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1

Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls.

Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah

2013-01-01

2

White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft

2001-01-01

3

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

2008-01-01

4

White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...

1972-01-01

5

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic infections, allergies, and problems with blood clotting. Preparation No special preparations are needed. Having your child ... is removed and the area is covered with cotton or a bandage to stop the bleeding. Collecting ...

6

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

7

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

2010-04-01

8

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

2009-04-01

9

Complete blood count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... hematocrit may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... blood Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema

10

Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)\\/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)\\/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts

N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; E Jenkins; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides

1992-01-01

11

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

12

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

13

White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999. At each site and in each year...

A. J. Magill B. Permpanich F. E. McKenzie J. R. Forney W. A. Prudhomme

2005-01-01

14

Effects of exchange symmetry on full counting statistics.  

PubMed

We study the full counting statistics for the transmission of two identical particles with positive or negative symmetry under exchange for the situation where the scattering depends on energy. We find that, in addition to the expected sensitivity of the noise and higher cumulants, the exchange symmetry has a huge effect on the average transmitted charge; for equal-spin exchange-correlated electrons, the average transmitted charge can be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding value for independent electrons. PMID:17930916

Hassler, F; Lesovik, G B; Blatter, G

2007-08-16

15

Differential Blood Cell Counts of Atlantic Herring, 'Clupea harengus harengus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea harengus harengus, the percentages of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from Februa...

S. W. Sherburne

1973-01-01

16

Self-consistent full counting statistics of inelastic transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full counting statistics (FCS) of inelastic transport in molecular junctions is considered for the case of weak electron-vibration coupling. We introduce a self-consistent procedure for FCS within the non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) method, and discuss its importance in two aspects. First, we show that in the case of FCS the self-consistent treatment provides a conserving approximation. Second, we discuss the importance of molecular vibration renormalization for the counting statistics of electron transport. We consider two-level bridge with diagonal and off-diagonal electron-vibration couplings. The latter model is shown to be especially sensitive to renormalization of the vibration. We show that heating the molecular vibration may lead to either an increase or a decrease in current through the junction depending on the strength of electron-vibration coupling in the bridge compared to molecule-contact coupling. We report an appearance of super-Poissonian noise induced by the non-equilibrium vibration at resonance, which is similar to the effect of the avalanche transport previously reported in the literature for a system with a strong electron-vibration interaction.

Park, Tae-Ho; Galperin, Michael

2012-02-01

17

Full counting statistics of a single-molecule quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the full counting statistics of a single quantum dot strongly coupled to a local phonon and weakly tunnel connected to two metallic electrodes. By employing the generalized nonequilibrium Green-function method and the Lang-Firsov transformation, we derive an explicit analytical formula for the cumulant generating function, which makes one able to identify distinctly the elastic and inelastic contributions to the current and zero-frequency shot noise. We find that at zero temperature, the inelastic effect causes upward steps in the current and downward jumps in the noise at the bias voltages corresponding to the opening of the inelastic channels, which are ascribed to the vibration-induced complex dependencies of electronic self-energies on the energy and bias voltage. More interestingly, the Fano factor exhibits oscillatory behavior with increasing bias voltage and its minimum value is observed to be smaller than one-half.

Dong, Bing; Ding, G. H.; Lei, X. L.

2013-08-01

18

Full counting statistics as the geometry of two planes.  

PubMed

Provided the measuring time is short enough, the full counting statistics (FCS) of the charge pumped across a barrier as a result of a series of voltage pulses are shown to be equivalent to the geometry of two planes. This formulation leads to the FCS without the need for the usual nonequilibrium (Keldysh) transport theory or the direct computation of the determinant of an infinite-dimensional matrix. In the particular case of the application of N Lorentzian pulses, we show the computation of the FCS reduces to the diagonalization of an N x N matrix. We also use the formulation to compute the core-hole response in the x-ray edge problem and the FCS for a square wave pulse-train for the case of low transmission. PMID:18518468

Sherkunov, Y B; Pratap, A; Muzykantskii, B; d'Ambrumenil, N

2008-05-15

19

Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin

2003-01-01

20

Relationship between white blood cell count and incident hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship to hypertension, independent of smoking and other established cardiovascular risk factors, is not clear, especially among women.

Anoop Shankar; Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein

2004-01-01

21

Interpreting the Complete Blood Count in Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent complications of anorexia nervosa. The complete blood count provides useful information to diagnose and characterize these findings. Anemia tends to be normocytic and normochromic. Leukopenia manifests as a deficiency of lymphocytes or neutrophils. Thrombocytopenia, if severe, may confer a bleeding risk. A careful history and physical examination should be performed to evaluate for other

Barbara S. Cleary; Jennifer L. Gaudiani; Philip S. Mehler

2010-01-01

22

Evaluation of an automatic platelet counting system utilizing whole blood  

PubMed Central

Technicon's newly developed platelet AutoCounter utilizes an electro-optical system which detects and counts particles by sensing the scattering of light which occurs when blood cells flow through the illuminated sensing chamber of a micro-optical system. The system utilizes whole blood collected into EDTA. Blood samples, which can be handled at the rate of 40 per hour, are diluted with 2M urea which in addition causes lysis of the erythrocytes. The haemolysate thus obtained is delivered to the particle counter after a two-minute reaction time, the cell count finally being displayed on a continuous chart recorder. An evaluation of this machine has been carried out in the Department of Haematology, the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, on hospital specimens from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases. The results of this evaluation are presented. Reproducibility studies indicate a coefficient of variation of 4% at any platelet level. The percentage drift per sample ranges from +0·4 to ?0·4% of the total count. Carry-over and departures from linearity are statistically significant; however, the magnitude of these deviations is not sufficient to cause concern in routine use. Acceptable agreement is noted between machine counts and the counts obtained by technicians using phase-contrast microscopy with the exception of two anomalous individuals. Discrepant counts were noted in patients with elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and also in patients with disturbance of immunoglobulins. A modification to the sampling probe which eliminates the former problem is described. The AutoCounter described in this paper provides a fast, reliable, and accurate service laboratory platelet counting system. Images

Rowan, R. M.; Allan, W.; Prescott, R. J.

1972-01-01

23

Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations  

SciTech Connect

The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions.

Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

1984-01-01

24

Comparison of blood counts in splenic, renal and mesenteric arterial and venous blood in post-pubertal rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare blood counts between arterial and venous blood to and from visceral organs and indirectly look into the function of the organs.Methods: Splenic, renal and superior mesenteric arterial and venous blood samples were obtained from the arteries and veins in 38 post-pubertal rabbits and blood profile, including complete and differential blood counts, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, were measured

Z.-W. Yang; J.-A. Li; M.-H. Yang; Y.-S. Feng; Z. Tang; X.-S. Dai; H.-Y. Wang; Q.-Q. Yin; Y. Gao; J. Li; X.-L. He; Y. Zhang; Q. An

2005-01-01

25

Peripheral blood counts in workers exposed to synthetic fibres.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile is an intermediary with possible adverse health effects in the synthesis of organic products, such as acrylic fibres. This investigation was undertaken to determine the possible changes in the peripheral blood counts in workers of a polyacrylic fibres plant. The study involved 218 workers exposed to acrylonitrile at low doses and a control group of 200 unexposed workers. The chosen subjects underwent blood tests in order to check their haematological parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the red blood cells, haemoglobin and total number of leukocytes. An increase in the neutrophils associated with a reduction of lymphocytes, both statistically significant, was observed. The authors hypothesized that the neutrophils are influenced by the exposure to acrylonitrile at low doses. PMID:24171413

Caciari, Tiziana; Casale, Teodorico; Loreti, Beatrice; Schifano, Maria P; Capozzella, Assunta; Scala, Barbara; De Sio, Simone; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria V; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

26

Changes in CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood after whole blood donation.  

PubMed

AIM: We aimed to investigate the change in the number of stem cells and white cells in the early period following blood donation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 22 male (71%) and 9 female (29%), 31 volunteers in total were included in the study. 450ml of whole blood were collected from each of the volunteers for the donation. Complete blood counts were performed on the volunteers before and at 6 and 24h after the donation and CD34+ cell counts per ml of peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry technique. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the number of CD34+ cells, compared to 6h (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, there was a decrease in the number of leukocytes, which was statistically significant compared to 6h (p<0.001). When the difference in CD34+ cell and leukocytes counts before blood donation and at 24h after blood donation were compared, the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: As the result of this study, a transient increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood after blood donation was demonstrated, with a decline in CD34+ cell counts back to levels prior to donation at 24h. PMID:23683897

Pala, Cigdem; Mumcuoglu, Haluk; Kurnaz, Fatih; Sivgin, Serdar; Kaynar, Leylagul; Keklik, Muzaffer; Akyol, Gulsah; Koker, Yavuz; Eser, Bulent

2013-05-14

27

Effect of Streess on Blood Leucocyte and Milk Somatic Cell Counts in Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood and milk samples from Holstein cows were examined for total blood leucocyte count, differential blood leuco- cyte count, milk quality test, and somatic cell count in milk while the cows were stressed by corticotropin injection, con- finement in a heat-humidity chamber, or environmental-heat stress by exposure during the hot summer months of June through November in southern Arizona. All

T. N. Wegner; J. D. Schuh; F. E. Nelson; G. H. Stott

1976-01-01

28

Counting!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice matching number objects to numerals To play a game counting fish in the sea, click Fishy Count. Count the fish and click the right number! To play a game counting shapes, click Counting Game. Count the number of shapes and click the right number! Practice numbers 1-10! Click How Many? (0-10). Count the objects and choose the ...

Draper, Ms.

2006-11-07

29

Increased reticulocyte count from cord blood samples using hypotonic lysis.  

PubMed

Human reticulocytes are one of the fundamental components needed to study the in vitro invasion processes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Additionally examinations of reticulocytes and their binding proteins are difficult in areas of the world that do not have access to advanced equipment or stem cell lines. These issues are particularly relevant to malaria vaccine candidate studies that are directed against surface proteins that the parasites use to gain entry into erythrocytes. Described here is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the reticulocyte count of cord blood samples. Exposure of cord blood to hypotonic saline (0.2%) for 5 min selectively lyses the non-reticulocytes resulting in an average 3.6-fold increase in reticulocyte count. Our studies show that this enrichment process does not damage the hemoglobin of the remaining erythrocytes which are still capable of supporting Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth. This economical and rapid method of enrichment could facilitate studies of in vitro laboratory culturing of other malaria parasite species which preferentially invade reticulocytes such as P. vivax. PMID:22841523

Grimberg, Brian T; Scheetz, Emily A; Erickson, John J; Bales, Jacquelyn M; David, Makindi; Daum-Woods, Kathleen; King, Christopher L; Zimmerman, Peter A

2012-07-25

30

Decreased blood dendritic cell counts in type 1 diabetic children.  

PubMed

In this study DC numbers, phenotype and DC responses to the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 ligand, poly I:C, were examined in new-onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (ND) and in established T1D patients (ED). Absolute blood myeloid DC (MDC) and plasmacytoid DC (PDC) numbers were decreased in ND and ED patients compared to age-matched controls. The decrease in MDC and PDC counts was less evident in patients with a combination of T1D and coeliac disease (CD) or CD alone. The age-dependent decline in blood DC numbers, found in control children, was not evident in ND patients, such that 2-10 years old ND children had similar MDC and PDC numbers to 15-17 years old controls. In ED patients the t-score of MDC and PDC numbers related to the age of diagnosis but not to disease duration. Blood DC in T1D patients were not distinguished from those of controls by the levels of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 expression or the percentage of DC expressing cytokines, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, in responses to poly I:C. If low DC numbers are shown to contribute to the autoimmunity in T1D, interventions aimed to increase DC numbers may mitigate against beta-cell loss. PMID:17462956

Vuckovic, Slavica; Withers, Geoff; Harris, Mark; Khalil, Dalia; Gardiner, Damien; Flesch, Inge; Tepes, Sonia; Greer, Ristan; Cowley, David; Cotterill, Andrew; Hart, Derek N J

2007-04-25

31

Peripheral blood leukocyte counts in welcome swallow nestlings.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether developmental trends in total leukocyte (WBC) and differential lymphocyte (PropL) counts in peripheral blood of altricial birds typically mirror the known ontogenetic increase in immunocompetence. We documented the development of leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers in peripheral blood of wild, altricial Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) nestlings. Nestlings had a mass-overshoot-recession growth profile. Hatchlings' mean WBC (7.94 x 10(9) cells/l) and PropL (0.65) were respectively 4x and approximately 1.7x the mean adult value. Both variables declined at a steady rate throughout nestling development and were 1.3x the mean adult value at fledging. Hatching WBC values that substantially exceeded those of adults could have reflected the parasite- and pathogen-rich nest environment of this species. The developmental declines in peripheral blood WBC and PropL were not inconsistent with an ontogenetic increase in specific immunocompetence; they are likely to have resulted mainly from an increase in the rate of leukocyte trafficking to vulnerable tissues and organs. PMID:19901398

Sindik, Antonette; Lill, Alan

2009-10-01

32

Smoking and the Differential White Blood Cell Count as Determined on a Technicon H6000 (trademark) Automated Blood Cell Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Technicon H6000(TM) automated blood cell analyzer was used to determine the effect of smoking on the differential white blood cell count and on platelet count. Approximately 3,000 apparently healthy individuals gave blood samples as part of an ongoing o...

F. C. Garland M. R. White G. M. Seal

1984-01-01

33

Low blood counts: immune mediated, idiopathic, or myelodysplasia.  

PubMed

Traditionally, cytopenias are classified as deficiency mediated, immune mediated, BM failure induced, renal, or idiopathic, with the latter including the so-called idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS). Clinical findings, symptoms, blood counts, BM findings, and other laboratory parameters are usually sufficient to reveal the type and cause of a marked cytopenia. However, in patients with chronic mild cytopenia, it may be a challenge for the physician to establish a correct diagnosis. In such patients, laboratory features and findings often reflect a diagnostic interface, so that criteria that are otherwise robust may hardly be applicable or are not helpful. Even if the BM is examined, the diagnosis often remains uncertain in these patients. In addition, more than one potential cause of cytopenia may be present, especially in the elderly. A myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or another BM disorder, but also an overt autoimmune or other inflammatory disease, may develop during follow-up in these patients. A key problem is that in an early phase of MDS, most laboratory and clinical signs are "nonspecific." One of the very few reliable peripheral blood parameters distinguishing between an early or "pre-phase" of MDS and most other causes of a mild cytopenia are the numbers of circulating colony-forming progenitor cells. In addition, flow cytometric and molecular investigations may sometimes assist in the delineation between clonal and reactive conditions underlying mild cytopenias. This review provides an overview of diagnostic approaches and algorithms for patients with mild unexplained cytopenia(s). PMID:23233623

Valent, Peter

2012-01-01

34

Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  

PubMed

Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca

2004-04-01

35

Use of the Complete Blood Cell Count in Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Late-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Diagnosis of late-onset sepsis can be challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for late-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. Objective We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete blood count and differential in late-onset sepsis in a large multicenter population. Study design Using a cohort of all infants with cultures and complete blood cell count data from a large administrative database, we calculated odds ratios for infection, as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values. Results High and low white blood cell counts, high absolute neutrophil counts, high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios, and low platelet counts were associated with late-onset sepsis. Associations were weaker with increasing postnatal age at the time of the culture. Specificity was highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 and >50,000/mm3 (>99%). Positive likelihood ratios were highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 (4.1) and platelet counts <50,000/mm3 (3.5). Conclusion No complete blood count index possessed adequate sensitivity to reliably rule out late-onset sepsis in this population.

Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

2012-01-01

36

Full counting statistics and the Edgeworth series for matrix product states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the full counting statistics of spin in matrix product states. In particular, we study the approach to a Gaussian distribution for magnetization. We derive the asymptotic corrections to the central limit theorem for magnetization distribution for finite but large blocks in analogy to the Edgeworth series. We also show how central limit theorem like behavior is modified for certain states with topological characteristics such as the AKLT state.

Shi, Yifei; Klich, Israel

2013-05-01

37

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

38

Use of the Complete Blood Cell Count in Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Early-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and its diagnosis remains challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for early-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete blood count and differential in early-onset sepsis in a large, multicenter population of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods Using a cohort of 166,092 neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis with cultures admitted to 293 neonatal intensive care units, we calculated odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic curves for complete blood cell count indices and prediction of a positive culture. We determined sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values from the complete blood cell count. Results Low white blood cell counts, low absolute neutrophil counts, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios were associated with increasing odds of infection (highest odds ratios: 5.38, 6.84, and 7.97, respectively). Specificity and negative predictive values were high (73.7–99.9% and >99.8%). However, sensitivities were low (0.3–54.5%) for all complete blood cell count indices analyzed. Conclusion Low white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratio were associated with increasing odds of infection, but no complete blood cell count-derived index possesses the sensitivity to rule out reliably early-onset sepsis in neonates.

Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

2012-01-01

39

Effects of increased white blood cell count on endothelin-induced vasoconstriction in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

It is known that administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is followed by an increase of white blood cell count. There is evidence from other vascular beds that an increase in white blood cell count impairs blood flow regulation especially in the microcirculation. Whether this also holds true for the ocular circulation is unknown. In the following study we investigated whether an increase in white blood cell count alters the endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction in humans. Neither granulocyte-colony stimulating factor nor endothelin-1 had any consistent effect on blood pressure, pulse rate or intraocular pressure. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced a pronounced increase in retinal white blood cell density (p < 0.01). Administration of endothelin-1 decreased choroidal (p < 0.01) and retinal blood flow (p < 0.01). The change in choroidal blood flow in response to endothelin-1 was not altered by pre-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. By contrast, the decrease in retinal blood flow was more pronounced during an increase in white blood cell count (p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. Our data indicates that during pronounced vasoconstriction, as induced by administration of endothelin-1, vascular regulation can be altered by the number of circulating white blood cells. Whether this effect is caused by an interaction of red and white blood cells in the microcirculation or a yet unknown mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:22309805

Told, Reinhard; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard

2012-01-30

40

The association of fetal heart rate patterns with nucleated red blood cell counts at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fetal heart rate patterns and fetal nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Data were collected prospectively from March through September 2000. Umbilical cord blood was used for nucleated red blood cell analysis. The fetal heart rate pattern was analyzed for reactivity; presence, duration, and type of decelerations;

Asaf Ferber; Armando Grassi; Didem Akyol; Christopher O'Reilly-Green; Michael Y. Divon

2003-01-01

41

Time-integrated observables as order parameters for full counting statistics transitions in closed quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical behavior of many-body systems is often richer than what can be anticipated from their static properties. Here we show that in closed quantum systems this becomes evident by considering the statistics of time-integrated observables. In particular, the analytic properties of their generating functions, as estimated by full counting statistics (FCS), allow one to identify FCS phases, i.e., phases with specific fluctuation properties of time-integrated observables, and to locate transitions between these phases. We discuss in detail the case of the quantum Ising chain in a transverse field. We show that this model displays a continuum of full counting statistics transitions, of which the static transition is just an end point. These singularities are not a consequence of particular choices of initial conditions or other external nonequilibrium protocols such as quenches in coupling constants. They can be probed generically through quantum jump statistics of an associated open problem, and for the case of the quantum Ising chain we outline a possible experimental realization of this scheme by digital quantum simulation with cold ions.

Hickey, James M.; Genway, Sam; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.

2013-05-01

42

Size Distribution, Electronic Recognition, and Counting of Human Blood Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

distinguished. The largest cells were virtu- ally eliminated after phagocytosis of iron particles. We confirmed that these cells were monocytes by three different criteria: the intracellular lysozyme activity, the number of phagocytes, and the percentage of cells with kidney-shaped nuclei. The highly significant correlations we found showed that monocytes could be recog- nized and counted by electronic sizing. For this

Hans Loos; Bep Blok-Schut; Bart Kipp; Rineke van Doom; Louis Meerhof

1976-01-01

43

Umbilical cord blood erythroblast count as an index of intrauterine hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of umbilical cord blood arterial pH, Apgar score, leucocyte count, and erythroblast count at delivery with the diagnosis of fetal distress in labour was studied prospectively in three groups of singleton pregnancies delivering at term vaginally (55 infants), by elective caesarean section (39 infants), or by emergency caesarean section for abnormal intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns (55 infants).

B Thilaganathan; S Athanasiou; S Ozmen; S Creighton; N R Watson; K H Nicolaides

1994-01-01

44

System-level training of neural networks for counting white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because

Nipon Theera-umpon; Paul D. Gader

2002-01-01

45

Preprocedural white blood cell count and death after percutaneous coronary intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.

Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer

2003-01-01

46

Full dynamics of a red blood cell in shear flow  

PubMed Central

At the cellular scale, blood fluidity and mass transport depend on the dynamics of red blood cells in blood flow, specifically on their deformation and orientation. These dynamics are governed by cellular rheological properties, such as internal viscosity and cytoskeleton elasticity. In diseases in which cell rheology is altered genetically or by parasitic invasion or by changes in the microenvironment, blood flow may be severely impaired. The nonlinear interplay between cell rheology and flow may generate complex dynamics, which remain largely unexplored experimentally. Under simple shear flow, only two motions, “tumbling” and “tank-treading,” have been described experimentally and relate to cell mechanics. Here, we elucidate the full dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow by coupling two videomicroscopy approaches providing multidirectional pictures of cells, and we analyze the mechanical origin of the observed dynamics. We show that contrary to common belief, when red blood cells flip into the flow, their orientation is determined by the shear rate. We discuss the “rolling” motion, similar to a rolling wheel. This motion, which permits the cells to avoid energetically costly deformations, is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight a hysteresis cycle and two transient dynamics driven by the shear rate: an intermittent regime during the “tank-treading-to-flipping” transition and a Frisbee-like “spinning” regime during the “rolling-to-tank-treading” transition. Finally, we reveal that the biconcave red cell shape is highly stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of stress-free shape and elastic buckling.

Dupire, Jules; Socol, Marius; Viallat, Annie

2012-01-01

47

Full dynamics of a red blood cell in shear flow.  

PubMed

At the cellular scale, blood fluidity and mass transport depend on the dynamics of red blood cells in blood flow, specifically on their deformation and orientation. These dynamics are governed by cellular rheological properties, such as internal viscosity and cytoskeleton elasticity. In diseases in which cell rheology is altered genetically or by parasitic invasion or by changes in the microenvironment, blood flow may be severely impaired. The nonlinear interplay between cell rheology and flow may generate complex dynamics, which remain largely unexplored experimentally. Under simple shear flow, only two motions, "tumbling" and "tank-treading," have been described experimentally and relate to cell mechanics. Here, we elucidate the full dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow by coupling two videomicroscopy approaches providing multidirectional pictures of cells, and we analyze the mechanical origin of the observed dynamics. We show that contrary to common belief, when red blood cells flip into the flow, their orientation is determined by the shear rate. We discuss the "rolling" motion, similar to a rolling wheel. This motion, which permits the cells to avoid energetically costly deformations, is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight a hysteresis cycle and two transient dynamics driven by the shear rate: an intermittent regime during the "tank-treading-to-flipping" transition and a Frisbee-like "spinning" regime during the "rolling-to-tank-treading" transition. Finally, we reveal that the biconcave red cell shape is highly stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of stress-free shape and elastic buckling. PMID:23213229

Dupire, Jules; Socol, Marius; Viallat, Annie

2012-12-03

48

Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.

Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-11-15

49

Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.

Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm

2010-11-01

50

1/( N - 1) expansion approach to full-counting statistics for the SU( N) Anderson model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a recently developed 1/( N - 1) expansion to the full-counting statistics for the N-fold degenerate Anderson impurity model in the Kondo regime. This approach is based on the perturbation theory in the Coulomb interaction U and is different from the conventional large- N theories, such as the usual 1/ N expansion and non-crossing approximation. We have confirmed that the calculations carried out up to order 1/( N - 1)2 agree closely with those of the numerical renormalization group at N = 4, where the degeneracy is still not so large. This ensures the applicability of our approach for N ? 4. We present the results of the cumulants of the probability distribution function for a nonequilibrium current through a quantum dot in the particle-hole symmetric case.

Oguri, Akira; Sakano, Rui

2013-08-01

51

Trajectory phase transitions, Lee-Yang zeros, and high-order cumulants in full counting statistics.  

