyte Subpopulations in Human Peripheral Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture has recently been attracting more and more people throughout the world as an alternative treatment, however little is known about its physiological activities (i.e. immune system). We examined acupuncture both quantitatively and qualitatively by measuring CD-positive cell counts and cytokine expression levels in the blood, to determine the activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK)

Nobuo Yamaguchi; Takashi Takahashi; Masahiro Sakuma; Toshiroh Sugita; Kumiko Uchikawa; Satoshi Sakaihara; Tsugiyasu Kanda; Matsuo Arai; Kenji Kawakita

2007-01-01

452

Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood  

E-print Network

Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood plasma and leukocytes into low cell count milk W Fang M Vikerpuur, M Sandholm Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty 1995; accepted 29 August 1995) Summary ― Milk from inflamed quarters is high in somatic cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Label-free method for cell counting in crude biological samples via paramagnetic bead aggregation.  

PubMed

Under chaotropic conditions, DNA released from lysed cells causes the aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field in a manner that is independent of the presence of other cellular components. The extent of aggregation correlates with the mass of DNA in a quantitative manner (Leslie, D. C. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 5689-96), and from this, the number of DNA-containing cells in the sample can be enumerated. Microbial growth testing is demonstrated by monitoring bead aggregation with E. coli in the presence of ampicillin. Without the need for fluorescent labeling or Coulter counting, the white blood cell count can be defined directly from a microliter of crude whole blood. Specificity is brought to the process by coupling bead-based immunocapture with DNA-bead aggregation allowing for the enumeration of CD4+ T cells from human blood samples. The results of DNA-induced bead aggregation had a 95% correlation with those generated by flow cytometry. With the process requiring only inexpensive, widely available benchtop laboratory hardware, a digital camera, and a simple algorithm, this provided a highly accessible alternative to more expensive cell-counting techniques. PMID:24187938

Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Xiao, Li; Haverstick, Doris M; Dewald, Alison; Columbus, Linda; Kelly, Kimberly; Landers, James P

2013-12-01

454

Endothelial cell Blood cells  

E-print Network

Endothelial cell HSCs Blood cells Blood vessel Haemogenic endothelial cell Figure 1 | Relationship between endothelial cells and blood cells. Endothelial cells line the inside of blood vessels. During mouse embryonic development, a subset of these cells, known as haemogenic endothelial cells, seems

Wilmers, Chris

455

High blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... body. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. ... than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/ ...

456

BUN - blood test  

MedlinePLUS

Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

457

Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Background CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings. Methods HIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count platform that we have developed. A total of 130 HIV-infected patient samples were collected that included 16 de-identified left over blood samples from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), and 114 left over samples from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) enrolled in the HIV and AIDS care and treatment centers in the City of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The two data groups from BWH and MUHAS were analyzed and compared to the commonly accepted CD4 count reference method (FACSCalibur system). Results The portable, battery operated and microscope-free microchip platform developed in our laboratory (BWH) showed significant correlation in CD4 counts compared with FACSCalibur system both at BWH (r?=?0.94, p<0.01) and MUHAS (r?=?0.49, p<0.01), which was supported by the Bland-Altman methods comparison analysis. The device rapidly produced CD4 count within 10 minutes using an in-house developed automated cell counting program. Conclusions We obtained CD4 counts of HIV-infected patients using a portable platform which is an inexpensive (<$1 material cost) and disposable microchip that uses whole blood sample (<10 µl) without any pre-processing. The system operates without the need for antibody-based fluorescent labeling and expensive fluorescent illumination and microscope setup. This portable CD4 count platform displays agreement with the FACSCalibur results and has the potential to expand access to HIV and AIDS monitoring using fingerprick volume of whole blood and helping people who suffer from HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings. PMID:21754988

Moon, SangJun; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Blander, Jeffrey; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

458

Full moon and crime.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

1984-01-01

459

Effect of measurement duration on accuracy of pulse-counting  

PubMed Central

In this study, the relation between the measurement duration and accuracy of pulse-counting was quantitatively examined with special reference to low-frequency fluctuations in heart rate variability. The interbeat intervals of 70 healthy male subjects were measured in standing, sitting and supine positions. Pulse rates for various durations were calculated by objective-scoring simulation based on the heartbeat recordings of the subjects. The duration of pulse-counting continuously varied from 6 to 60 s in the simulation. Simulated pulse rates were compared with the rate calculated from the 60 s that includes the given duration, and the absolute difference between the two rates was defined as the error. Average errors of pulse-counting for 15 s were 1.89, 1.89 and 1.80 bpm for standing, sitting and supine positions, respectively. No difference in error was observed between standing and sitting positions; however, smaller errors were observed in the supine position. Practitioner Summary: This study provides information on the degree of error that will occur when pulse rates are objectively scored for various durations, for example 10, 15 or 30 s, instead of a full minute. This useful information may be beneficial for physicians, nurses and medical practitioners. PMID:24117167