PubMed

We investigate Lee-Yang zeros of generating functions of dynamical observables and establish a general relation between phase transitions in ensembles of trajectories of stochastic many-body systems and the time evolution of high-order cumulants of such observables. This connects dynamical free energies for full counting statistics in the long-time limit, which can be obtained via large-deviation methods and whose singularities indicate dynamical phase transitions, to observables that are directly accessible in simulation and experiment. As an illustration, we consider facilitated spin models of glasses and show that from the short-time behavior of high-order cumulants, it is possible to infer the existence and location of dynamical or "space-time" transitions in these systems. PMID:23414009

Flindt, Christian; Garrahan, Juan P

2013-01-28

52

Modifications of some acute phase proteins and the white blood cell count in thoroughbreds during training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum haptoglobin and the white blood cell count (WBC) were assessed in 17 thoroughbreds. All horses were trained for 80 days, six days a week, with one day of rest per week. Blood samples were collected from each animal by jugular venepuncture, at 06.00, every 20 days for a period of 80 days, and

F. Fazio; A. Assenza; F. Tosto; S. Casella; G. Piccione; G. Caola

2010-01-01

53

Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

2013-01-01

54

Linear relationship between lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood and buffy coat collected during extracorporeal photopheresis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is commonly used to treat patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and lung transplant rejection (LTR) in our institution. The quantitative relationship between the number of white blood cells treated during ECP and the cell count in peripheral blood is unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with GVHD and LTR receiving ECP with either UVAR?XTS or CELLEX (Therakos) were prospectively recruited for this study. A complete cell count with differential was performed on preprocedural peripheral blood and samples from the collected buffy coats. Correlation analysis and linear regression were performed between cell counts in peripheral blood and buffy coat. Collection efficiency was compared between UVAR?XTS and CELLEX. RESULTS: In all 52 patients, lymphocyte counts in buffy coat and peripheral blood showed strong correlation (r values were 0.85 and 0.983 for UVAR?XTS and CELLEX, respectively; p?blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. CELLEX enriched approximately twice as many lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS per procedure (p?count can predict the number of lymphocytes within the buffy coat collected during ECP, which may justify the use of peripheral lymphocyte count as a surrogate for the cell dose treated per procedure. Peripheral monocyte counts may serve as an alternative. CELLEX is more efficient in collecting lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS under conditions tested. PMID:23414109

Liu, Chang; Shah, Kalpna; Dynis, Marian; Eby, Charles S; Grossman, Brenda J

2013-02-17

55

Effects of magnetic field and transverse anisotropy on full counting statistics in single-molecule magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have theoretically studied the full counting statistics of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) with an arbitrary angle between the applied magnetic field and the SMM's easy axis above the sequential tunneling threshold, since the angle ? cannot be controlled in present-day SMM experiments. In the absence of the small transverse anisotropy, when the coupling of the SMM with the incident-electrode is stronger than that with the outgoing-electrode, i.e., ?L/?R>>1, the maximum peak of shot noise first increases and then decreases with increasing ? from 0 to 0.5?. In particular, the shot noise can reach up to a super-Poissonian value from a sub-Poissonian value when considering the small transverse anisotropy. For ?L/?R<<1, the maximum peaks of the shot noise and skewness can be reduced from a super-Poissonian to a sub-Poissonian value with increasing ? from 0 to 0.5? the super-Poissonian behavior of the skewness is more sensitive to the small ? than shot noise, which is suppressed when taking into account the small transverse anisotropy. These characteristics of shot noise can be qualitatively attributed to the competition between the fast and slow transport channels. The predictions regarding the ?- dependence of high order current cumulants are very interesting for a better understanding of electron transport through SMM, and will allow for experimental tests in the near future.

Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Y.-H.; Li, Z.-J.; Liang, J.-Q.

2011-04-01

56

Vibrational cooling, heating, and instability in molecular conducting junctions: full counting statistics analysis.  

PubMed

We study current-induced vibrational cooling, heating, and instability in a donor-acceptor rectifying molecular junction using a full counting statistics approach. In our model, electron-hole pair excitations are coupled to a given molecular vibrational mode which is either harmonic or highly anharmonic. This mode may be further coupled to a dissipative thermal environment. Adopting a master equation approach, we confirm the charge and heat exchange fluctuation theorem in the steady-state limit, for both harmonic and anharmonic models. Using simple analytical expressions, we calculate the charge current and several measures for the mode effective temperature. At low bias, we observe the effect of bias-induced cooling of the vibrational mode. At higher bias, the mode effective temperature is higher than the environmental temperature, yet the junction is stable. Beyond that, once the vibrational mode (bias-induced) excitation rate overcomes its relaxation rate, instability occurs. We identify regimes of instability as a function of voltage bias and coupling to an additional phononic thermal bath. Interestingly, we observe a reentrant behavior where an unstable junction can properly behave at a high enough bias. The mechanism for this behavior is discussed. PMID:22824917

Simine, Lena; Segal, Dvira

2012-07-24

57

Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

58

Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

2011-03-01

59

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner

1999-01-01

60

Comparison of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count with differential in neonates at risk for septicaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively compared the diagnostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell counts for detection of neonatal septicaemia. Sensitivity and specifity in receiver operating characteristics, and positive and negative predictive value of CRP and white blood cell count were compared in 195 critically ill preterm and term newborns clinically suspected of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 33

Christoph Berger; Judith Uehlinger; Daniela Ghelfi; N. Blau; Sergio Fanconi

1995-01-01

61

Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

1999-11-01

62

White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation.

Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

2011-01-01

63

White Blood Cell Count and Mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC.

Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

64

Measurements on a full-field digital mammography system with a photon counting crystalline silicon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sectra Microdose is the first single photon counting mammography detector. An edge-on crystalline silicon detector is connected to application specific integrated circuits that individually process each photon. The detector is scanned across the breast and the rejection of scattered radiation exceeds 97% without the use of a Bucky. Processing of each x-rays individually enables an optimization of the information transfer

Mats Lundqvist; Mats Danielsson; Bjoern Cederstroem; Valery Chmill; Alexander Chuntonov; Magnus Aslund

2003-01-01

65

Haematological Alterations Observed in Equine Routine Complete Blood Counts. A Retrospective Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Results on more than 1000 complete blood counts (CBC) performed on hot-blooded horses, including Thoroughbred, Standardbred,\\u000a and Arabian, have been reviewed. All the data were processed and stored at the Laboratory of Haematology, Department Veterinary\\u000a Clinic, University of Pisa, over the last 2 years, and involved samples withdrawn from both inpatients and outpatients of\\u000a the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a ?The CBC is

A. GAVAZZA; A. J. DELGADILLO; B. GUGLIUCCI; A. PASQUINI; G. LUBAS

2002-01-01

66

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C. T.

2004-01-01

67

Subjective Poor Sleep and White Blood Cell Count in Male Japanese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to

Naoko NISHITANI; Hisataka SAKAKIBARA

2007-01-01

68

[Changes in blood cell counts and coagulation factors during labor and after delivery (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Hemostasis and blood cell counts were studied during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery in 76 women. Results were compared with data from a control group of 24 women. Previously published data are reviewed and the variations of studied factors are discussed. No reliable biologic test is available at present for assessing the risk of puerperal thromboembolism. PMID:6275526

Georges, A J; Georges, M C; Servantie, B; Le Brozec, M; Limouzin-Lamothe, M A

69

Assessing Coronary Blood Flow With TIMI Frame Count Method in Isolated Myocardial Bridging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital anomaly of coronary arteries and its functional significance remains controversial. Using the TIMI frame count (TFC) method, the authors investigated whether the coronary blood flow velocity is decreased in MB. The study included 18 patients (group 1; 12 men and 6 women; mean age 50 ±6 years) who had angiographically proven MB and otherwise

Irfan Barutcu; Alpay Turan Sezgin; Hakan Gullu; Muhsin Turkmen; Ali Metin Esen

2007-01-01

70

A Descriptive Evaluation of Routine Complete Blood Count Monitoring in Patients Receiving Anticoagulation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The most prevalent side effect associated with warfarin therapy is bleeding. Routine monitoring of laboratory tests, such as complete blood counts (CBC), may provide theoretical benefit in this patient population as a means of detecting occult bleeding through hemoglobin values that decrease compared to baseline.

Kandace V. Anich; Daniel M. Witt; Thomas Delate; Roberta L. Shanahan; Rachana J. Patel

2005-01-01

71

A laser light scattering in situ system for counting aggregates in blood platelet aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel system has been developed to evaluate biochemically induced blood platelet aggregation by means of a particle counting technique that uses light scattering. Variations in the particle size and concentration were measured by detecting the scattered light intensity and the number of particles, respectively, passing through a laser beam. The system is capable of performing sensitive, in situ continuous

T. Yamamoto; Y. Egawa; Y. Shirasawa; Y. Ozaki; K. Sato; Y. Yatomi; H. Kume

1995-01-01

72

Preoperative White Blood Cell Count and Risk of 30-Day Readmission after Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4–16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000–12,000 and >12,000?mm3) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%–12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000–12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery.

Brown, Jeremiah R.; Landis, R. Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Malenka, David J.; DiScipio, Anthony W.

2013-01-01

73

White blood cell count and endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor tone in middle-aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, the influence of higher WBC count on endothelin (ET)-1 vasoconstrictor activity is currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that adults with elevated WBC count demonstrate enhanced ET-1 system activity. Methods Thirty-four healthy adults were studied: 17 with WBC count < 5.0 × 109 cells/L (lower WBC; 9M/8F; age: 53 ± 2 yr) and 17 with WBC count > 5.0 × 109 cells/L (higher WBC; 10M/7F; 54 ± 3 yr). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-brachial infusion of ET-1 (5 pmol/min for 20 min) and selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123; 100 nmol/min for 60 min) were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Results The vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 was significantly blunted (?60%) in the higher WBC group versus the lower WBC group. The FBF responses to selective ETA receptor blockade were also significantly different (P < 0.05) between the groups. In the lower WBC group, resting FBF increased marginally (?5%) to BQ-123, whereas the increase in FBF to BQ-123 was significantly greater (?15%) in higher WBC group. Furthermore, there was a significant relation between WBC count and FBF response to ET-1 (r = ?0.43) and BQ-123 (r = 0.41). Conclusions Relative elevations in WBC count in middle-aged and older adults, independent of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, are associated with enhanced ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. Elevated ET-1 system activity may be a mechanism linking higher WBC count with increased cardiovascular risk.

Diehl, Kyle J.; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

74

Measurements on a full-field digital mammography system with a photon counting crystalline silicon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sectra Microdose is the first single photon counting mammography detector. An edge-on crystalline silicon detector is connected to application specific integrated circuits that individually process each photon. The detector is scanned across the breast and the rejection of scattered radiation exceeds 97% without the use of a Bucky. Processing of each x-rays individually enables an optimization of the information transfer from the x-rays to the image in a way previously not possible. Combined with an almost absence of noise from scattered radiation and from electronics we foresee a possibility to reduce the radiation dose and/or increase the image quality. We will discuss fundamental features of the new direct photon counting technique in terms of dose efficiency and present preliminary measurements for a prototype on physical parameters such as Noise Power Spectra (NPS), MTF and DQE.

Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats; Cederstroem, Bjoern; Chmill, Valery; Chuntonov, Alexander; Aslund, Magnus

2003-06-01

75

Advanced technique in liquid scintillation counting to compute radionuclide activity using full energy spectrum analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation research in the area of characterizing the pulse-height energy distribution spectra of different beta particle and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides has resulted in a new technique developed to compute dual-label radionuclide activity (dpm). Improved statistical precision and enhanced radionuclide separations for dual-labeled measurements are significant attributes of this technique. A liquid scintillation counting technique to computer radionuclide activity using

De Filippis

1985-01-01

76

Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity – impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation – are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state.

Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

2012-01-01

77

Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice  

PubMed Central

A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.

Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2012-01-01

78

Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.?METHODS—The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking.?RESULTS—Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation.?CONCLUSIONS—Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.??

Jensen, E. J.; Pedersen, B.; Frederiksen, R.; Dahl, R.

1998-01-01

79

Evaluation of white blood cell count as a possible prognostic marker for oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction There seems to be increasing evidence that inflammation leads to cancer. For several cancers, an association with white blood cell (WBC) count has been reported. So far, no studies have been performed for cancer of the oral cavity and WBC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to look at whether WBC count can be used as a prognostic marker for recurrence or metastases for oral cancer. Material and methods For 278 patients with oral cancer, the preoperative WBC count was compared with the clinicopathological information: age, gender, T-status, N-status, recurrence, metastases, follow-up time, and time till recurrence or metastases appeared. Results Out of 278 patients, 48 developed recurrence, 24 second tumors, 46 cervical metastases, and 14 distant metastases. The mean follow-up time was 35.97 months (range: 12-107 months). Significant Pearson correlation at the 0.05 level could be found for the T-status (0.046), but not for the N status (0.121). No significant correlation could be found between WBC count and the development of recurrence or metastases. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that elevated WBC count does not seem to be a predictor for recurrence or for further metastases. Further research is recommended to investigate the WBC count in precancerous lesions and in HPV positive patients with oral SCC.

2011-01-01

80

Full-field images of mammographic phantoms obtained with a single photon counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the use of digital radiographic equipment in the morphological imaging field is becoming largely diffuse, the research of new and more performing devices from public institutions and industrial companies is in constant progress. Many of these devices are based on solid-state detectors as X-ray sensors. Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed in the high energy physics environment, have been then proposed as digital detector for medical imaging applications. In this paper a digital single photon counting device, based on silicon and GaAs pixel detectors, is presented. The detector is a thin slab of semiconductor crystal equipped with an array of 64 by 64 square contacts, 170-?m side. The data read-out is performed by a VLSI integrated circuit named Photon Counting Chip (PCC), developed within the MEDIPIX collaboration. Each chip cell geometrically matches the sensor pixel. It contains a charge preamplifier, a threshold comparator and a 15 bits pseudo-random counter and it is coupled to the detector by means of bump-bonding. Most important advantages of such a system, with respect to a traditional X-rays film/screen device, are the wider linear dynamic range (3x104) and the higher performance in terms of MTF and DQE. Electronics read-out performance as well as imaging capabilities of the digital device will be presented. Images of mammographic phantoms acquired with a standard mammographic tube will be compared with radiographs obtained with traditional film/screen systems.

Amendolia, Salvator R.; Bisogni, Maria G.; Delogu, Pasquale; Fantacci, Maria E.; Linsalata, Stefania; Novelli, Marzia; Quattrocchi, Mariagrazia; Rosso, Valeria; Stefanini, Arnaldo; Zucca, Sergio

2003-06-01

81

A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology.

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

82

Elevation of white blood cells and platelet counts in patients having chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Many risk factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and infection. Furthermore, systemic inflammatory responses to periodontal bacteria have been suggested as a pathogenetic link between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis and 50 patients with healthy periodontium were included in this study. Oral hygiene status, pocket probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. During clinical evaluation, venous blood samples were taken to analyze the WBC and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was utilized to compare differences across groups. Results Periodontitis patients demonstrated a significantly higher WBC count (7.22 ± 1.42 × 109 cells/L) than that of control patients (5.64 ± 1.56 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). The platelet count of patients with chronic periodontitis (290.73 ± 56.56 × 109 cells/L) was also significantly higher compared to the healthy group (223.37 ± 50.27 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). Conclusion Levels of WBCs and platelets are elevated in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls.

Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01

83

Variation in blood leucocytes, somatic cell count, yield and composition of milk of crossbred goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,

Mainak Das; Mahendra Singh

2000-01-01

84

Fatigue, serum cytokine levels, and blood cell counts during radiotherapy of patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the level of fatigue during the course of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer patients and its relation to anxiety, depression, serum cytokines, and blood count levels.Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients who received adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery were prospectively studied. All patients underwent RT without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients rated their fatigue with two standardized self-assessment instruments,

Hans Geinitz; Frank B Zimmermann; Peter Stoll; Reinhard Thamm; Walter Kaffenberger; Kai Ansorg; Monika Keller; Raymonde Busch; Dirk van Beuningen; Michael Molls

2001-01-01

85

The value of white blood cell counts before revision total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from

J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman

2003-01-01

86

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who

Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon

1997-01-01

87

Full-counting statistics of heat transport in harmonic junctions: Transient, steady states, and fluctuation theorems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of heat transferred in a given time interval tM, through a finite harmonic chain, called the center, which is connected to two heat baths, the left (L) and the right (R), that are maintained at two temperatures. The center atoms are driven by external time-dependent forces. We calculate the cumulant generating function (CGF) for the heat transferred out of the left lead, QL, based on the two-time quantum measurement concept and using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The CGF can be concisely expressed in terms of Green's functions of the center and an argument-shifted self-energy of the lead. The expression of the CGF is valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. We consider three initial conditions for the density operator and show numerically, for a one-atom junction, how their transient behaviors differ from each other but, finally, approach the same steady state, independent of the initial distributions. We also derive the CGF for the joint probability distribution P(QL,QR), and discuss the correlations between QL and QR. We calculate the CGF for total entropy production in the reservoirs. In the steady state we explicitly show that the CGFs obey steady-state fluctuation theorems. We obtain classical results by taking ??0. We also apply our method to the counting of the electron number and electron energy, for which the associated self-energy is obtained from the usual lead self-energy by multiplying a phase and shifting the contour time, respectively.

Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

2012-05-01

88

Leucocyte Blood Picture in Healthy Full-term and Premature Babies During Neonatal Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial leucocyte counts were done on 15 full-term babies during the first 10 days of life and on 14 prematures during the first 30 days. In addition a single count was done on the total of 53 babies around the 96th hour of life. Absolute values of each cell type are given for each postnatal age examined. The main changes

M. Xanthou

1970-01-01

89

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition.

2011-01-01

90

Operating characteristics of full count and binomial sampling plans for green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in potato.  

PubMed

Counts of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields were used to evaluate the performance of the sampling plan from a pest management company. The counts were further used to develop a binomial sampling method, and both full count and binomial plans were evaluated using operating characteristic curves. Taylor's power law provided a good fit of the data (r2 = 0.95), with the relationship between the variance (s2) and mean (m) as ln(s2) = 1.81(+/- 0.02) + 1.55(+/- 0.01) ln(m). A binomial sampling method was developed using the empirical model ln(m) = c + dln(-ln(1 - P(T))), to which the data fit well for tally numbers (T) of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Although T = 3 was considered the most reasonable given its operating characteristics and presumed ease of classification above or below critical densities (i.e., action thresholds) of one and 10 M. persicae per leaf, the full count method is shown to be superior. The mean number of sample sites per field visit by the pest management company was 42 +/- 19, with more than one-half (54%) of the field visits involving sampling 31-50 sample sites, which was acceptable in the context of operating characteristic curves for a critical density of 10 M. persicae per leaf. Based on operating characteristics, actual sample sizes used by the pest management company can be reduced by at least 50%, on average, for a critical density of 10 M. persicae per leaf. For a critical density of one M. persicae per leaf used to avert the spread of potato leaf roll virus, sample sizes from 50 to 100 were considered more suitable. PMID:16813341

Kabaluk, J Todd; Binns, Michael R; Vernon, Robert S

2006-06-01

91

Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and

Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv

2008-01-01

92

Epidemiology of White Blood Cell Counts at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California 1982-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, conducted an NWC-wide surveillance program to determine the prevalence in the NWC work force of low white blood cell (WBC) counts during 1982-83. A complete WBC count was performed on 3,012 NWC employees. If a person ...

F. C. Garland M. R. White G. M. Seal G. A. Luiken

1987-01-01

93

Clinical Value of the Total White Blood Cell Count and Temperature in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in

Taylor Cardall; Judd Glasser; David A. Guss

2004-01-01

94

Effect of revascularization on mortality associated with an elevated white blood cell count in acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured

Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol

2003-01-01

95

Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans.

Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei

2013-01-01

96

Proposed reference method for peripheral-blood monocyte counting using fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry using fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies has been proposed as a possible new reference method to evaluate the monocyte counting performance of automated hematology analyzers. Since in previous studies only one such technique was applied, we investigated how different flow cytometric techniques compared to the manual differential and a hematology analyzer. Relative monocyte counts of 60 samples of the daily routine were determined on a Coulter Profile II flow cytometer after incubation with two different CD45-FITC/CD 14-PE antibody combinations and subsequent preparation with two whole-blood lysis techniques, including one no-wash technique. Results were compared to those of a 600-cell manual differential and to those of the Coulter STKS hematology analyzer. All flow cytometric methods correlated very well with the manual differential (r > or = 0.925) and none showed a significant bias. The Coulter STKS relative monocyte counts were slightly higher than those of the manual differential (8.76% vs. 8.18%). The correlations between the methods employing monoclonal antibodies were excellent (r > or = 0.995) and the mean monocyte counts identical although a small, non-systematic influence of sample preparation techniques was noted. An influence of the antibody clones was not observed. The precision of the Profile II results was far superior to that of the manual differential and the STKS. Our data show that flow cytometry employing fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies is a potentially ideal new reference method for monocyte counting. However, they also show that establishing a new reference method will require extensive investigation and exact definition of the sample preparation procedure to be used. PMID:8809484

Hübl, W; Tlustos, L; Erath, A; Andert, S; Bayer, P M

1996-03-15

97

Analysis of the Optimal Blood Sampling Conditions for Estimation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Count by the SE9000 Automated Hematolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the optimal conditions for blood sampling for hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) as estimated by the immature information program of the SE-9000 automated hematology analyzer. The HPC count was most stable when the blood samples were incubated at room temperature with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium (EDTA-2K) as an anticoagulant. The HPC count should, however, be measured within 4 h after

Tsutomu Nomura; Yoshitsugu Kubota; Natsumi Baba; Katsuyasu Saigo; Hiroaki Ohnishi; Akira Kitanaka; Tomohiko Taminato

2004-01-01

98

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir

2013-06-20

99

Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9?years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese.

2013-01-01

100

Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449

Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

2012-07-31

101

Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men. Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years) were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years) were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group. Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC) (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/?l, p = 0.03), and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/?l, p = 0.01) was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group. Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.

Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Faraut, Brice; Stenuit, Patricia; Esposito, Maria Jose; Dyzma, Michal; Brohee, Dany; Ducobu, Jean; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam

2008-01-01

102

Effect of platelet count and hematocrit on the coagulability of heparinized blood.  

PubMed

The coagulability of heparinized blood is shown to be a function of platelet and red cell concentrations. Thrombelastrographic tests were conducted on celite-activated fabricated whole blood samples with heparin concentrations ranging from zero to 1.46 units per ml of plasma, hematocrits from zero to 50% and platelet counts from zero to 300,000/mm3. The thrombelastograph provides three useful parameters of coagulability in native and heparinized blood: clot time, rate of clot stiffening and final clot stiffness. Of these, only the clot time is determined with the common clotting tests, while the rate and final clot stiffness are measures of clot quality that are found to be particularly sensitive to thrombocytopenia. The test results indicate (i) increases of platelet concentration produce the expected decrease in clot time, increase in rate of stiffening, and increase in final stiffness; (ii) increases of the red cell concentration from zero to 20% hematocrit, produce nonlinear increases in clotability, while further increases beyond 20% hematocrit produce no additional effects if the heparin concentration is less than 1.2 units/ml. Quantative relations are derived between the thrombelastographic variables, heparin concentration, and platelet concentration for those samples with hematocrits greater than 20%. These data indicate further experiments for the study of possible interaction between cellular blood elements and heparin. PMID:694229

Ramstack, J M; Zuckerman, L; Mockros, L F; Caprini, J A; Vagher, J P

1978-08-01

103

Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median

JOHN WAIN; VO ANH HO; AMANDA M. WALSH; NGUYEN THI; TUYET HOA; CHRISTOPHER M. PARRY; NICHOLAS J. WHITE

1998-01-01

104

Blood cell counts and their correlation with creatine kinase and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

This study reports differential blood cells counts and their correlations with creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and normal subjects. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all 39 AMI patients and 35 controls for blood cell counts and CK and CRP analyses. Total WBC, WBC fractions, RBC and platelets were measured with an automated hematology analyzer. The results showed a significant increase in total WBC (8.688 × 109/L versus 6.148 × 109/L), monocytes (1.271 versus 0.497 × 109/L), and neutrophils (8.367 versus 3.223 × 109/L) counts in AMI patients than controls. The RBC count was significantly less in AMI patients (4.638 × 1012/L) as compared to controls (5.105 × 1012/L). However, there was no significant difference in lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelet counts between AMI patients and controls. Both, serum CK (215.38 ± 43.15 versus 100.82 ± 8.86 U/L) and CRP (29.49 ± 7.61 versus 3.48 ± 0.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in AMI patients as compared to controls. Age of the subjects was neither correlated with blood cell counts nor CK indicating the validity of these markers irrespective of patient age. A significant correlation was observed between WBC counts and CK (R = 0.242, P = 0.041) as well as CRP (R = 0.416, P = 0.000). In conclusion, this study clearly showed significant increase in total and differential leukocyte counts indicating a pro-inflammatory cascade in AMI patients. A significant correlation between WBC counts and CK or CRP levels suggest a possible biomarker value of WBC for a quick prediction of both myocardial necrosis and inflammation in AMI patients.

Khan, Haseeb A; Alhomida, Abdullah S; Sobki, Samia H; Moghairi, Abdulrahman Al; Koronki, Hatim EL

2012-01-01

105

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks ...

106

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2011-04-01

107

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians ...ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a...

2013-04-01

108

A MEMS Complete Blood Count Sensor with Vanes for Reduction in Influence of Electrolysis Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a miniature complete blood count (CBC) analyzer for point-of-care testing (POCT), a MEMS CBC sensor based on the impedance method is discussed. A novel MEMS CBC sensor that is fabricated through a simple photolithography process using SU-8 is realized. However, the fabricated sensor exhibits a noisy output signal due to electrolysis gas. The relationship between the noise and the gas is revealed through microscopic observation and finite element method (FEM) simulation. To solve the problem of electrolysis gas, an improved MEMS CBC sensor with vanes is developed. The improved sensor is unaffected by electrolysis gas. Moreover, the signal stability of the sensor and the signals detected for latex particles are successfully evaluated.

Tanabe, Rikiya; Hata, Seiichi; Shimokohbe, Akira

109

Short?term changes in the blood leucocyte and platelet count following different durations of high?intensity treadmill running  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short?term changes in the blood leucocyte count after exercise are known to be dependent on the intensity of exercise performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the duration of high?intensity exercise on changes in the leucocyte and platelet count during the early recovery period. On separate occasions following a standard warm?up, eight healthy subjects

Michael Gleeson; Andrew K. Blannin; Dean A. Sewell; Robert Cave

1995-01-01

110

Sensitivity and specificity of blood leukocyte counts as an indicator of mortality in horses after colic surgery.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative period to obtain an indicator of the outcome, and compare the obtained value to a validation population of horses. Fifty-three horses undergoing colic surgery were included in the descriptive part of the study. Total leukocyte counts were performed before, during and serially after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on the leukocyte counts of 45 of these horses to determine a cut-off value for the outcome. The results obtained were validated on a second set of 50 horses that underwent colic surgery in similar conditions. The kinetics of blood leukocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors during the first days. Non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count ?3.9×10(3)/mm(3) between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. This cut-off value was confirmed in the validation population. These results suggest that routine values of blood leukocyte counts can be used as an additional prognostic indicator after colic surgery alongside other predictors previously associated with the outcome. PMID:23939753

Salciccia, A; Sandersen, C; Grulke, S; de la Rebière de Pouyade, G; Caudron, I; Serteyn, D; Detilleux, J

2013-08-12

111

Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.METHODSThe study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six

Erik Juel Jensen; Bente Pedersen; Ruben Frederiksen; Ronald Dahl

1998-01-01

112

Association Between White Blood Cell Count, Epicardial Blood Flow, Myocardial Perfusion, and Clinical Outcomes in the Setting of Acute Myocardial Infarction A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 10 Substudy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Elevation of the white blood cell (WBC) count during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with adverse outcomes. We examined the relationship between the WBC count and angiographic findings to gain insight into this relationship. Results and Methods—We evaluated data from 975 patients in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 10A and 10B trials. Patients with a closed artery at

Hal V. Barron; Christopher P. Cannon; Sabina A. Murphy; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson

2010-01-01

113

Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis - a prospective, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections.

2013-01-01

114

Combining white blood cell count and thrombosis for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infraction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and TIMI risk score on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: WBC count and TIMI risk score were measured at the time of hospital admission in 70 patients with AMI. Echocardiogram was done on prior to discharge by a cardiologist and ejection fraction (EF) was determined according to the Simpson formula. Patients were stratified into tertiles (low and high) based on WBC count and TIMI risk score. Results: Patients with a high WBC count had a 5.0-fold increase in-hospital congestive heart failure and 2.2 increases in mortality compared with those with a low WBC count. Patients with a high TIMI risk score had a 10-fold increase in congestive heart failure presentation and mortality compared with those with a low TIMI risk score. When a combination of different strata for each variable was analyzed, a stepwise increase in mortality was seen. There were a few number of patients with a high WBC count and low TIMI risk score or with a low WBC count and high TIMI risk score. These patients had an intermediate risk, whereas those with a high WBC count and TIMI risk score had the highest risk. Conclusion: These findings suggested that a simple combination of WBC count and TIMI risk score might provide further information for predicting outcomes in patients with AMI.

Rohani, Atooshe; Akbari, Vahid; Moradian, Karim; Malekzade, Janmohammad

2011-01-01

115

Gender dimorphism in differential peripheral blood leukocyte counts in mice using cardiac, tail, foot, and saphenous vein puncture methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many animal models that investigate the pathology of various diseases, there is a need to monitor leukocyte counts and differentials. However, various researchers use a range of different techniques in male and female laboratory animals to collect such blood variable information. These studies are then compared to one another without consideration of the possibility that different bleeding sites

Diana C Doeing; Jessica L Borowicz; Elahé T Crockett

2003-01-01

116

Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the management of hypertension: A randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and hypertensive management particularly in the nonpharmacological technique is ambiguous and unclear. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of interval training program on WBC count and cardiovascular parameters in male hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 mmHg and 179 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 mmHg and 109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental (n=140; 58.90±7.35 years) group involved in an 8-week interval training (60-79% HR max reserve) program of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, while the age-matched controls hypertensive (n=105; 58.27±6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. Cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, and VO2 max) and WBC count were assessed. Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed a significant effect of the interval training program on VO2max, SBP, and DBP and WBC count at P<0.05 and VO2max is negatively related to the WBC count (r=–0.339) at P<0.01. Conclusions: It was concluded that the interval training program is an effective adjunct nonpharmacological management of hypertension and the therapeutic effect of exercise programs may be mediated through suppression of inflammatory (WBC count) reaction.

Lamina, S.; Okoye, C. G.

2011-01-01

117

Acute appendicitis: relationships between CT-determined severities and serum white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades. Results Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001). Conclusion CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.

Kim, H C; Yang, D M; Lee, C M; Jin, W; Nam, D H; Song, J Y; Kim, J Y

2011-01-01

118

A complementary mobile phase approach based on the peak count concept oriented to the full resolution of complex mixtures.  

PubMed

Situations of minimal resolution are often found in liquid chromatography, when samples that contain a large number of compounds, or highly similar in terms of structure and/or polarity, are analysed. This makes full resolution with a single separation condition (e.g., mobile phase, gradient or column) unfeasible. In this work, the optimisation of the resolution of such samples in reversed-phase liquid chromatography is approached using two or more isocratic mobile phases with a complementary resolution behaviour (complementary mobile phases, CMPs). Each mobile phase is dedicated to the separation of a group of compounds. The CMPs are selected in such a way that, when the separation is considered globally, all the compounds in the sample are satisfactorily resolved. The search of optimal CMPs can be carried out through a comprehensive examination of the mobile phases in a selected domain. The computation time of this search has been reported to be substantially reduced by application of a genetic algorithm with local search (LOGA). A much simpler approach is here described, which is accessible to non-experts in programming, and offers solutions of the same quality as LOGA, with a similar computation time. The approach makes a sequential search of CMPs based on the peak count concept, which is the number of peaks exceeding a pre-established resolution threshold. The new approach is described using as test sample a mixture of 30 probe compounds, 23 of them with an ionisable character, and the pH and organic solvent contents as experimental factors. PMID:21782192

Ortín, A; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C

2011-06-30

119

Evaluation of the veterinary application of a point-of-care device measuring white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717

Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

2012-04-12

120

Effects of Exercise in Polluted Air on the Aerobic Power, Serum Lactate Level and Cell Blood Count of Active Individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. Methods: This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. Results: The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

2011-01-01

121

Complete blood count and acetylcholinesterase activity of lymphocytes of demyelinated and ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen that has many beneficial actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the complete blood count (CBC) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of lymphocytes of ovariectomized rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide (EB). Forty adult female Wistar rats (60 days, 200-220 g) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the demyelination phase and five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the remyelination phase. In each phase, the groups consisted of sham rats-G1; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated only with vehicle (ethanol 25%)-G2; demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated only with vehicle-G3; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated with resveratrol-G4; and demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol-G5. Only during the remyelination phase, CBC showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of monocytes between G2 and G5 groups. In the demyelination phase, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the AChE activity in the G4 group, while the G5 group was statistically similar to the G1, G2 and G4 groups. In the remyelination phase, there were no significant differences in the AChE activity among the groups. The treatment for 7 days with resveratrol with or without the experimental demyelization with EB appears to influence the AChE activity of lymphocytes, without changing the number of these cells in the circulation. However, in the remyelination phase, there seems to be stabilization in its effect on the lymphocyte AChE activity. PMID:22554002

Martins, Danieli B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli; Pagnoncelli, Marcielen; Maciel, Roberto M; Schmatz, Roberta; Oliveira, Lizielle; Morsch, Vera; Facco, Grasiela; Visentini, Diandra; Mann, Thais; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Lopes, Sonia T A

2012-05-04

122

Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi.

Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.

1998-01-01

123

Quantitative expression analysis in peripheral blood of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia: correlation between HMGA2 expression and white blood cell count.  

PubMed

The architectural transcription factor HMGA2 is highly expressed during embryogenesis but scarcely detectable in non-dividing adult cells. Previously, HMGA2 re-expression was detected in blood from CML patients by conventional RT-PCR, while blood samples from healthy volunteers were HMGA2 negative. Using the sensitive method of real-time quantitative RT-PCR, herein HMGA2 expression was detectable not only in peripheral blood from leukaemia patients but also in blood from healthy donors. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant correlation between white blood cell count and HMGA2 transcript levels. The results indicate that up-regulation of HMGA2 expression is correlated to the undifferentiated phenotype of leukaemic cells accumulating during progression of chronic phase to blast crisis. PMID:17917968

Meyer, B; Krisponeit, D; Junghanss, C; Murua Escobar, H; Bullerdiek, J

2007-10-01

124

Serum white blood cell count and differential do not have a role in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.  

PubMed

Serum white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil differential are frequently ordered during preoperative workup of suspected cases of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, their roles in diagnosis of PJI have remained unclear despite previous studies. In this study, preoperative serum WBC and neutrophil percentages were retrieved from hospital charts. The diagnostic cutoff point determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 7800 cells/?L with 55% sensitivity and 66% specificity for WBC count, whereas the cutoff value for neutrophil percentage was 68% with 52% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Our study confirms the long-held belief that serum WBC count and differential has minimal role in routine workup of patients with suspected PJI. PMID:22608690

Toossi, Nader; Adeli, Bahar; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Huang, Ronald; Parvizi, Javad

2012-05-17

125

Leucocyte Blood Picture in Healthy Full-term and Premature Babies During Neonatal Period  

PubMed Central

Serial leucocyte counts were done on 15 full-term babies during the first 10 days of life and on 14 prematures during the first 30 days. In addition a single count was done on the total of 53 babies around the 96th hour of life. Absolute values of each cell type are given for each postnatal age examined. The main changes in the leucocyte counts during the neonatal period were found to be as follows: (a) An increase in polymorphonuclear neutrophils after birth, reaching a peak at 12 hours, thereafter dropping to a figure which remains fairly constant from 72 hours onwards. (b) A decrease in polymorphonuclear neutrophil precursors. (c) A drop in lymphocytes reaching a minimum at 3 days of age, and thereafter rising to a steady level at about 10 days. The mean values ± 2SD for each cell type at 96 hours of life are as follows. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils: Mean = 4100/ cu.mm., M + 2SD = 6900/cu.mm., M - 2SD = 1400/cu.mm. Eosinophils: Mean = 700/cu.mm., M + 2SD = 1900/cu.mm., M - 2SD = 200/cu.mm. Lymphocytes: Mean = 3900/cu.mm., M + 2SD = 7100/cu.mm., M - 2SD = 2200/cu.mm. Monocytes: Mean = 1000/cu.mm., M + 2SD = 1800/cu.mm., M - 2SD = 200/ cu.mm. ImagesFig. 4

Xanthou, M.

1970-01-01

126

Full-field laser Doppler imaging and its physiological significance for tissue blood perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Monte Carlo simulations for a semi-infinite medium representing a skeletal muscle tissue, it is demonstrated that the zero- and first-order moments of the power spectrum for a representative pixel of a full-field laser-Doppler imager behave differently from classical laser-Doppler flowmetry. In particular, the zero-order moment has a very low sensitivity to tissue blood volume changes, and it becomes completely insensitive if the probability for a photon to interact with a moving red blood cell is above 0.05. It is shown that the loss in sensitivity is due to the strong forward scatter of the propagating photons in biological tissues (i.e., anisotropy factor g = 0.9). The first-order moment is linearly related to the root mean square of the red blood cell velocity (the Brownian component), and there is also a positive relationship with tissue blood volume. The most common physiological interpretation of the first-order moment is as tissue blood volume times expectation of the blood velocity (in probabilistic terms). In this sense, the use of the first-order moment appears to be a reasonable approach for qualitative real-time blood flow monitoring, but it does not allow us to obtain information on blood velocity or volume independently. Finally, it is shown that the spatial and temporal resolution trade-off imposed by the CMOS detectors, used in full-field laser-Doppler hardware, may lead to measurements that vary oppositely with the underlying physiological quantities. Further improvements on detectors' sampling rate will overcome this limitation.

Binzoni, T.; Van DeVille, D.

2008-12-01

127

White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism - The Troms? Study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer.

Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Braekkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

2013-01-01

128

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

2013-01-01

129

Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

PubMed Central

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ? 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10?12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ?20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad

2008-01-01

130

Finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 cell counting indicating their potential for use in CD4 rapid tests  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of finger-prick blood samples for CD4 counting. We estimated agreement between CD4 counts in paired finger-prick and venous samples from 110 HIV-infected Malawian adults. Bias was 6.6 cells/ul (limits of agreement ?50.7 and 63.7 cells/ul) for absolute counts and 0.71% (limits of agreement ?2.07% and 3.48%) for %CD4/lymphocyte suggesting that finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 counting.

MacLennan, Calman A.; van Oosterhout, Joep J. G.; White, Sarah A.; Drayson, Mark T.; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

2008-01-01

131

Count and heterogeneity of human fetal blood lymphocytes in the course of fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood specimens from 89 human embryos and fetuses were analyzed by immunological methods during gestation weeks 4–40. All\\u000a formed elements circulate in fetal blood starting from week 13 of gestation. Lymphocytes predominate among blood leukocytes,\\u000a because normally lymphocytosis is an inherent, feature of blood. T cells and their subpopulations: active T lymphocytes, T?\\u000a lymphocytes, and theophylline-sensitive and risistant, cells are

Z. S. Khlystova; R. M. Khairullin; G. T. Sukhikh

1998-01-01

132

Effect of total leucocyte count on whole blood filterability in patients with peripheral vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal filterability of whole blood through micropore membranes in vitro has been reported in peripheral vascular disease and has been thought to indicate abnormal red cell deformability. Blood from 68 patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease of varying severity and from 32 age-matched controls without a history of peripheral vascular disease was studied by the technique of whole blood

M J Alderman; A Ridge; A A Morley; R G Ryall; J A Walsh

1981-01-01

133

Decrease in white blood cell counts after thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension: A common complication  

PubMed Central

Background: Leucopenia has been reported after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. However, the incidence and characterisitics are not well described. Aims: We performed a retrospective review to describe the incidence and characteristics of leucopenia after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy. Setting and Design: Our centre is a national referral centre for neurotrauma and surgery in a tertiary medical institution. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients who received thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension during an 18 month period from January 2004 to June 2005 in our neurosurgical intensive care unit. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15.0. All data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). The Chi square test was used to analyze categorical data and student t test done for comparison of means. For paired data, the paired t-test was used. Results: Thirty eight (80.9%) out of 47 patients developed a decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count after induction of thiopentone barbiturate coma. The mean decrease in WBC from baseline to the nadir was 6.4 × 109/L (P < 0.001) and occurred 57 (3-147) h after induction. The mean nadir WBC was 8.6 ± 3.6 × 109/L. Three (6.4%) patients were leucopenic, with a WBC count of 2.8, 3.1, and 3.6 × 109/L. None of them were neutropenic. We did not find an association between decrease in WBC count and clinical diagnosis of infection. We did not find any association between possible risk factors such as admission GCS, maximum ICP prior to induction of barbiturate coma, APACHE II score, total duration and dose of thiopentone given, and decrease in WBC count. Conclusions: Decrease in WBC count is common, while development of leucopenia is rare after thiopentone barbiturate coma. Regular monitoring of WBC counts is recommended.

Ng, Shin Yi; Chin, Ki Jinn; Kwek, Tong Kiat

2013-01-01

134

Blood pressure and heart rate response to head-up position in full-term newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of heart rate (HR), systolic (sBP) and diastolic (dBP) blood pressure were studied in response to passive head-up tilting (successively to +45 ° and +90 °) in a group of 83 full-term, 1- to 7-day-old newborns who were quiet and awake. A significant mean increase of HR was noted for the whole group, from 121 ± 14 beats\\/min

Danusa Andrásyová; Eva Kellerová

1996-01-01

135

Variables associated with the platelet count 6 weeks after autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While abundant data exist documenting variables associated with early platelet engraftment after autologous PBPC transplantation, data concerning later sustained platelet engraftment is sparse. We retrospectively examined a series of 80 patients undergoing autologous PBPC transplantation with respect to their platelet count 6 weeks after transplant. Underlying diagnoses included breast cancer (n = 33), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n = 32), Hodgkin’s disease

B Bolwell; M Goormastic; S Andresen; A Koo; K Wise; B Overmoyer; B Pohlman; M Kalaycio

1998-01-01

136

The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction mortality in patients ?65 years of age: findings from the cooperative cardiovascular project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is

Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz

2001-01-01

137

[Effect of bethametasone on blood cell count and C-reactive protein in patients with threatened preterm delivery].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine changeableness of blood cells count, hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) within the peripheral blood of patients who received betamethasone during treatment of threatened preterm delivery. 65 patients at increased risk of preterm delivery received intramuscular injections of betamethasone 3 x 4 mg/day for fetal lung maturity and to decrease the risk of CNS trauma in newborns. RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, neutrophils count and CRP level were measured before treatment and on the 1th, 2nd and 7th days after first dose of betamethasone. The steroid administration caused a significant decrease in RBC, HGB and HCT: The lowest levels were noticed on 2nd day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 2nd day (p < 0.0001), before and Ist week (p < 0.05), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.006), 2nd day and Ist week (p < 0.005). The level of WBC and neutrophils were increased. Their peak levels were noticed on 1st day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 1st week (p < 0.0003), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.0001), 2nd day and 1st week (p< 0.001). After 3 days there was a significant decrease of WBC and neutrophils count. Conclusions: Intramuscular administration of 12 mg betamethasone per day caused decrease of the RBC, HGB and HCT account and elevation of the WBC and neutrophil count. All these parameters normalized after about 7 days. PMID:15537271

Nieweg?owska, Nikola; Niewiadomska-Kowalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Roszkowski, Piotr; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

138

White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

139

Relationship between baseline white blood cell count and degree of coronary artery disease and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.

Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson

2002-01-01

140

The effects of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on cell-mediated immunity, cortisol, and white blood cell count in healthy adult subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on cell-mediated immunity, cortisol, and white blood cell count was investigated in healthy adults under low-stress conditions. Fourteen subjects were trained with biofeedback-assisted relaxation for 4 weeks, while 17 subjects were controls. The group trained in relaxation techniques showed increased blastogenesis, decreased white blood cell count, due to decreased neutrophils, and no change in cortisol

Angele McGrady; Philip Conran; Douglas Dickey; Daniel Garman; Edmund Farris; Cathleen Schumann-Brzezinski

1992-01-01

141

White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

2013-03-01

142

White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2013-01-01

143

Normal limits of gated blood pool SPECT count-based regional cardiac function parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Computations of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) ejection fraction (EF) have been well\\u000a validated against other imaging modalities. As GBPS images depict the entire extent of both blood pools, it is possible to\\u000a compute not only global but also regional biventricular function parameters, which have the prospect of being clinically useful\\u000a for

Kenneth J. Nichols; Andrew Van Tosh; Pieter De Bondt; Steven R. Bergmann; Christopher J. Palestro; Nathaniel Reichek

2008-01-01

144

Effect of human splenic contraction on variation in circulating blood cell counts.  

PubMed

1. The human spleen sequesters 200-250 mL densely packed red blood cells. Up to 50% of this viscous blood is actively expelled into the systemic circulation during strenuous exercise or simulated apnoea (breath-hold) diving. The contribution of splenic contraction to changes in the circulating volume of red blood cells (RBCV), as well as the venous concentration of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT), was investigated following repeated breath-hold apnoeas. 2. Eighteen trained apnoea divers and 18 intact and six splenectomized subjects without diving experience repeated five maximal apnoeas with face immersion in cold water, with 2 min intervals between successive attempts. Venous blood samples were taken before and between consecutive apnoeas, as well as at 0, 10 and 20 min after the last breath hold. Arterial pressure, heart rate and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored continuously. 3. Plasma protein concentration decreased by 5.8, 2.2 and 9% in apnoea divers, untrained and splenectomized subjects, respectively, indicating an expansion of plasma volume. The RBCV and venous concentration of WBC, corrected for changes in plasma volume, increased in both trained apnoea divers (4.9+/-1.0 and 14.9+/-3.1%, respectively) and intact subjects (1.7+/-0.8 and 7.2+/-1.8%, respectively), whereas in splenectomized subjects there was no change in RBCV and a delayed increase in WBC concentration. Furthermore, an initial lymphocytosis detected during repeated breath holds in divers and intact subjects was completely absent in splenectomized subjects. None of the groups showed significant changes in PLT concentrations. The well-recognized diving response to apnoea (bradycardia and increased blood pressure) was seen during all breath-hold attempts in all subjects. 4. Repeated breath-holds (apnoeas) contribute to increased RBCV and venous blood concentrations of WBC through splenic contraction. PMID:16405451

Bakovi?, Darija; Eterovi?, Davor; Saratlija-Novakovi?, Zana; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Bilopavlovi?, Nada; Duji?, Zeljko

2005-11-01

145

Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.

Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

2012-01-01

146

Predictive value of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.

Marcelo A. Beltrán; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille

2007-01-01

147

Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve

1988-01-01

148

Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)|

Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

1984-01-01

149

A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  

PubMed

Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

2010-06-01

150

Phenotypic Immaturity of T and B Lymphocytes in Cord Blood of Full-Term Normal Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined mononuclear cell subsets in cord blood of normal newborns by surface marker analysis. The percentages of T lymphocytes (E-rosetting and T3+ cells) were lower in cord blood than in peripheral blood (PB) from adults, while the percentage and absolute number of T6+ cells were higher in cord blood. As the sum of T4+ and T8+ cells exceeded the

Giacomo Lucivero; Adriana Dell’Osso; Aldo Iannone; Luigi Selvaggi; Salvatore Antonaci; Silvio Bettocchi; Lorenzo Bonomo

1983-01-01

151

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

152

Cardiac Blood Flow Measurements in Stable Full Term Small for Gestational Age Neonates  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiac blood flow measurements are useful in the haemodynamic management of neonates. Cardiac blood flows can be estimated with functional echocardiography as follows; flow in Superior Vena Cava (SVC), Right Ventricular Outflow (RVO) and Left Ventricular Outflow (LVO). Studies in preterm infants have shown that abnormal superior vena cava flow is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. To date, normative data on LVO, RVO and SVC flows has been established for term appropriate for gestational age neonates and preterm neonates, but no data is available on RVO, LVO and SVC flows for term small for gestational age neonates. Objective: To determine Right Ventricular Output (RVO), Left Ventricular Output (LVO) and Superior Vena Cava (SVC) flow after the transitional period in stable full term Small for Gestational Age (SGA) neonates. Design: Observational study. Setting: A tertiary care, perinatal centre in western Maharashtra, India. Participants: Full term (37 to 41 weeks) small for gestational age (weight below 10th percentile for gestational age) infants who were born during the study period. Methods: RVO, LVO and SVC flows were measured by functional echocardiography on day 7 of life in stable full term SGA neonates from January 2011 to August 2011. Infants who required respiratory or cardiovascular support and intensive care unit admissions for any indication and those with a clinical suspicion of an infection within 48 hours after data collection were excluded from the study. Statistical Analyses: Unpaired t-test was used to compare SVC flow between symmetric and asymmetric SGA neonates. Main Outcome Measure: Measurements of RVO, LVO and SVC in term SGA neonates on day 7 of life. Results: We performed measurements in 52 term SGA neonates with a median (range) birth weight of 2.190 (1.600-2.410) kg. Fifty two measurements were analyzed on day 7. The mean (SD) RVO, LVO and SVC flows were 255.59 (57.42) , 214.61 (52.04) and 126.28 (31.23) mL/kg/min. Conclusion: This study provides RVO, LVO and SVC flow values in a cohort of stable term SGA neonates after the transitional period.