Kobayashi, Hiromitsu

2013-01-01

460

Soft-metric based channel decoding for photon counting receivers  

E-print Network

We address photon-number-assisted, polarization- based, binary communication systems equipped with photon counting receivers. In these channels information is encoded in the value of polarization phase-shift but the carrier has and additional degree of freedom, i.e. its photon distribution, which may be exploited to implement binary input-multiple output (BIMO) channels also in the presence of a phase-diffusion noise affecting the polarization. Here we analyze the performances of these channels, which approach capacity by means of iteratively decoded error correcting codes. In this paper we use soft-metric- based low density parity check (LDPC) codes for this purpose. In order to take full advantage of all the information available at the output of a photon counting receiver, soft information is generated in the form of log-likelihood ratios, leading to improved frame error rate (FER) and bit error rate (BER) compared to binary symmetric channels (BSC). We evaluate the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel and show the potential gains that may be provided by photon counting detectors in realistic implementations.

Marina Mondin; Fred Daneshgaran; Inam Bari; Maria Teresa Delgado; Stefano Olivares; Matteo G. A. Paris

2014-12-02

461

Nucleated Red Blood Cells in Term Fetuses: Reference Values Using an Automated Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) are present in small numbers in the cord blood of healthy fetuses at birth. Acute and chronic stimuli, such as fetal hypoxia, cause increased circulating levels of NRBCs. Manual counting is presently the only way to quantify NRBCs, but it is time-consuming and inaccurate. Recently, automated approaches have been developed in order to quantify

Alessandro Rolfo; Mariacaterina Maconi; Simona Cardaropoli; Marilisa Biolcati; Paolo Danise; Tullia Todros

2007-01-01

462

Neotyphodium Coenophialum Alters Blood Metabolites Involved in Nitrogen, Energy, and Minteral Metabolism in Growing Steers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blood metabolite changes in steers during summer-long grazing of toxic endophyte-infected pastures were investigated as a part of a larger study for determination of physiological genomic and metabolic pathways for alkaloid metabolism. Blood cell counts, differentials, and serum metabolites of grow...

463

The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

464

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

465

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

466

Leukocyte count, smoking, and lung function.  

PubMed

The interrelation between leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and pulmonary function results was examined in two work populations: 1,826 white male workers in a pulp and paper mill and 1,620 white male workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. These workers took part in epidemiologic health studies that consisted of a medical-occupational questionnaire, spirometric measurements, and leukocyte count. Measurements of the air contaminants in the work environment were also carried out simultaneously by personal and area sampling. No significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities was found between the exposed and nonexposed workers in each work population. Similarly, no difference in leukocyte count was found between exposed and nonexposed workers. Leukocyte count was found to be significantly higher among current smokers than nonsmokers and former smokers in each population. In both populations, there was an inverse correlation between leukocyte count and one-second forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity of the workers irrespective of the smoking habit. This finding suggests that the leukocyte response to external stimuli may be another determinant of lung function measurements. PMID:6691359

Yeung, M C; Buncio, A D

1984-01-01

467

Your Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Keeping your blood pressure at healthy levels is an important factor in preventing cardiovascular disease and stroke. This activity will help you: Understand the categories for blood pressure levels. Know your own blood pressure level Determine ways to prevent hypertension Understand the lifestyle factors that put you at risk for hypertension. Read about blood pressure categories. Read preventing hypertension. Read measuring your blood pressure. Print a copy of the directions on how to use a digital monitor. Check ...

Mrs. Cross

2005-11-29

468

Full-Fledged Indian  

E-print Network

Lee Stafford is in his seventh summer as a counselor at Camp Arrowdance. While Lee enjoys his status as one of the most popular staff members at camp, he begins to wonder if he's in danger of going "Full-Fledged Indian", ...

Hart, Josh Benjamin

2010-04-26

469

Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss  

SciTech Connect

Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

1986-03-01

470

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.  