Banait, Nishant; Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Malshe, Nandini; Nagpal, Rema; Lalwani, Sanjay

2013-01-01

153

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (an analysis of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction [SOLVD])  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase

Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski

1999-01-01

154

An automated algorithm for blood vessel count and area measurement in 2-D choroidal scan images.  

PubMed

We present an automated algorithm for the detection of blood vessels in 2-D choroidal scan images followed by a measurement of the area of the vessels. The objective is to identify vessel parameters in the choroidal stroma that are affected by various abnormalities. The algorithm is divided into five stages. In the first stage, the image is denoised to remove sensor noise and facilitate further processing. In the second stage, the image is segmented in order to find the region of interest. In the third stage, three different contour detection methods are applied to address different challenges in vessel contour. In the fourth stage, the outputs of the three contour detection methods are combined to achieve refined vessel contour detection. In the fifth and final stage, the area of these contours are measured. The results have been evaluated by a practicing opthalmologist and performance of the algorithm relative to expert detection is reported. PMID:24110447

Mahajan, Nagaraj R; Donapati, Ravi Chandra Reddy; Channappayya, Sumohana S; Vanjari, Sivaramakrishna; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Chhablani, Jay

2013-07-01

155

Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.  

PubMed

A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew

156

Effect of Segmental Epidural Analgesia on Changes in Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Counts, Lymphocyte Subpopulations, and in vitro Transformation in Healthy Parturients and Their Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the peripheral blood leucocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulations, and in ‘in vitro’ responses of lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin and tuberculin after induced labour were investigated in 10 normal parturients and their newborns. Every other parturient was given segmental epidural analgesia at level T10–12 for pain relief during the first stage of labour. The remaining mothers served as controls. The results

Pauli Ryhänen; Riitta Jouppila; Marjatta Lanning; Pentti Jouppila; Arno Hollmén; Kauko Kouvalainen

1984-01-01

157

Effect of Therapy with Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid on Elderly Patients with Low Concentrations of Serum Vitamin B12 or Erythrocyte Folate but Normal Blood Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help understand the haematological significance of the low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate occurring in elderly patients, 17 acute admissions to a geriatric unit with a low concentration of serum vitamin B12 or erythrocyte folate but a normal blood count were treated with vitamin B12 and folic acid for 3 months. Bone marrow deoxyuridine supression was

J. H. Matthews; D. M. Clark; G. M. Abrahamson

1988-01-01

158

Effect of an Intramuscular Injection of Human Leukocyte Interferon on Blood Leukocyte Counts and Proportions of Lymphocytes Forming E, EA and EAC Rosettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an intramuscular injection of human leukocyte interferon blood leukocyte counts decreased in most patients as tested 24 h after the injection. This decrease comprised lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. 24 h after interferon injection, the proportion of lymphocytes forming E rosettes was increased in most patients, whereas the proportion of lymphocytes forming EA and EAC rosettes was not significantly changed.Copyright

Stefan Einhorn; Henric Blomgren; Hans Strander

1980-01-01

159

Development of a Prognostic Score Using the Complete Blood Cell Count for Survival Prediction in Unselected Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic scoring system for critically ill patients using the simple complete blood cell count (CBC). Methods. CBC measurements in samples from 306 patients in an intensive care unit were conducted with automated analyzers, including levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets. The time of sampling and the time of death were recorded. Z values were calculated according to the measured values, reference mean values, and standard deviations. The prognostic score was equivalent to the median of the Z value of each of the measured parameters. Results. There was a significant correlation between survival time and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet levels (P < 0.05). Prognostic scores were calculated from the Z value of these three parameters. Survival times decreased as the prognostic score increased. Conclusions. This study suggests that a model that uses levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets is potentially useful in the objective evaluation of survival time or disease severity in unselected critically ill patients.

Chongliang, Fang; Yuzhong, Li; Qian, Shi; Xiliang, Liu; Hui, Liu

2013-01-01

160

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... normal (microcytic); caused by iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias , for example. Indicates RBCs are larger than normal ( ... in conditions such as iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia. Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions ...

161

Complete blood cell count as a surrogate CD4 cell marker for HIV monitoring in resource-limited settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A total lymphocyte count (TLC) of 1200 cells\\/mL has been used as a surrogate for a CD4 count of 200 cells\\/microL in resource-limited settings with varying results. We developed a more effective method based on a decision tree algorithm to classify subjects.\\u000aMETHODS: A decision tree was used to develop models with the variables TLC, hemoglobin, platelet count, gender,

Ray Y. Chen; Andrew O. Westfall; J. Michael Hardin; Cassandra Miller-Hardwick; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; James L. Raper; Sten H. Vermund; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Jeroan J. Allison; Michael S. Saag

2007-01-01

162

Brief Exercise Increases Peripheral Blood NK Cell Counts without Immediate Functional Changes, but Impairs their Responses to ex vivo Stimulation.  

PubMed

Physical as well as psychological stress increases the number of circulating peripheral blood NK cells. Whereas some studies found a positive correlation between exercise and NK cell counts and cytotoxic activity, others showed that, for example, heavy training leads to a decrease in per cell NK cytotoxicity. Thus, the impact of exercise on NK cell function and eventually on altered immunocompetence remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether a single bout of brief exercise, consisting in running up and down 150 stair-steps, affects the number and function of circulating NK cells. NK cells, obtained from 29 healthy donors, before and immediately after brief exercise, were assessed for numbers, phenotype, IFN? production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, and in vitro response to stimulation with IL-2, IL-2/IL-12, or TLR2 agonists. Running resulted in a sixfold increase in the number of CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK cells, but decreased the frequency of CD56(bright) NK cells about twofold. Brief exercise did not significantly interfere with baseline IFN? secretion or NK cell cytotoxicity. In vitro stimulation with IL-2 and TLR2 agonists (lipoteichoic acid, and synthetic triacylated lipopeptide Pam3CSK4) enhanced IFN?-secretion, degranulation, and cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells isolated pre-exercise, but had less effect on NK cells isolated following exercise. There were no differences in response to combined IL-2/IL-12 stimulation. In conclusion, having no obvious impact on baseline NK functions, brief exercise might be used as a simple method to significantly increase the number of CD56(dim) NK cell available for in vitro experiments. Nevertheless, the observed impaired responses to stimulation suggest an alteration of NK cell-mediated immunity by brief exercise which is at least in part explained by a concomitant decrease of the circulating CD56(bright) NK cell fraction. PMID:23755049

Millard, Anne-Laure; Valli, Piero V; Stussi, Georg; Mueller, Nicolas J; Yung, Gisella Puga; Seebach, Jörg D

2013-05-29

163

What is the exact predictive role of preoperative white blood cell count for new-onset atrial fibrillation following open heart surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 30% patients on the second or third day post operation; therefore, it is the most prevalent and complicated arrhythmia after open heart surgery. White blood cell (WBC) count seems to be most significantly associated with cardiovascular disorders. This study was designed to evaluate the exact relationship between preoperative WBC count and post-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) AF in patients with severe left ventricle (LV) dysfunction who underwent elective off-pump coronary artery bypass. Methods: This study was conducted on 104 patients from among 400 patients with severe LV dysfunction undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery from February 2011 to February 2012, in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran. Patients with emergency surgery, unstable angina creatinine higher than 2.0 mg/dL, malignancy, or immunosuppressive disease were excluded. Preoperative serological tests of the participants, such as WBC counts, were saved in their medical dossiers. Of the 400 patients undergoing CABG, AF was found in 54 cases; these 54 male patients formed the experimental group and 60 other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay without postoperative AF were part of the control group. Results: The average age of the patients was 68.5±12.8 years. WBC counts in patients with and without AF three days before surgery were 12,340±155 and 8,950±170, respectively. On surgical day, WBC counts in the patients with and without AF were 13,188±140 and 9,145±255, respectively (P value three days before surgery: 0.04; P value on surgical day: 0.01). Of the 54 male patients with postoperative AF (POAF), duration of AF was more in cases with elevated WBC count (12,000-14,000) than in those with lower elevated WBC count (10,000-12,000) (]P=0.025), but there was no relationship between frequency of recurrence of AF and grading of elevation of WBC count (]P=0.81). Conclusion: These findings show that three days before surgery and on surgery day, there was a difference in WBC count between both groups. So, preoperative WBC count may predict the incidence and duration of AF; however, it cannot be a predictor of the frequency of recurrence of AF. Finally, WBC count is an independent marker for POAF and duration of AF.

Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil

2013-01-01

164

Crazy Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's count shapes and animals! Let's go to the farm to do some Apple Counting. Then let's have some Counting Fun with shapes and animals. Afterward let's grab a fishing pole and do some Fishy Counting! ...

Terch, Ms.

2010-01-27

165

Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

... Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Carb Counting Carbohydrate Counting Listen Carbohydrate counting, or " carb counting ," is ... the portion size to match. What Foods Have Carbohydrate? Foods that contain carbohydrate are: starchy foods like ...

166

Dynamics of Erythrocyte Count, Hemoglobin, and Catalase Activity in Rat Blood in Hypokinesia, Muscular Activity and Restoration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity inc...

G. V. Taneyeva G. M. Potapovich N. A. Voloshko A. B. Uteshev

1980-01-01

167

Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some specific atoms such as Fe and Zn were obtained from photon-counting calculations. An energy resolution of 220 eV at the Fe K? line was obtained from the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by the photon-counting method. The newly developed three-dimensional element mappings of the specific atoms were accomplished by the photon-counting method and a reconstruction technique using computed tomography.

Hoshino, Masato; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Yamada, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

2007-07-01

168

Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope.  

PubMed

A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some specific atoms such as Fe and Zn were obtained from photon-counting calculations. An energy resolution of 220 eV at the Fe Kalpha line was obtained from the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by the photon-counting method. The newly developed three-dimensional element mappings of the specific atoms were accomplished by the photon-counting method and a reconstruction technique using computed tomography. PMID:17672765

Hoshino, Masato; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Yamada, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

2007-07-01

169

Heterogeneous histochemical reaction pattern of the lectin Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia with blood vessels of human full-term placenta.  

PubMed

Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS-I) stains vascular endothelium in various species. In humans, less than 10% of the specimens studied exhibit a reaction with BS-I. In the present histochemical study, the reactivity of BS-I with placental blood vessels and its correlation with the blood group from mother and newborn child was investigated. Acetone-fixed cryosections of representative tissue segments of human full-term placenta and umbilical cord were stained with BS-I. The staining pattern of tissues from patients with different blood groups was identical, although the reaction of BS-I in the placenta was heterogeneous. BS-I did not react with the umbilical cord. Vascular smooth muscle cells at the insertion site of the umbilical cord into the chorionic plate, and endothelium deeper in the chorionic plate, became progressively stained. The endothelial cells and tunica muscularis of smaller arteries and veins in stem villi lost their reactivity in parallel with decreasing vessel size. Arterioles and venules reacted heterogeneously. Capillaries, trophoblastic basement membranes, especially epithelial plates, and sometimes the syncytiotrophoblast were labelled in several terminal villi. The data indicate that 1) the placenta binds BS-I to fetal endothelium independent of the blood group, 2) cell-surface antigens on placental endothelial cells are expressed heterogeneously and 3) cell-surface glycans are constituted in an organ-specific manner on human endothelial cells. PMID:7850854

Lang, I; Hahn, T; Dohr, G; Skofitsch, G; Desoye, G

1994-12-01

170

Differences in normal values for murine white blood cell counts and other hematological parameters based on sampling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: The effect of blood sampling site on the hemogram and neutrophil adhesion molecules was examined in BALB\\/c mice.¶Materials and methods: Blood samples were drawn from the tail, eye, and heart during anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. Cell numbers were quantified with an automated counter and flow cytometry was used to quantify CD11b and CD18.¶Results: Total white blood

J. A. Nemzek; G. L. Bolgos; B. A. Williams; D. G. Remick

2001-01-01

171

A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C. [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-09

172

White blood cell count in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in early middle age: coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study.  

PubMed

White blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Data are sparse regarding its association in young adults with future coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our study was conducted among coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) participants (n = 3,094). We examined the association between baseline (Y0) WBC counts and CHD risk factors using linear regression models. We further assessed prospective associations between Y0 WBC and inflammatory biomarkers during the follow-up, and the presence of CAC 15 and 20 years later. In total, 272 and 566 subjects had CAC scores >0 at year (Y) 15 and Y20, respectively. Baseline total WBC counts were cross-sectionally associated with SBP, BMI, and smoking, or HDL-cholesterol (p ? 0.01) at Y0, and prospectively associated with C-reactive protein at Y7, Y15, and Y20, and fibrinogen at Y5 and Y20 (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, baseline neutrophil count was borderline associated with CAC presence 15 years later (OR = 1.18 per unit, 95 % CI 1.00-1.44) and total WBC (OR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.96-1.19) or eosinophil (OR = 1.12, 95 %CI 1.00-1.25) was borderline associated with CAC presence at Y20. Baseline total WBC counts in young adults was associated prospectively with CAC presence 20 years later after adjusting for age, sex, and race. Results are attenuated when other risk factors are accounted for. Our results suggest the possible early involvement of WBC, particularly eosinophils, in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24030512

Hou, Lifang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Ning, Hongyan; Huffman, Mark D; Fornage, Myriam; He, Ka; Zhang, Xiao; Jacobs, David R; Goff, David C; Sidney, Steve; Carr, Jeffrey J; Liu, Kiang

2013-09-13

173

White blood-cell count and the risk of impaired fasting glucose or Type II diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   To investigate the association between white blood-cell (WBC) count and the development of diabetes, independent of cigarette\\u000a smoking. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   We examined 2953 Japanese men who were office workers and between 35 and 59 years of age and who did not have impaired fasting\\u000a glucose (IFG) (a fasting glucose concentration of 6.1–6.9 mmol\\/l), Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (a

N. Nakanishi; H. Yoshida; Y. Matsuo; K. Suzuki; K. Tatara

2002-01-01

174

Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

175

Flow cytometric leucocyte counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow cytometric method was evaluated for performing total leucocyte counts on bovine blood. Fifty blood samples from 19\\u000a healthy Holstein cows were analysed on a flow cytometer. The method involved diluting blood with either hypotonic or isotonic\\u000a saline solution, lysing the red blood cells, and performing a 2-parameter analysis on the basis of cell size and cellular\\u000a granularity. Leucocyte

C. J. Liu; M. J. Paape; R. R. Peters

1993-01-01

176

Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections. PMID:19919621

Mardi, D; Fwity, B; Lobmann, R; Ambrosch, A

2009-11-16

177

Monozygotic twins are discordant for chronic periodontitis: white blood cells counts and cytokine production after ex vivo stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of concordance in the number of leucocytes and their cytokine secretion after ex vivo stimulation in a twin population discordant for the amount of periodontal breakdown. Material and Methods: Venous blood was collected from 18 adult twin pairs (10 monozygotic and eight dizygotic twins). Each twin pair consisted of

G. L. Torres-de Heens; B. G. Loos; Velden van der U

2010-01-01

178

Effect of plateletpheresis on complete blood count values using three different cell separator systems in healthy donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate changes of CBC values after plateletpheresis in healthy and volunteer donors by using three different cell separator systems. The platelets were collected from 95 donors using the COBE Spectra, from 87 donors using the Fenwal CS-3000 Plus, and from 83 donors using the Fresenius AS-204. After plateletpheresis, white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin

Cengiz Beyan; Türker Çetin; Oral Nevruz

2003-01-01

179

Relationship Between Seminal White Blood Cell Counts and Oxidative Stress in Men Treated at an Infertility Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semen, granulocytes are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage sperm. The diagnosis of leukocytospermia is usually based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of 1 106 white blood cells per milliliter, but contro- versy remains over the minimum leukocyte level that impairs fertility. The goals of this study were to clarify the relationship between

RAKESH K. SHARMA; FABIO F. PASQUALOTTO; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL

2001-01-01

180

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

181

Platelet counts during normal pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven reports of platelet counts were found in the literature which reported a progressive increase, no change, or a progressive fall during pregnancy. The counts had been made using venous or capillary blood, with either simple dilution or red cell lysis prior to enumeration in a haemocytometer, with or without phase-contrast microscopy. It was therefore decided to examine whole blood

S A Sejeny; R D Eastham; S R Baker

1975-01-01

182

Autografting with blood progenitor cells: predictive value of preapheresis blood cell counts on progenitor cell harvest and correlation of the reinfused cell dose with hematopoietic reconstitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and nine patients suffering from various malignancies underwent 285 apheresis procedures for PBPC collection. A median of two leukaphereses (range: 2–5) resulted in median numbers of 4.6×108 MNC\\/kg, 14.1×104 CFU-GM\\/kg, and 6.0×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg. Preleukapheresis peripheral blood CD34+ cells correlated significantly with collected CD34+ cells\\/kg (r=0.94;pr=0.52;p4×104 CD34+ cells\\/ml was highly predictive for a collection yield >2.5×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg

N. Schwella; W. Siegert; J. Beyer; O. Rick; J. Zingsem; R. Eckstein; S. Serke; D. Huhn

1995-01-01

183

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2010-01-01

184

Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

PubMed Central

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10?8). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can result in false positive associations in GWAS.

Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J. David; Eaton, Charles B.; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F. A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J.; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A.; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R.; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Patel, Kushang V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A.; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Evans, Michele K.; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M.; Snively, Beverly M.; Wilson, James G.

2011-01-01

185

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

186

Reduced birth weight in relation to pesticide mixtures detected in cord blood of full-term infants  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to pesticides may be associated with decreased fetal growth. The specific pesticides investigated and results reported across studies have been inconsistent, and there is a mounting need for the consideration of mixtures rather than individual agents in studies of health outcomes in relation to environmental exposures. There are also many individual pesticides that have not been investigated in human health studies to date. We conducted a pilot study in rural Zhejiang province, China, measuring 20 non-persistent pesticides (10 insecticides, 6 herbicides, 3 fungicides, and 1 repellant) in umbilical cord blood of 112 full term (>37 weeks) infants. The pesticides detected with the greatest frequency were diethyltoluamide (DEET) (73%), a repellant, and vinclozolin (49%), a fungicide. The samples had detectable concentrations for a mean of 4.6 pesticides (SD=1.9) with a maximum of 10. Adjusting for potential confounders, newborn birth weight was inversely associated with the number of pesticides detected in cord blood (p = 0.04); birth weight decreased by a mean of 37.1 grams (95% CI, ?72.5 to ?1.8) for each detected pesticide. When assessing relationships by pesticide type, detection of fungicides was also associated with decreased birth weight (adjusted ? = ?116 grams [95% CI, ?212 to ?19.2]). For individual pesticides analyzed as dichotomous (detect vs. non-detect) variables, only vinclozolin (adjusted ? = ?174 grams [95% CI, ?312 to ?36.3] and acetochlor (adjusted ? = ?165 grams [95% CI, ?325 to ?5.7]) were significantly associated with reduced birth weight. No significant associations were seen between birth weight and individual pesticides assessed as continuous or 3-level ordinal variables. Our findings from this pilot investigation suggest that exposure to fungicides may adversely impact fetal growth. Exposure to mixtures of multiple pesticides is also of concern and should be explored in addition to individual pesticides. Additional research is needed to establish causality and to understand the function and impact of fungicides and pesticide mixtures on fetal development.

Wickerham, Erin L.; Lozoff, Betsy; Shao, Jie; Kaciroti, Niko; Xia, Yankai; Meeker, John D.

2012-01-01

187

The measurement of red blood cell volume change induced by Ca2+ based on full field quantitative phase microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the measurement of red blood cell (RBC) volume change induced by Ca2+ for a live cell imaging with full field quantitative phase microscopy (FFQPM). FFQPM is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer combined with an inverted microscopy system. We present the effective method to obtain a clear image and an accurate volume of the cells. An edge detection technique is used to accurately resolve the boundary between the cell line and the suspension medium. The measurement of the polystyrene bead diameter and volume has been demonstrated the validity of our proposed method. The measured phase profile can be easily converted into thickness profile. The measured polystyrene bead volume and the simulated result are about 14.74 ?m3 and 14.14 ?m3, respectively. The experimental results of our proposed method agree well with the simulated results within less than 4 %. We have also measured the volume variation of a single RBC on a millisecond time scale. Its mean volume is 54.02 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.52 ?m3. With the proposed system, the shape and volume changes of RBC induced by the increased intracellular Ca2+ are measured after adding ionophore A23187. A discocyte RBC is deformed to a spherocyte due to the increased intracellular Ca2+ in RBC. The volume of the spherocyte is 47.88 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.19 ?m3. We have demonstrated that the volume measurement technique is easy, accurate, and robust method with high volume sensitivity (<0.0000452 ?m3) and this provides the ability to study a biological phenomenon in Hematology.

Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Ji Yong; Yang, Wenzhong; Kim, Dug Young

2009-02-01

188

Differential effects of infliximab on absolute circulating blood leucocyte counts of innate immune cells in early and late rheumatoid arthritis patients  

PubMed Central

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologics have revolutionized therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared the effects of infliximab on numbers of circulating leucocyte subsets in early RA (disease/symptom duration of ?1 year) and late RA patients (>1 year). A control group consisted of early RA patients treated with a combination of methotrexate (MTX) and methylprednisolone. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (pre-therapy) from all RA patients, divided into three groups: (i) late RA receiving infliximab/MTX, (ii) early RA–infliximab/MTX, (iii) early RA–steroid/MTX, and also from follow-up patients at 2 and 14 weeks. Significant differences in absolute counts of monocytes and granulocytes were observed between healthy controls and RA patients. At baseline CD14bright monocytes and CD16+ granulocytes were increased in both early RA and late RA patients. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells were all increased at baseline in early RA, but not in late RA. At 2 weeks following infliximab treatment decreased granulocytes were observed in both early and late RA and decreased natural killer (NK) cells in late RA. CD16+ granulocytes and NK cells were also decreased at 14 weeks post-infliximab in early RA. Biotinylated infliximab was used to detect membrane-associated TNF (mTNF)-expressing leucocytes in RA patients. CD16+ granulocytes, NK cells and CD14dim monocytes all expressed higher levels of mTNF in RA patients. In summary infliximab is associated with decreased CD16+ granulocyte and NK cell counts, possibly through binding of mTNF. Differential effects of infliximab between early and late RA suggest that pathogenic mechanisms change as disease progresses.

Coulthard, L R; Geiler, J; Mathews, R J; Church, L D; Dickie, L J; Cooper, D L; Wong, C; Savic, S; Bryer, D; Buch, M H; Emery, P; Morgan, A W; McDermott, M F

2012-01-01

189

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

190

Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young

2013-01-01

191

An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.  

PubMed

Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34? stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34? stem cell count (PBCD34) ?8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34? targets in ?3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34? target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies. PMID:23426644

Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J

2013-02-21

192

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

193

Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p?=?1.5*10?18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2?=?83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p?=?1.5*10?4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p?=?0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p?=?0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p?=?7.7*10?13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p?=?7.7*10?5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

2010-01-01

194

Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.  

PubMed

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

2011-12-06

195

Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity. PMID:23090122

Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

2012-10-23

196

Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.

197

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)|

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

198

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

199

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

200

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

201

Effect of Mode of Delivery, Parity and Umbilical Blood Gas on First Meconium Passage in Full-Term Healthy Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various physiologic factors which might influence the time of first meconium passage were studied in 62 healthy full-term newborn infants. Thirty-two babies were born vaginally and 30 by elective cesarean section. Infants born vaginally were more acidotic and passed first stool earlier compared to those born by cesarean section. The same applies to vaginally delivered babies when comparing babies

Hiroshi Tateishi; Yoshitada Yarnauchi; Itsuro Yamanouchi; Mohamed T. Khasba

1994-01-01

202

Evaluation of the vitamin status in pregnancy. Circulating blood levels and enzyme activation in a group of Dutch parturient women and their full term newborns.  

PubMed

Blood levels of vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12 and folic acid were measured in a group of 37 Dutch parturient women and their full term newborns. For the evaluation of the vitamin B1, B2 and B6 status also transketolase-, glutathion reductase- and transaminase activities with their respective activation ratios were measured. In the circulation of the newborn blood levels and enzyme activities were found 1.5-2.0 times higher compared with those of the mother. Interpretation of the data obtained from the mothers using criteria coming from a group of healthy adult blood donors, revealed a relatively high incidence of marginal vitamin status, especially for vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. By means of the enzyme activation tests even higher percentages of cases were found within the marginal or deficient range. The actual extent of vitamin deficiency in pregnancy could not be estimated, however, secondary effects seem to be involved affecting both vitamin blood levels and enzyme activities. PMID:632006

van den Berg, H; Schreurs, W H; Joosten, G P

1978-01-01

203

Genetic and Functional Analysis of Full-Length Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Genes Derived from Brain and Blood of Patients with AIDS  

PubMed Central

The genetic evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain is distinct from that in lymphoid tissues, indicating tissue-specific compartmentalization of the virus. Few primary HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from uncultured brain tissues have been biologically well characterized. In this study, we analyzed 37 full-length env genes from uncultured brain biopsy and blood samples from four patients with AIDS. Phylogenetic analysis of intrapatient sequence sets showed distinct clustering of brain relative to blood env sequences. However, no brain-specific signature sequence was identified. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number or positions of N-linked glycosylation sites between brain and blood env sequences. The patterns of coreceptor usage were heterogeneous, with no clear distinction between brain and blood env clones. Nine Envs used CCR5 as a coreceptor, one used CXCR4, and two used both CCR5 and CXCR4 in cell-to-cell fusion assays. Eight Envs could also use CCR3, CCR8, GPR15, STRL33, Apj, and/or GPR1, but these coreceptors did not play a major role in virus entry into microglia. Recognition of epitopes by the 2F5, T30, AG10H9, F105, 17b, and C11 monoclonal antibodies varied among env clones, reflecting genetic and conformational heterogeneity. Envs from two patients contained 28 to 32 N-glycosylation sites in gp120, compared to around 25 in lab strains and well-characterized primary isolates. These results suggest that HIV-1 Envs in brain cannot be distinguished from those in blood on the basis of coreceptor usage or the number or positions of N-glycosylation sites, indicating that other properties underlie neurotropism. The study also demonstrates characteristics of primary HIV-1 Envs from uncultured tissues and implies that Env variants that are glycosylated more extensively than lab strains and well-characterized primary isolates should be considered during development of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies.

Ohagen, Asa; Devitt, Amy; Kunstman, Kevin J.; Gorry, Paul R.; Rose, Patrick P.; Korber, Bette; Taylor, Joann; Levy, Robert; Murphy, Robert L.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

2003-01-01

204

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT AND LEVELS OF SERUM HOMOCYSTEINE IN END-STAGE RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS TREATING WITH HEMODIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In hemodialysis patients, plasma levels of total homocysteine are influenced by nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease .To investigate the association between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level as a marker of nutritional status and WBC counts as a marker of inflammation, a cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis

Azar Bradran; Hamid Nasri

2006-01-01

205

Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.  

PubMed

Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

2013-08-01

206

[An association of the reduction in the count of T1 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with the lower monocytic expression of costimulatory CD80 molecules].  

PubMed

The percentage of T1 lymphocytes in the presence of the unchanged content of T2 cells were shown to be decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as compared with apparently healthy donors. In addition, the patients were found to have a significantly reduced quantity of CD80-expressing monocytes, the relative quantities of Th1 and Tc1 cells were directly related to the count of CD80+ monocytes. It is suggested that decreased CD80+ cells is a cause of ineffective antigen presentation that results in a systemic reduction in the count of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing T1 cytokines and in impairment of an effective specific T1 response. PMID:17419331

Temchura, O V; Seniukov, V V; Pronkina, N V; Romanov, V V; Petrenko, T I; Kozhevnikov, V S

2007-01-01

207

The Picture of Inflammation: A New Concept That Combines the White Blood Cell Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate into a New Hematologic Diagnostic Modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians who work in small clinics, far away from medical centers, cannot obtain relevant information regarding the acute phase response at low cost and real time. Methods: We adopted a simple slide test and image analysis to determine the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, their degree of adhesiveness\\/aggregation as well as that of the red

Rivka Rotstein; Renato Fusman; David Zeltser; Itzhak Shapira; Esther Shabtai; Dani Avitzour; Nicole Sadees; David Levartovsky; Nadir Arber; Amiram Eldor; Shlomo Berliner

2001-01-01

208

Genetic and functional analysis of full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env genes derived from brain and blood of patients with AIDS.  

PubMed

The genetic evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain is distinct from that in lymphoid tissues, indicating tissue-specific compartmentalization of the virus. Few primary HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from uncultured brain tissues have been biologically well characterized. In this study, we analyzed 37 full-length env genes from uncultured brain biopsy and blood samples from four patients with AIDS. Phylogenetic analysis of intrapatient sequence sets showed distinct clustering of brain relative to blood env sequences. However, no brain-specific signature sequence was identified. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number or positions of N-linked glycosylation sites between brain and blood env sequences. The patterns of coreceptor usage were heterogeneous, with no clear distinction between brain and blood env clones. Nine Envs used CCR5 as a coreceptor, one used CXCR4, and two used both CCR5 and CXCR4 in cell-to-cell fusion assays. Eight Envs could also use CCR3, CCR8, GPR15, STRL33, Apj, and/or GPR1, but these coreceptors did not play a major role in virus entry into microglia. Recognition of epitopes by the 2F5, T30, AG10H9, F105, 17b, and C11 monoclonal antibodies varied among env clones, reflecting genetic and conformational heterogeneity. Envs from two patients contained 28 to 32 N-glycosylation sites in gp120, compared to around 25 in lab strains and well-characterized primary isolates. These results suggest that HIV-1 Envs in brain cannot be distinguished from those in blood on the basis of coreceptor usage or the number or positions of N-glycosylation sites, indicating that other properties underlie neurotropism. The study also demonstrates characteristics of primary HIV-1 Envs from uncultured tissues and implies that Env variants that are glycosylated more extensively than lab strains and well-characterized primary isolates should be considered during development of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. PMID:14581570

Ohagen, Asa; Devitt, Amy; Kunstman, Kevin J; Gorry, Paul R; Rose, Patrick P; Korber, Bette; Taylor, Joann; Levy, Robert; Murphy, Robert L; Wolinsky, Steven M; Gabuzda, Dana

2003-11-01

209

Categorical counting.  

PubMed

Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. PMID:20540994

Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

2010-06-09

210

Effects of GnRH or progesterone treatment on day 5 post-AI on plasma progesterone, luteal blood flow and leucocyte counts during the luteal phase in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study was designed to test the effects of progesterone or GnRH treatment on day 5 post-AI on fertility and luteal function in dairy cows and heifers. Five days after AI, 32 animals were randomly assigned to a control, intravaginal progesterone for 14 days progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) or GnRH treatment group. On days 5, 7, 12, 14, 17 and 19 post-AI, each animal underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography of the corpus luteum and blood samples were collected for cell counts and plasma progesterone determination. Through general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance, significant effects were observed of treatment, parity, inseminating bull, reduced vascularization of the CL and pregnancy on plasma progesterone concentrations, whereas mean plasma progesterone and time luteal phase day, and treatment and plasma progesterone concentration on day 5 post-AI were found to, respectively, affect neutrophil and lymphocyte counts throughout the luteal phase. Moreover, two binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy by days 26-32 post-AI was 23.4 times higher in animals with high mean progesterone levels throughout the study period, compared with animals with low mean progesterone. The likelihood of reduced CL vascularization was 14 times higher in animals treated with PRID, compared with control and GnRH-treated animals. In conclusion, our results indicate that treatment on day 5 post-AI with PRID reduced subsequent CL vascularization, whereas GnRH treatment increased plasma progesterone concentrations on day 12 post-AI, although an effect was identified of the inseminating bull on plasma progesterone levels. Pregnant animals showed higher mean plasma progesterone concentrations than in nonpregnant ones and heifers higher than in lactating cows, whereas blood cell counts differed depending on the treatment and on the mean plasma progesterone concentration on day 5 post-AI. PMID:21729177

Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

2011-07-05

211

Total Viable Count of Microorganisms in the Infected Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy

E. S. Akpata

1974-01-01

212

Carbohydrate Counting – A Practical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate counting is a practical meal planning strategy that provides opportunity for variety in meals and snacks for people with diabetes.This method of meal planning allows teenagers to participate in the daily activities that are an important part of life without sacrificing blood glucose control. The teaching tool is designed to be used in follow-up medical nutrition sessions as opposed

C. Middleton; V. Meyers

1998-01-01

213

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts and Their Associations With Circulating Interleukin6 Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory biomediator, and age-related increases in IL-6 levels are associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality in older adults. Although white blood cells (WBC), or leukocytes, are known to produce IL-6 in vitro, their in vivo relationship with circulating IL-6 levels is not well established. Methods. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Women's

Sean Leng; Qian-Li Xue; Yi Huang; Richard Semba; Paulo Chaves; Karen Bandeen-Roche; Linda Fried; Jeremy Walston

214

Verifying Reference Counted Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a pervasive resource management idiom where each resource contains a count of the number of clients that hold a reference to it, and each client increments (resp., de cre- ments) the count on acquiring (resp., releasing) the resour ce. If the reference count falls to zero, the system can reclaim the res ource. Reference counting is often

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar

2007-01-01

215

Verifying Reference Counting Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar

2009-01-01

216

Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.

2007-10-25

217

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2010-04-01

218

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2013-04-01

219

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2009-04-01

220

Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in

N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; P N Noble; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides

1992-01-01

221

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

222

Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

2010-07-01

223

Accurate automated leucocyte differential counts despite profound leucopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential white cell counts produced by the Technicon H*1 Autoanalyser in profoundly leucopenic specimens were compared with those carried out by manual differential counting by light microscopy of peripheral blood smears stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. The correlation achieved allowed the H*1 derived differential count to be reported with confidence.

S E Kinsey; M J Watts

1988-01-01

224

Count the Cubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet helps students visualize and count three-dimensional cubes by seeing animated two-dimensional perspective pictures. The cubes drop into an aggregate rectangular arrangement and must be counted accurately.

2011-01-01

225

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

226

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS* ... had a treatment-emergent blood glucose level of ... a 25% reduction in cholesterol content of the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

227

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Etc, Florida C.

2010-07-19

228

Scintillation counting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters one ; drawback has been the scarcity of radiation counters which efficiently measure ; both gamma and beta radiation. There has also been the problem of scintillation ; counting in the face of external or background radiation. A scintillation ; counting apparatus is provided herein which measures scintillations arising from

Noakes

1975-01-01

229

Umbilical Cord Blood Levels of Maternal Antibodies Reactive with p200 and Full Length Ro52 in the Assessment of Risk for Cardiac Manifestations of Neonatal Lupus  

PubMed Central

Objective Maternal anti-Ro autoantibodies associate with cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL), yet only 2% of women with this reactivity have an affected child. Identification of a more specific marker would channel intense monitoring to fetuses at greater risk. This study aims to determine whether autoantibodies against Ro52 amino acids 200–239 (p200) confer added risk over autoantibodies to full length Ro52, Ro60 or La. Methods/Results Anti-Ro-exposed pregnancies resulting in cardiac NL or no cardiac manifestations were identified from the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus and PR Interval and Dexamethasone Evaluation. Umbilical cord (n=123) and maternal (n=115) samples were evaluated by ELISA. The frequencies of p200, Ro52, Ro60 and La autoantibodies were not significantly different between affected and unaffected children. However, neonatal anti-Ro52 and Ro60 titers were highest in cardiac NL and their unaffected siblings compared to unaffected neonates without a cardiac NL sibling. Although both maternal anti-Ro52 and p200 autoantibodies were less than 50% specific for cardiac NL, anti-p200 was the least likely of the Ro autoantibodies to be false positive in mothers who have never had an affected child. Titers of anti-Ro52 and p200 did not differ during a cardiac NL or unaffected pregnancy from the same mother. Conclusion Maternal reactivity to p200 does not confer an added risk to fetal conduction defects over full length Ro52 or Ro60 autoantibodies. Mothers who may never be at risk for having an affected child have lower anti-Ro60 titers and may require less stringent echocardiographic monitoring compared to women with high titer autoantibodies.

Reed, Joanne H.; Clancy, Robert M.; Lee, Kristen H.; Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M.; Buyon, Jill P.

2012-01-01

230

Changes in differential leucocyte counts in male Beagle dogs during water deprivation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in differential leucocyte counts were found in blood samples collected from male Beagle dogs during water deprivation tests. Percentage and absolute neutrophil counts increased whilst percentage and absolute lymphocyte counts decreased following the use of metabolism cages for overnight periods. No significant changes in total leucocyte counts were observed.

G. O. Evans; R. M. Flynn; D. E. C. Smith

1991-01-01

231

A sex difference in the leucocyte count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of a group of 325 blood donors between the ages of 18 and 65 years, the total leucocyte and polymorph counts of the females aged 50 to 65 years were found to be significantly lower than those of the corresponding group of male donors. In the whole series of female donors, there were significantly lower total leucocyte

R. N. Allan; M. K. Alexander

1968-01-01

232

Cord-blood lipoproteins, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity/resistance marker profile, and concurrence of dysglycaemia and dyslipaemia in full-term neonates of the Mérida Study.  

PubMed

Early alterations in glucose homeostasis increase the risk of developing insulin resistance and obesity later in life. The concurrence of altered lipids and insulin sensitivity/resistance markers at birth has been scarcely investigated. The study aimed to ascertain level ranges of homocysteine (tHcyt), arylesterase (AE), lipids/lipoproteins, and insulin resistance/sensitivity markers in full-term neonates and to determine the concurrence effect of dyslipaemia and dysglycaemia on those parameters at birth. Participants were 197 full-term, 2.5 to <4.0 kg, without foetal distress Spanish newborns from the Mérida Study. Parameter percentiles for males and females were stated. The effect of the concurrence high glucose/high triglycerides (high glucose/high TG) or high glucose/low cholesterol transported by HDL (HDL-c) on tHcyt, LDL-c, HDL-c, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), oxidised LDL (oxLDL), AE, glucose, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was studied. Females had higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-c, Apo A1, Lp(a) and HDL-c/Apo A1, but lower relative transport of TC (%TC) by the very low lipoprotein fraction than males. No gender differences were found for glucose, HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Neonates at the 2.5- to 2.999-kg range display more adequate HOMA-IR and QUICKI levels that their >3.0 kg counterparts. The concurrence of high glucose/high TG or high glucose/low HDL-c increased TC/HDL-c and HOMA-IR, but decreased, oxLDL, oxLDL/LDL-c and QUICKI with respect to that of low glucose/low TG or glucose/high HDL-c. The concurrence glucose/TG has predictive value for low QUICKI, whilst that of glucose/HDL-c for low QUICKI and high HOMA-IR, suggesting the importance of routine TG, HDL-c and glucose screening at birth as it would identify candidates for insulin resistance. PMID:23411637

Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

2013-02-15

233

AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

Howell, W.D.

1957-08-20

234

Lakota Winter Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different human societies across the millennia have sought to record their histories in a multitude of ways, and the Lakota people of the Northern Plains elected to record their experiences through what are known as winter counts. These winter counts are essentially histories or calendars in which events are recorded by pictures, with one picture for each year. These rather fascinating documents were used in conjunction with extensive oral histories, and as such, most of these events were widely known and recognized by a majority of the Lakota. This particular website from the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History allows visitors to view these winter counts, learn more about the Lakota, and view interviews with contemporary Lakota people about the winter counts. The site also contains an audio glossary and a number of helpful resources for educators.

235

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

236

Birth season and environmental influences on blood leucocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in rural Gambian infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In rural Gambia, birth season predicts infection-related adult mortality, providing evidence that seasonal factors in early life may programme immune development. This study tested whether lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by automated full blood count and flow cytometry in cord blood and at 8, 16 and 52 weeks in rural Gambian infants (N = 138) are affected by birth season (DRY

Andrew C Collinson; Pa Tamba Ngom; Sophie E Moore; Gareth Morgan; Andrew M Prentice

2008-01-01

237

Blood Culture Test  

MedlinePLUS

... systemic infection; to detect and identify bacteria or yeast in the blood When to Get Tested? When you have signs or symptoms of sepsis , such as fever, chills, fatigue, rapid breathing and/or heart rate, and an elevated white blood cell count Sample Required? Two or more blood samples ...

238

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a...

2012-04-01

239

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

240

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

241

Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells in patients with multiple myeloma and low peripheral blood CD34(+) cell count: results of a subset analysis of a randomized trial.  

PubMed

Preapheresis peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cell count is a strong predictor of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization and is routinely used to optimize the timing, cost, and success of HSC collection in patients with multiple myeloma. However, a uniform PB CD34(+) cell count that predicts mobilization failure has not been defined, resulting in the development of institute-specific algorithms for mobilization, particularly regarding the decision of when to use the novel stem cell mobilization agent plerixafor. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated the mobilization efficacy of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus placebo plus G-CSF in patients with multiple myeloma, stratified by preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell count: <10, <15, <20, and ?20 cells/?L. Regardless of the PB CD34(+) cell count, the total yield of CD34(+) cells from apheresis was significantly higher in the plerixafor group than in the placebo group, and significantly more patients in the plerixafor group collected the minimum (?2 × 10(6) cells/kg) and optimum (?6 × 10(6) cells/kg) stem cell yields on each day of apheresis. As a corollary, the greater stem cell collection in plerixafor-treated patients resulted in the need for significantly fewer days of apheresis to reach minimum and optimum cell doses across all cell count groups. For all CD34(+) cell count groups, the proportion of patients proceeding to transplantation and the median time to platelet and neutrophil engraftment were similar in the plerixafor and placebo groups. Our findings demonstrate that in patients with multiple myeloma who might be predicted to fail mobilization based on low PB CD34(+) cell count, the addition of plerixafor to G-CSF allows for collection of the minimal and optimal cell doses in a greater proportion of patients compared with G-CSF alone. In addition, plerixafor plus G-CSF significantly improves the likelihood of optimal HSC collection in patients with higher preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell counts (?20 cells/?L) compared with placebo plus G-CSF. Collectively, this analysis of predicted poor mobilizers validates the superiority of plerixafor plus G-CSF compared with G-CSF alone, which had been demonstrated previously in the overall patient population. PMID:22683613

Nademanee, Auayporn P; DiPersio, John F; Maziarz, Richard T; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Micallef, Ivana N; Stiff, Patrick J; Hsu, Frank J; Bridger, Gary; Bolwell, Brian J

2012-06-06

242

Birth season and environmental influences on blood leucocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in rural Gambian infants  

PubMed Central

Background In rural Gambia, birth season predicts infection-related adult mortality, providing evidence that seasonal factors in early life may programme immune development. This study tested whether lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by automated full blood count and flow cytometry in cord blood and at 8, 16 and 52 weeks in rural Gambian infants (N = 138) are affected by birth season (DRY = Jan-Jun, harvest season, few infections; WET = Jul-Dec, hungry season, many infections), birth size or micronutrient status. Results Geometric mean cord and postnatal counts were higher in births occurring in the WET season with both season of birth and season of sampling effects. Absolute CD3+, CD8+, and CD56+ counts, were higher in WET season births, but absolute CD4+ counts were unaffected and percentage CD4+ counts were therefore lower. CD19+ counts showed no association with birth season but were associated with concurrent plasma zinc status. There were no other associations between subpopulation counts and micronutrient or anthropometric status. Conclusion These results demonstrate a seasonal influence on cell counts with a disproportionate effect on CD8+ and CD56+ relative to CD4+ cells. This seasonal difference was seen in cord blood (indicating an effect in utero) and subsequent samples, and is not explained by nutritional status. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis than an early environmental exposure can programme human immune development.

Collinson, Andrew C; Ngom, Pa Tamba; Moore, Sophie E; Morgan, Gareth; Prentice, Andrew M

2008-01-01

243

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

1998-01-01

244

Dinosaur Count and Sort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.

Omsi

2004-01-01

245

Let's Count to 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

246

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2010-04-01

247

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2009-04-01

248

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF TRITIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and drawbacks of liquid scintillation counting of tritium ; are enumerated. It is shown how to determine the counting efficiency by using an ; external gamma source, instead of internal standards. (T.F.H.);

Okano

1961-01-01

249

Counting on and back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

250

Evaluation of a semi-automated platelet-counting system.  

PubMed Central

Coulter Electronics Ltd have produced a semi-automated platelet-counting system. Platelet-rich plasma may be obtained either by tube sedimentation or by means of the Thrombo-fuge, the latter being an instrument designed to produce accelerated sedimentation. The instrument is linear over the entire range of platelet counts, and machine reproducibility is good. Comparison of machine-rated with visual counts satisfied statistical evaluation. The technique can be handled by one operator and platelet counts can be achieved at the rate of 30 per hour by both methods although individual counts on the Thrombo-fuge may be obtained in approximately one-quarter of the time required for tube sedimentation. The throughput using the Thrombo-fuge could certainly be doubled were two sample plates supplied. Few problems were encountered during the evaluation and most could be avoided by meticulous technique. Visual counts must be performed when the sample haematocrit is greater than 50%-Discrepant counts have been obtained in patients with white cell counts exceeding 50 X 10(9)/1 and in patients with giant platelets. ESR elevation for any reason does not lead to serious discrepancy in results. The incidence of platelet clumping due to the presence of platelet agglutinins and of microclot formation due to inadequate mixing is probably much higher than is commonly thought, and certainly peripheral blood film scrutiny should never be omitted in patients with low counts. Careful examination of peripheral blood films must be combined with instrument counting for some time lest further causes of discrepant counting emerge.

Rowan, R M; Fraser, C; Gray, J H; McDonald, G A

1977-01-01

251

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

252

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-03-20

253

Inverse association of eosinophil count with colorectal cancer incidence: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic conditions are associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. We hypothesized that blood eosinophil count, a marker for allergic disorders, is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) prospective cohort. To our knowledge, the association between blood eosinophil count and cancer risk has not been investigated before. Methods Relative eosinophil and total leukocyte counts were measured in blood at baseline. Absolute eosinophil counts were calculated by multiplying relative count by the total leukocyte count. Proportional hazards regression provided hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CRC in relation to eosinophil count. Results From 1987–2006, 242 incident CRC cases (187 colon; 56 rectal) occurred in 10,675 initially cancer-free participants. In a multivariate-adjusted model, HRs were 1.0, 0.70 (95%CI, 0.50;0.98) and 0.58 (95%CI, 0.40;0.83) across tertiles of absolute eosinophil count (P-trend=0.003). A similar inverse association was observed for relative eosinophil count. Age, sex, race, or smoking status did not modify associations. Conclusions and impact We observed an inverse association between blood eosinophil count and CRC risk. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that allergies are protective for colorectal cancer, since an increased eosinophil count correlates with allergy in the developed world.

Prizment, Anna E; Anderson, Kristin E; Visvanathan, Kala; Folsom, Aaron R

2011-01-01

254

Intra-Uterine Starvation and Fetal Leucocyte Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 104 severely growth-retarded fetuses, the mean white blood cell count (WBC), as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were reduced. Furthermore, the severity of the leucopenia was significantly related to the degree of fetal ‘smallness’ and anaemia. These findings suggest that leucopenia observed in growth-retarded neonates may be a consequence of intra-uterine starvation due to deficiency of haematinics.Copyright

Norman Davies; Rosalinde Snijders; Kypros H. Nicolaides

1991-01-01

255

Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

256

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

257

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

258

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births;…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

259

Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births;…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

260

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

261

Radon Detection and Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the daughter products of the naturally occuring U 238 decay chain is the colorless, odorless, inert gas radon. The daughter products of the radon, from Po 218 through Po 214, can remain in the lungs after breathing radon that has diffused into the atmosphere. Radon testing of homes before sale or purchase is necessary in many parts of the U.S. Testing can be accomplished by the simple procedure of exposing a canister of activated charcoal to the ambient air. Radon atoms in the air are adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal, which is then sealed in the canister. Gamma rays of the daughter products of the radon, in particular Pb 214 and Bi 214, can then be detected in low background counting system. Radon remediation procedures are encouraged for radon activities in the air greater than 4 pCi/L.

Peterson, David

2004-11-01

262

Enhancing the performance of a point-of-care CD4+ T-cell counting microchip through monocyte depletion for HIV/AIDS diagnostics.  