PubMed

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-06-01

471

Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)  

MedlinePLUS

... blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease—an inherited disorder in which RBCs ... blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease When blood is visible in the ...

472

JAMA Patient Page: Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... The donated blood is screened at the blood bank for blood type, antibodies that could cause harmful ... situation. FOR MORE INFORMATION • American Association of Blood Banks www.aabb.org • National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

473

Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

Cox, Colin

2013-06-01

474

CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 ?m CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e -, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

Moraes, D.; Kaplon, J.; Nygard, E.

2008-06-01

475

Nuclear pulse counting apparatus and technique  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear pulse counting experiment, such as typified by the art of x-ray fluorescence employs a multichannel analog to digital converter (adc) which is interfaced with a microprocessor to yield sample/matrix concentration data, as an illustrative example, with a precision which is given by the theoretical nuclear decay statistical limits. In specific regard to x-ray fluorescence analysis, the adc characterizes each pulse or count according to magnitude without conventional backscatter peak gain stabilization. The data is transferred through a buffer to the microprocessor, which scans the higher energy characterizations for maximum count, identifies that characterization as the peak, + or - 1 characterization, and interpolates to develop a refined backscatter peak, stated to at least 1/10 of a characterization, and from which data base all ensuing calculations are predicated.

Kamp, A.J.; Sederlund, E.R.; Thompson, J.W.

1980-10-14

476

Plasma fibrinogen and platelet count in stroke.  

PubMed

Plasma fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated in 30 patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction (CI) three and nine days after the onset of symptoms. Hyperfibrinogenemia (379.4 +/- 80.3 vs 327.3 +/- 48.3 mg/dL of controls, p < 0.005), a reduction of platelet count (207.133 +/- 48.388 vs 288.375 +/- 61.373 x 10(9)/L of controls, p < 0.001), and an inverse correlation (r = -0.41, p < 0.05) between the two parameters were observed on day three. On day nine, platelet counts normalized while plasma fibrinogen levels slightly increased; the inverse correlation no longer occurred. The results suggest that in the earliest phase of stroke plasma fibrinogen levels may condition the extent of platelet accumulation or consumption in the ischemic area. This confirms in vivo that the platelet aggregation process is strictly dependent on fibrinogen concentration. PMID:8409781

D'Erasmo, E; Acca, M; Celi, F S; Medici, F; Palmerini, T; Pisani, D

1993-01-01

477

Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor  

SciTech Connect

A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Moses, W.W.

1989-12-01

478

Effect of nanosilver on blood parameters in chickens having aflatoxicosis.  

PubMed

This experiment is designed to investigate the positive effects of commercial nanosilver compound on blood parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. For this, 270 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into six treatment groups with three replicates. The experimental groups were group A: chickens fed with basal diet; group B: chickens fed with 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet; groups of C, D, E and F received Mycoad (2.5 g/kg diet), Mycoad (2.5 g/kg diet) + productive aflatoxin (3 ppm), Nanocid (2500 ppm), and Nanocid (2500 ppm) + productive aflatoxin (3 ppm) in basal diet, respectively. Results revealed that some of the blood parameters such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils percentage were not affected in this experiment; whereas, hemoglobin percentage and white blood cell (WBC) count in all the groups fed with 3 ppm aflatoxin except nanocid + aflatoxin decreased significantly (p < 0.05). There are no significant differences between the groups that received nanocid + aflatoxin and mycoad + aflatoxin in hemoglobin percentage and WBC count parameters. The red blood cell count and hematocrit in chickens received aflatoxin were significantly lower than other groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that nanocid similar as mycoad can be useful in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin on blood parameters in chickens affected with aflatoxicosis. PMID:22782710

Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

2014-03-01

479

Studies of deionization and impedance spectroscopy for blood analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood analysis provides vital information for health conditions. For instance, typical infection response is correlated to an elevated White Blood Cell (WBC) count, while low Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin and hematocrit are caused by anemia or internal bleeding. We are developing two essential modules, deionization (DI) chip and microfluidic cytometer with impedance spectroscopy flow, for enabling the realization of a single platform miniaturized blood analyzer. In the proposed analyzer, blood cells are preliminarily sorted by Dielectrophoretic (DEP) means into sub-groups, differentiated and counted by impedance spectroscopy in a flow cytometer. DEP techniques have been demonstrated to stretch DNA, align Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and trap cells successfully. However, DEP manipulation does not function in biological media with high conductivity. The DI module is designed to account for this challenge. H Filter will serve as an ion extraction platform in a microchamber. Sample and buffer do not mix well in micro scale allowing the ions being extracted by diffusion without increasing the volume. This can keep the downstream processing time short. Micro scale hydrodynamic focusing is employed to place single cell passing along the central plane of the flow cytometer module. By applying an AC electrical field, suspended cells are polarized, membrane capacitance C m, cytoplasm conductivity ? c, and cytoplasm permittivity ? c will vary as functions of frequency. Tracing back the monitored current, the numbers of individual cell species can be evaluated.