PubMed

CD4+ T cell counts are important tests used to stage HIV-positive patients, enabling clinicians to make informed antiretroviral treatment decisions and to monitor the therapeutic outcomes. However, state-of-the-art CD4 counting methods based on flow cytometry are not applicable in resource-limited settings, due to their high cost and technical requirements. In previous work, we reported the development of a cell isolation microchip that can be used at the point of care for CD4 counts. In that microfluidic chip, CD4+ T cells were separated from 10 microL of whole blood, and enumerated via either light microscopy or impedance sensing. The microchip counts matched flow cytometry results in the intermediate CD4 count range, between 200-800 cells/microL, but displayed a positive bias at absolute CD4 counts below 200 cells/microL, due largely to monocyte contamination. To enhance the performance in the low CD4 count range, we report here an improved design of a two-stage microfluidic device to deplete monocytes from whole blood, followed by CD4+ T cell capture. Using the double-stage device combined with a high viscosity rinsing solution, we obtained microchip CD4 counts comparable to flow cytometry results in the full clinically relevant range. In addition to CD4 counting, the strategy of contaminant depletion prior to target cell isolation can be easily adapted to immunoaffinity capture of other cell types that lack a unique surface marker from a complex biological fluid. PMID:19417901

Cheng, Xuanhong; Gupta, Amit; Chen, Chihchen; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rodriguez, William; Toner, Mehmet

2009-02-04

263

K.CC Counting Mat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

264

Synthetic gene networks that count.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene networks can be constructed to emulate digital circuits and devices, giving one the ability to program and design cells with some of the principles of modern computing, such as counting. A cellular counter would enable complex synthetic programming and a variety of biotechnology applications. Here, we report two complementary synthetic genetic counters in Escherichia coli that can count up to three induction events: the first, a riboregulated transcriptional cascade, and the second, a recombinase-based cascade of memory units. These modular devices permit counting of varied user-defined inputs over a range of frequencies and can be expanded to count higher numbers. PMID:19478183

Friedland, Ari E; Lu, Timothy K; Wang, Xiao; Shi, David; Church, George; Collins, James J

2009-05-29

265

MIC photon counting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIC photon counting detector, a very high resolution, large format system that has been developed for astronomical applications and has been proven on the major UK associated telescopes, is described. Additionally, though, this detector does have a number of applications in other fields such as bio-medical and x-ray imaging. The detector itself consists of a specially designed 40 mm diameter micro-channel plate intensifier fiber optically coupled to a CCD read-out system. Data is then centroided to 1/8th of a CCD pixel in both X and Y to provide high resolution. Accumulated data is stored in a micro-processor system with on-line display and reduction facilities. The maximum format available with the detector is 3072 X 2304 pixels, where each pixel is 10.6 micrometers square. The resolution is 27 micrometers FWHM when averaged over the field. Dependent upon the application, a dynamic range as high as 5 X 106 is achievable with this detector. The time resolution of the detector is in the range 1 ms to 12 ms. A very large format version of this detector is being designed that utilizes a 75 mm intensifier and has a maximum format of 6144 X 4608 pixels. It is expected that this detector will have the same performance figures as the 40 mm system.

Fordham, John L.; Bellis, J. G.; Bone, David A.; Norton, Timothy J.

1991-06-01

266

Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

Millard, Jr. , H. T.

1984-01-01

267

ICF's Annual Midwest Crane Count: Counting Beyond Cranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a Program Plan for the Crane Count. The Program Plan establishes a mission, goals, and objectives for the Crane Count, with specific recommendations for future improvements and direction. This plan was created through a variety of sequential steps including: a) review and content analysis of historic program documents, b) assessment of current

Brian T. Barch

268

VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. RESULTS: We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally

Charles C Kim; Joseph L DeRisi

2010-01-01

269

Microfluidic lysis of human blood for leukocyte analysis using single cell impedance cytometry.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates an integrated microfluidic system that performs a full blood count using impedance analysis. A microfluidic network design for red blood cell (RBC) lysis is presented, and the diffusive mixing processes are analyzed using experimental and simulated results. Healthy and clinical bloods analyzed with this system, and the data shows good correlation against data obtained from commercial hematology machines. The data from the microfluidic system was compared against hospital data for 18 clinical samples, giving R(2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.99 for lymphocytes, 0.89 for monocytes, and 0.99 for granulocytes in terms of relative counts and 0.94 for lymphocytes, 0.91 for monocytes, and 0.95 for granulocytes in terms of absolute counts. This demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this new system for a point-of-care purpose. PMID:22148390

Han, Xiaojun; van Berkel, Cees; Gwyer, James; Capretto, Lorenzo; Morgan, Hywel

2011-12-27

270

Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review  

PubMed Central

A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematology results and (b) determine if a manual differential leukocyte count needs to be performed. Blood smear examination/manual differential leukocyte count with complete blood count (CBC) provides the complete hematologic picture of the case, at least from the morphologic standpoint. Blood smear review with or without interpretation serves to ensure that no clinically significant finding is missed, besides providing diagnosis or diagnostic clue(s), particularly if and when interpreted by a physician.

Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

2013-01-01

271

Point-of-care, portable microfluidic blood analyzer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in MEMS technology have provided an opportunity to develop microfluidic devices with enormous potential for portable, point-of-care, low-cost medical diagnostic tools. Hand-held flow cytometers will soon be used in disease diagnosis and monitoring. Despite much interest in miniaturizing commercially available cytometers, they remain costly, bulky, and require expert operation. In this article, we report progress on the development of a battery-powered handheld blood analyzer that will quickly and automatically process a drop of whole human blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs), fluorescence analysis of labeled WBC subsets, and counting a reproducible fraction of the red blood cells (RBCs) by light scattering. The whole blood (WB) analyzer is composed of a micro-mixer, a special branching/separation system, an optical detection system, and electronic readout circuitry. A droplet of un-processed blood is mixed with the reagents, i.e. magnetic beads and fluorescent stain in the micro-mixer. Valve-less sorting is achieved by magnetic deflection of magnetic microparticle-labeled WBC. LED excitation in combination with an avalanche photodiode (APD) detection system is used for counting fluorescent WBC subsets using several colors of immune-Qdots, while counting a reproducible fraction of red blood cells (RBC) is performed using a laser light scatting measurement with a photodiode. Optimized branching/channel width is achieved using Comsol Multi-Physics™ simulation. To accommodate full portability, all required power supplies (40v, +/-10V, and +3V) are provided via step-up voltage converters from one battery. A simple onboard lock-in amplifier is used to increase the sensitivity/resolution of the pulse counting circuitry.

Maleki, Teimour; Fricke, Todd; Quesenberry, J. T.; Todd, Paul W.; Leary, James F.

2012-02-01

272

Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting principle.

2012-01-01

273

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

274

Illegal aliens and census counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should illegal aliens be excluded from 1990 census counts? We begin a consideration of this question by examining the demographic, economic, and social contexts within which the question of including or excluding illegal aliens from census counts has arisen, especially in the case of the 1980 census. This is important because arguments for exclusion have often been based in part

Frank D. Bean; Rodolfo O. de la Garza

1988-01-01

275

Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten

Michael A. Nalls; David J. Couper; Toshiko Tanaka; Frank J. A. van Rooij; Ming-Huei Chen; Albert V. Smith; Daniela Toniolo; Neil A. Zakai; Qiong Yang; Andreas Greinacher; Andrew R. Wood; Melissa Garcia; Paolo Gasparini; Yongmei Liu; Thomas Lumley; Aaron R. Folsom; Alex P. Reiner; Christian Gieger; Vasiliki Lagou; Janine F. Felix; Henry Völzke; Natalia A. Gouskova; Alessandro Biffi; Angela Döring; Uwe Völker; Sean Chong; Kerri L. Wiggins; Augusto Rendon; Abbas Dehghan; Matt Moore; Kent Taylor; James G. Wilson; Guillaume Lettre; Albert Hofman; Joshua C. Bis; Nicola Pirastu; Caroline S. Fox; Christa Meisinger; Jennifer Sambrook; Sampath Arepalli; Matthias Nauck; Holger Prokisch; Jonathan Stephens; Nicole L. Glazer; L. Adrienne Cupples; Yukinori Okada; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoichiro Kamatani; Koichi Matsuda; Tatsuhiko Tsunoda; Toshihiro Tanaka; Michiaki Kubo; Yusuke Nakamura; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Naoyuki Kamatani; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tönjes; Inga Prokopenko; Thomas Illig; Kushang V. Patel; Stephen F. Garner; Brigitte Kuhnel; Massimo Mangino; Ben A. Oostra; Swee Lay Thein; Josef Coresh; H.-Erich Wichmann; Stephan Menzel; JingPing Lin; Giorgio Pistis; André G. Uitterlinden; Tim D. Spector; Alexander Teumer; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Stefania Bandinelli; Timothy M. Frayling; Aravinda Chakravarti; Cornelia M. van Duijn; David Melzer; Willem H. Ouwehand; Daniel Levy; Eric Boerwinkle; Andrew B. Singleton; Dena G. Hernandez; Dan L. Longo; Nicole Soranzo; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Bruce M. Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Tamara B. Harris; Christopher J. ODonnell; Santhi K. Ganesh

2011-01-01

276

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

1987-05-01

277

Affordable pediatric CD4 counting by flow cytometry in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi has occurred in the relative absence of suitable pediatric CD4 counting facilities. We have recently validated in adults a simplified affordable flow cytometric CD4 counting method, the Blantyre count. There is a need for this technology to transfer to government laboratories run by local staff, and to be validated in children, where %CD4/lymphocyte values are required. Methods We assessed agreement of %CD4/lymphocyte values determined by the Blantyre count and Panleucogate methods on an EPICS XL-MCL flow cytometer on 113 venous blood samples from HIV-seropositive children in Blantyre, Malawi. All assays were performed by two Malawian laboratory technicians. Results Overall bias between the two methods was ?0.13% (95% CI ?0.37 to 0.11) and limits of agreement were ?2.69 to 2.43% (95% CI ?3.11 to ?2.27 and 2.01 to 2.85). Limits of agreement were within ?3.00 and 3.00 for each laboratory technician. Coefficient of variation for the Blantyre count assay was 2.0% and samples showed good stability over 5 days. Conclusions The Blantyre count method can accurately determine %CD4/lymphocyte values in blood of HIV-seropositive children on an EPIC XL-MCL flow cytometer at a reagent cost of US $0.21 per test or less. The assay can be competently carried out by local laboratory technicians.

MacLennan, Calman A; Dzumani, Felix; Namarika, Alinane; Moons, Peter; Senga, Edward; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Drayson, Mark T; Bunn, James E G

2008-01-01

278

Short term effects of reduced exposure to cigarette smoke on white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells in adult cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that cigarette smokers have a 5–30% higher white blood cell counts (WBC) compared to non-smokers and higher red blood cell counts. Methods: This study was to pool hematology data from three similar studies and analyze the data for effects on WBC, its subpopulations, platelets, red blood cell count (RBC) and hematocrit in adult cigarette smokers three days

Hans J. Roethig; Tamara Koval; Raheema Muhammad-Kah; Yan Jin; Paul Mendes; Martin Unverdorben

2010-01-01

279

Milk leucocyte counts and their significance in mastitis control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThe most common causes of bovine mastitis are bacterial in origin. One of the basic host responses to tissue injury from bacterial infection is the infiltration of leucocytes predominantly neutrophils from blood into the area of injury. It is this leucocyte response which is usually measured when a somatic cell estimation or count is above the normally accepted range. A

A. R. Clarkson

1975-01-01

280

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

281

An optimal algorithm for counting network motifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs occurring at significantly higher frequencies in a given graph compared with random graphs of similar degree distribution. Recently, network motifs have attracted attention as a tool to study networks microscopic details. The commonly used algorithm for counting small-scale motifs is the one developed by Milo et al. This algorithm is extremely costly in CPU time and actually cannot work on large networks, consisting of more than 100,000 edges on current CPUs. We here present a new optimal algorithm, based on network decomposition for counting K-size network motifs with constant memory costs and a CPU cost linear with the number of counted motifs. Our algorithm performs better than previous full enumeration algorithms in terms of running time. Moreover, it uses a constant amount of memory. It also outperforms sampling algorithms. Our algorithm permits the counting of three and four motif for large networks that consists of more than 500,000 nodes and 5,000,000 links. For large networks, it performs more than a thousand times faster than current algorithms.

Itzhack, Royi; Mogilevski, Yelena; Louzoun, Yoram

2007-07-01

282

The randomness of accident counts.  

PubMed

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

283

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

284

PS3-6: Blood Safety Continuous Active-Surveillance Network Feasibility Evaluation (Blood-SCAN)  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created the Blood Safety Continuous Active-Surveillance Network (Blood-SCAN), the first nationwide active surveillance system for monitoring the safety of FDA-regulated blood components and blood-derived products. Blood-SCAN employs the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database (MSDD) which contains 126 million individuals within 17 Data Partners. Blood-SCAN is intended to augment the existing safety surveillance system and improve US biovigilance efforts. As a first step in creating Blood-SCAN, we assessed the feasibility of using the current MSDD to evaluate blood component and blood-derived product exposures and related health outcomes. Methods The assessment consisted of 4 activities: (1) an expert working group identified 20 blood components and blood-derived products and 10 health outcomes of interest (HOIs) to evaluate the data available in the MSDD, (2) a literature scan was conducted to identify electronic algorithms to capture these product exposures and HOIs, (3) HOI and exposure frequencies were tabulated using established Mini-Sentinel programs, and (4) structured discussions were conducted with all Mini-Sentinel Data Partners to assess the availability, content, and quality of data within their databases. Results Claims codes were available for all of the blood components and blood-derived products, and many of the claims codes for blood-derived products were sufficiently specific to allow analyses by product manufacturer, fulfilling an important regulatory need. Adequate counts of exposures to immunoglobulin products indicate the potential for future surveillance studies on these products. MSDD analyses suggest that blood-derived products are captured effectively in outpatient settings but not in inpatient settings, limiting the scope of therapeutic indications that can be assessed. Blood component exposures are also captured in outpatient settings within the MSDD; however, because most transfusions occur in inpatient settings, these data may not be completely representative of the patient population, reason for transfusion, and dose. Most Data Partners reported no current ability to access inpatient blood component exposures through existing claims data streams. Conclusions The current MSDD supports safety surveillance for a variety of blood components and blood-derived products in the outpatient setting. Expanding the MSDD to include inpatient data streams will ensure that Blood-SCAN achieves its full potential.

Baker, Meghan; Nguyen, Michael; Mullersman, Jerald; Lauer, Jillian; Zinderman, Craig; Riedlinger, Karen; Nakasato, Cynthia; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Garcia, Crystal; Balsbaugh, Carolyn; Vajani, Madhavi

2013-01-01

285

What counts as inclusion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service\\/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a definition of inclusion, this article addresses the challenge

E. Walton; N. Nel

2012-01-01

286

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

287

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.|

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

288

2.NBT Counting Stamps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The post office packages stamps like this: 10 stamps in each strip. 10 strips of 10 in each sheet. Yesterday Mike saw 4 full sheets, 7 strips, and 2 ex...

289

Morphological Granulometric Features of Nucleus in Automatic Bone Marrow White Blood Cell Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of counts of different types of white blood cells in the bone marrow, called differential counts, provides invaluable information to doctors for diagnosis. Due to the tedious nature of the differential white blood cell counting process, an automatic system is preferable. In this paper, we investigate whether information about the nucleus alone is adequate to classify white blood

Nipon Theera-umpon; Sompong Dhompongsa

2007-01-01

290

Markedly raised synovial fluid leucocyte counts not associated with infectious arthritis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial fluid leucocyte counts greater than 50 000 cells\\/mm3 (50 X 10(9)\\/1) are usually associated with infectious arthritis. Six children, 3 of whom meet the criteria for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), are described with synovial fluid white blood cell counts greater than 88 000 cells\\/mm3 (88 X 10(9)\\/1). Two had synovial fluid leucocyte counts greater than 100 000 cells\\/mm3 (100

A R Baldassare; F Chang; J Zuckner

1978-01-01

291

Peripheral differential leukocyte counts in humans vary with hyperlipidemia, smoking, and body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of diverse relationships between blood concentrations of different lipids and peripheral total leukocyte count, and\\u000a a unique lower peripheral monocyte count in hypercholesterolemia, have driven us to think that in humans, peripheral differential\\u000a leukocyte counts may be influenced differently by different types of hyperlipidemia. Our subjects were Taipei residents who\\u000a attended a regular health check program in our hospital

Zei-Shung Huang; Kuo-Liong Chien; Chi-Yu Yang; Keh-Sung Tsai; Chiu-Hwa Wang

2001-01-01

292

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2010-01-01

293

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2013-01-01

294

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2009-01-01

295

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha–gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent

C. Balpardo; M. E. Capoulat; D. Rodrigues; P. Arenillas

2010-01-01

296

Effect of elevated leukocyte count on in-hospital mortality following acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral white blood cell count on presentation with acute myocardial infarction directly correlates with short-term in-hospital mortality. This association is independent of other prognostic factors, including extent and size of the acute myocardial infarction.

Mark I. Furman; Richard C. Becker; Jorge L. Yarzebski; Judith A. Savageau; Joel M. Gore; Robert J. Goldberg

1996-01-01

297

Effects of Municipal Solid Waste Leachate on Leucocyte and Differential Counts in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This study investigated the immunotoxic potentials of raw and simulated leachates from Olushosun municipal solid waste landfill in rat using quantitative leucocyte and differential counts. Blood samples of rats intraperitoneally exposed to 1 - 25 % concentrations of each of the leachate samples for 48 hours were examined post treatment for leukocyte and differential counts. Compared to the

Chibuisi G. Alimba; Adekunle A. Bakare; Olatubosun G. Arinola

298

Association of circulating leukocyte count with coronary atherosclerosis regression after pravastatin treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the peripheral blood leukocyte count could be used as a marker of the progression of atherosclerosis. Few data exist regarding the relationship between inhibition of the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, especially the drugs’ effects on the leukocyte count in patients with coronary artery disease. A 6-month prospective study was,

Shigemasa Tani; Ken Nagao; Takeo Anazawa; Hirofumi Kawamata; Kiyoshi Iida; Michiaki Matsumoto; Yuichi Sato; Atsushi Hirayama

2008-01-01

299

Evaluation of a Method for Counting Absolute Numbers of Cells with a Flow Cytometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a method for performing absolute cell counts of lymphocyte populations with a flow cytometer. In this method, TruCount, test tubes that contain a known number of brightly fluorescent polystyrene beads are provided by the manufacturer. Whole anticoagulated blood is accurately pipetted into the tubes and mixed with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies, the erythrocytes are lysed, and this mixture is

JANET K. A. NICHOLSON; DANA STEIN; TAMMY MUI; RICHARD MACK; MARJORIE HUBBARD; THOMAS DENNY

1997-01-01

300

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-04-11

301

Nucleated red blood cells in cord blood of singleton term neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish normal values for nucleated red blood cells in term singletons and factors associated with their elevation.STUDY DESIGN: Cord blood was prospectively collected from term singleton gestations from Feb. 1 to July 31, 1995. Umbilical vein white blood cells and nucleated red blood cells were counted and umbilical arterial pH was determined. Medical records provided

Kathleen M. Hanlon-Lundberg; Russell S. Kirby; Sweeta Gandhi; Fredrik F. Broekhuizen

1997-01-01

302

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

303

Photon Counting - One More Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

Stanton, Richard H.

2012-05-01

304

Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... unique risks as adults Peripheral neuropathy — Managing the side effects of chemotherapy Skin, hair care concern cancer survivors Chemotherapy Magic ... therapy Ginger for nausea: Does it work? Managing chemotherapy side effects After a flood, are food and medicine safe ...

305

Searchable Database of Amphibian Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (US Geological Servey) provides these companion sites on amphibians in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency, The National Park Service, SUNY Syracuse, and Pennsylvania State University. Building off the parent site, Power Analysis of Monitoring Programs (discussed in the February 4, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the Searchable Database of Amphibian Counts "is designed for use by anyone planning a wildlife monitoring program for amphibians." The Searchable database (searchable by Taxon) provides user access to amphibian count references. Though designed for amphibian research, both sites offer a clear, stepwise approach to survey methodology and can be helpful to graduate students and researchers planning wildlife monitoring programs.

306

Full range complex ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography.  

PubMed

This Letter presents a useful method that combines the full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (OMAG) to achieve full range complex imaging of blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. We propose to use the fast scanning axis to realize the full range complex imaging, while using the slow axis to achieve OMAG imaging of blood flow. We demonstrate the proposed method by using a high speed 1310?nm OCT/OMAG system running at 92?kHz line scan rate to image the flow phantoms in vitro, and the blood flows in tissue beds in vivo. PMID:21403699

An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K

2011-03-15

307

Capacity approaching codes for photon counting receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[1] a low-complexity photon-counting receiver has been presented, which may be employed for weak-energy optical communications and which is typically modeled through its equivalent Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. In this paper we consider the scheme described in [1], we model it as a time varying Binary Input-Multiple Output (BIMO) channel and analyze its performance in presence of soft-metric based capacity approaching iteratively decoded error correcting codes, and in particular using soft-metric based Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. To take full advantage of such detector, soft information is generated in the form of Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs), achieving reduction in Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Error Rate (FER) with respect to classical BSC and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel models. Furthermore, we explore the limits of the achievable performance gains when using photon counting detectors as compared to the case when such detectors are not available. To this end, we find the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel, clearly showing the potential gains that photon counting detectors can provide in the context of a realistic cost-effective scheme from an implementation point of view. Furthermore, we show that from a channel modeling point of view, we can observe that the BIMO channel can be approximated with an AWGN channel for high values of mean photon count Nc, while the AWGN model offers an unreliable result with a low mean photon number Nc, (i.e. with low raw BER). This effect is more evident with lower coding rates.

Mondin, Marina; Daneshgaran, Fred; Bari, Inam; Delgado, Maria Teresa

2012-10-01

308

An alternative method for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell counts and classification of the cells play an important role in the field of microbiology and cell biology. Although there exists many counting processes for cells of interest in suspension, the most basic cell counting process is performed by a person via the microscope. For counting cells the simplest, widely used and the most economic method is the use

Akin Ozkan; S. Belgin Isgor; Hakan Tora; Pembegul Uyar; Mesude Iscan

2011-01-01

309

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

310

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

311

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

312

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

313

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

314

Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

315

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

316

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

317

Yupno Number System and Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting point of this study is the apparent contradiction between the existence in Yupno (Papua New Guinea) culture of an elaborate number system and the lack of importance attributed to counting in everyday life. The study is designed to answer two questions: To what extent is the model described by the socially most prestigious expert shared by other Yupno

Jürg Wassmann; Pierre R. Dasen

1994-01-01

318

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs widely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has been little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions where node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a logic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include arbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

319

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the…

Boeke, Kaye

320

Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

321

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

322

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

323

Counting a Culture of Mealworms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

324

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

325

Blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

326

Leucocyte Blood Picture in Ill Newborn Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial blood leucocyte counts were made on 35 ill preterm and term babies during the first 28 days of life.Ill babies with no clinical or bacteriological evidence of infection showed no changes in the blood leucocytes during the neonatal period when compared with normal babies.The changes in the blood leucocytes in babies with proven or suspected bacterial infection were an

Marietta Xanthou

1972-01-01

327

A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables.Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed in parallel for six months. Volunteers had free access to 44 different foods

J. A. Weststrate; KH van het Hof; H van den Berg; EJM Velthuis-te-Wierik; C de Graaf; NJH Zimmermanns; K. R. Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga; WPHG Verboeket-van de Venne

1998-01-01

328

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

PubMed Central

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

329

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2012-01-24

330

Photon-counting: measurement challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low photon flux measurements are widely used in the fields of biology, nuclear physics, medical physics and astrophysics. This paper will highlight the key requirements and considerations needed for accurate, traceable measurement at these low light levels. A new driver for these techniques is the rapidly advancing field of optical quantum information processing1 which requires the development of single photon counting detectors, in addition to the wider use of optical technologies in the photon counting regime. The paper will present the results of the measurement of the quantum efficiency of a channel photomultiplier detector using an absolute radiometric technique based on correlated photons produced in non-linear crystals. Case studies will also be presented to illustrate this work.

Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Thomas, Peter J.; Mountford, John R.; Fox, Nigel P.

2007-05-01

331

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when youâre anticipating a special event. Locate the date youâre waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

332

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs\\u000awidely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has\\u000abeen little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions\\u000awhere node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a\\u000alogic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include\\u000aarbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

333

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

334

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

335

Make Your Calories Count Transcript  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... that may increase your risk for high blood pressure. ... This, too, makes it a wiser choice ... control calories and nutrients, you will make wise food choices ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

336

On-chip sample preparation by controlled release of antibodies for simple CD4 counting.  