Kwong, Charlotte C.; Li, Nan; Ho, Chih-Ming

2005-11-01

480

Consistent estimation of zero-inflated count models.  

PubMed

Applications of zero-inflated count data models have proliferated in health economics. However, zero-inflated Poisson or zero-inflated negative binomial maximum likelihood estimators are not robust to misspecification. This article proposes Poisson quasi-likelihood estimators as an alternative. These estimators are consistent in the presence of excess zeros without having to specify the full distribution. The advantages of the Poisson quasi-likelihood approach are illustrated in a series of Monte Carlo simulations and in an application to the demand for health services. PMID:22623339

Staub, Kevin E; Winkelmann, Rainer

2013-06-01

481

ISON Comet..... Marco Fulle  

E-print Network

ISON Comet..... Marco Fulle INAF Trieste Comet Lovejoy C/2011W3 on 22 Dec 2011 #12;#12;Comet ISON C/2012S1 at 5.2 AU from the Sun (7 Jan 2013) #12;Comet ISON C/2012S1 at 0.6AU from the Sun (16 Nov 2013) #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;In meteorites Na/K = 15 In Comet Panstarrs C/2011L4 Na/K = 54 solar radiation

Â?umer, Slobodan

482

One-count memory circuit prevents machine mode interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-count memory logic circuit used with electromechanical counter-printer machines operates in either count or print mode. The circuit advances the counter when the machine is in the count mode and provides storage for the count pulse when the machine is in the print mode.

Deforest, B.

1966-01-01

483

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

484

[Microvzor-2: a system for automated dry blood smear analysis].  

PubMed

Upgraded system Microvzor-2 for investigation of blood morphology in space flight is composed of soft- and hardware for dry smear image analysis. Ground-based testing showed that it could be utilized to investigate a broad spectrum of blood parameters in space flight, including erythrocytes, hemoglobin content in erythrocytes, volumetric erythrocyte distribution, diagnostics of anisocytosis, and poikilocytosis, leukocytes and leukocyte count. Analyzed are smears prepared from a fixed volume of finger blood. The process consists of smear scanning, input of the vision field images in the spacecraft computer and ensuing automated identification and counting. Information is stored in a dedicated database. Results of analysis are displayed as forms and cell galleries. PMID:12572126

Verdenskaia, N V; Vinogradov, A G; Gusev, A A; Ivanova, I A; Ivanova, S M; Kozharinov, V I; Kozinets, G I; Pogorelov, V M; Sazonov, V V

2002-01-01

485

Genomic Structure of an Attenuated Quasi Species of HIV1 from a Blood Transfusion Donor and Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blood donor infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and a cohort of six blood or blood product recipients infected from this donor remain free of HIV-1-related disease with stable and normal CD4 lymphocyte counts 10 to 14 years after infection. HIV-1 sequences from either virus isolates or patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells had similar deletions in the nef

N. J. Deacon; A. Tsykin; A. Solomon; K. Smith; M. Ludford-Menting; D. J. Hooker; D. A. McPhee; A. L. Greenway; A. Ellett; C. Chatfield; V. A. Lawson; S. Crowe; A. Maerz; S. Sonza; J. Learmont; J. S. Sullivan; A. Cunningham; D. Dwyer; D. Dowton; J. Mills

1995-01-01

486

Blood color is influenced by inflammation and independently predicts survival in hemodialysis patients: quantitative evaluation of blood color.  

PubMed

Blood color of dialysis patients can be seen routinely. Darkened blood color is often observed in critically ill patients generally because of decreased oxygen saturation, but little is known about the other factors responsible for the color intensity. In addition, quantitative blood color examination has not been performed yet. Therefore, no one has evaluated the predictive power of blood color. The aim of this study was to evaluate if blood color darkness reflects some medical problems and is associated with survival disadvantage. Study design is a prospective cohort study. One hundred sixty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. Quantification of blood color was done