PubMed

We present a simple system for CD4 and CD8 counting for point-of-care HIV staging in low-resource settings. Automatic sample preparation is achieved through a dried reagent coating inside a thin (26 ?m) counting chamber, allowing the delayed release of fluorochrome conjugated monoclonal antibodies after the filling of the chamber with whole blood by capillary flow. A custom-built image cytometer is used to capture fluorescence images representing more than 1 ?l of blood. The thin layer of blood in combination with the large image area allows the use of whole blood from a finger prick without the need for dilution, lysis or cell enrichment. Automatic cell counting of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes correlates well with results obtained by flow cytometry. PMID:22048158

Beck, Markus; Brockhuis, Silvia; van der Velde, Niels; Breukers, Christian; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W M M

2011-11-03

337

Blood clotting  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

338

Effects of bacteria and yeast on WBC counting in three automated hematology counters.  

PubMed

Bacteria or yeast may be observed on peripheral blood smears and may lead to spuriously elevated platelet counts. They have been reported to disturb the white blood cell (WBC) differential count if they clumped together, and a large number of such microorganisms have been shown to increase WBC counts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spurious rise in WBC counts according to species of microorganisms and automated hematology analyzers. The species we selected were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. We investigated the effects of bacteria and yeast on peripheral blood samples by the ADVIA 120/2120 Hematology System, Sysmex XE-2100 (TOA Medical Electronics, Kobe, Japan) and Coulter LH 750 (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL, USA). C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. dubliniensis had an overt effect on the WBC count at concentrations of up to 1-5 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL in three automated cell counters, and C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, when present at concentrations of 1-5 x 10(8) CFU/mL, caused a significant increase in the WBC count obtained by the Sysmex XE-2100 but not by the ADVIA 120/2120 system and Coulter LH 750 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, yeast may influence the results of peripheral blood smears only when the yeast concentration is unusually high. The results differed among analyzers and among species of yeast. Hematologists should be aware that samples containing bacteria and yeast may give erroneously high WBC counts and differential leukocyte counts and should review the peripheral blood smear by microscopy. PMID:18301891

Kim, Hye Ryoun; Park, Bo Rae G; Lee, Mi Kyung

2008-02-27

339

Acute blood toxicity of the abused inhalant, cyclohexyl nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclohexyl nitrite is an abused nitrite inhalant. This is the first report of toxicity of cyclohexyl nitrite. Mice were exposed to 300–900 ppm cyclohexyl nitrite in an inhalation chamber for 45 min and then bled. Such treatment resulted in a 7–10% reduction in red blood cell counts, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. Both blood leucocyte counts and spleen cellularity were reduced

Lee S. F. Soderberg; James T. Flick

1997-01-01

340

An accurate segmentation method for white blood cell images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part of our research work on an Automated Cell Count project is described. A major requirement for this project is an efficient method to segment cell images. This work presents an accurate segmentation method for an automatic count of white blood cells. First a simple thresholding approach is applied to give initial labels to pixels in the blood cell

Qingmin Liao; Yingying Deng

2002-01-01

341

Neutron Counting Statistics in Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron counting statistics of a zero power reactor is treated on the basis of Kolmogorov's theory of branching processes. It is shown that the statistical properties of a sequence of neutron counts, currently used for experimental determination of re...

D. Babala

1966-01-01

342

New Frequency Counting Principle Improves Resolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Frequency counters have gone through several evolutionary stages in their design since their first appearance on the market: Stage 1 until 1970's -- Conventional counting; Stage 2 through 1980's -- Reciprocal counting (period measurement + inversion); Sta...

S. Johansson

2005-01-01

343

Race-specific WBC and neutrophil count reference intervals.  

PubMed

Healthy African Americans are known to have reduced white blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) compared with European Americans, with little agreement about the levels in reference intervals. The objective is to establish race-specific reference intervals for WBC and ANC using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 2000-2003. A total of 14,184 civilian noninstitutionalized US citizens participated in NHANES 2000-2003 had complete blood count, red cell distribution width, platelet count and automated WBC differential determined on a Coulter MAXM. The exclusion criteria were used: ferritin <12 ng/ml, pregnancy, body mass index >30, diastolic blood pressure >100 mm Hg, creatinine >2.5 mg/dl, glucose >126 mg/dl. Data were separated into six sex/race categories: female non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBF)], Mexican American; male non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBM), Mexican American and two age groupings (12-18 and >18 years). NHB 2.5-97.5 percentile WBC and (ANC) limits follow (units: × 10? /l): NHBM, ages 12-18: 3.2-9.3 (1.0-6.2); NHBF, ages 12-18: 3.7-10.1 (1.2-6.6); adult NHBM: 3.1-9.9 (1.3-6.6); adult NHBF: 3.4-11 (1.4-7.5). NHB limits are significantly lower than the NHW and MA limits. In most US healthcare organizations, insufficient agreement exists because of large differences in reference intervals for different ethnicities. In areas with peoples of African descent (>10--20%), race-specific WBC and ANC reference intervals must be provided for proper diagnosis and clinical research. PMID:20236184

Lim, E-M; Cembrowski, George; Cembrowski, M; Clarke, G

2010-12-01

344

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

345

The Full Inclusion Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overviews background of the movement toward full inclusion of special education students into regular classrooms, including legal issues and successful educational practices. Suggests that full inclusion does not benefit all students and that inclusion should be one of several alternatives to meeting students' educational needs. Of approximately…

Machado, Rodney E.; And Others

1996-01-01

346

1.NBT Counting Circles II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Setup Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 6-10 numbers in t...

347

K.CC Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the seq...

348

Counting the homeless in Los Angeles County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, a variety of methods have been used to count the homeless in large metropolitan areas. In this paper, we report on an effort to count the homeless in Los Angeles County, one that employed the sampling of census tracts. A number of complications are discussed, including\\\\^{E} the need to impute homeless counts to areas of

Richard Berk; Brian Kriegler; Donald Ylvisaker

2008-01-01

349

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

350

Liquid scintillation counting in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine can be measured by ; liquid scintillation (LS) counting, and the technique is the only practical ; approach to counting low-energy BETA emissions. The capabilities of LS ; counting and of some precautions that should be observed are reviewed. Because ; most scintillation solvents will tolerate only minimal amounts of aqueous samples

Bransome; E. D. Jr

1973-01-01

351

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

352

Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.  

PubMed

Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 ?L) and reagents (68 ?L in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications. PMID:23389050

Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

2013-04-01

353

A Novel Low Power Energy Recovery Full Adder Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low power and low transistor count static energy recovery full adder (SERF) is presented in this paper. The power consumption and general characteristics of the SERF adder are then compared against three low power full adders; the transmission function adder (TFA), the dual value logic (DVL) adder and the fourteen transistor (14T) full adder. The proposed SERF adder

R. Shalem; Lizy Kurian John; Eugene John

1999-01-01

354

Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry in Malawi: diagnostic accuracy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method for measuring absolute and percentage CD4 counts with flow cytometry.Design A CD4 counting method (Blantyre count) using a CD4 and CD45 antibody combination with reduced blood and reagent volumes. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring agreement of the index test with two other assays (TruCount

Calman A MacLennan; Michael K P Liu; Sarah A White; Joep J G van Oosterhout; Felanji Simukonda; Joseph Bwanali; Michael J Moore; Eduard E Zijlstra; Mark T Drayson; Malcolm E Molyneux

2007-01-01

355

Reticulocyte counting using flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow cytometric method for the quantitation of reticulocytes was refined for routine laboratory use. Blood (2 microliters) is added to 2 ml of 0.4 microM thiazole orange in phosphate buffered saline, incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes, and analysed on a Coulter EPICS Profile flow cytometer, with gating for red cells on the basis of forward and right

P R Nobes; A B Carter

1990-01-01

356

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

357

Electronic Properties of Particle-Counting Diamonds. II. Particle-Counting Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the counting characteristics of thirty particle-counting diamonds has been made. It was found that the diamonds can be classified on the basis of their counting behaviour in the dark and during subsequent illumination. The dark characteristics and the counting response to illumination are explained in terms of the trapping and recombination of charge carriers via three levels

L. A. Vermeulen; F. R. N. Nabarro

1967-01-01

358

Full Counting Statistics for a Single-Electron Transistor: Nonequilibrium Effects at Intermediate Conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the current distribution for a single-electron transistor with intermediate strength tunnel conductance. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and the drone (Majorana) fermion representation, we account for the renormalization of system parameters. Nonequilibrium effects induce a lifetime broadening of the charge-state levels, which suppress large current fluctuations.

Yasuhiro Utsumi; Dmitri S. Golubev; Gerd Schön

2006-01-01

359

Estrogens and falling sperm counts.  

PubMed

Extravagant claims have been made repeatedly in recent years that human sperm counts are falling and that global exposure to environmental estrogens are responsible. The basis for these two distinct claims is reviewed. The claims of falling human sperm output, reviving an old debate, are prompted by a paper by Carlsen et al. (1992). This meta-analysis, however, is marred by numerous flaws that invalidate its claims. Major defects include severe heterogeneity of component studies, rendering them unsuitable for aggregation, and defective data analysis based on arithmetic mean rather than median, which showed no significant changes over time. This debate is likely to remain unresolved until valid, representative population-based studies of human sperm output can be achieved. None have been reported, or seem feasible in the near future, and so alternative strategies, based on surrogate variables for human male fertility not requiring sperm counts, need to be developed and validated. The plausible hypothesis that prenatal estrogen exposure might influence development of the human testis through effects on Sertoli cell replication and sperm carrying capacity has, however, been conclusively refuted by studies of boys born to women exposed to high doses of oral diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy. Neither fertility nor sperm output were adversely influenced by massive maternal estrogen exposure during pregnancy, although minor urogenital malformations did occur. The still wider claims of deteriorating male reproductive health, notably changes in prevalence or incidence of hypospadias or cryptorchidism, also lack convincing population-based evidence, although cancer registry data indicate a gradual increase in testis cancer in some countries. In summary, the available evidence does not support claims of falling sperm counts or any general deterioration in male reproductive health. Population-based studies of valid surrogate variables for male fertility not requiring semen analysis are needed. If population-based evidence regarding male fertility or sperm output could be generated, it is highly unlikely that prenatal estrogen exposure could be a valid explanation of any deterioration as massive maternal exposure to oral estrogen has negligible effects on male fertility or sperm output. PMID:11800170

Handelsman, D J

2001-01-01

360

Full moon and crime.  

PubMed

The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

361

Comparison of leukocyte count and function in smoking and nonsmoking young men.  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte function and other hematological measurements were tested in 14 smoking and 13 nonsmoking young men free of intercurrent or chronic diseases. Leukocyte chemotaxis was depressed in smoking subjects when compared to the same subjects abstaining from cigarettes or to the nonsmokers. Smoking did not affect the whole blood bactericidal capacity of leukocytes and serum for Staphyloccus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Total leukocyte counts, hematocritis, and monocyte counts were higher in the smoking subjects when compared to the nonsmokers.

Noble, R C; Penny, B B

1975-01-01

362

Elevated white cell count at commencement of peritoneal dialysis predicts overall and cardiac mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated white cell count at commencement of peritoneal dialysis predicts overall and cardiac mortality.BackgroundHigher total white blood cell counts (WCC) have been shown in the general population to be strongly and independently predictive of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of WCC in patients commencing peritoneal dialysis (PD).MethodsA

DAVID WAYNE JOHNSON; KATHRYN JOAN WIGGINS; KIRSTEN ANNE ARMSTRONG; SCOTT BRYAN CAMPBELL; NICOLE MAREE ISBEL; CARMEL MARY HAWLEY

2005-01-01

363

Everyone Counts! Everyone Should Participate!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

January is a good time to think about what is really important and what can be achieved in the year to come. I have been reflecting on the importance to the Journal and its readers of each and every one of its many constituencies. Your editorial staff aims to provide you and all other readers with useful, interesting, accurate, and timely information every month. Not everything that is published in a given month will meet these criteria for you (or any other individual reader), but we intend that a significant portion of each issue will meet these criteria for every reader. How can we make that happen? As I see it, this must be a cooperative venture involving all of the Journal's readers, its authors and reviewers, and its editorial staff. You count very heavily in our equation for success, and so I ask you to reflect on what you can do for your Journal, and for chemical education, this year.

Moore, John W.

1997-01-01

364

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

365

Photon counting compressive depth mapping.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

2013-10-01

366

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of AmericaÂs children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

367

Photon counting compressive depth mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

Howland, Gregory A.; Lum, Daniel J.; Ware, Matthew R.; Howell, John C.

2013-10-01

368

Vesta Full Rotation Movie  

NASA Video Gallery

In this movie, strung together from a series of images provided by the framing camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft, we see a full rotation of Vesta, which occurs over the course of roughly five hours. These images were obtained on July 24, 2011, from a distance of about 3,200 miles (5,200 kilometers).› Asteroid and Comet Watch site › Dawn mission site

Anthony Greicius

2011-07-30

369

Full moon and crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and

C P Thakur; D Sharma

1984-01-01

370

Effective estimation of correct platelet counts in pseudothrombocytopenia using an alternative anticoagulant based on magnesium salt  

PubMed Central

Pseudothrombocytopenia remains a challenge in the haematological laboratory. The pre-analytical problem that platelets tend to easily aggregate in vitro, giving rise to lower platelet counts, has been known since ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid EDTA and automated platelet counting procedures were introduced in the haematological laboratory. Different approaches to avoid the time and temperature dependent in vitro aggregation of platelets in the presence of EDTA were tested, but none of them proved optimal for routine purposes. Patients with unexpectedly low platelet counts or flagged for suspected aggregates, were selected and smears were examined for platelet aggregates. In these cases patients were asked to consent to the drawing of an additional sample of blood anti-coagulated with a magnesium additive. Magnesium was used in the beginning of the last century as anticoagulant for microscopic platelet counts. Using this approach, we documented 44 patients with pseudothrombocytopenia. In all cases, platelet counts were markedly higher in samples anti-coagulated with the magnesium containing anticoagulant when compared to EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples. We conclude that in patients with known or suspected pseudothrombocytopenia the magnesium-anticoagulant blood samples may be recommended for platelet counting.

Schuff-Werner, Peter; Steiner, Michael; Fenger, Sebastian; Gross, Hans-Jurgen; Bierlich, Alexa; Dreissiger, Katrin; Mannuss, Steffen; Siegert, Gabriele; Bachem, Maximilian; Kohlschein, Peter

2013-01-01

371

Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.  

PubMed

Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients. PMID:23682441

Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

2013-01-01

372

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... parts of plasma. For example, people who have hemophilia , a disease that affects their blood's ability to ... to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Blood Hemophilia Hepatitis How Do People Get AIDS? Dealing With ...

373

Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate time-resolved counting of single atoms extracted from a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The atoms are detected with a high-finesse optical cavity and single atom transits are identified. An atom laser beam is formed by continuously output coupling atoms from the Bose-Einstein condensate. We investigate the full counting statistics of this beam and measure its second order correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau}) in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss type experiment. For the monoenergetic atom laser we observe a constant correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau})=1.00{+-}0.01 and an atom number distribution close to a Poissonian statistics. A pseudothermal atomic beam shows a bunching behavior and a Bose distributed counting statistics.

Oettl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Koehl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zuerich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-08-26

374

Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser.  

PubMed

We demonstrate time-resolved counting of single atoms extracted from a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms. The atoms are detected with a high-finesse optical cavity and single atom transits are identified. An atom laser beam is formed by continuously output coupling atoms from the Bose-Einstein condensate. We investigate the full counting statistics of this beam and measure its second order correlation function g((2))(tau) in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss type experiment. For the monoenergetic atom laser we observe a constant correlation function g((2))(tau)=1.00 +/- 0.01 and an atom number distribution close to a Poissonian statistics. A pseudothermal atomic beam shows a bunching behavior and a Bose distributed counting statistics. PMID:16197193

Ottl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Köhl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman

2005-08-26

375

Blood Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Blood substitutes have been developed to replace the transfusion of banked blood. Actually, it is unlikely that one singular\\u000a infusion fluid will ever replace all functions of whole blood. Indeed, “blood substitutes” merely substitute the O2-carrying function of red blood cells (RBC), so these substances should rather be referred to as “oxygen carrying blood substitutes”\\u000a or as “artificial oxygen carriers.

Andreas Pape; Oliver Habler

376

Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509

Bolat, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan

2013-06-29

377

Assessing full remission  

PubMed Central

The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) has been used for 4 decades as the “gold standard” instrument to assess the severity of depression and response to therapy in clinical research. The clinical utility of the HAM-D17 is hampered, in part, by the length of time required to administer the interview and by concern about a lack of inter-rater reliability. Several groups have developed shorter versions of the HAM-D17 for use in clinical practice. However, despite extensive research highlighting the importance of achieving full remission in minimizing the risk of relapse and recurrence, these shortened questionnaires have not been validated for the task of distinguishing between remission and response. A shortened form of the HAM-D17 with cut-off scores for full remission would offer a useful tool that physicians could readily employ in clinical practice. On the basis of the responses of a sample of 292 patients with major depression who received standard clinical treatment at a tertiary university affiliated hospital (Depression Clinic, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ont.) we derived a shortened versionof the HAM-D. Seven items with the greatest frequency of occurrence and sensitivity to change with treatment were identified and designated as the Toronto HAM-D7. A score of 3 or less on the Toronto HAM-D7 was found to correlate with the 17-item HAM-D definition of full remission (i.e., score of 7 or less).

McIntyre, Roger; Kennedy, Sidney; Bagby, R. Michael; Bakish, David

2002-01-01

378

Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

1980-03-01

379

Pollen counts in the television media.  

PubMed

Allergists routinely supply pollen counts to television stations to assist allergy sufferers and to publicize their medical practices. This investigation examined how widely pollen counts are used in television news programming. The authors telephoned the news director or a meteorologist at 121 broadcast television stations in the nation's 30 largest Designated Market Areas (DMAs). They were asked if pollen counts were included or would be included in news programming during the 1995 pollen season. At least one television station in 28 DMAs included pollen counts in news programming. All five stations in the Washington, DC, DMA aired pollen counts; however, no stations in the Pittsburgh or Milwaukee DMAs carried pollen information. Approximately 49 million television households have access to pollen counts through a broadcast television station. Because these data appear important to television stations and to the public, the authors outline four measures to assure the reliability and meaningfulness of pollen information. PMID:9066832

Giberson, J E; Murray, L W; Frenz, D A

380

Estimating relative abundance from count data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1998-01-01

381

Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision  

SciTech Connect

Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

Klee, G.G.; Post, G. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MD (USA))

1989-07-01

382

Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings.MethodsHIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count

SangJun Moon; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Jeffrey Blander; Wafaie W. Fawzi; Said Aboud; Ferdinand Mugusi; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; Utkan Demirci

2011-01-01

383

Two-photon-counting interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-photon-counting interferometry has been realized by measuring the electrical current due to two-photon absorption in the space-charge layer of a semiconductor detector located at the output port of an interferometer. We apply this technique to study the correlation properties of twin beams issued from parametric fluorescence. We describe in detail how the different second-order correlation functions (interbeam, intrabeam) can be extracted at the femtosecond time scale from raw data. The values of these correlation functions determined by our experiments are in excellent agreement with theory. More precisely, extrabunching in twin beams is unambiguously demonstrated and theoretically described using two models: a comprehensive multimode quantum optics model and a simpler classical stochastic approach. Given the high brightness of our twin-beam source, both theories yield similar results. Finally, convenient analytical expressions of the correlation functions were derived from both theories, expressions in which we have been able to relate specific terms to accidental and exact coincidences between photons. Two-photon interferometry thus determines to which extent twin photons are twin. This technique should become a useful tool for future quantum optics developments.

Boitier, Fabien; Godard, Antoine; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Delaye, Philippe; Fabre, Claude; Rosencher, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

384

Photon counting with an EMCCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 ¯e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

2010-02-01

385

Maneuverable full face miner  

SciTech Connect

A full face miner including a simplified conveying arrangement and designed for easy maneuverability into and out of mine sites. A plow operatively mounted to and longitudinally movable with each of a pair of rotatable cutting heads of the miner provide for the conveyance of cut coal to a middle conveying portion for ultimate transport away from the mine site. The mounting mechanism for the cutting heads is designed so that at least the end portions thereof are movable from a position generally parallel to the mine face to a position generally perpendicular to the mine face and extending in front of and in line with the central conveying means, for ease of withdrawal from the mining area. A motive power source, such as a powered crawler or powered wheels, is provided which is movable into operative engagement with the ground to transport the miner to and from the mining site when in a collapsed position.

Delli-gatti, F. A.; Justice, J. C.

1980-12-16

386

Full Tolerant Archiving System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

2013-10-01

387

No effect of lysis solutions on absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count and CD45 index in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management. At the present time, no standardized flow cytometry (FCM) protocol to measure B-lymphocytes counts is established. The aims of the present study were first to evaluate the effect of different lysis solutions and of red blood cell lysis per se on CLL lymphocytes count and B-lymphocytes CD45 expression and second to compare absolute B-lymphocytes counts obtained by single (SP) and dual platforms (DP). Absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts and CD45 expression in 35 whole-blood CLL samples were determined by FCM using either different lysis solutions or using a no wash no lyse (NWNL) protocol. Single platform using microbeads was also evaluated for absolute quantification. The absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts using different red blood cell lysis solutions correlated with NWNL method without any effect on CD45 expression. Bland and Altman plot showed homogenous distribution of bias; mean bias was less than 1% for all lysing solutions. Moreover, no statistically significant difference between SP and DP was observed. The type of lysis solution influences neither the CD19+ B-lymphocytes count nor the CD45 expression. The two systems, SP and DP, yield comparable values with excellent agreement. However, the tendency of slightly lower results with SP showed the requirement of larger studies before standardization of B-lymphocytes count in CLL patients. PMID:21638772

Mekouar, Hassan; Mullier, François; Dinon, Quentin; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Bernard

2011-06-02

388

The Fullness of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief glance at the night sky reveals a remarkable fact about the Universe: it is extremely patchy. The light we see on a moonless night comes from bright specks we call planets and stars. Between the stars we see blackness. Most of astronomy, not to mention geology, biology, and all humanistic studies, is concerned with what happens in and on these bright specks. Yet these lumps and specks, which include the Earth, the Sun, the planets of our solar system, and all the stars together occupy less than one billion billion billionth (10-27) of the total volume of the Universe. It is astonishing to think that the interstellar medium within our Galaxy, the Milky Way, is anything but empty space. But in most of the Galaxy, the density of interstellar matter is thousands of times lower than that of the best vacuum produced on Earth. In fact, there is enough interstellar matter in the Galaxy to make ten billion stars the size of the Sun. In this excellently crafted book, the author gives full treatment to the nature of the stuff between the stars and to the methods that astronomers use to study it. He explains where the matter came from in the first place, how it collects together in clouds and clumps, and the way in which new stars and planets form from material in space. Through his descriptions we see the matter as glorious gas clouds, such as the Orion Nebula, shimmering in rich hues of red and orange. Telescopes reveal inky black clouds, the molecule factories in which new stars and planets are made. Radio, infrared, and ultraviolet telescopes have given astronomers stunning new images of interstellar matter. The Fullness of Space is written for the general reader interested in science. It assumes no scientific or mathematical background, and the only equations in the whole book are found in the appendices. It is beautifully illustrated with many of the finest photographs available of dust clouds and bright nebulae. Readers from high school age to adult will find this an enriching and rewarding book. Gareth Wynn-Williams was educated at Cambridge University and held a teaching position there and a fellowship at the California Institute of Technology before accepting a position as Professor of Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. He has written popular articles on astronomy for Scientific American, New Scientist, and Physics Bulletin.

Wynn-Williams, Gareth

1992-06-01

389

Increased platelet count and leucocyte-platelet complex formation in acute symptomatic compared with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The risk of stroke in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis is considerably higher than in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. In the present study it was hypothesised that excessive platelet activation might partly contribute to this difference. Methods: A full blood count was done and whole blood flow cytometry used to measure platelet surface expression of CD62P, CD63, and PAC1 binding and the percentage of leucocyte–platelet complexes in patients with acute (0–21 days, n = 19) and convalescent (79–365 days) symptomatic (n = 16) and asymptomatic (n = 16) severe (?70%) carotid stenosis. Most patients were treated with aspirin (37.5–300 mg daily) although alternative antithrombotic regimens were more commonly used in the symptomatic group. Results: The mean platelet count was higher in patients with acute and convalescent symptomatic compared with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. There were no significant differences in the median percentage expression of CD62P and CD63, or PAC1 binding between the acute or convalescent symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The median percentages of neutrophil–platelet (p = 0.004), monocyte–platelet (p = 0.046), and lymphocyte–platelet complexes (p = 0.02) were higher in acute symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients. In patients on aspirin monotherapy, the percentages of neutrophil–platelet and monocyte–platelet complexes (p = 0.03) were higher in acute symptomatic (n = 11) than asymptomatic patients (n = 14). In the convalescent phase, the median percentages of all leucocyte–platelet complexes in the symptomatic group dropped to levels similar to those found in the asymptomatic group. Conclusion: Increased platelet count and leucocyte–platelet complex formation may contribute to the early excess risk of stroke in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis.

McCabe, D; Harrison, P; Mackie, I; Sidhu, P; Purdy, G; Lawrie, A; Watt, H; Machin, S; Brown, M

2005-01-01

390

Are blood investigations, or group and save, required before orthognathic surgery?  

PubMed

Most patients who require orthognathic surgery are young patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) grade I, and current publications recommend a policy of group and save, with antibody screening for all such patients. We retrospectively studied 284 patients who had orthognathic procedures over a 5-year period at one hospital. We identified patients with a history of bleeding disorders, and those with abnormal coagulation. No blood transfusions were required for any patient, and abnormal coagulation screens in patients with no history of bleeding disorders made no difference to perioperative medical or surgical management. We therefore recommend that grouping and saving blood with antibody or coagulation screening are not necessary before orthognathic operations in ASA grade I patients who have no history of bleeding disorders or previous blood transfusion. However, a routine full blood count should still be done, in keeping with the current National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. PMID:22209066

Garg, Montey; Coleman, Mary; Dhariwal, Daljit K

2011-12-29

391

NEUTRON COUNTING STATISTICS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron counting statistics of a zero power reactor is treated on the basis of Kolmogorov's theory of branching processes. It is shown that the statistical properties of a sequence of neutron counts, currently used for experimental determination of reactor kinetic parameters, naturally follow from one basic formula. The Kolmogorov formalism also made it possible to explain the results of

Babala

1966-01-01

392

A High Rate 4??-? Coincidence Counting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high count rate 4??-? coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The pulse widths in the beta-ray (?), gamma-ray (?), and coincidence channels are extendable and

L. O. Johnson; R. J. Gehrke

1979-01-01

393

Discover Number Patterns With Skip Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-minute video third grade teacher Laretha Todd explains and models the strategy of choral counting with her students. As she records their counting, students are able to see patterns emerge and share and explain their findings. Questions for teacher reflection are included as well as a transcript.

2012-01-01

394

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

395

2008 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

2008-01-01

396

Getting Counted: Markets, Media, and Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms that do not fit into established business categories tend to be overlooked, but new markets often form around these “misfits.” Because being seen as part of a growing population makes new populations seem real, counting them is important to mainstreaming new markets. Yet, if firms outside the mainstream are overlooked, how can they be counted? Extending the embeddedness perspective

Mark Thomas Kennedy

2008-01-01

397

Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

2009-01-01

398

Time to stop counting the tablets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to assess compliance using both a pharmacologic indicator (low-dose phenobarbital) and a return tablet count in 225 patients who were taking part in three separate studies. There were 216 patients (96%) who kept a follow-up appointment after 28 days; 161 patients appeared to have good compliance (90% to 109%) by return tablet count. Of these 161 patients, 51

Thomas Pullar; Shubha Kumar; Hilary Tindall; Morgan Feely

1989-01-01

399

Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the

G. G. Klee; G. Post

1989-01-01

400

An improved technique for mitosis counting.  

PubMed

Mitosis counting remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in tumor pathology; however, as currently carried out it is time consuming and not reproducible. In this study, 6 different pathologists, using different microscopes, arrived at widely different mitotic counts on the same slide, ranging from 4 to 16. These differences were mainly due to the different field areas of the various microscopes used and the method used for counting and recording. In evaluating the most active 10 HPF, the count ranged from 10 to 19. Instead, when an average of 40 fields was recorded, the range was 4-11. Using the mitosis/volume index, which expresses the number of mitotic figures per mm2 of viable tumor, the counts ranged from 8 to 10, a marked improvement. However, this method is complicated and not "user-friendly.'' We suggest a variation of the technique by which a 2 mm2 rectangle is drawn on a cover slip and mounted under the microscope, centered on the most mitotically active area of the tumor. The mitoses in that area are counted (=n) and the percent of viable tumor (=x%) is estimated under low magnification. The number of mitoses per mm2 of viable tumor (cs-MAI) is then calculated according to the formula Cs-MAI=100n/2x. Using this modified method, the range of mitoses counted by the different observers was very narrow (9 to 11), and the time required for the counting was only 5-10 minutes. PMID:15864379

Gal, Rivka; Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Rosenblatt, Yevgenia; Halpern, Marisa; Schwartz, Ariel; Koren, Rumelia

2005-04-01

401

Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118

JOSE BELDA; RICHARD LEIGH; KRISHNAN PARAMESWARAN; PAUL M. O'BYRNE; MALCOLM R. SEARS; FREDERICK E. HARGREAVE

2000-01-01

402

Significance of Platelet Count in Esophageal Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Thrombocytosis is found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis in esophageal carcinoma. Platelets produce thymidine phosphorylase which is a platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor with angiogenic activity. Increased platelet count may be translated into enhanced tumor growth. We examined the relation between platelet count and several prognostic variables in patients with esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-one cases with esophageal cancer that underwent esophagectomy in a referral cancer institute during a 5-year period were studied retrospectively. The relation between preoperative platelet count and patient age, gender, site of tumor, presence of multiple cancers and clinicopathological characteristics including histological type, tumor size, depth of penetration (T), lymph node involvement (N), distant metastasis (M), degree of differentiation, presence of vascular, lymphatic and perineural invasion was examined. Results: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) constituted 93% and adenocarcinoma 7% of cases. Most of patients were in stage III, followed by stage II. The mean platelet count was 245±76 (× 109 /L). There was no statistically significant correlation between platelet counts with prognostic factors except a weak linear correlation between platelet count and and tumor size (P= 0.03, Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.16). Patients with adenocarcinoma had a higher platelet count than those with SCC (P= 0.003). Conclusion: Platelet count does not correlate with prognostic factors in esophageal cancer. However, it is significantly different between SCC and adenocarcinoma of esophagus.

Aminian, Ali; Karimian, Faramarz; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Dashti, Habibollah; Jahangiri, Yosra; Safari, Saeed; Ghaderi, Hamid; Noaparast, Morteza; Hasani, Sharareh M.; Mirsharifi, Alireza

2011-01-01

403

Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a ``traditional'', cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on ?/? separation are shown.

Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.

1997-02-01

404

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

405

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

406

Amniotic Fluid Gram Stain and Leukocyte Count in the Prediction of Intrauterine Infection in Preterm Prelabour Amniorrhexis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the amniotic fluid Gram stain and leukocyte count in the prediction of positive fetal blood and amniotic fluid cultures in 80 patients with preterm prelabour amniorrhexis. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis were performed and amniotic fluid and fetal blood were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Amniotic fluid was

S. G. Carroll; J. Philpott-Howard; K. H. Nicolaides

1996-01-01

407

Artificial blood  

PubMed Central

Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar, Suman

2008-01-01

408

A fast segmentation scheme for white blood cell images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a fast segmentation scheme for automatic differential counting of white blood cells. The segmentation procedure consists of three phases. First a novel simple algorithm is proposed for localization of white blood cells. The algorithm is based on a priori information about blood smear images. In the second phase the different cell components are separated with automatic thresholding. The thresholds

Istvh Cseke

1992-01-01

409

Postpartum Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that make blood less likely to clot (anticoagulants). Last full review/revision May 2013 by Julie S. ... the Book Mobile Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations anticoagulants computed tomography deep vein thrombosis embolism phlebitis pulmonary ...

410

Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers

Martin Horlitz; Annabelle Lucas; Markus Sprenger-Haussels; Jörg Hoheisel

2009-01-01

411

The relationship of white cell count, platelet count, and hematocrit to cigarette smoking in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study.  

PubMed

This article reports on the relationship between cigarette smoking, white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PC), and hematocrit in a Norwegian adolescent population. Data were obtained on 439 youths, 14 to 16 years old, as part of the Oslo Youth Study, an investigation of risk factors and behaviors for cardiovascular disease and cancer among adolescents. Analyses of covariance, controlling for height, weight, age, sexual maturation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hematocrit revealed that both male and female regular smokers (those reporting smoking at least once a week) had significantly higher mean WBCs. Male regular smokers also had significantly higher PCs than nonsmokers, and female regular smokers had higher PCs than young women who smoked less often than once a month. Hematocrit, after adjustment for height, weight, age, sexual maturation, and HDL cholesterol, was significantly lower in male regular smokers, while female regular smokers had higher hematocrit values than nonsmokers or occasional smokers. Results of this study show that WBC and PC were increased in adolescents who started smoking relatively recently. This indicates that the increase in white cell count observed in smokers is unlikely to be due to a longstanding smoking-induced chronic disease condition. PMID:4042305

Tell, G S; Grimm, R H; Vellar, O D; Theodorsen, L

1985-11-01

412

Effect of 6-day intense Kendo training on lymphocyte counts and its expression of CD95.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of 6-day intensive training on lymphocyte counts and their expression of CD95. Eight healthy Kendo athletes underwent 6-day Kendo training of about 310 min each day. Blood samples were collected at 2 weeks before (PRE), the first day (Day 1), third day (Day 3), fifth day (Day 5), and 1 week after the training period (POST) to determine lymphocyte counts and CD95 expression on CD95 lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)) using flow cytometry. The total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower at Day 3 than at PRE. The CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower at Day 3 than at PRE. The percentage of CD95(+) lymphocytes was significantly higher at Day 1 and Day 3 than at PRE. The percentage of CD8(+)CD95(+) cells did not change significantly. The total lymphocyte counts decreased and a concomitant increase of CD95(+) lymphocyte was observed, whereas the decrease in CD8(+) cell counts was not associated with the increase in CD8(+)CD95(+) cells. Therefore, short-term high-intensity exercise induced a decrease in the T lymphocyte counts without increasing in CD95(+) expression. PMID:19568765

Tanimura, Yuko; Kon, Michihiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Fuminori; Kono, Ichiro; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

2009-07-01

413

An evaluation of the utility of performing body fluid counts on the coulter LH 750.  

PubMed

Performing a manual body fluid count is a tedious, time-consuming, and frequently imprecise process for any clinical laboratory. The ability to perform many of these counts with an automated hematology analyzer has the real potential of making a major impact on laboratory precision and productivity. The manual chamber count is fraught with many variables and is often very technologist/technique dependent, often leading to inaccuracies in test results. Our laboratory undertook a series of studies designed to evaluate the capability of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer to supplement our current manual method in the performance of body fluid analysis. First, we established the performance of our current manual counting method, the gold standard against which LH 750 performance would be judged. We looked at the precision of manual cell counting by having 4 technologists perform manual counts on each of 35 spinal, synovial, peritoneal, and other fluids with white blood cell (WBC) and/or red blood cell (RBC) counts of greater than 0.3 x 10(9) /L and 0.03 x 10(12) /L, respectively. Our results support earlier reports that the variability in counts among technologists using the manual chamber cell count methods is often very significant. After each sample was manually counted, it was analyzed on the Coulter LH 750, and the results were compared with those of our current manual method. Results showed good correlation between the manual and LH 750 methods. Next, we conducted a series of separate tests to evaluate the stability of different cellular elements (WBCs and RBCs) in each of these body fluid types. The study consisted of 2 sets of 4--3-mL samples of each fluid type--which were analyzed on the LH 750 immediately on receipt and after 1 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours, 16 hours, and 24 hours. The findings suggested varying degrees of stability that were dependent on fluid type and initial cell concentration. Finally, we looked at whether it is necessary to perform background counts before analyzing each body fluid sample and the impact of automating body fluid counts on our workload. PMID:15479646

Barnes, P W; Eby, C S; Shimer, G

2004-01-01

414

Phosphorus - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphorus - serum; HPO4 -2 , PO4 -3 ; Inorganic phosphate; Phosphorus blood test; Serum phosphorus ... This test is performed to see how much phosphorus in your blood. Kidney, liver, and certain bone ...

415

Blood Types  

MedlinePLUS

... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ... can cause serious health problems. Back Continue Why Blood Type Matters The immune system produces proteins known as ...

416

Blood smear  

MedlinePLUS

Peripheral smear ... may be examined by an automated machine. The smear shows the number and kinds of white blood ... lighter-colored area in the center. The blood smear is considered normal if there is: Normal appearance ...

417

Skin Tags: A Link Between Lesional Mast Cell Count/Tryptase Expression and Obesity and Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of skin tags (STs) is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs) involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control). Results: All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%). STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin (P < 0.001), with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions: STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Attia, Enas AS; Osman, Wesam M; El Gendy, Marwa A

2013-01-01

418

Risk factors associated with incorrect surgical counts.  

PubMed

Incorrect surgical counts after surgery are a perplexing problem for nurses working in the perioperative environment. To determine factors associated with an incorrect surgical count, this cross-sectional, correlational study examined explanatory variables (eg, patient and nurse characteristics, intraoperative circumstances, staff involvement) by using data abstracted from perioperative medical records and primary data collected from perioperative nurses. In the final multivariate analysis, six variables were significantly associated with an incorrect surgical count: a higher surgical risk, a lower body mass index, a complicated procedure, an unplanned procedure, an increased number of perioperative personnel involved, and an increased number of specialty teams involved. PMID:22935256

Rowlands, Aletha

2012-09-01

419

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

420

Carbon-14 dating: a comparison of Beta and ion counting.  

PubMed

Accelerator ion counting compares favorably with conventional beta counting. The major advantage of ion counting is that milligram samples can be analyzed. When sample size is not limiting, ion counting complements beta counting for the more routine carbon-14 determinations. Further development is needed before ion counting can achieve the same high precision as beta counting for large samples (+/- 2 per mil). A solution to the background variability has to be found before ion counting can be used to date samples back to the 75,000-year limit of beta counting. PMID:17752459

Stuiver, M

1978-11-24

421

On Approximate Range Counting and Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We improve the previous results by Aronov and Har-Peled (SODA’05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA’06) and present a randomized\\u000a data structure of O(n) expected size which can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in \\u000a \\u000a expected time, where k is the actual value of the count. This is the first optimal method for the problem in the standard decision tree

Peyman Afshani; Timothy M. Chan

2009-01-01

422

On approximate range counting and depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We improve the previous results by Aronov and Har-Peled (SODA'05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA'06) and present a randomized data structure of O(n) expected sizewhich can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in O(log n\\/k) expected time, where k is the actual value of the count. This is the first optimal method for the problem in the standard decision

Peyman Afshani; Timothy M. Chan

2007-01-01

423

Differential expression analysis for sequence count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. To infer differential signal in such data correctly and with good statistical power, estimation of data variability throughout the dynamic range and a suitable error model are required. We propose a method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance

Simon Anders; Wolfgang Huber

2010-01-01

424

Probability Convergence in a Multithreaded Counting Application  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the PDtree, a data structure for fast counting of any specified combinations of a given set of variables. We describe a static implementation that provides speedup linear in the number of processors on the multithreaded Cray MTA-2 machine. Finally, we prove a general convergence property that bounds the nondeterministic deviation of probability estimates relative to a sequential implementation. This convergence result is relevant for any counting application that takes a multithreaded streaming approach.

Scherrer, Chad; Beagley, Nathaniel; Nieplocha, Jarek; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

2007-03-30

425

Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

426

Electronic Counting of Somatic Cells in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several procedures were developed and evaluated to find a satisfactory method for electronic counting of somatic cells in milk. Best results were obtained when milk was prepared for counting by a) diluting 1:50 with 0.85% saline, b) eentrifuging 10 ml of the diluted milk at a relative centrifugal force (RCF) of 1,020 for 15 nlin at 4 C, c) discarding

R. B. Read Jr.; A. L. Reyes; J. G. Bradshaw; J. T. Peeler

1967-01-01

427

Phagocytic Cells in Cord Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension of fine carbon particles was added to cord blood of healthy premature and full-term infants, and the mixture was incubated for 3 h, after which the uptake of carbon particles by blood leukocytes was examined. The results were compared with those from the blood of adults. A gradient of phagocytic activity was observed. The most active uptake of

Gregor Prindull; Brigitte Prindull; Zvi Palti; Joseph M. Yoffey

1975-01-01

428

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

429

Nucleated red blood cells in infants of mothers with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte count is elevated in term, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born to women with asthma. Study design: We compared absolute nucleated red blood cell counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants; one group was

Yoav Littner; Dror Mandel; Galit Sheffer-Mimouni; Francis B. Mimouni; Varda Deutsch; Shaul Dollberg

2003-01-01

430

Correlation of granulocyte intracellular activities of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases with leukocyte count in patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

The activity of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in granulocytes of patients with CML essentially depends on the granulocyte donor's WBC count. The ratio of cAMP-PDE/cGMP-PDE activities in CML granulocytes strongly correlates with CML host WBC count. The regression analysis of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities and counts of individual constituents of the white blood cell population present in the blood of CML patients showed the primary relationship between the natural logarithm of total WBC count and the cAMP-PDE/cGMP-PDE activity. The results suggest that the properties of CML granulocytes depend on the accumulation of these cells in the CML host. PMID:3028917

Naskalski, J W; Uci?ski, W S

1986-01-01

431

20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your...

2013-04-01

432

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count...

2013-04-01

433

7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in...specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens...half-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be...

2010-01-01

434

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...each fraction is the number of mortgage purchases...single-family properties that count toward achievement of...fraction is the total number of mortgage purchases...measured by counting the number of dwelling units that count toward...

2012-01-01

435

7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in...specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens...half-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be...

2009-01-01

436

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each fraction is the number of mortgage purchases...single-family properties that count toward achievement of...fraction is the total number of mortgage purchases...measured by counting the number of dwelling units that count toward...

2013-01-01

437

Blood Guidances  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Collecting Red Blood Cells by Automated Apheresis Methods - Technical Correction February 2001 2 ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

438

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

439

Zero deadtime spectroscopy without full charge collection  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center has built a remote gamma monitoring instrument which employs data sampling techniques rather than full charge collection to perform energy spectroscopy without instrument dead time. The raw, unamplified anode output of a photomultiplier tube is directly coupled to the instrument to generate many digital samples during the charge collection process, so that all pulse processing is done in the digital domain. The primary components are a free-running, 32 MSPS, 10-bit A/D, a field programmable gate array, FIFO buffers, and a digital signal processor (DSP). Algorithms for pulse integration, pile-up rejection, and other shape based criteria are being developed in DSP code for migration into the gate array. Spectra taken with a two inch Na(I) detector have been obtained at rates as high as 59,000 counts per second without dead time with peak resolution at 662 KeV measuring 7.3%.

Odell, D.M.C.; Bushart, B.S.; Harpring, L.J.; Moore, F.S.; Riley, T.N.

1998-10-01

440

Analyses of cardiac blood cells and serum proteins with regard to cause of death in forensic autopsy cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected

Li Quan; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue; Dong-Ri Li; Dong Zhao; Chiemi Yoshida; Jian-Hua Chen; Ayumi Komatsu; Yoko Azuma; Shigeki Sakoda; Bao-Li Zhu; Hitoshi Maeda

2009-01-01

441

Pregnancy and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count Syndrome in Patients With Eisenmenger's Syndrome.  

PubMed

: Eisenmenger's syndrome is characterized by a right-to-left or bidirectional shunt in congenital heart diseases. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, commonly occurring during pregnancy, includes hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts. HELLP syndrome and pregnancy are extremely rare in patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. The authors report 4 cases of pregnancy complicated by the HELLP and Eisenmenger's syndrome and describe their initial intervention and the in-hospital outcomes of these cases. Special emphasis is given to elaborate about the hemodynamic monitoring, magnesium sulphate for convulsions, corticosteroid treatment, anticoagulation therapy, management of pulmonary hypertension, the timing of delivery, and blood product transfusion. PMID:23656922

Wang, Hong; Liu, Tao

2013-11-01

442

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

443

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

444

Full-range complex ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography  

PubMed Central

This letter presents a useful method that combines the full-range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (OMAG) to achieve full range complex imaging of blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. We propose to use the fast scanning axis to realize the full range complex imaging, while using the slow axis to achieve OMAG imaging of blood flow. We demonstrate the proposed method by using a high speed 1310nm OCT/OMAG system running at 92 kHz line scan rate to image the flow phantoms in vitro, and the blood flows in tissue beds in vivo.

An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

2011-01-01

445

Leukocyte counts in relation to the method of delivery during the first five days of life.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to evaluate total and differential leukocyte counts during the first 5 days of life in relation to the method of delivery. We included 203 healthy term infants; of these, 114 were born by vaginal delivery, and 89 by elective cesarean section. Total and differential leukocyte counts were evaluated at the following intervals: 0-6, 7-12, 13-24, 25-48, 49-72, 73-96, and 97-120 h after birth. The cord serum cortisol level was measured as an indicator of the degree of delivery-related stress. Mean leukocyte and neutrophil counts were higher in infants born by vaginal delivery in cord blood and up to 12 h of life. No significant differences were observed in the immature: total neutrophil ratios between the two groups of infants. The cord serum cortisol level was higher in vaginally delivered infants. A significant correlation was found between cortisol and leukocyte, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts. The method of delivery produces significantly different total leukocyte and neutrophil counts during the first 12 h after birth; after this time, there appears to be no more variation of leukocyte counts during the first 5 days of life. PMID:10095143

Chirico, G; Gasparoni, A; Ciardelli, L; Martinotti, L; Rondini, G

1999-05-01

446

Standardisation of (210)Pb by ?erenkov counting.  

PubMed

A standard of (210)Pb in solution was produced at the National Physical Laboratory by a novel technique combining ?erenkov counting with the established liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique known as the CIEMAT/NIST method. Coincidence counting was applied in order to validate the measurements and the activity concentrations of the solution determined with each technique are shown to be in agreement. Radiochemical separation of the (210)Pb from its daughters was also necessary and the scheme for the separation is described. After performing this two-stage standardisation, the uncertainty was successfully lowered to 0.66% (k=1). This uncertainty is approximately a factor of four lower than previously achieved at NPL by the classical method of standardisation of radionuclides, i.e. coincidence counting. PMID:21288729

Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C; Gilligan, Chris R D; Pearce, Andy K

2011-01-11

447

Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light

Nigel R. Franks; Anna Dornhaus; Bonnie G. Metherell; Toby R. Nelson; Sophie A. J. Lanfear; William S. Symes

2006-01-01

448

Blood typing  

MedlinePLUS

... onto a test strip, or into a small container. A bandage may be applied if there is any bleeding. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and ...

449

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

450

Micromachined reference samples for particle counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three micromachined reference sample prototypes for particle counting have been fabricated by using dark ceramic spots in a transparent glass wafer to simulate particles on a surface. The direct write approach permits the spots to be positioned at random locations within an indicated area of the sample with sizes and numbers that are consistent with a distribution of particles. The goal of this work is to provide a path to creating a set of particle counting and sizing samples that can be used to establish the accuracy and precision of different measurements.

Taylor, David P.; Hansen, William W.; Steffeney, Lee; Chu, C.-T.

2012-10-01

451

Photon counting statistics using a digital oscilloscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a photon counting experiment designed for an undergraduate physics laboratory. The statistics of the number of photons of a pseudo-thermal light source is studied in two limiting cases: much longer and much shorter than the coherence time, giving Poisson and Bose-Einstein distributions, respectively. The experiment can be done in a reasonable time using a digital oscilloscope without the need of counting boards. The use of the oscilloscope has the advantage of allowing the storage of the data for further processing. The stochastic nature of the detection phenomena adds additional value because students are forced to do data processing and analysis.

Martínez Ricci, M. L.; Mazzaferri, J.; Bragas, A. V.; Martínez, O. E.

2007-08-01

452

Comparison of Methods for Counting Cells in the Mouse Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have long been interested in counting the number of cells within the glomerulus. Investigators using different techniques have yielded conflicting results. The most direct method is to count the cells in serial sections from the entire glomerulus. This Exhaustive Count method is not usually practical. The disector\\/fractionator method counts the number of cells in a fraction of sections.

John M. Basgen; Susanne B. Nicholas; Michael Mauer; Silvia Rozen; Jens R. Nyengaard

2006-01-01

453

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

454

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce

Fanping Bu; Ryan Greene-Roesel; Mara Chagas Diogenes; David R Ragland

2007-01-01

455

A Unified Multivariate Counting Process: Theoretical Analysis and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The class of counting processes constitutes a significant part of applied probability. The classic counting processes of importance include a Poisson process, a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a renewal process. More sophisticated counting processes have been developed in order to accommodate,a wider range of applications. All of these counting processes seem to be quite different on surface, forcing

Jia-Ping HUANG

2008-01-01

456

WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

457

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

458

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

459

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

460

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole