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1

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... Materialistic Choosing Safe Toys Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Checkups: What to Expect Blood Test: Complete Blood Count KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Print ...

2

Full counting statistics of multiple Andreev reflection.  

PubMed

We derive the full counting statistics of charge transfer through a voltage biased superconducting junction. We find that, for measurement times much longer than the inverse Josephson frequency, the counting statistics describes a correlated transfer of quanta of multiple electron charges, each quantum associated with the transfer of a single quasiparticle. An expression for the counting statistics in terms of the quasiparticle scattering amplitudes is derived. PMID:14611307

Johansson, Göran; Samuelsson, Peter; Ingerman, Ake

2003-10-31

3

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation. PMID:25036459

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

4

AUTOMATIC RED BLOOD CELL AND WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTING FOR  

E-print Network

A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate the overall health and diagnose a wide range of disorders, including anaemia, infection and leukaemia etc. CBC test infer about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood such as Red Blood Cells(RBC), White Blood Cells(WBC) , Platelet. This blood cell count infers about the disorders against normal healthy blood cell count. Haematology analysis to be specific, accurate & reliable in the blood cell counts to mitigate diagnosis. Conventional haematology analysis triggers visit to clinic and is laboratory specialist dependent carried either manually (inaccurate) or by haematology analyser (costlier). Both are not affordable to the remote / rural areas. This paper introduces an cost effective automatic RBC and WBC counting accurately using image analysis technique for remote or rural areas using telemedicine approach independent of specialist to generate patient RBC and WBC report.

Vinutha H Reddy

5

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

6

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

7

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

9

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

10

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

11

Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

12

Full counting statistics of persistent current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a method for the calculation of charge-transfer statistics of persistent current in nanostructures in terms of the cumulant generating function (CGF) of transferred charge. We consider a simply connected one-dimensional system (a wire) and develop a procedure for the calculation of the CGF of persistent currents when the wire is closed into a ring via a weak link. For the noninteracting system we derive a general formula in terms of the two-particle Green's functions. We show that, contrary to the conventional tunneling contacts, the resulting cumulant generating function has a doubled periodicity as a function of the counting field. We apply our general formula to short tight-binding chains and show that the resulting CGF perfectly reproduces the known evidence for the persistent current. Its second cumulant turns out to be maximal at the switching points and vanishes identically at zero temperature. Furthermore, we apply our formalism for a computation of the charge-transfer statistics of genuinely interacting systems. First we consider a ring with an embedded Anderson impurity and employing a self-energy approximation find an overall suppression of persistent current as well as of its noise. Finally, we compute the charge-transfer statistics of a double-quantum-dot system in the deep Kondo limit using an exact analytical solution of the model at the Toulouse point. We analyze the behavior of the resulting cumulants and compare them with those of a noninteracting double-quantum-dot system and find several pronounced differences, which can be traced back to interaction effects.

Komnik, A.; Langhanke, G. W.

2014-10-01

13

Clinical usefulness of white blood cell count after cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine changes in white blood cell (WBC) count after cesarean and estimate risk of postoperative infection.Methods: We measured complete blood cell counts at admission and on postoperative day 1 for 458 women who had cesareans. Information from charts was abstracted, and definitions of infectious outcomes and fever were applied by three physicians masked to laboratory results. We examined

Katherine E. Hartmann; Katherine E. Barrett; Virgil C. Reid; Michael J. MCMahon; William C. Miller

2000-01-01

14

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

15

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites  

E-print Network

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites 1. Scanning for Leucocytozoon in bird blood in the blood, but are large parasites and can be spotted even under low power. 2. For Plasmodium. For bird smears, each field must be inspected because the parasite density (parasitemia) tends to be low. 4

Schall, Joseph J.

16

A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.  

PubMed

The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

2014-12-01

17

Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

2013-01-01

18

Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

2014-12-01

19

Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. PMID:24575274

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

2013-01-01

20

Variability in CD34+ Cell Counts in Umbilical Cord Blood:Implications for Cord Blood Transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if total nucleated cell counts alone are sufficient for predicting the efficacy of cord blood units for transplant from neonatal umbilical cord blood samples. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 200 mothers at delivery and the cord blood units processed. The total nucleated cells and CD34+ cells were enumerated and compared for each sample. Results:

C. Yap; M. T. Loh; K. K. Heng; P. Tan; S. L. Yu; S. H. Chan; E. C. Ren

2000-01-01

21

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence  

PubMed Central

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-01-01

22

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence.  

PubMed

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-01-01

23

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding.

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-05-01

24

Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device  

E-print Network

As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

Zimmerman, Julia C

2011-01-01

25

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

26

Repeatability of estimates of left-venticular volume from blood-pool counts: concise communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide ventriculography permits nongeometric calculation of ventricular volume. Accurate and reproducible determination of left-ventricular (LV) blood-pool counts is necessary to perform this calculation. Furthermore, to make serial volume determinations one must know the half-time of in vivo blood-pool activity. We compared five methods of LV count determination in nine patients. Interpatient and intrapatient variability of the in vivo half-time of

R. J. Burns; M. N. Druck; D. S. Woodward; S. Houle; P. R. McLaughlin

1983-01-01

27

Depressive symptoms in the elderly: Association with total white blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The white blood cell (WBC) count in those with high depressive symptoms and non-depressed participants in the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were compared.2.2. Of 3769 participants 10.8% had high depressive symptoms as assessed by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. The mean white blood cell count was higher in the high depressive

S. Lori Brown; Marcel E. Salive; Jack M. Guralnik; Robert B. Wallace; Adrian M. Ostfeld; Dan Blazer

1995-01-01

28

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

29

Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a nonflowing laser light scattering method for automatically counting and classifying blood cells. A linear charge- coupled device (CCD) and a silicon photoelectric cell (which is placed behind a pinhole plate on the CCD) form a double-detector structure: the CCD is used to detect the scattered light intensity distri- bution of the blood cells and the silicon photoelectric

Ye Yang; Zhenxi Zhang; Xinhui Yang; Joon Hock Yeo; Lijun Jiang; Dazong Jiang

2004-01-01

30

Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality.  

PubMed

Blood eosinophilia (?0.5 × 10(9) /l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 10(9) /l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 10(9) /l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91-2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 10(9) /l. Risks also increased when the eosinophil count approached zero. Here, counts associated relatively more with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes whereas counts above 0.16 × 10(9) /l associated more with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Eosinophil counts associate with hematological malignancies and mortality even below the definition of eosinophilia. The observed plateau of risks around 1.0 × 10(9) /l is important for physicians encountering patients with eosinophilia since even mild-to-moderate eosinophilia according to traditional definitions confers maximally increased risks of subsequent/subclinical hematological malignancy. Am. J. Hematol. 90:225-229, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488524

Andersen, Christen L; Siersma, Volkert D; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Vestergaard, Hanne; Mesa, Ruben; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels D F; Bjerrum, Ole W

2015-03-01

31

Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172

2014-01-01

32

Full dynamics of a red blood cell in shear flow  

PubMed Central

At the cellular scale, blood fluidity and mass transport depend on the dynamics of red blood cells in blood flow, specifically on their deformation and orientation. These dynamics are governed by cellular rheological properties, such as internal viscosity and cytoskeleton elasticity. In diseases in which cell rheology is altered genetically or by parasitic invasion or by changes in the microenvironment, blood flow may be severely impaired. The nonlinear interplay between cell rheology and flow may generate complex dynamics, which remain largely unexplored experimentally. Under simple shear flow, only two motions, “tumbling” and “tank-treading,” have been described experimentally and relate to cell mechanics. Here, we elucidate the full dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow by coupling two videomicroscopy approaches providing multidirectional pictures of cells, and we analyze the mechanical origin of the observed dynamics. We show that contrary to common belief, when red blood cells flip into the flow, their orientation is determined by the shear rate. We discuss the “rolling” motion, similar to a rolling wheel. This motion, which permits the cells to avoid energetically costly deformations, is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight a hysteresis cycle and two transient dynamics driven by the shear rate: an intermittent regime during the “tank-treading-to-flipping” transition and a Frisbee-like “spinning” regime during the “rolling-to-tank-treading” transition. Finally, we reveal that the biconcave red cell shape is highly stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of stress-free shape and elastic buckling. PMID:23213229

Dupire, Jules; Socol, Marius; Viallat, Annie

2012-01-01

33

Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 ?l of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 ?l EDTA blood were mixed with 10 ?l of a DRAQ5 solution (500?M, Biostatus) and 10 ?l of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 ?l of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 ?l of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 ?l instead of 500?l). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for resource poor settings.

Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

2005-04-01

34

The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed.

Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

2014-01-01

35

Association of white blood cell count with metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although some data suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), the factors related to this increased risk are not well elucidated. We therefore examined whether peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count is correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome

Jung Tak Park; Tae Ik Chang; Dong Ki Kim; Hoon Young Choi; Jung Eun Lee; Hyun Wook Kim; Jae Hyun Chang; Sun Young Park; Eunyoung Kim; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Dae-Suk Han; Shin-Wook Kang

2009-01-01

36

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

2004-01-01

37

A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C

2011-12-01

38

Impulsivity-related traits are associated with higher white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity-impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation-are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N = 5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again 3 years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: for every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

Sutin, Angelina R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

2012-12-01

39

Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.  

PubMed

Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

2015-02-01

40

The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ay?egül ?dil; Demircan, Sabri; Y?lmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

2014-01-01

41

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who

Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon

1997-01-01

42

Equation-of-motion method for full counting statistics: Steady-state superradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the multimode Dicke model in a transport setting that exhibits collective boson transmissions, we construct the equation of motion for the cumulant-generating function. Approximating the exact system of equations at the level of the cumulant-generating function and system operators at lowest order allows us to recover master equation results of the full counting statistics for certain parameter regimes at very low computational cost. The thermodynamic limit, which is not accessible with the master equation approach, can be derived analytically for different approximations.

Vogl, Malte; Schaller, Gernot; Schöll, Eckehard; Brandes, Tobias

2012-09-01

43

Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.  

PubMed

Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load. PMID:25500519

Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

2014-12-01

44

Measurement of nicotine intake in pregnant women--associations to changes in blood cell count.  

PubMed

Self-reported information about smoking is imprecise and subject to bias, with accuracy varying according to circumstances. Biochemical assessment gives much clearer indications of the effects of tobacco intake on physiological parameters. As part of a randomized controlled trial, a new point-of-care test for smoking was used as a tool to reduce smoking in pregnancy. Measurements of nicotine metabolites in urine were related to a physiological effect of smoking, notably changes to blood parameters, assessed as a routine part of antenatal care. One hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women attending outpatient antenatal care were initially questioned by a midwife about smoking habits and later questioned by the investigators, during which the test was performed and the results relayed back to the patient. Self-reported smoking habit and cigarette consumption, either reported to midwives or the investigators, were shown to be poor indicators of the effects of smoking on blood parameters. The biochemical assessment of nicotine intake was significantly related to white blood count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin. Red cell count, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and platelet count were unrelated to nicotine metabolite measurements. We concluded that the new test was a reliable measure of nicotine intake in pregnancy and the results correlated with smoking-related changes to haematological parameters. PMID:11403725

Cope, G F; Nayyar, P; Holder, R

2001-05-01

45

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

2011-01-01

46

An Automated High-Throughput Counting Method for Screening Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has proved valuable for early detection and prognosis in cancer treatment. This paper describes an automated high-throughput counting method for CTCs based on microfluidics and line-confocal microscopy. Peripheral blood was directly labeled with multiple antibodies, each conjugated with a different fluorophore, pneumatically pumped through a microfluidic channel and interrogated by a line-confocal microscope. Based on the fluorescence signals and labeling schemes, the count of CTCs was automatically reported. Due to the high flow rate, 1 mL of whole blood can be analyzed in less than 30 minutes. We applied this method in analyzing CTCs from 90 stage IV breast-cancer patient samples, and performed a side-by-side comparison with the results of the CellSearch assay, which is the only method approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at present for enumeration of CTCs. This method has a recovery rate for cultured breast cancer cells of 94% (n=9), with an average of 1.2 counts/mL of background level of detected CTCs from healthy donors. It detected CTCs from breast-cancer patients, ranging from 15 to 3375 counts/7.5 mL. Using this method, we also demonstrate the ability to enumerate CTCs from breast-cancer patients that were positive for Her2 or CD44+/CD24?, which is a putative cancer stem cell marker. This automated method can enumerate CTCs from peripheral blood with high throughput and sensitivity. It could potentially benefit the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. PMID:23387387

Zhao, Mengxia; Schiro, Perry G.; Kuo, Jason S.; Koehler, Karen M.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Popov, Viorica; Feng, Qinghua; Chiu, Daniel T.

2013-01-01

47

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD. PMID:23077568

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

48

Full counting statistics of energy fluctuations in a driven quantum resonator  

SciTech Connect

We consider the statistics of time-integrated energy fluctuations of a driven bosonic single-mode resonator, as measured by a quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, using the standard Keldysh prescription to define higher moments. We find that, due to an effective cascading of fluctuations, these statistics are surprisingly nonclassical: the low-temperature, quantum probability distribution is not equivalent to the high-temperature classical distribution evaluated at some effective temperature. Moreover, for a sufficiently large drive detuning and low temperatures, the Keldysh-ordered quasiprobability distribution characterizing these fluctuations fails to be positive-definite; this is similar to the full counting statistics of charge in superconducting systems. We argue that this indicates a kind of nonclassical behavior akin to that tested by Leggett-Garg inequalities.

Clerk, A. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2011-10-15

49

Simultaneous counting of 85Kr in lung and myocardium during measurement of coronary blood flow.  

PubMed

Coronary blood flow rate (ml-min-1-100 g-1) was estimated by a) measuring pump flow into the cannulated circumflex branch of the left coronary artery and dividing by the weight of perfused myocardium and b) measuring the clearance of 85Kr following intra-arterial injection (detection with a 2-in. crystal with cylindrical collimation). Although the correlation between the two measurements was relatively high (r equals 0.90), the line best fitting the data was 85Kr flow equals 0.55 pump flow + 25.6. We tested the possibility that the discrepancy between the two methods was primarily due to the counting of 85Kr removed from myocardium and delivered to lung. Relative efficiency of lung counting versus myocardial counting was determined as well as clearance pattern of 85Kr from lung in each dog. A simple mathematical model which assumes no recirculation of 85Kr to heart allowed correction of coronary clearance curves using this information. When corrected 85Kr flow equals 1.00 pump flow + 4.1 (r equals 0.90). Thus, the major systematic cause for the discrepancy between the two measurements under the conditions of this experiment appears to be simultaneous counting of 85Kr in lung and in myocardium. PMID:810474

Belloni, F L; Mohrman, D E; Sparks, H V

1975-11-01

50

An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

2014-09-01

51

A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen

2014-01-01

52

Correlation of blood counts with vascular complications in essential thrombocythemia: analysis of the prospective PT1 cohort  

PubMed Central

Essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative neoplasm, is associated with increased platelet count and risk of thrombosis or hemorrhage. Cytoreductive therapy aims to normalize platelet counts despite there being only a minimal association between platelet count and complication rates. Evidence is increasing for a correlation between WBC count and thrombosis, but prospective data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between vascular complications and 21 887 longitudinal blood counts in a prospective, multicenter cohort of 776 essential thrombocythemia patients. After correction for confounding variables, no association was seen between blood counts at diagnosis and future complications. However, platelet count outside of the normal range during follow-up was associated with an immediate risk of major hemorrhage (P = .0005) but not thrombosis (P = .7). Elevated WBC count during follow-up was correlated with thrombosis (P = .05) and major hemorrhage (P = .01). These data imply that the aim of cytoreduction in essential thrombocythemia should be to keep the platelet count, and arguably the WBC count, within the normal range. This study is registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number Registry (www.isrctn.org) as number 72251782. PMID:22709688

Campbell, Peter J.; MacLean, Cathy; Beer, Philip A.; Buck, Georgina; Wheatley, Keith; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Forsyth, Cecily; Harrison, Claire N.

2012-01-01

53

Acute Drop in Blood Monocyte Count Differentiates NEC from Other Causes of Feeding Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration, and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC. Patients and methods We reviewed medical records of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC, and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMC) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC). Results We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26–29 in both groups). In stage II NEC, AMC decreased from median 1.7 × 109/L (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98–2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62–2.1); p <0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 109/L (IQR 0.1.5–3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6–1.9); p <0.05. There was no change in AMC in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMC of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI 0.57–0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64–0.77). Conclusions We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979

Remon, Juan I.; Kampanatkosol, Richard; Kaul, Rajat; Muraskas, Jonathan K.; Christensen, Robert D.; Maheshwari, Akhil

2014-01-01

54

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir

2013-08-01

55

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

56

Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

2011-01-01

57

Whole-blood platelet counts with an impedance-type particle counter.  

PubMed

The Clay-Adams Ultra-Flo 100 whole-blood platelet counter provides results that are accurate and precise for platelet counts greater than 20 x 10(9) per liter with virtually zero carryover from one specimen to the next. Comparison of results with those obtained by manual reference and Technicon Autocounter methods shows excellent correlation. The advantage of the Ultra-Flo 100 over the Technicon Autocounter lies in a smaller space requirement in the laboratory, a short start-up time, and minimal maintenance. This makes the Ultra-Flo 100 especially ideal for the stat laboratory. Operating costs of the Ultra-Flo 100 are comparable to those of other methods investigated, but rapid speed of operation has a significant effect on turnaround time. PMID:7352411

Shulman, G; Yapit, M K

1980-01-01

58

Effects of acute exercise on bleeding time, bleeding amount and blood cell counts: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Twenty-five men and 26 women were studied to investigate the effects of acute strenuous exercise on hemostasis after obtaining their informed consent. After familiarization, they performed exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 75% of their predetermined maximal workload until exhaustion. Bleeding time, measured by the Simplate method, and venous blood cell counts of platelets (Plt), erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) were determined at rest and immediately after exercise. We found that bleeding time of Chinese in our study was longer than those of the westerners in other studies and that bleeding time was significantly shortened after exercise from 8.3 +/- .7 to 6.5 +/- .5 min in men and from 11.4 +/- .9 to 8.6 +/- .8 min in women (p less than 0.001). In men, but not in women, acute exercise also augmented the initial bleeding rate and bleeding amount from standard incisions. We also observed that RBC, WBC and Plt counts were greatly increased. The increased percentages for RBC, WBC and Plt in men were 7 +/- 1%, 59 +/- 7%, 16 +/- 3%, and those in women were 5 +/- 1%, 42 +/- 6% and 17 +/- 2% respectively. PMID:2814940

Chen, H I; Tang, Y R; Wu, H J; Jen, C J

1989-08-15

59

Automated analysis of feline platelets in whole blood, including platelet count, mean platelet volume, and activation state.  

PubMed

A new whole-blood flow cytometric method has been developed for counting and sizing platelets in samples from cats, a species in which platelet and red blood cell sizes overlap significantly. The method is a modified version of the two-angle laser light scattering technology used by Bayer H*System hematology analyzers. The new method provided accurate platelet counts and mean platelet volumes (MPV, fl) for cats. The method also measured mean platelet component concentration (MPC, g/dl), a parameter which was shown to be sensitive to platelet activation state, and which decreased in value as activation progressed. PMID:12075552

Zelmanovic, David; Hetherington, Edward J.

1998-01-01

60

Interpretation of Amniotic Fluid White Blood Cell Count in “Bloody Tap” Amniocenteses in Women With Symptoms of Preterm Labor  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether blood-contaminated amniotic fluid affects the performance of white blood cell (WBC) count in diagnosing intraamniotic inflammation and infection. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive women pregnant with singletons undergoing amniocentesis to rule out infection were enrolled prospectively. A “bloody tap” was defined as a red blood cell (RBC) count of 1,000 cells/mm3 or more. Proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid was used in this study as the standard for diagnosing inflammation. Infection was confirmed by positive amniotic fluid culture. An amniotic fluid WBC count correction formula was computed using maternal WBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. Results The prevalence of a bloody tap amniocentesis was 22% (77 of 357). In the absence of inflammation, the amniotic fluid WBC count was significantly higher in bloody tap (median [interquartile range] 18 [9–58] cells/mm3) compared with non–bloody tap specimens (4 [1–10] cells/mm3; P<.001). The correction formula reversed this difference to a nonsignificant level (bloody tap 0 [0–17] compared with non–bloody tap 3 [1–10] cells/mm3; P=.273). In the setting of inflammation, the observed WBC count of bloody tap samples (778 [197–2,062 cells/mm3]) was significantly elevated compared with that of the non–bloody tap specimens (616 [105–1,730] cells/mm3; P=.023). Correction of the WBC count in bloody tap amniocenteses improved the test accuracy and positive likelihood ratios for inflammation and infection. A correction algorithm was not useful in amniotic fluid specimens with less than 1,000/RBCs/mm3 or WBC counts more than 1,100 cells/mm3. Given the nonlinear relationship between amniotic fluid WBC and RBC, for a rapid correction of WBC count, the number of neutrophils that need to be subtracted from the observed WBC count is variable. Conclusion In the setting of an amniotic fluid sample contaminated with 1,000 RBCs/mm3 or more, WBC count is a less accurate indicator of inflammation and infection. In such samples, correction of WBC count enhances diagnostic performance for inflammation and infection. Level of Evidence II PMID:20664395

Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Rosenberg, Victor A.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Han, Christina S.; Werner, Erika F.; Thung, Stephen; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

2014-01-01

61

25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

2010-04-01

62

Effects of low power laser-irradiation on differential blood count and body temperature in endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power laser irradiation has been shown to have various immune-modulatory effects under in vitro conditions but little is known about such effects in animal models. Escherichia coli endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits were used to determine the influence of transcutaneously applied low power laser light on differential blood count and rectal temperature. After three initial immunizations animals were either boostered with 5

Liesbeth Schindl; Martin Schindl; Laura Polo; Giulio Jori; Sylvia Perl; Andreas Schindl

1997-01-01

63

A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

2014-01-01

64

Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

2002-01-01

65

EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY X-IRRADIATION WITH SUBLETHAL DOSES ON THE CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BLOOD-COUNT OF SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the blood count of Sprague-Dawley rats after x irradiation ; with various sublethal doses (100 to 400 r) were studied. The results from ; cellular blood counts are in agreement with the results given in the literature. ; No significant decrease of gamma globulins was observed after irradiation. ; (Gmelin Inst.);

Nowrousi

1961-01-01

66

Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

2010-02-01

67

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of ... LOW PLATELET COUNT A low platelet count is below 150,000. If you do not have enough platelets, you may ...

68

Full counting statistics of transport electrons through a two-level quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the full counting statistics of transport electrons through a semiconductor two-level quantum dot with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling, which acts as a nonabelian gauge field and thus induces the electron transition between two levels along with the spin flip. By means of the quantum master equation approach, shot noise and skewness are obtained at finite temperature with two-body Coulomb interaction. We particularly demonstrate the crucial effect of SO coupling on the super-Poissonian fluctuation of transport electrons, in terms of which the SO coupling can be probed by the zero-frequency cumulants. While the charge currents are not sensitive to the SO coupling.

Wang, Z. M.; Xue, H. B.; Xue, N. T.; Liang, J.-Q.

2015-02-01

69

White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – The Tromsø Study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer. PMID:24023876

Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

2013-01-01

70

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639. PMID:23526980

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2013-01-01

71

Full counting statistics of generic spin entangler with quantum dot-ferromagnet detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement between spatially separated electrons in nanoscale transport is a fundamental property, yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Here we propose and analyse theoretically the transport statistics of a generic spin entangler coupled to a hybrid quantum dot-ferromagnet detector system. We show that the full distribution of charges arriving at the ferromagnetic terminals provides complete information on the spin state of the particles emitted by the entangler. This provides means for spin entanglement detection via electrical current correlations, with optimal measurement strategies depending on the a priori knowledge of ferromagnet polarization and spin-flip rates in the detector dots. The scheme is exemplified by applying it to Andreev and triple dot entanglers.

Malkoc, O.; Bergenfeldt, C.; Samuelsson, P.

2014-02-01

72

Low NK cell counts in peripheral blood are associated with inferior overall survival in patients with follicular lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Host immune responses influence follicular lymphoma (FL) outcomes. To test our hypothesis that immune cells in blood reflect that response, we assessed by peripheral blood flow cytometry in 75 untreated FL patients the absolute counts of: lymphocytes (ALC), CD4+T (ACD4C), CD8+T (ACD8C) and natural killer (ANKC) cells. Low ANKC was the only parameter associated with inferior overall survival by univariate analysis (p= 0.02), and trended to significance in multivariable analysis with ACD4C (p= 0.08). Five (24%) patients with low initial ANKC died, while none with normal/high ANKC have died Conclusions: Evaluation of blood ANKC may be a useful indicator of outcome in previously untreated FL patients. PMID:23968916

Shafer, Danielle; Smith, Mitchell R.; Borghaei, Hossein; Millenson, Michael M.; Li, Tianyu; Litwin, Samuel; Anad, Rachna; Al-Saleem, Tahseen

2013-01-01

73

Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11104555

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C

2000-01-01

74

Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2014-02-01

75

Full-field laser-Doppler imaging and its physiological significance for tissue blood perfusion.  

PubMed

Using Monte Carlo simulations for a semi-infinite medium representing a skeletal muscle tissue, it is demonstrated that the zero- and first-order moments of the power spectrum for a representative pixel of a full-field laser-Doppler imager behave differently from classical laser-Doppler flowmetry. In particular, the zero-order moment has a very low sensitivity to tissue blood volume changes, and it becomes completely insensitive if the probability for a photon to interact with a moving red blood cell is above 0.05. It is shown that the loss in sensitivity is due to the strong forward scatter of the propagating photons in biological tissues (i.e., anisotropy factor g = 0.9). The first-order moment is linearly related to the root mean square of the red blood cell velocity (the Brownian component), and there is also a positive relationship with tissue blood volume. The most common physiological interpretation of the first-order moment is as tissue blood volume times expectation of the blood velocity (in probabilistic terms). In this sense, the use of the first-order moment appears to be a reasonable approach for qualitative real-time blood flow monitoring, but it does not allow us to obtain information on blood velocity or volume independently. Finally, it is shown that the spatial and temporal resolution trade-off imposed by the CMOS detectors, used in full-field laser-Doppler hardware, may lead to measurements that vary oppositely with the underlying physiological quantities. Further improvements on detectors' sampling rate will overcome this limitation. PMID:18997268

Binzoni, T; Van De Ville, D

2008-12-01

76

Full-field laser Doppler imaging and its physiological significance for tissue blood perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Monte Carlo simulations for a semi-infinite medium representing a skeletal muscle tissue, it is demonstrated that the zero- and first-order moments of the power spectrum for a representative pixel of a full-field laser-Doppler imager behave differently from classical laser-Doppler flowmetry. In particular, the zero-order moment has a very low sensitivity to tissue blood volume changes, and it becomes completely insensitive if the probability for a photon to interact with a moving red blood cell is above 0.05. It is shown that the loss in sensitivity is due to the strong forward scatter of the propagating photons in biological tissues (i.e., anisotropy factor g = 0.9). The first-order moment is linearly related to the root mean square of the red blood cell velocity (the Brownian component), and there is also a positive relationship with tissue blood volume. The most common physiological interpretation of the first-order moment is as tissue blood volume times expectation of the blood velocity (in probabilistic terms). In this sense, the use of the first-order moment appears to be a reasonable approach for qualitative real-time blood flow monitoring, but it does not allow us to obtain information on blood velocity or volume independently. Finally, it is shown that the spatial and temporal resolution trade-off imposed by the CMOS detectors, used in full-field laser-Doppler hardware, may lead to measurements that vary oppositely with the underlying physiological quantities. Further improvements on detectors' sampling rate will overcome this limitation.

Binzoni, T.; Van DeVille, D.

2008-12-01

77

Preoperative Platelet Count and Postoperative Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery: An Inverse Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study we tried to assess the clinical usefulness of platelet count (PIC) to confirm whether postoperative pulmonary embolism could be suspected early. Unexpectedly, the 19 patients who subsequently developed pulmonary embolism had significantly lower mean PIC levels even before surgery. In an attempt to discover whether the preoperative PIC levels were associated with a different incidence of

Manuel Monreal; Elena Lafoz; Jaume Llamazares; Javier Roncales; Jaume Roca; Xavier Granero

1996-01-01

78

White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

2015-03-01

79

Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56(+) APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 10(9)/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56(+) APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. PMID:24206578

Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

2014-01-01

80

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

PubMed

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable. PMID:22088676

Seliger, Christian; Schaerer, Beatrice; Kohn, Marina; Pendl, Helene; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

2012-01-15

81

Circuit theory and full counting statistics of charge transfer through mesoscopic systems: A random-matrix approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a random-matrix description of full counting statistics of charge transfer through a quantum mesoscopic system at finite temperature in the presence two nonideal contacts. Using the exact map between random-matrix theory and the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model, we demonstrate, via explicit calculations, that the saddle-point equation, derived by applying the variational principle to the supersymmetric action, can be cast in the form of the two-terminal version of Nazarov’s circuit theory, thus giving it the status of a controlled approximation. For the case in which the mesoscopic system is a quantum dot at zero temperature, this circuit theory has recently been shown [A. L. R. Barbosa and A. M. S. Macêdo, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235307 (2005)] to reproduce exactly the asymptotic semiclassical limit of the Poisson kernel in perfect agreement with a diagrammatic approach for averaging over the unitary group. We report applications of our formalism to the description of charge transfer through a quantum dot, a quantum chain, and a quantum wire. We also discuss the role of different symmetry classes (orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic) and show how to use known exact connections between the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model and random scattering matrix theories to perform both perturbative and nonperturbative calculations. We believe that our results will help unify the various approaches being currently used in mesoscopic physics of hybrid devices within a single physically sound and mathematically rigorous theoretical scheme.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macedo-Junior, A. F.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2007-08-01

82

Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system  

SciTech Connect

We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn

2013-12-15

83

Sex Differences in Step Count-Blood Pressure Association: A Preliminary Study in Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWalking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for “dosing” daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) per 1,000 daily step increments.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTwo hundred and one subjects

Priya Manjoo; Lawrence Joseph; Louise Pilote; Kaberi Dasgupta; Conrad P. Earnest

2010-01-01

84

Changes over time in blood basophil counts of X-irradiated rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Frequent determinations over several months explored the size and timing of changes in total white cell, basophil, and percentage basophil values in the blood of 11 male rabbits, six untreated controls and five given single-dose whole-body X-irradiation of 300 R. The main results of analysis were:1.Before exposure, the treated group did not differ significantly from the untreated group on

Ernst Thonnard-Neumann; Wilson L. Taylor; Martin Nosan

1969-01-01

85

Segmentation technique of complex image scene for an automatic blood-cell-counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a method for automatic localization and segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated leukocyte counter by using pattern recognition-based slide readers. The segmentation techniques consist of the following steps. On the first a smear image acquired at the low magnification. The next is extraction of WBC nuclei by chromatic properties and image mapping. After this the cells clustered according to the distances between them and regions of interest (ROI) determined. Image of ROI captured at the high magnification and its validity checked. Then nucleus segments extracted and grouped into prospective cells. The detection of blood cells is based on the intensity of G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity of the nuclei. A cytoplasm region approximated by a circle area around the nucleus center. Finally, the cytoplasm area cleaned considering a priori knowledge of background color and possible cell occlusions. The result of the segmentation is presented in the form of a cell location list and image template in which every pixel is assigned to a label such as Background, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Hole, etc. The proposed technique has yielded correct segmentation of complex image scenes for blood smears prepared by ordinary manual staining methods in 99% of tested images.

Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

1996-04-01

86

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

87

A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  

PubMed

Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

2010-06-01

88

Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

89

Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

2011-01-01

90

Nucleated red blood cell count in the differentiation of fetuses with pathologic growth restriction from healthy small-for-gestational-age fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count in differentiating the fetus with growth restriction from the small but otherwise healthy fetus. Study Design: Perinatal outcomes were evaluated prospectively for all neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in 1997. Nonanomalous neonates with normal phenotype and a complete

Victoria K. Minior; Ellen Shatzkin; Michael Y. Divon

2000-01-01

91

Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

92

Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.  

PubMed

Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ? 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management. PMID:23928130

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

2013-12-01

93

A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

2015-01-01

94

Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250693

Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

95

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

96

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Affective Psychoses  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18–70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J.; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2014-01-01

97

[Prevalence of subclinical udder infections and individual somatic cell counts in three dairy goat herds during a full lactation].  

PubMed

For dairy goats, both the determination of the somatic cell counts (SCC) and the interpretation of these values may be a problem. Several investigations have shown that SCC for goat's milk, even from not infected mammary halves, are often higher than for cows milk. In the three herds examined about 40% of mammary halves and 30% of the goats were infected. However large differences between the three herds could be observed. In most cases, infections were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) or corynebacteria. The SCC of individual milk samples from goats without any udder infection hardly differed from those of goats with at least one udder half infected with CNS. In 20% and 30% of the cases the SCC was higher than 750'000 cells/ml, respectively. The relation between California Mastitis Test (CMT) reactions and udder infections was not very close. Over 20% of mammary halves infected with CNS showed negative CMT reactions. On the other hand, 25% of samples from mammary halves without a proven infection reacted positively. The large differences in individual cell counts on herd and animal level indicate that production and breeding systems might be important reasons for the higher SCC. As a consequence, the most common methods for or the control of udder health and udder infections (SCC, California Mastitis Test) are of limited value for goats. Since there was only a weak relation between milk quality properties and SCC, any arguments for the introduction of legal limits below 1 million cells per ml can hardly be found. PMID:17263081

Schaeren, W; Maurer, J

2006-12-01

98

Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

2006-02-01

99

Full characterization of PDX, a neuroprotectin/protectin D1 isomer, which inhibits blood platelet aggregation.  

E-print Network

-hydroxy-DHA products, were found to be produced by human whole blood and neutrophils [7], trout head-kidney [82009 Author manuscript, published in "FEBS Lett 2009;:epub ahead of print" DOI : 10.1016/j.febslet.2009,E,Z (PD1) and S configuration at carbon 10 instead of R. PDX inhibits human blood platelet aggregation

Boyer, Edmond

100

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...

101

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

102

Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV) mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety. PMID:25408849

McBean, Rhiannon S.; Hyland, Catherine A.; Flower, Robert L.

2014-01-01

103

Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.  

PubMed

The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.60. PMID:24064533

Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

2013-09-25

104

Heterogeneous histochemical reaction pattern of the lectin Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia with blood vessels of human full-term placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS-I) stains vascular endothelium in various species. In humans, less than 10% of the specimens studied exhibit a reaction with BS-I. In the present histochemical study, the reactivity of BS-I with placental blood vessels and its correlation with the blood group from mother and newborn child was investigated. Acetone-fixed cryosections of representative tissue segments of human full-term

Ingrid Lang; Tom Hahn; Gottfried Dohr; Gerhard Skofitsch; Gernot Desoye

1994-01-01

105

70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

2014-01-01

106

The relationship between nucleated red blood cell counts at birth and neuropsychological outcome in preterm-birth preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between a putative marker of antenatal hypoxia, nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in circulating neonatal blood obtained shortly after birth, and motor, memory and intellectual development at preschool age in children with history of preterm birth (gestational ages 24–34 weeks). ^ Children with congenital disorders and children who

Angela K DeBastos

2007-01-01

107

Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

2014-01-01

108

Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

109

A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C. [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

1996-08-09

110

Operative blood loss and use of blood products after full robotic and conventional low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for treatment of rectal cancer.  

PubMed

To date, no studies have investigated the estimated blood loss (EBL) after full robotic low anterior resection (R-LAR) in a case-matched model, comparing it with the conventional open approach (O-LAR). Forty-nine patients in the R-LAR and 105 in the O-LAR group were matched for age, gender, BMI (body mass index), ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) class, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification and UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stage, distance of the lower edge of the tumor from the anal verge, presence of comorbidities, and preoperative hemoglobin (Hb). EBL was significantly higher in the O-LAR group (P < 0.001); twelve units of packed red blood cells were globally transfused in the O-LAR group, compared to one unit only in the R-LAR (P = 0.051). A significantly higher postoperative Hb drop (3.0 vs. 2.4 g/dL, P = 0.015) was registered in the O-LAR patients. The length of hospital stay was much lower for the R-LAR group (8.4 vs. 12.4 days, P < 0.001). The number of harvested lymph nodes (17.4 vs. 13.5, P = 0.006) and extent of distal margin (2.9 vs. 1.9 cm, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the R-LAR group. Open surgery was confirmed as the sole variable significantly associated (P < 0.001) with blood loss (odds ratio = 4.41, 95% CI 2.06-9.43). It was a confirmed prognosticator of blood loss (P = 0.006) when a preoperative clinical predictive model was built, using multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 3.95, 95% CI 1.47-10.6). In conclusion, R-LAR produced less operative blood loss and less drop in postoperative hemoglobin when compared to O-LAR. Other clinically relevant outcomes were similar or superior to O-LAR. PMID:21765876

Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Pozzi, Simonetta; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Valvo, Manuela; Sonzogni, Angelica; Radice, Davide; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal

2011-06-01

111

Simultaneous counting of ⁸⁵Kr in lung and myocardium during measurement of coronary blood flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary blood flow rate (ml.min⁻¹.100 g⁻¹) was estimated by (a) measuring pump flow into the cannulated circumflex branch of the left coronary artery and dividing by the weight of perfused mycardium and (b) measuring the clearance of ⁸⁵Kr following intra-arterial injection (detection with a 2-in. crystal with cylindrical collimation). Although the correlation between the two measurements was relatively high (r

F. L. Belloni; D. E. Mohrman; H. V. Sparks

1975-01-01

112

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.  

PubMed

Background: Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster.Methods: The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012.Results: Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically.Conclusions: No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2014-10-11

113

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone.

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

114

National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2–24 months in the PCV-7 era  

PubMed Central

Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced. PMID:23603643

Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline

2013-01-01

115

Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM. PMID:24066211

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young

2013-01-01

116

Reduced birth weight in relation to pesticide mixtures detected in cord blood of full-term infants  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to pesticides may be associated with decreased fetal growth. The specific pesticides investigated and results reported across studies have been inconsistent, and there is a mounting need for the consideration of mixtures rather than individual agents in studies of health outcomes in relation to environmental exposures. There are also many individual pesticides that have not been investigated in human health studies to date. We conducted a pilot study in rural Zhejiang province, China, measuring 20 non-persistent pesticides (10 insecticides, 6 herbicides, 3 fungicides, and 1 repellant) in umbilical cord blood of 112 full term (>37 weeks) infants. The pesticides detected with the greatest frequency were diethyltoluamide (DEET) (73%), a repellant, and vinclozolin (49%), a fungicide. The samples had detectable concentrations for a mean of 4.6 pesticides (SD=1.9) with a maximum of 10. Adjusting for potential confounders, newborn birth weight was inversely associated with the number of pesticides detected in cord blood (p = 0.04); birth weight decreased by a mean of 37.1 grams (95% CI, ?72.5 to ?1.8) for each detected pesticide. When assessing relationships by pesticide type, detection of fungicides was also associated with decreased birth weight (adjusted ? = ?116 grams [95% CI, ?212 to ?19.2]). For individual pesticides analyzed as dichotomous (detect vs. non-detect) variables, only vinclozolin (adjusted ? = ?174 grams [95% CI, ?312 to ?36.3] and acetochlor (adjusted ? = ?165 grams [95% CI, ?325 to ?5.7]) were significantly associated with reduced birth weight. No significant associations were seen between birth weight and individual pesticides assessed as continuous or 3-level ordinal variables. Our findings from this pilot investigation suggest that exposure to fungicides may adversely impact fetal growth. Exposure to mixtures of multiple pesticides is also of concern and should be explored in addition to individual pesticides. Additional research is needed to establish causality and to understand the function and impact of fungicides and pesticide mixtures on fetal development. PMID:22796478

Wickerham, Erin L.; Lozoff, Betsy; Shao, Jie; Kaciroti, Niko; Xia, Yankai; Meeker, John D.

2012-01-01

117

Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

2011-01-01

118

Are the review criteria for automated complete blood counts of the International Society of Laboratory Hematology suitable for all hematology laboratories?  

PubMed Central

Objective to verify whether the review criteria for automated blood counts suggested by the International Consensus Group for Hematology Review of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology are suitable for the Hematology Laboratory of Hospital de Clinicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Methods initially, the review criteria of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology were adapted due to limitations in the Institution's electronic hospital records and interfacing systems. The adapted review criteria were tested using 1977 samples. After this first assessment, an additional 180 inpatient samples were analyzed to evaluate the screening criteria of the review criteria in conjunction with positive smear findings established by the institution. The performance of the review criteria was verified by determining false positive, false negative, true positive and true negative rates, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, microscopic review rate and efficiency. Results initial analysis showed false negatives = 6.73%, false positives = 23.27%, microscopic review rate = 46.03% and efficiency = 70.0%. An evaluation of the screening criteria adapted from the review criteria together with the positive smear findings of the institution showed false negatives = 15.5%, false positives = 10.5%, microscopic review rate = 37.3% and efficiency = 73.8%. In both situations the safety limit (false negative <5%) recommended by the review criteria was exceeded. Conclusions the review criteria adapted from the International Society for Laboratory Hematology are neither suitable nor safe for use in the hematology laboratory of the Hospital de Clinicas. This implies a need to develop and validate institution-specific review criteria in order to decrease false negative results to an acceptable and safe rate for patients. PMID:25031063

Comar, Samuel Ricardo; Malvezzi, Mariester; Pasquini, Ricardo

2014-01-01

119

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

120

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

121

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... cor pulmonale ) Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen level (hypoxia) ... marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) ... disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood ...

122

Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects using umbilical cord blood stem cells loaded into modified porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this study, we have demonstrated the ability of cord blood (CB)-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) and chitosan-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffold to promote skin regeneration. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated by structural, microscopic, physical, and mechanical assays and cell culture analyses. Results of structural, physical, and mechanical analyses also showed a good resilience and compliance with movement as a skin graft. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation inside the modified scaffolds compared with unmodified ones. In animal models with histological examinations, all groups, excluding the control group especially the groups treated with stem cells, exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at postoperative day 21. These data suggest that chitosan-modified PHBV scaffold loaded with CB-derived USSCs could significantly contribute to wound repair and be potentially used in the tissue engineering. PMID:24346243

Zeinali, Reza; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Asadipour, Kamal

2014-01-01

123

Peripheral blood natural killer cell count is associated with clinical outcome in patients with aaIPI 2 3 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lymphocytopenia is a prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), data are much less established, in spite of numerous reports on immune system-lymphoma interactions. This study addresses the prognostic value of blood lymphocyte subsets at diagnosis in DLBCL. Patients and methods: Absolute values of blood lymphocyte subsets and monocytes were prospectively determined by flow cytometry

A. Plonquet; C. Haioun; J.-P. Jais; A.-L. Debard; G. Salles; M.-C. Bene; P. Feugier; C. Rabian; O. Casasnovas; M. Labalette; E. Kuhlein; J.-P. Farcet; J.-F. Emile; C Gisselbrecht; M-H Delfau-Larue

2007-01-01

124

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

125

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

126

Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.  

PubMed

Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

2013-08-01

127

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

128

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

away from the noises of the engine cooling down. Note the time (a stopwatch is recommended), and then count (a) the number of different cocks heard, and (b) the total number of calls heard. Marking the location of various cocks calling on the data... sheet (Fig. 6) will help you determine if a bird you hear calling has been identifi ed previously. Experi- ence shows that spring call counts are fairly accurate until the number of calling cocks is greater than eight birds per listening post. Each...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

129

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

130

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

131

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

132

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

133

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

134

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

135

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

136

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

137

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.  

E-print Network

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

Loughry, Jim

138

[Corrected count].  

PubMed

The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

1991-11-27

139

Counting whole numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

Hirst, Ms.

2007-10-12

140

Blood Cell Damage after in vitro Irradiation of Fresh Whole Blood with 630 nm Laser Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on blood cell damage after irradiation of fresh whole blood with 630 nm laser light was carried out in vitro. Various fluence rates of laser light were used with and without cooling of blood. Damage to the blood was assessed by blood cell counts, osmotic fragility measurements and examination of blood films. Exposure of a 1 mm blood

Frank Fischer; Michael Aulmann; Wolfgang Maier-Borst; Walter J. Lorenz

141

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...

142

Relation between white blood cell count and final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the INFUSE AMI trial).  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) on presentation is associated with an increased risk of cardiac mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the responsible mechanisms are unknown. We therefore sought to investigate whether elevated WBCc is associated with increased infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Intracoronary Abciximab and Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients With Large Anterior Myocardial Infarction trial. INFUSE AMI randomized patients with STEMI and proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion to bolus intracoronary abciximab versus no abciximab and to manual aspiration versus no aspiration. WBCc at hospital admission was available in 407 of 452 randomized patients. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of WBCc. At 30 days, a significant stepwise increase in infarct size (percentage of total left ventricular mass) was apparent across tertiles of increasing WBCc (median [interquartile range] for tertiles I vs II vs III = 11.2% [3.8% to 19.6%] vs 17.5% [0.5% to 22.9%] vs 19.1% [13.7 to 26.0], respectively, p <0.0001). Absolute infarct mass in grams and abnormal wall motion score were also significantly increased across tertiles of WBC. By multivariate linear regression analysis, WBCc was an independent predictor of infarct size along with intracoronary abciximab randomization, age, time from symptom onset to first device, proximal left anterior descending location, and baseline TIMI flow of 0/1. In conclusion, in patients with anterior wall STEMI, an elevated admission WBCc is a powerful independent predictor of infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24063843

Palmerini, Tullio; Brener, Sorin J; Genereux, Philippe; Maehara, Akiko; Della Riva, Diego; Mariani, Andrea; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Godlewski, Jacek; Parise, Helen; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Ochala, Andrzej; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W

2013-12-15

143

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

144

Birth season and environmental influences on blood leucocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in rural Gambian infants  

PubMed Central

Background In rural Gambia, birth season predicts infection-related adult mortality, providing evidence that seasonal factors in early life may programme immune development. This study tested whether lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by automated full blood count and flow cytometry in cord blood and at 8, 16 and 52 weeks in rural Gambian infants (N = 138) are affected by birth season (DRY = Jan-Jun, harvest season, few infections; WET = Jul-Dec, hungry season, many infections), birth size or micronutrient status. Results Geometric mean cord and postnatal counts were higher in births occurring in the WET season with both season of birth and season of sampling effects. Absolute CD3+, CD8+, and CD56+ counts, were higher in WET season births, but absolute CD4+ counts were unaffected and percentage CD4+ counts were therefore lower. CD19+ counts showed no association with birth season but were associated with concurrent plasma zinc status. There were no other associations between subpopulation counts and micronutrient or anthropometric status. Conclusion These results demonstrate a seasonal influence on cell counts with a disproportionate effect on CD8+ and CD56+ relative to CD4+ cells. This seasonal difference was seen in cord blood (indicating an effect in utero) and subsequent samples, and is not explained by nutritional status. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis than an early environmental exposure can programme human immune development. PMID:18462487

Collinson, Andrew C; Ngom, Pa Tamba; Moore, Sophie E; Morgan, Gareth; Prentice, Andrew M

2008-01-01

145

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

146

Partitioned counting digital filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed variation of counting digital filter implements count in a way which allows shortest permissible spacing between samples of input signal to be small fraction of time it takes to compute output sample.

Zohar, S.

1977-01-01

147

Blood Cell Damage after in VitroIrradiation of Fresh Whole Blood with 630 nm Laser Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A study on blood cell damage after irradiation of fresh whole blood with 630 nm laser light was carried outin vitro. Various fluence rates of laser light were used with and without cooling of blood. Damage to the blood was assessed by blood cell counts, osmotic fragility measurements and examination of blood films. Exposure of a 1 mm blood

Frank Fischer; Michael Aulmann; Wolfgang Maier-Borst; Walter J. Lorenz

1998-01-01

148

Blood Components  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

149

Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 near Full-Length Proviral Genomes Identifies High Rates of BF1 Recombinants Including Two Novel Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a Disseminating 71_BF1 among Blood Donors in Pernambuco, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n?=?26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Methods Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Results Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. Conclusions The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil. PMID:25401747

Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C.; Busch, Michael P.; Sanabani, Sabri S.

2014-01-01

150

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Etc, Florida C.

2010-07-19

151

Counting Transitive Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to count partial orders on a set of n points, it seems necessary to explicitly construct a representative of every isomorphism type. While that is done, one might as well determine their automorphism groups. In this note it is shown how several other types of binary relations can be counted, based on an explicit enumeration of the partial

Gotz Pfeifier; Galway Ireland

152

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Christian, Mrs.

2007-03-21

153

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

154

Counting Your Lucky Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

Ricles, Shannon; Hatok, Tim; Taylor, Berlina

2013-01-30

155

Full Issue  

E-print Network

forensic context, where there might be particular problems arising from the sometimes miniscule amounts of available biological material,forensic setting, scientists often have only minute samples of blood, perhaps quite old, possibly contaminated with bacteria or other materials

UCLA, Law School

2007-01-01

156

Automated counting of pedestrians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in automatic building management systems and in road traffic monitoring systems have highlighted a need for accurate real time data relating to occupancy and flow of pedestrians in relatively unconstrained physical areas. In buildings where constrained pedestrian flow is possible to arrange either light beams or turn stiles have been used to count people, but in less constrained areas, counting has been achieved by some manual means i.e. hand counting of live or recorded scenes. The ESPRIT PEDMON (PEDestrian MONitoring) project is focused on the development of technologies to enable the automated counting of pedestrians in unconstrained areas, with the target of producing a cost effective real time demonstration at the projects conclusion. A number of mechanisms are being investigated within the project and image processing is taking a leading role in the development of wide area monitoring and counting systems. This report will describe the image processing work performed by the authors in fulfillment of the project.

Sexton, Graham G.; Zhang, Xiaowei

1994-09-01

157

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

158

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

University, Cornell

159

Make Your Calories Count  

MedlinePLUS

... Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . Use the Nutrition Facts Label for Healthy Weight Management Make Your Calories Count ... It's only three steps Glossary Definitions of food label and nutrition terms used in this presentation. Resources Additional food ...

160

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

Chapman, Frank

161

Machine Instruction Count Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Machine Instruction Count Program (MIC Program) was originally developed in 1978 to produce 'operator' and 'operand' counts of object programs written for the AN\\/UYK-7 military computer. In 1981, its capability was expanded so that it could apply to the AN\\/UYS-1 (or “Advanced Signal Processor”) military computer. The former machine, made by UNIVAC, hosts the IBM-developed software for the sonar

John E. Gaffney Jr.

1982-01-01

162

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

163

Blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

164

Sucralose sweetener does not modify radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) were evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with sweetener, and the labeling of blood constituents with (99mTc) was performed. Radioactivity in blood constituents was counted, and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI)\\u000a was determined. Blood smears were

Gabrielle de Souza Rocha; Marcia de Oliveira Pereira; Monica de Oliveira Benarroz; Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman; Vanessa Câmara da Rocha; Mário José Pereira dos Santos; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Mario Bernardo-Filho

165

Whole blood viscosity issues VII: The correlation with leucocytosis and implication on leukapheresis  

PubMed Central

Background: Blood hyperviscosity has been acknowledged to be a complicating factor in polycythaemia and hyperproteinaemia. Hyperleucocytosis has also been implicated in hyperviscosity and may be a basis for therapeutic leukapheresis. Aims: This issue in the series seeks to determine the association and correlation between whole blood viscosity and white blood cell count (WBCC), with a view to advance the cause of a neglected clinical pathology index. Materials & Methods Based on archived clinical pathology data, 10,857 cases that were concomitantly tested for full blood count and total proteins in the 2008 calendar year were audited for hyperleucocytosis. Whole blood viscosity level was determined and compared in the group with leucocytosis relative to the group with leucopenia and normal WBCC. The confounding effects of age, gender and red blood cell indices were evaluated. The correlation between whole blood viscosity and WBCC was also determined. Results As a generalization, hypoviscosity is observed among individuals who presented hyperleucocytosis. There is no correlation (r = 0.20) between leucocytosis and blood viscosity. Conclusion : It is known that anaemia and thromboembolism, which can be associated with leucocytosis, predispose to hypoviscosity. The finding from this study provides evidence of association between hypoviscosity and leucocytosis. The absence of association and insignificant correlation between leucocytosis and hyperviscosity may be one explanation for ineffectiveness of therapeutic leukapheresis. Further, the non-correlation lends credence to specificity of blood viscosity, for which critical leucocytosis is not a substitute. PMID:22558570

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

2010-01-01

166

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants. PMID:25058337

Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Šálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trn?ný, Marek

2014-01-01

167

Counting the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These seven articles focus on Shelter and Street Night, a recent Census Bureau effort to include components of the nation's homeless population in the 1990 census count. The success of investigators in Chicago (Illinois), New York City, Los Angeles (California), Phoenix (Arizona), and New Orleans (Louisiana) is analyzed. (SLD)

Wright, James D., Ed.

1992-01-01

168

Reticulocyte Count Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/ ...

169

What Counts as Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

170

Counting digital filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

Zohar, S. (inventor)

1973-01-01

171

Fraction Counting Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

2012-12-17

172

Every Square Inch Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do scientists measure the abundance of rocky intertidal organisms? How does the subtidal zone differ from the rocky intertidal zone in organisms and abundance? Every Square Inch Counts is an activity that compares the rocky intertidal habitats of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to the subtidal benthic habitat in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

173

Blood clotting  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

174

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood Blood is like the body's transportation system, busy ... his or her body. Continue What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a relatively simple medical ...

175

Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

176

Blood Thinners  

MedlinePLUS

If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

177

AN EXTENSIBLE COMPUTER VISION APPLICATION FOR BLOOD CELL RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

1 AN EXTENSIBLE COMPUTER VISION APPLICATION FOR BLOOD CELL RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS G of blood cell count reports is of paramount importance in the healthcare industry. The traditional method and analyzing blood cells. Keywords: Microscopic Image Analysis, Standard Blood Cell Count, Differential White

178

Blood Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and ...

179

Blood sugar test - blood  

MedlinePLUS

... between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered normal. If you had a random ... blood glucose level will be below 125 mg/dL. The examples above show the common measurements for ...

180

Mean platelet volume and platelet counts in type 2 Diabetes: Mellitus on treatment and non-diabetic mellitus controls in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Mean platelet volume and platelet counts are indicators of thrombotic potentials, and risk factors for microvascular complications in diabetics. This study aimed to establish variations in platelet counts and mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and non-diabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 non-diabetic controls. Four and half milliliters of blood was collected from diabetics and non diabetic controls into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. Full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KN-21N, (manufactured by Sysmex corporation Kobe, Japan) a three- part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample including platelet counts and mean platelet volume. Results The mean fasting blood sugar for the diabetics was 147.85±72.54 mg/dl and the controls 95.20±30.10 mg/dl. The mean platelet count for the diabetics was 235.29±76.81*109/L and controls, 211.32±66.44*109/L. The mean platelet volume, for the diabetics was 8.69±0.67 fl and the controls, 8.91±0.80 fl. There was a statistically significant difference in platelet counts of diabetics and healthy controls p =0.038 while none existed between the mean platelet volume in diabetics and healthy controls p = 0.593. Conclusion This study revealed a higher mean platelet count for diabetics on treatment than for non diabetic controls while mean platelet volume was lower in cases than controls. However, both parameters in diabetics on treatment were within the normal reference range for healthy individuals. PMID:25368731

Akinsegun, Akinbami; Akinola Olusola, Dada; Sarah, John-Olabode; Olajumoke, Oshinaike; Adewumi, Adediran; Majeed, Odesanya; Anthonia, Ogbera; Ebele, Uche; Olaitan, Okunoye; Olanrewaju, Arogundade; Kingsley, Aile

2014-01-01

181

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

1998-01-01

182

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Goulder, Nicky; Lodge, Samantha

2013-01-01

183

Quality Counts Certificate  

E-print Network

Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal... Setting Livestock Project Impact on Red Meat Industry Responsibility of Producing a Safe Product Medication Usage and Labeling Animal Care and Well-Being Trustworthiness Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Citizenship 4-H 2?5 11-06 ...

Chilek, Kevin

2007-01-31

184

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

185

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Jayne Hartman

2012-07-23

186

The complexity of approximate counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several computational problems that can be formulated as problems of counting the number of objects having a certain property. Valiant [22] has introduced the class #P which includes a variety of counting problems such as counting the number of perfect matchings in a graph, computing the permanent of a matrix [22], finding the size of a backtrack search

Larry Stockmeyer

1983-01-01

187

AN ADJUSTABLE COUNTING TRAY FOR \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A counting tray is described which enables large bulky samples, of from ; 1 to 100 grams, to be counted as infinitely-thick sources, for any beta energy, ; with exactly reproducible geometry. The counting tray is designed to fit the ; standard 1271 A G-M counter support. (auth);

1957-01-01

188

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

189

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

190

TOTAL Full-TOTAL Full-  

E-print Network

- X TOTAL Full- Part- X TOTAL Alternative Energy 6 . . 6 11 . . 11 13 2 . 15 Biomedical Engineering 52 English 71 . 4 75 70 . 4 74 72 . 3 75 Geosciences 9 . 1 10 15 . . 15 19 . . 19 History 37 1 2 40 28 3 3 34

Portman, Douglas

191

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

192

Immunoelectrophoresis - blood  

MedlinePLUS

IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

193

Increased post-induction intensification improves outcome in children and adolescents with a markedly elevated white blood cell count (?200 × 10(9) /l) with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but not B cell disease: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ?200 × 10(9) /l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 10(9) /l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival. PMID:25308804

Hastings, Caroline; Gaynon, Paul S; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Seibel, Nita L

2015-02-01

194

Count Us In  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Online division, this interactive site contains age-appropriate and visually-appealing games designed to help young people understand basic number concepts. There are fifteen games in total, all of which may be downloaded for use in the classroom or at home, at no charge. Some of the games include activities that allow students to design patterns using objects contained with a bookshelf or the ever-popular sheep counting game, where participants must move sheep from left to right until there are the same number of sheep in each paddock. Additionally, there is a section that explains the purpose of each game, and a help feature within each game that helps users become acclimated to the goal of each activity. The site is rounded out by a selection of teacher resources designed to complement each game on the site.

195

Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

2013-01-01

196

A study of platelet Count, body fat and Harvard Step Test Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between platelet count, bodyfat, and Harvard step test score was examined in 15 post-absorptive male subjects. Subjects rested for five minutes at the beginning of the testing period. A fingertip blood sample was then obtained and the platelet count determined by the method of Brecher and Cronkite. One-percent ammonium oxalate was employed as the dilution fluid. Bodyfat was

W. P. Marley; A. C. Linnerud

1973-01-01

197

ICF's Annual Midwest Crane Count: Counting Beyond Cranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a Program Plan for the Crane Count. The Program Plan establishes a mission, goals, and objectives for the Crane Count, with specific recommendations for future improvements and direction. This plan was created through a variety of sequential steps including: a) review and content analysis of historic program documents, b) assessment of current

Brian T. Barch

198

Artificial blood  

PubMed Central

Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone. PMID:19742251

Sarkar, Suman

2008-01-01

199

The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) database  

PubMed Central

Background The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person’s state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. Methods and results The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Conclusion This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration. PMID:24966694

Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Karlslund, Willy; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Felding, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

2014-01-01

200

AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

201

Counting cases in substitope algorithms.  

PubMed

We describe how to count the cases that arise in a family of visualization techniques, including Marching Cubes, Sweeping Simplices, Contour Meshing, Interval Volumes, and Separating Surfaces. Counting the cases is the first step toward developing a generic visualization algorithm to produce substitopes (geometric substitutions of polytopes). We demonstrate the method using "GAP," a software system for computational group theory. The case-counts are organized into a table that provides a taxonomy of members of the family; numbers in the table are derived from actual lists of cases, which are computed by our methods. The calculations confirm previously reported case-counts for four dimensions that are too large to check by hand and predict the number of cases that will arise in substitope algorithms that have not yet been invented. We show how Pólya theory produces a closed-form upper bound on the case counts. PMID:18579966

Banks, David C; Linton, Stephen A; Stockmeyer, Paul K

2004-01-01

202

The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background High red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is related to impairment of erythropoiesis, reflecting chronic inflammation and increased levels of oxidative stress, both of which are telltale signs of type 2 diabetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the RDW and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure, and compare the results from diabetics with nondiabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 nondiabetic controls. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from all of the diabetics and nondiabetic controls, and placed into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. A full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KX-21N, a three-part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample, including RDW. Blood pressure was measured during sample collection and in a sitting position. Results The mean fasting blood sugar level was 95.20±30.10 mg/dL in the controls, and 147.85±72.54 mg/dL in the diabetics. The mean blood pressures for diabetics was 138/90 mmHg and for non-diabetics 120/80 mmHg. The mean RDW-SD (RDW standard deviation) was 46.44±4.64 fl in the controls, and 46.84±3.18 in the diabetics. The mean RDW-CV (RDW coefficient of variation) was 14.74%±1.94% in controls, and 14.80±0.71 for diabetics. No statistically significant correlation was found between the RDW-SD and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure in the diabetics. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the RDW-CV and blood pressure in the diabetics. Conclusion A positive correlation between the RDW-CV and blood pressure was established in the diabetics in this study. PMID:25278786

Dada, Olusola Akinola; Uche, Ebele; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Odesanya, Majeed; John-Olabode, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Okunoye, Olaitan; Arogundade, Olanrewaju; Aile, Kingsley; Ekwere, Timothy

2014-01-01

203

Blood Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack High Blood Cholesterol Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... Next >> January 6, 2012 Blood Tests Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ...

204

Porphyrins - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Veins and arteries vary in size so taking a blood sample may be harder in some people than others. Other slight risks of having blood drawn may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling light- ...

205

Blood smear  

MedlinePLUS

... due to: Breakdown of red blood cells (decreased osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol ... blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased osmotic fragility Presence of elliptocytes may be a sign ...

206

Blood Typing  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Blood Typing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... antigens? 1. Do I need to know my blood type? If you need a transfusion, health practitioners ...

207

BLOOD FLOW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engaged, analytical and inquisitive in learning about the mechanism of blood flow and the importance of this in our body. In addition, the lesson engages the student to test variables that may affect blood flow.

ARNEL DELA CRUZ

2012-06-28

208

Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... liver to muscle to provide a source of energy for movement; coagulation factors may be carried from ... contain the marrow that makes blood cells in adults. The process of blood cell formation is called “hematopoiesis.” A small group of cells, the stem cells, develop into all the blood cells in ...

209

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

210

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

211

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

212

Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and\\u000a oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count\\u000a and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous\\u000a exposure of blood to low-intensity emission

G. A. Zalesskaya; N. V. Akulich; A. V. Marochkov; O. V. Laskina; N. P. Mit’kovskaya

2010-01-01

213

[Emergency blood picture].  

PubMed

Assessment of peripheral blood counts and blood film analysis are frequently performed as diagnostic procedures in emergency medicine. Far fewer situations exist, however, in which these analyses are the main clue in establishing an emergency diagnosis. Artifacts can lead to wrong diagnosis, e.g. pseudo-thrombocytopenia, which is defined as a low platelet count resulting from a laboratory artifact. Severe neutropenia (agranulocytosis) and extreme hyperleukocytosis, as well as suspicion of acute leukemia, require a rapid diagnostic work-up. A newly detected anemia should not necessarily be treated by packed red cell transfusions. The decision whether an anemic patient ought to receive transfusions should be based on the speed with which the anemia has developed, as well as on clinical judgement. As a rule a chronic anemia patient with hemoglobin above 70 g/l does not need transfusions. An uncritical transfusion policy can even cause emergencies, e.g. in patients with megaloblastic anemia or in anemic multiple myeloma patients with a hyperviscosity syndrome. An elevated hematocrit requires prompt further investigations. This is of utmost importance if one considers the diagnosis of polycythemia vera rubra, a disease in which patients are particularly prone to thrombotic complications. Fragmented red cells (schistocytes) on peripheral blood smears constitute a cardinal diagnostic clue for the detection of microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHA), in particular for the diagnosis of the life-threatening thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Malaria is another example for a chief role of blood smears examination in achieving a rapid diagnosis. If one encounters an unexpected severe thrombocytopenia, a marrow examination reveals whether it is due to rapid peripheral destruction, or due to a marrow failure. Furthermore, in any patients with an unanticipated thrombocytopenia, a disseminated intravascular coagulation and a MAHA should be ruled out. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare, but possibly fatal complication of therapy with heparins. PMID:8488374

Tobler, A

1993-04-17

214

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

215

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

216

Blood (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) are ...

217

Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

2011-10-15

218

2.NBT Counting Stamps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The post office packages stamps like this: 10 stamps in each strip. 10 strips of 10 in each sheet. Yesterday Mike saw 4 full sheets, 7 strips, and 2 ex...

219

Blood Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

1992-01-01

220

Counting on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on December 29, 2002, and authored by John B. Horrigan and Lee Rainie, this 17-page report was sponsored by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. The report draws on a recent sample of 2,000 Americans who were queried about their Internet usage, including what type of information they expected to be able to find online. Overall, 97 percent of all Internet users surveyed expected to be able to find online information about either government, health care, news, or commerce, which can be compared to the 64 percent of non-Internet users who thought they would be able to find similar information online. Interestingly enough, 86 percent of all senior citizens who used the Internet also felt they would be able to find this type of information, compared to the much lower 41 percent of non-Internet using senior citizens. The full report also contains an important section detailing the report's methodology.

Horrigan, John B.; Rainie, Lee.

2002-01-01

221

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

222

Photon counting threshold optimization in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of detection threshold on the performance of ideal photon counting sensors is investigated in mammography for several X-ray tube anode/filter combinations and various breast thicknesses. Based on linear X-ray system theory, a method is proposed to take into consideration detector contrast modulation in the domain of X-ray energy as well as effects related to scattered radiation. Breast screening procedures are modelled as radiographic tasks in which low-contrast objects (tumours or microcalcifications) have to be detected in a noisy image background. For ideal photon counting detectors, results at zero spatial frequency show that higher detection thresholds must be implemented when imaging a thick compressed breast, compared to a thin compressed breast. In practice, the photon counting threshold also affects the image noise and the spatial resolution of hybrid pixel detectors, by tuning the amount of charge-shared events. To be generalized to more realistic imaging situations, this analysis must be performed over the full range of spatial frequencies and include additional detector noise parameters.

Marchal, Julien; Hussein, Khalid; John, Lester R.; Vaughan, Christopher L.

2006-07-01

223

Blood transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... Livingstone; 2009:chap 55. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Blood and blood products. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Last updated May 20, 2013. Available at http:// ...

224

Effects of Isotretinoin on the Platelet Counts and the Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Acne Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the platelet counts and the mean platelet volume in patients who received isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Method. A total of 110 patients were included in this retrospective study. Complete blood count parameters were recorded prior to and three-months following the treatment. Results. Both platelet counts and the mean platelet volume were significantly decreased following the treatment. No significant differences were noted on the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count. Conclusion. Platelet counts and mean platelet volume significantly decreased following isotretinoin treatment. Since the decrease of platelet counts and the mean platelet volume was seen concomitantly, it is concluded that the effect of isotretinoin was through the suppression of bone marrow. PMID:24605049

Ugur Bilgin, Aynur

2014-01-01

225

[Validity of the AgNOR count in cervical pathology].  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on ten cases each of normal ectocervix, CIN 1, 2 and 3 to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the means of normal tissue toward condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1 and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p < 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations on the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise from one layer to the next, while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the pattern of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1465312

Leopardi, O; Colecchia, M; Colavecchio, A

1992-01-01

226

Value of AgNOR counts in cervical pathology.  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on normal tissue, condylomata, CIN 1, 2 and 3, to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the mean of normal tissue in relation to condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1, and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p > 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations in the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the patterns of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1473536

Leopardi, O; Colavecchio, M; Colecchia, M; Dedè, A

1992-01-01

227

GalaxyCount: Galaxy counts and variance calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.

Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon

2013-12-01

228

Comparison of conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry versus microflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within the framework of full method validation for simultaneous quantification of 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics in whole blood.  

PubMed

Microflow liquid chromatography (MFLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is claimed to improve analysis throughput, reduce matrix effects and lower mobile phase consumption. This statement was checked within the framework of method validation of a multi-analyte procedure in clinical and forensic toxicology employing MFLC-MS/MS and conventional LC-MS/MS. 200?L whole blood were spiked with 50?L internal standard mixture and extracted by protein precipitation. The concentrated extract was separated into two vials. One was analyzed using a Thermo Fisher Ultimate liquid chromatography system coupled to an ABSciex 5500 QTrap mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) and one by an ABSciex Eksigent Microflow LC system coupled to an ABSciex 4500 linear ion trap quadrupole MS (MFLC-MS/MS). Both methods were fully validated and compared in terms of selectivity, stability, limits, calibration model, recovery (RE), matrix effects (ME), bias, imprecision and beta tolerance interval for 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics including 9 metabolites. Both methods had comparable LODs, LOQs and calibration models with some exceptions. The MFLC system showed slightly higher coefficients of variation (CVs) in the RE experiments. ME were reproducible in both systems but with lower CVs in the conventional LC system. Acceptance criteria for imprecision and bias were fulfilled for 32 analytes on the LC and for 28 analytes on the MFLC system. Beta tolerance intervals indicated better reproducibility in terms of narrower intervals for the conventional LC system. The advantages of the MFLC system were low mobile phase consumption, short run time, and better peak separation. The systems were comparable in terms of peak interference, LOD, ME, bias and imprecision. The advantages of the conventional LC system were more data points per peak, linear calibration models, stable retention times and better beta tolerance intervals. Due to higher robustness, the conventional LC system was finally chosen for routine application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25596763

Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Koenig, Magdalena; Tingelhoff, Eva; Staeheli, Sandra N; Roemmelt, Andreas T; Kraemer, Thomas

2015-02-13

229

Current markers of the Athlete Blood Passport do not flag microdose EPO doping.  

PubMed

The Athlete Blood Passport is the most recent tool adopted by anti-doping authorities to detect athletes using performance-enhancing drugs such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). This strategy relies on detecting abnormal variations in haematological variables caused by doping, against a background of biological and analytical variability. Ten subjects were given twice weekly intravenous injections of rhEPO for up to 12 weeks. Full blood counts were measured using a Sysmex XE-2100 automated haematology analyser, and total haemoglobin mass via a carbon monoxide rebreathing test. The sensitivity of the passport to flag abnormal deviations in blood values was evaluated using dedicated Athlete Blood Passport software. Our treatment regimen elicited a 10% increase in total haemoglobin mass equivalent to approximately two bags of reinfused blood. The passport software did not flag any subjects as being suspicious of doping whilst they were receiving rhEPO. We conclude that it is possible for athletes to use rhEPO without eliciting abnormal changes in the blood variables currently monitored by the Athlete Blood Passport. PMID:21336951

Ashenden, Michael; Gough, Clare E; Garnham, Andrew; Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken

2011-09-01

230

Blood Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

231

Biology of Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Back to Top ... Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders ...

232

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

233

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

234

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

235

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

236

Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

237

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2000-01-01

238

Common Errors in Counting Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics teachers are often asked, "What is the most difficult topic for you to teach?" Their answer is teaching students to count. The concepts can be challenging and slippery to apply in problems. Many times, no rigid procedures or formulas can be used to solve the problems directly, and students simply do not know where or how to approach…

Annin, Scott A.; Lai, Kevin S.

2010-01-01

239

Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

Pride, R. A.

1980-01-01

240

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

241

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

242

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

Ingraham, Sandy

243

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

244

Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.  

PubMed

Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

2014-05-26

245

The counting recursive digital filter.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the bit-level operations involved in the convolutions realizing recursive digital filters leads to hardware designs of such filters based on the operation of counting. Various designs realizing both the canonic and 'direct' forms are presented with particular emphasis on low-cost low-speed high-flexibility machines.

Zohar, S.

1973-01-01

246

KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

247

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

248

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

249

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

250

Blood Smear  

MedlinePLUS

... their function, and their lifespan. Examples include anemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms , bone marrow disorders , and leukemia . Usually, only normal, ... the number of eosinophils Leukemia or myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative neoplasm — immature white blood cells such as blasts may ...

251

Blood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2015, Orlando, FL CME/Certificate of Attendance Satellite Symposia programs View all meetings 2015 Highlights of ... body's fluid balance. back to top Red Blood Cells (also called erythrocytes or RBCs) Known for their ...

252

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2015, Orlando, FL CME/Certificate of Attendance Satellite Symposia programs View all meetings 2015 Highlights of ... vessel is injured. Platelets (a type of blood cell) and proteins in your plasma (the liquid part ...

253

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... marrow failure disease like aplastic anemia , MDS or PNH will receive at least one blood transfusion. When ... Finding a Trial More Information Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Drug Information Androgens Folate ...

254

Amylase - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

255

Moving blood.  

PubMed

Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

Pelis, K

1997-01-01

256

Comparison of leukocyte count and function in smoking and nonsmoking young men.  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte function and other hematological measurements were tested in 14 smoking and 13 nonsmoking young men free of intercurrent or chronic diseases. Leukocyte chemotaxis was depressed in smoking subjects when compared to the same subjects abstaining from cigarettes or to the nonsmokers. Smoking did not affect the whole blood bactericidal capacity of leukocytes and serum for Staphyloccus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Total leukocyte counts, hematocritis, and monocyte counts were higher in the smoking subjects when compared to the nonsmokers. PMID:1100522

Noble, R C; Penny, B B

1975-01-01

257

Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

2010-02-01

258

Optimization of a cell counting algorithm for mobile point-of-care testing platforms.  

PubMed

In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an AndroidTM smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

2014-01-01

259

Number Systems: Finger Counting (Session 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will examine number systems from various cultures around the world. Session 1: First let's begin by examining how other cultures finger count. First examine Image of Ancient Chinese finger counting system. 1.What do you notice about this counting system? 2.How are the fingers used in this system? Now watch the Youtube video finger counting to 10 in Chinese. Now Learn how to finger count to 10 in Chinese. What numbers are similar to our own finger counting system? At what point ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

260

Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

1980-03-01

261

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when youâre anticipating a special event. Locate the date youâre waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

262

Counting Squares in a Square  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

2011-01-01

263

Student Observation Network: Star Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, students investigate whether people in different parts of the world see the same number of stars. They will learn how to construct a viewing tube, use it to count the stars in random samples of sky, make calculations, and record the data. They will then share their data online with other students from all over the world to find out why differences might occur.

264

Electron counting in quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of

S. Gustavsson; R. Leturcq; M. Studer; I. Shorubalko; T. Ihn; K. Ensslin; D. C. Driscoll; A. C. Gossard

2009-01-01

265

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

266

Young Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Old muscles heal faster when they're exposed to young blood. That's the conclusion of a recent experiment in mice, led by Stanford University neurologist Thomas Rando. His team found that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells in the muscles and livers of older mice. Those are the cells that generate new tissue. It's not clear what part of the young blood makes the difference, but Dr. Rando suspects it's a combination of factors. If scientists can solve the mystery, they may be able to develop new ways to help injuries and broken bones heal more quickly. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 6-8 grade level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-04

267

Blood Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

1999-01-01

268

Blood viscosity in phocid seals: possible adaptations to diving.  

PubMed

1. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of phocid seal red blood cells (RBC) are elevated compared to those of most terrestrial mammalian species. The influence of these characteristics on blood flow was revealed by viscosity (VIS) measurements. 2. RBC morphology and VIS of whole blood from 7 harbor seals and 5 northern elephant seals were compared with blood of the domestic pig. Samples were analysed for RBC count, white blood cell (WBC) count, total plasma proteins, hematocrit (HCT), MCV and MCHC. Viscosity measurements were made at shear rates from 11.5 to 230.4 s-1 on a Wells-Brookfield cone-plate viscometer at 37 degrees C. 3. Mean values for HCT (%), MCV (micron 3) and MCHC (%) were, respectively: elephant seal: 57, 176, 44; harbour seal: 53, 105, 38; domestic pig: 28, 54, 34. Pig blood was reconstituted to match seal blood HCTs. VIS determinations showed that seal and pig blood conform to the general mammalian dependence of VIS upon shear rate and HCT. 4. Seal blood VIS was 28% (harbour seal) and 16% (elephant seal) less than pig blood VIS at low shear (P less than 0.05). Seal blood carried more hemoglobin per unit volume than did pig blood reconstituted to the same HCT. Fewer, larger RBC with higher MCHC, and hence elevated oxygen storage, accompanied by reduced VIS and reduced flow resistance near stasis suggests that this feature of phocid seal blood is an adaptation to circulatory redistribution during long dives. PMID:2760283

Wickham, L L; Elsner, R; White, F C; Cornell, L H

1989-01-01

269

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Mrs. Hirschi

2007-11-20

270

Variations in leucocyte count during menstrual cycle.  

PubMed

The neutrophil counts of seven women, three tkaing oral contraceptives and four nottaking them, showed cyclical variations during the menstrual cycle, most consistentlya fall in the neutrophil count at menstuation. The neutrophil count in women not taking oral contraceptives rose to a peak twice during each cycle. One womennot taking oral contraceptives was studied in detail over eight consecutive menstrualcycles. She showed two neutrophil peaks per cycle and a similiar variation in themonocyte count. The eosinophil count showed a reciprocal relation with the neutrophil count and the basophil count fell in mid-cycle. The changes in her neutrophil count seemed to follow changes in oestrogen level with a delay of one to two days. Oestrogen probably promotes release of neutrophils from the bone marrow rather than from the marginated pool. PMID:1148661

Bain, B J; England, J M

1975-05-31

271

Blood and Diversity  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn About Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, ... looking for a needle in a haystack. Rare Blood Types Red blood cells carry markers called antigens ...

272

Blood pressure measurement  

MedlinePLUS

Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

273

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)  

MedlinePLUS

... they think about their blood pressure. Understanding Blood Pressure Every person needs blood pressure to live. Without ... women get this condition. How Does High Blood Pressure Affect the Body? High blood pressure adds to ...

274

Modeling and Simulation of Count Data  

PubMed Central

Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

Plan, E L

2014-01-01

275

Peripheral Blood \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been isolated from peripheral blood and can enhance angiogenesis after infusion into host animals. It is not known whether the proangiogenic effects are a result of such events as endothelial differentiation and subsequent proliferation of EPCs or secondary to secretion of angiogenic growth factors. Methods and Results—Human EPCs were isolated as previously described, and their

Jalees Rehman; Jingling Li; Christie M. Orschell; Keith L. March

276

Blood Types  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: According to the Japanese, you can tell a lot about a person by their blood type: Type A is the farmer, calm and responsible; Type B is the hunter, independent and creative; Type AB is humanistic, cool and sociable; and Type O...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-03-14

277

Blood flow  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

278

Improving count rate of attosecond streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the measurement of 140-attosecond single isolated extreme ultraviolet pulses generated with 9-fs carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers. The temporal shape and phase of the isolated attosecond pulses were characterized using the attosecond streaking technique, whereby electrons ionized by the attosecond pulse are momentum-shifted by a near-infrared laser field. Due to the limited flux of attosecond pulses, low electron count rate is a major problem in the streaking measurement. In our setup, the streaked photoelectrons were detected by a COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) type time-of-flight detector. A uniform magnetic field was applied along the flight axis between the detection gas jet and the MCP to increase the full acceptance angle to more than 28 degrees. Instead of measuring the photoelectron energy, the electron momentum was measured, which allows us to examine the effect of the acceptance angle on the accuracy of the pulse characterization. Differential pumping was successfully applied, which allows high gas target pressure for increasing the XUV photoionization efficiency. When the isolated attosecond pulses were generated with argon gas and detected with neon gas, the improved count rate allowed the streaking measurement to be done in the time period that the laser could maintain carrier-envelope phase locking.

Feng, Ximao; Gilbertson, Steve; Mashiko, Hiroki; Wang, He; Khan, Sabih; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

2009-05-01

279

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

280

Radix Sorts key-indexed counting  

E-print Network

1 Radix Sorts key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort applicationAt(int k); public int length(int); } #12;4 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix is possible and practical #12;8 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort

Sedgewick, Robert

281

[Changes of peripheral leukocyte-counts by electrically induced convulsion in rabbits (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Effects of electrically induced convulsion (EIC) in rabbits on peripheral leukocyte-count levels were studied. (1) Leukocyte-counts increased immediately after the EIC (phase-1) and 4 hours later (phase-2). In the examination of blood smear, phase-2 involved the shift to the left in neutrophils. This biphasic curve also showed by administration of convulsants. (2) Both phase-1 and the rise of transitory blood pressure disappeared by muscle relaxation. (3) Immediately after EIC, the circulating blood volume was significantly higher (about 7%, P less than .001) and the hematocrit was also higher. (4) Phase-1 was not affected by selective destruction of adrenergic nerve terminal with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Although, phase-2 was diminished by treatment with both 6-OHDA and reserpine. (5) An increase in leukocyte-counts occurred on the administration of serum obtained from rabbit during phase-2. These results seem to indicate that phase-1 occurs when circulating blood volume is higher due to convulsive muscle construction and thereby marginated granulocytes appear into the circulating blood. Aslo, it might be expected that phase-2 occurs chiefly by mobilizing of leukocytes from the storage pool in the bone marrow into the circulating blood by the humoral factor. PMID:1241866

Toyosawa, K

1975-01-01

282

FULL ARTICLE It's in your blood: spectral biomarker candidates  

E-print Network

automated FTIR spectroscopy Julian Ollesch1 , Margot Heinze1 , H. Michael Heise1 , Thomas Behrens2 , Thomas- proximately two months. Cystoscopy itself is a pain- ful procedure bearing the risks of bleeding, subsequent

Gerwert, Klaus

283

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

284

Importance of the TIMI frame count: implications for future trials  

PubMed Central

Although the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade classification scheme is widely used to assess angiographic outcomes, it is limited by poor reproducibility and its categoric nature. The corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) is a simple, more objective continuous variable index of coronary blood flow that can be broadly and inexpensively applied. This measure of the time for dye to traverse a coronary artery is both accurate (highly correlated with Doppler velocity measurements) and precise (reproducible). The method has been prospectively validated as providing independent risk stratification above and beyond the conventional TIMI flow grades. It has been shown to be a predictor of restenosis, and has been of value in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction. In view of the above and its ease of use, we anticipate that CTFC will become a widely used method to evaluate coronary blood flow. PMID:11714404

Appleby, Mark A; Michaels, Andrew D; Chen, Michael; Michael, C Gibson

2000-01-01

285

Analyses of cardiac blood cells and serum proteins with regard to cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.  

PubMed

To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48 h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected after turning the bodies at autopsy, approximated to the clinical values. Postmortem changes were not significant for these markers. In non-head blunt injury cases, Rbc counts, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were lower in subacute deaths (survival time, 1-12 h) than in acute deaths (survival time <1 h). Wbc counts of left cardiac blood were significantly higher for non-head injury than for head injury in subacute deaths. In fire fatality cases, Plt count was markedly higher with an automated hematology analyzer than by using a blood smear test, suggesting Rbc fragmentation caused by deep burns, while increases in Wbc count and decreases in Alb levels were seen for subacute deaths. For asphyxiation, Rbc count, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were higher than other groups, and TP and Alb levels in the right cardiac blood were higher for hanging than for strangulation. These findings suggest that analyses of blood cells and proteins are useful for investigating the cause of death. PMID:19261512

Quan, Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Sakoda, Shigeki; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

2009-04-01

286

Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

Thompson, Joselyn H.

287

Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course  

SciTech Connect

We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

1987-11-01

288

Ed Week: Technology Counts 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ed Week (see also Scout Report from September 13, 1996) publishes the annual Technology Counts report, now on its eighth edition, which reports on the status of technology and education. This years' report "tracks the economic and policy forces that are converging to push changes at the federal, state, and local levels." The article reports that the previous focus on funding instructional technologies, such as personal computers and learning software, is being superseded by a growing emphasis on data-management technologies. They trace this need for online student-data systems to "the expansive reporting requirements and ambitious student-achievement goals set forth in the federal No Child Left Behind Act." The article discusses these shifts and offers links to Web resources relating to data management technologies, student achievement reporting requirements, and more. Note that visitors must complete a simple and free registration form to view the articles in Ed Week.

289

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

290

Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

291

Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

292

Cord Blood and Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Print this page Cord blood and transplants Umbilical cord blood has an important and growing ... transplants How cord blood is collected for a transplant Cord blood is one of three sources of ...

293

Types of Blood Donations  

MedlinePLUS

... Staff Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners Donate blood and save someone's future. PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG ... a few different types of blood donation. Whole Blood This is what most individuals think of when ...

294

Lead levels - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

295

Blood Transfusion (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ... blood of the person receiving it. Continue Why Blood Transfusions Are Performed The three main reasons why ...

296

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ... as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to the ...

297

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

298

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Nov 17,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio like ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by ...

299

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...

300

Direct determination of radiation dose in human blood  

E-print Network

Our purpose is to measure the internal radiation dose (ID) using human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of ID received by a person. This study has shown that it is possible to determine ID in human blood exposed to internal or external ionizing radiation treatment both directly and retrospectively. OSL technique was used to measure the total dose from the blood sample. OSL counts from the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic or treatment purposes and from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose were both used for measurements. The decay and dose-response curves (DRC) were plotted for different doses. The doses received by different blood aliquots have been determined by interpolating the natural luminescence counts to DRC. In addition, OSL counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. The blood aliquots were given different 0-200Gy beta doses and their ...

Tanir, Ayse Gunes; Sahiner, Eren; Bolukdemir, Mustafa Hicabi; Koc, Kemal; Meric, Niyazi; Kelec, Sule Kaya

2014-01-01

301

Reduced Neutrophil Count in People of African Descent Is Due To a Regulatory Variant in the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the

David Reich; Michael A. Nalls; W. H. Linda Kao; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Arti Tandon; Nick Patterson; James Mullikin; Wen-Chi Hsueh; Ching-Yu Cheng; Josef Coresh; Eric Boerwinkle; Man Li; Alicja Waliszewska; Julie Neubauer; Rongling Li; Tennille S. Leak; Lynette Ekunwe; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Joseph M. Zmuda; Herman A. Taylor; Elad Ziv; Tamara B. Harris; James G. Wilson

2009-01-01

302

Reduced neutrophil count in people of African descent is due to a regulatory variant in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the

David Reich; Michael A. Nalls; W. H. Linda Kao; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Arti Tandon; Nick Patterson; James Mullikin; Wen-Chi Hsueh; Ching-Yu Cheng; Josef Coresh; Eric Boerwinkle; Man Li; Alicja Waliszewska; Julie Neubauer; Rongling Li; Tennille S. Leak; Lynette Ekunwe; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Joseph M. Zmuda; Herman A. Taylor; Elad Ziv; Tamara B. Harris; James G. Wilson

2009-01-01

303

Electron counting in quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of conventional current meters. In addition to measuring the average current, the counting procedure also makes it possible to investigate correlations between charge carriers. Electron correlations are conventionally probed in noise measurements, which are technically challenging due to the difficulty to exclude the influence of external noise sources in the experimental setup. Using real-time charge detection techniques, we circumvent the problem by studying the electron correlation directly from the counting statistics of the tunneling electrons. In quantum dots, we find that the strong Coulomb interaction makes electrons try to avoid each other. This leads to electron anti-bunching, giving stronger correlations and reduced noise compared to a current carried by statistically independent electrons. The charge detector is implemented by monitoring changes in conductance in a nearby capacitively coupled quantum point contact. We find that the quantum point contact not only serves as a detector but also causes a back-action onto the measured device. Electron scattering in the quantum point contact leads to emission of microwave radiation. The radiation is found to induce an electronic transition between two quantum dots, similar to the absorption of light in real atoms and molecules. Using a charge detector to probe the electron transitions, we can relate a single-electron tunneling event to the absorption of a single photon. Moreover, since the energy levels of the double quantum dot can be tuned by external gate voltages, we use the device as a frequency-selective single-photon detector operating at microwave energies. The ability to put an on-chip microwave detector close to a quantum conductor opens up the possibility to investigate radiation emitted from mesoscopic structures and gives a deeper understanding of the role of electron-photon interactions in quantum conductors. A central concept of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality; matter exhibits both wave- and particle-like properties and cannot be described by either formalism alone. To investigate the wave properties of the electrons, we perform experiments on a structure containing a double quantum dot embedded in the Aharonov-Bohm ring interferometer. Aharonov-Bohm rings are traditionally used to study interference of electron waves traversing different arms of the ring, in a similar way to the double-slit setup used for investigating interference of light waves. In our case, we use the time-resolved charge detection techniques to detect electrons one-by-one as they pass through the interferometer. We find that the individual particles indeed self-interfere and give rise to a strong interference pattern as a function of external magnetic field. The high level of control in the system together with the ability to detect single electrons enables us to make direct observations of non-intuitive fundamental quantum phenomena like single-particle interference or time-energy uncertainty relations.

Gustavsson, S.; Leturcq, R.; Studer, M.; Shorubalko, I.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-06-01

304

Elevated circulating fetal nucleated red blood cells and placental pathology in term infants who develop cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

An elevated circulating fetal nucleated red blood cell count has long been recognized as an indicator of significant intrauterine stress. However, the nature of the causative events and their timing remain controversial. In this study, subacute and chronic placental lesions known to be associated with neurodisability were used as surrogates for antenatal stress. Mother-infant pairs with complete blood counts within 2 hours of delivery (n = 81) were drawn from a larger database of 152 term infants with cerebral palsy. An elevated nucleated red blood cell count (2.5 x 10(3)/mm(3)) in these infants was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of subacute or chronic placental lesions, whereas clinical findings did not significantly differ. The number of nucleated red blood cells per 10 high-power fields of villous parenchyma was directly correlated with the nucleated red blood cell count, and a threshold of 10 or more nucleated red blood cells predicted a nucleated red blood cell count greater than 2.5 x 10(3)/mm(3). Among individual placental lesions, multiple foci of avascular villi and chronic villitis were significantly associated with an elevated nucleated red blood cell count, whereas meconium-associated vascular necrosis showed a borderline association. Acute chorioamnionitis was the only placental lesion more common in the group without elevated nucleated red blood cell count. The presence of significant placental lesions was associated with an elevated nucleated red blood cell count in infants with or without either acidosis (cord pH <7.0) or birth asphyxia (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology criteria). Acidosis and birth asphyxia were not significantly related to an elevated nucleated red blood cell count in infants without these placental lesions. PMID:18614199

Redline, Raymond W

2008-09-01

305

Bleeding time, blood groups and von Willebrand factor.  

PubMed

The bleeding time in healthy volunteers was determined according to both the Ivy and the Simplate II techniques. A significantly longer bleeding time in people with blood group O than in people with non-O blood groups was demonstrated with both techniques. This difference could not be attributed to a difference in sex ratio, platelet count or haematocrit. The mean level of von Willebrand factor in blood group O is lower than in non-O blood groups, but we found no association between the level of von Willebrand factor and the bleeding time, despite the very broad range of von Willebrand factor levels in the subjects examined. PMID:2818940

Caekebeke-Peerlinck, K M; Koster, T; Briët, E

1989-10-01

306

Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

2014-01-01

307

Multiaxial cycle counting for critical plane methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical plane method has proven to be a popular analytical tool for estimating multiaxial fatigue. Based on the strain-life approach to fatigue, the method relies on a cycle counting routine to identify cycles and a damage model to assess damage for each cycle. Researchers have traditionally borrowed cycle counting methods from established uniaxial methods. This work will show how

T. E Langlais; J. H Vogel; T. R Chase

2003-01-01

308

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve  

E-print Network

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

309

Optical Channels: Practical Limits with Photon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optical communication, ideal amplification of the received signal leads to a limiting signaling rate of 1 nat per photon. This is much inferior to the optimum limit ofkTjoules\\/nat, which we can theoretically approach by counting photons. Practically, the rates we can attain by photon counting will be limited by how elaborate codes we can instrument rather than by thermal

J. Pierce; J. R. PIERCE

1978-01-01

310

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

311

Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

2009-01-01

312

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

313

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower platelet and leukocyte counts: results from the Moli-sani study.  

PubMed

Platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts are 2 markers of inflammation and have been linked to the risk for cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease. A Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with reduced inflammation and mortality for major chronic diseases. We aimed at evaluating the association between the MD and both PLT and WBC counts. This cross-sectional analysis in a population-based cohort study included 14,586 healthy Italian citizens enrolled within the Moli-sani study. Adherence to MD was appraised by either the MD Score (MDS) or the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI). PLT and WBC counts were both inversely related to MD adherence (MDS: P < .0001 and P = .008, respectively). As compared with those with poorer MD adherence, subjects with greater adherence had both reduced odds of being in the highest PLT-count group (MDS: odds ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.80) and increased odds of being in the lowest WBC-count group (IMI: odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.86). The association between WBC count and MDS disappeared when further adjusted for PLT count, whereas the association between PLT count and the MD was not affected by adjustment for WBCs. Food antioxidant and dietary fiber content modified the inverse association between MDS and WBC count and partially accounted for the association with PLTs. PMID:24687087

Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

2014-05-01

314

Dynamic aspects of electrolyte and water transfers in human blood after morphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  After the intramuscular injection of clinically used doses of morphine, arterial plasma and corpuscular constituents of human\\u000a arterial blood were separated under actual conditions by means of a new method. Whole blood as well as red blood cells and\\u000a plasma were used for dynamic studies of acid-base balance, red blood cell counts, haematocrit, concentrations of anions and\\u000a cations, the water

Manfred Meyer

1968-01-01

315

Counting statistics for mesoscopic conductors with internal degrees of freedom  

E-print Network

We consider the transport of electrons passing through a mesoscopic device possessing internal dynamical quantum degrees of freedom. The mutual interaction between the system and the conduction electrons contributes to the current fluctuations, which we describe in terms of full counting statistics. We identify conditions where this discriminates coherent from incoherent internal dynamics, and also identify and illustrate conditions under which the device acts to dynamically bunch transmitted or reflected electrons, thereby generating super-Poissonian noise.

Christopher Birchall; Henning Schomerus

2010-04-29

316

Counting statistics for mesoscopic conductors with internal degrees of freedom  

E-print Network

We consider the transport of electrons passing through a mesoscopic device possessing internal dynamical quantum degrees of freedom. The mutual interaction between the system and the conduction electrons contributes to the current fluctuations, which we describe in terms of full counting statistics. We identify conditions where this discriminates coherent from incoherent internal dynamics, and also identify and illustrate conditions under which the device acts to dynamically bunch transmitted or reflected electrons, thereby generating super-Poissonian noise.

Birchall, Christopher

2010-01-01

317

CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPORT TECHNIQUES: Whole blood viscosity assessment issues I: Extrapolation chart and reference values  

PubMed Central

Background: There are many different methods for the assessment of whole blood viscosity, but not every pathology unit has equipment for any of the methods. However, a validated arithmetic method exists whereby whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated from haematocrit and total serum proteins. Aims: The objective of this work is to develop an algorithm in the form of a chart by which clinicians can easily extrapolate whole blood viscosity values in their consulting rooms or on the ward. Another objective is to suggest normal, subnormal and critical reference ranges applicable to this method. Materials and Methods: Whole blood viscosity at high shear stress was determined, from various possible pairs of haematocrit and total proteins. A chart was formulated so that whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated. After determination of two standard deviations from the mean and ascertainment of symmetric distribution, normal and abnormal reference ranges were defined. Results: The clinicians’ user-friendly chart is presented. Considering presumptive lower and upper limits, the continuum of ?14.28, 14.29 – 15.00, 15.01 – 19.01, 19.02 – 19.39 and ?19.40 (208 Sec-1) is obtained as reference ranges for critically low, subnormal low, normal, subnormal high and critically high whole blood viscosity levels respectively. Conclusion: This article advances a validated method to provide a user-friendly chart that would enable clinicians to assess whole blood viscosity for any patients who has results for full blood count and total proteins. It would make the assessment of whole blood viscosity costless and the neglect of a known cardiovascular risk factor less excusable. PMID:22624134

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

2010-01-01

318

Effect of Blood’s Velocity on Blood Resistivity  

E-print Network

Abstract — Blood resistivity is an important quantity whose value influences the results of various methods used in the study of heart and circulation. In this paper, the relationship between blood resistivity and velocity of blood flow was evaluated and analyzed based upon a probe using six-ring electrodes and a circulatory model. The experimental results indicated that the change in blood resistivity was only 61.1 % when the velocity of blood flow changed from 2.83 to 40 cm/s and it rose to 23 % when the velocity was lower than 2.83 cm/s. Index Terms—Blood flow, blood vessels, electrodes, resistivity measurement, velocity. Fig. 1. The red cell in cross section and its nominal dimension. I.

Tuqiang Xie; Swee Chuan Tjin; Qingping Yang; Seng Lee Ng

319

Blood donation before surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Livingstone; 2009:chap 55. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Blood and blood products. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/BloodBloodProducts/ ...

320

Full counting statistics of Andreev reflection: Signatures of a quantum transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing semiclassical circuit theory, we study the charge-transfer statistics of a quantum dot (chaotic cavity) connected to a normal metal and a superconducting reservoir via two non-ideal barriers. We assume the absence of a magnetic field and a low-energy regime so that the energy dependence of the Andreev reflection eigenvalues can be neglected. We calculate analytically the first three charge-transfer cumulants and the density of Andreev reflection eigenvalues. We observe an interesting signature in the charge-transfer cumulants of a quantum transition that takes place in the chaotic cavity [A. M. S. Macêdo and A. M. C. Souza, Phys. Rev. E 71, 066218 (2005)] associated with the formation of Fabry-Perot modes. Our results compare well with numerical simulations obtained from the scattering matrix formalism.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2009-07-01

321

Evidence for overdispersion in the distribution of malaria parasites and leukocytes in thick blood smears  

PubMed Central

Background Microscopic examination of stained thick blood smears (TBS) is the gold standard for routine malaria diagnosis. Parasites and leukocytes are counted in a predetermined number of high power fields (HPFs). Data on parasite and leukocyte counts per HPF are of broad scientific value. However, in published studies, most of the information on parasite density (PD) is presented as summary statistics (e.g. PD per microlitre, prevalence, absolute/assumed white blood cell counts), but original data sets are not readily available. Besides, the number of parasites and the number of leukocytes per HPF are assumed to be Poisson-distributed. However, count data rarely fit the restrictive assumptions of the Poisson distribution. The violation of these assumptions commonly results in overdispersion. The objectives of this paper are to investigate and handle overdispersion in field-collected data. Methods The data comprise the records of three TBSs of 12-month-old children from a field study of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tori Bossito, Benin. All HPFs were examined systemically by visually scanning the film horizontally from edge to edge. The numbers of parasites and leukocytes per HPF were recorded and formed the first dataset on parasite and leukocyte counts per HPF. The full dataset is published in this study. Two sources of overdispersion in data are investigated: latent heterogeneity and spatial dependence. Unobserved heterogeneity in data is accounted for by considering more flexible models that allow for overdispersion. Of particular interest were the negative binomial model (NB) and mixture models. The dependent structure in data was modelled with hidden Markov models (HMMs). Results The Poisson assumptions are inconsistent with parasite and leukocyte distributions per HPF. Among simple parametric models, the NB model is the closest to the unknown distribution that generates the data. On the basis of model selection criteria AIC and BIC, HMMs provided a better fit to data than mixtures. Ordinary pseudo-residuals confirmed the validity of HMMs. Conclusion Failure to take overdispersion into account in parasite and leukocyte counts may entail important misleading inferences when these data are related to other explanatory variables (malariometric or environmental). Its detection is therefore essential. In addition, an alternative PD estimation method that accounts for heterogeneity and spatial dependence should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies with field-collected parasite and leukocyte data. PMID:24195469

2013-01-01

322

Association of circulating leukocyte count with coronary atherosclerosis regression after pravastatin treatment.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the peripheral blood leukocyte count could be used as a marker of the progression of atherosclerosis. Few data exist regarding the relationship between inhibition of the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, especially the drugs' effects on the leukocyte count in patients with coronary artery disease. A 6-month prospective study was, therefore, conducted in 50 patients treated with pravastatin. The plaque volume, as assessed by volumetric analysis using intravascular ultrasound, reduced significantly by 14% (p<0.0001, vs. baseline) following the treatment, furthermore, a corresponding decrease of the leukocyte count (8.9%, p<0.01, vs. baseline) was also seen. No correlation was found between the change in the leukocyte count and any of the changes in the lipid levels; changes in either of these are known to be associated with the rate of progression of atherosclerosis. A multivariate regression analysis using other traditional risk factors and medications as covariates revealed that the decrease in the leukocyte count was an independent predictor of inhibition of the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. In conclusion, a reduction of the leukocyte count as one of the non-lipid-lowering effects of pravastatin may be a novel marker of regression of coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:18374337

Tani, Shigemasa; Nagao, Ken; Anazawa, Takeo; Kawamata, Hirofumi; Iida, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Sato, Yuichi; Hirayama, Atsushi

2008-06-01

323

Direct determination of external radiation dose in human blood  

E-print Network

In this study it was shown that it is possible to determine radiation doses from external beam therapy both directly and retrospectively from a human blood sample. To the best of our knowledge no other studies exist on the direct measurement of doses received by a person from external beam therapy. Optically stimulated luminescence counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. Blood aliquots were given 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 200Gy beta doses and their decay and dose-response curves were plotted. While the luminescence intensities were found to be relatively low for the doses smaller than 10Gy, they were measured considerably higher for doses greater than 10Gy. The dose received by the blood aliquots was determined by interpolating the luminescence counts of 10Gy to the dose-response curve. This study has important ramifications for healthcare, medicine and radiation protection

Tanir, AG; Sahiner, E; Bolukdemir, MH; Koc, K; Meric, N; Keles, SK; Kucuk, O

2014-01-01

324

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

325

Nonparametric Comparison for Multivariate Panel Count Data  

PubMed Central

Multivariate panel count data often occur when there exist several related recurrent events or response variables defined by occurrences of related events. For univariate panel count data, several nonparametric treatment comparison procedures have been developed. However, it does not seem to exist a nonparametric procedure for multivariate cases. Based on differences between estimated mean functions, this paper proposes a class of nonparametric test procedures for multivariate panel count data. The asymptotic distribution of the new test statistics is established and a simulation study is conducted. Also the new procedures are applied to a skin cancer problem that motivated this study. PMID:24465081

Zhao, Hui; Virkler, Kate; Sun, Jianguo

2014-01-01

326

Taxonomic counts of cognition in the wild  

PubMed Central

In 1985, Kummer & Goodall pleaded for an ecology of intelligence and proposed that innovations might be a good way to measure cognition in the wild. Counts of innovation per taxonomic group are now available in hundreds of avian and primate species, as are counts of tactical deception, tool use and social learning. Robust evidence suggests that innovation rate and its neural correlates allow birds and mammals to cope better with environmental change. The positive correlations between taxonomic counts, and the increasing number of cognitive and neural measures found to be associated with ecological variables, suggest that domain general processes might be more pervasive than previously thought in the evolution of intelligence. PMID:20719769

Lefebvre, Louis

2011-01-01

327

What Is Blood?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

328

CEA blood test  

MedlinePLUS

Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

329

Blood Transfusion and Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

330

Special Blood Donation Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in Blood Transfusion Overview ... cells), certain types of leukemia (a type of cancer in which there are excess white blood cells), ...

331

Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

332

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

333

High blood pressure - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... these numbers can be too high. Several factors affect blood pressure, including: Hormones The health of the heart and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or heart disease ...

334

Blood Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

335

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... and Diabetes Heart Health for Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) En ... Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

336

Long term effects on the immune system following local radiation therapy for breast cancer. I. Cellular composition of the peripheral blood lymphocyte population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local radiation therapy for breast cancer depletes the blood of various subsets of lymphocytes. Previous studies showed that the recovery is still incomplete at 30 months. To further elucidate the recovery the authors examined blood lymphocyte counts of 138 disease-free women and various lymphocyte subsets in 102 of these patients. Total lymphocyte counts of the irradiated patients were still significantly

Samuel Rotstein; Henric Blomgren; Björn Petrini; Jerzy Wasserman; Edward Baral

1985-01-01

337

Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

2014-01-01

338

Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.  

PubMed

Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed-and sometimes practiced-as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood-shed or given-is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy. PMID:25467858

Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

2014-12-01

339

Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild  

E-print Network

In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...

Hernandez Rivera, Javier

340

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

341

Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

Graham, O.

1964-01-01

342

Low cost crowd counting using audio tones  

E-print Network

With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

Kannan, Pravein Govindan

343

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College joint work with Karim Belabas, Universit´e Bordeaux 1 Manjul Bhargava, Princeton University #12;Thanks to: Roger Baker, Henri Cohen, Michael Jacobson

Pomerance, Carl

344

Preoperative Platelet Count Associates with Survival and Distant Metastasis in Surgically Resected Colorectal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Platelets have been implicated in cancer metastasis and prognosis. No population-based study has been reported as to whether preoperative platelet count directly predicts metastatic recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Design Using a well-characterized cohort of 1,513 surgically resected CRC patients, we assessed the predictive roles of preoperative platelet count in overall survival, overall recurrence, as well as locoregional and distant metastatic recurrences. Results Patients with clinically high platelet count (?400× 109/L) measured within 1 month before surgery had a significantly unfavorable survival (hazard ratio [HR]=1.66, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.34–2.05, P=2.6×10?6, Plog rank= 1.1×10?11) and recurrence (HR=1.90, 1.24–2.93, P=0.003, Plog rank=0.003). The association of platelet count with recurrence was evident only in patients with metastatic (HR=2.81, 1.67–4.74, P=1.1×10?4, Plog rank =2.6×10?6) but not locoregional recurrence (HR=0.59, 95 % CI 0.21–1.68, P= 0.325, Plog rank=0.152). The findings were internally validated through bootstrap resampling (P<0.01 at 98.6 % of resampling). Consistently, platelet count was significantly higher in deceased than living patients (P<0.0001) and in patients with metastatic recurrence than locoregional (P= 0.004) or nonrecurrent patients (P<0.0001). Time-dependent modeling indicated that the increased risks for death and metastasis associated with elevated preoperative platelet counts persisted up to 5 years after surgery. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that clinically high level of preoperative platelets was an independent predictor of CRC survival and metastasis. As an important component of the routinely tested complete blood count panel, platelet count may be a cost-effective and noninvasive marker for CRC prognosis and a potential intervention target to prevent metastatic recurrence. PMID:23549858

Wan, Shaogui; Lai, Yinzhi; Myers, Ronald E.; Li, Bingshan; Hyslop, Terry; London, Jack; Chatterjee, Devjani; Palazzo, Juan P.; Burkart, Ashlie L.; Zhang, Kejin; Xing, Jinliang

2013-01-01

345

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

346

Power counting to better jet observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

2014-12-01

347

Power Counting to Better Jet Observables  

E-print Network

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

2014-09-22

348

Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting  

PubMed Central

Background In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. Results We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. Conclusions These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled. PMID:24164709

2013-01-01

349

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2014-04-01

350

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2013-04-01

351

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2014-01-01

352

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2013-01-01

353

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2011-04-01

354

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2014-01-01

355

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...bond shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2010-01-01

356

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2011-01-01

357

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2011-01-01

358

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2013-01-01

359

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2012-04-01

360

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2012-01-01

361

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2012-01-01

362

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2012-01-01

363

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2014-01-01

364

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

365

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2011-01-01

366

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2010-01-01

367

[Corelations between thrombocyte count, clinical diagnosis, and liver pathology in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

In 1488 cases of chronic liver disease thrombocyte content of peripheral blood, clinical diagnosis and histologic findings of the liver biopsy were correlated. Ranging from fatty infiltration to fatty cirrhosis or from slightly active chronic hepatitis to active postnecrotic cirrhosis, according to the extent of the liver injury a significant decrease of thrombocyte-count was evaluated. In case of non-active liver disease and posthepatitic status a thrombocytopenia also could be found. Cirrhotic transformation or proliferation of the connective tissue mainly in the periportal fields and inflammatory activity showed a significant correlation to the frequency of a thrombocyte decrease. A pathogenetic relation is ascribed to an increased thrombocyte storage in the spleen depending on the extent of the liver injury and the alteration of the portal blood stream up to a portal hypertension. Our results indicate such correlations of liver injury, portal pressure and platelet-pooling to thrombocyte-count even if the causal dependency cannot be proved. PMID:969786

von Braun, H H; Henning, H; Lüders, C J; Probst, P

1976-09-01

368

Changes of platelet function and blood coagulation during short-term storage of CPDA-1-stabilised ovine blood.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect the influence of short-term storage on the haemostatic function in whole citrated ovine blood at different storage temperatures. Ovine blood was collected in a commercial transfer bag system containing CPDA-1 and stored on a wobbler at room (20-25 °C; n=5) or refrigerator temperature (4 °C; n=5). The following analyses were performed initially and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage: platelet count and (spontaneous) aggregates, agonist-induced platelet aggregation with two methods (impedance aggregometry, turbidimetric method), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and resonance thrombography. Platelet count remained stable at room temperature, whereas a significant decrease was detected after 48 h storage at 4 °C. The latter was associated with the formation of a high percentage of platelet aggregates (50-60%) after 5h storage. Decrease in platelet aggregation was significantly more pronounced when blood was stored at 4°C. The plasmatic coagulation tests were stable within the observation period. Results indicate that platelet count and aggregability of CPDA-1-stabilised ovine blood is better preserved at room temperature and provides adequate haemostatic function for ex vivo experiments for one working day. Functional loss and high percentage of platelets within aggregates which were observed in ovine blood stored at refrigerator temperature have to be considered in blood transfusion in sheep. PMID:20888020

Baumgarten, A; Wilhelmi, M; Ganter, M; Rohn, K; Mischke, R

2011-08-01

369

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Shannon, Darbianne

2012-07-13

370

Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the “no blood

Philip Wong; Roger Pham; Carl Whitely; Marcus Soto; Kevin Salyers; Christopher James; Bernd A. Bruenner

2011-01-01

371

Lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine blood lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We studied 107 children, ages 2.0 to 15.9 years, from 79 families who were referred to our Lipid Research Clinic because total cholesterol serum levels higher than 200 mg\\/dl had been detected in at least one child. At

A. Sarría; L. A. Moreno; M. Mur; A. Lázaro; M. P. Lasierra; L. Roda; A. Giner; L. Larrad; M. Bueno

1995-01-01

372

Coincidence detection of heterogeneous cell populations from whole blood with coplanar electrodes in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  

PubMed

Particle counting finds many industrial applications especially in medical healthcare. In particular, cell counting from whole blood is used pervasively for disease diagnostics. Microfluidic impedance cytometry is fast, requires a small volume of blood, can be used at point of care and can perform absolute enumeration of different cell types in the sample. Coincidence detection is very essential for accurate counting results and becomes more significant while counting specific target cells, e.g. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell count in HIV/AIDS patient blood samples. In heterogeneous samples, e.g. blood, cell differentiation for all coincidence occurrences is essential in addition to the coincidence detection for accurate cell enumeration. In this paper, we have characterized the coincidence detection with cell differentiation using a microfluidic impedance biochip. The pure population of leukocytes is obtained after all erythrocytes are lysed on-chip from whole blood. Leukocytes were counted electrically as they pass over coplanar microfabricated electrodes bonded to the 15 ?m × 15 ?m cross section counting channel while generating a bipolar pulse for each cell passage. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the electrical cell pulse and its coincidences. We show that coincidence detection can be characterized into three main types based on the range of time delay at which the coincidence occurs. We have also characterized cell differentiation for all the three coincidence types and show that multiple coincidences of different types can also occur. We used healthy and HIV-infected patient blood samples and used our coincidence detection technique to count CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and show the improvement in accuracy of cell counts compared to that without coincidence detection. We have also shown the improvement in the erythrocyte counting with coincidence detection in diluted whole blood samples. PMID:25231594

Hassan, U; Bashir, R

2014-11-21

373

Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood  

E-print Network

Original article Reconstitution of mastitic milk by adding blood plasma and leukocytes into low cell count milk W Fang M Vikerpuur, M Sandholm Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty 1995; accepted 29 August 1995) Summary ― Milk from inflamed quarters is high in somatic cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Associations Between Haemonchus contortus Infection in Lambs and Blood Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Haemonchus contortus is one of the principal stomach worms of sheep, and infection is characterized by anemia. Estimates of the average blood loss per worm per day range from .003 to .05 ml. Studies have shown that high eosinophilia was correlated with low fecal egg count (FEC) and, therefore, res...

375

Low Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure all the time. They have no symptoms and ... certain medicines. Some people may have symptoms of low blood pressure when standing up too quickly. Low blood pressure ...

376

BUN - blood test  

MedlinePLUS

Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

377

Endothelial cell Blood cells  

E-print Network

Endothelial cell HSCs Blood cells Blood vessel Haemogenic endothelial cell Figure 1 | Relationship between endothelial cells and blood cells. Endothelial cells line the inside of blood vessels. During mouse embryonic development, a subset of these cells, known as haemogenic endothelial cells, seems

Wilmers, Chris

378

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

379

Blood Rheology and Hemodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood is a two-phase suspension of formed elements (i.e., red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), platelets) suspended in an aqueous solution of organic mole- cules, proteins, and salts called plasma. The apparent viscosity of blood depends on the existing shear forces (i.e., blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid) and is determined by hematocrit, plasma viscosity, RBC aggregation, and

Oguz K. Baskurt; Herbert J. Meiselman

2003-01-01

380

Your Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Keeping your blood pressure at healthy levels is an important factor in preventing cardiovascular disease and stroke. This activity will help you: Understand the categories for blood pressure levels. Know your own blood pressure level Determine ways to prevent hypertension Understand the lifestyle factors that put you at risk for hypertension. Read about blood pressure categories. Read preventing hypertension. Read measuring your blood pressure. Print a copy of the directions on how to use a digital monitor. Check ...

Cross, Mrs.

2005-11-29

381

Self-monitoring of blood glucose in overweight type 2 diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SBGM) is widely recommended for both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients despite the lack of evidence of benefit in glucose control or as an aid in weight loss in type 2 subjects. This study tested the hypothesis that combined use of SMBG and dietary carbohydrate (CHO) counting, using the blood monitoring results to shape

D. B. Muchmore; J. Springer; M. Miller

1994-01-01

382

Neotyphodium Coenophialum Alters Blood Metabolites Involved in Nitrogen, Energy, and Minteral Metabolism in Growing Steers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blood metabolite changes in steers during summer-long grazing of toxic endophyte-infected pastures were investigated as a part of a larger study for determination of physiological genomic and metabolic pathways for alkaloid metabolism. Blood cell counts, differentials, and serum metabolites of grow...

383

Prognostic value of AgNOR counting.  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in tumour pathology is still a matter of debate. A prospective study was performed in a series of renal cell carcinomas to clarify the prognostic value of AgNOR counting. Sections from 21 renal cell carcinomas were stained in 1990 with the method of Ploton. Black dots within the nucleus from 200 tumour cells were counted: the mean AgNOR count for the whole series was 6.13, the median 5.94 and the SD 1.78. Patients were then followed up for at least 6 years or to death: at the time of the survival analysis (June 1996), 13 patients were alive without evidence of recurrence or metastasis, 6 had died of the disease and 2 of myocardial infarction. All the patients with 5.94 AgNORs per cell or fewer were alive at 6-year follow-up, while only 60% of patients with more than 5.94 AgNORs per cell survived (p=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, only AgNOR count (p=0.015) retained an independent prognostic significance. With the limitation due to the small number of cases, this prospective study clearly indicates that AgNOR count has a significant prognostic role, at least in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21590133

Pich, A; Margaria, E; Chiusa, L; Formiconi, A

1997-01-01

384

Genetic regulatory networks that count to 3.  

PubMed

Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. For this purpose, we sample different architectures and parameters, only considering circuits that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found in the vertebrate neural tube in a development governed by the sonic hedgehog morphogen and the more robust design of a repressilator supplemented with a weak repressilator acting in the opposite direction. PMID:23567648

Lehmann, Malte; Sneppen, Kim

2013-07-21

385

Ultrafast photon counting applied to resonant scanning STED microscopy.  

PubMed

To take full advantage of fast resonant scanning in super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, we have developed an ultrafast photon counting system based on a multigiga sample per second analogue-to-digital conversion chip that delivers an unprecedented 450 MHz pixel clock (2.2 ns pixel dwell time in each scan). The system achieves a large field of view (?50 × 50 ?m) with fast scanning that reduces photobleaching, and advances the time-gated continuous wave STED technology to the usage of resonant scanning with hardware-based time-gating. The assembled system provides superb signal-to-noise ratio and highly linear quantification of light that result in superior image quality. Also, the system design allows great flexibility in processing photon signals to further improve the dynamic range. In conclusion, we have constructed a frontier photon counting image acquisition system with ultrafast readout rate, excellent counting linearity, and with the capacity of realizing resonant-scanning continuous wave STED microscopy with online time-gated detection. PMID:25227160

Wu, Xundong; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Wu, Yong

2015-01-01

386

Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss  

SciTech Connect

Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

1986-03-01

387

Safety of growth factor administration for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl.  

PubMed

Purpose: Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization using growth factors is a common method of stem cell collection for transplantation, however, little is reported concerning safety of continued growth factor delivery in exceptional responders with very high white blood cell (WBC) counts in preparation for pheresis. We performed a retrospective study of the safety of growth factor delivery for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl. Methods: Allogeneic donors received 5 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a daily dose of 10 or 16 µg/kg. Autologous donors received G-CSF 10 µg/kg/day +/- chemotherapy until peripheral blood CD34(+) count reached 10/µl. Granulocyte donors received 300 µg dose of G-CSF the day prior to donation. Results: Out of 3,037 leukapheresis collections from 1998 to 2005, we identified 303 collections from 204 donors or patients who had a WBC?>?60,000/µl. WBC counts were ?100,000/µl in seven of these subjects. If inadequate stem cell dose was obtained with pheresis with WBC counts this high, patients had growth factor dosing decreased 50% but still received a dose till stem cell collection was completed. Of the 204 subjects, 122 were patients and 82 were donors. These 204 donors/patients had no serious adverse events reported other than the common reports of myalgia, bone pain, and headache associated with administration of growth factors. Pain levels ranged from mild to severe and usually were managed by over the counter analgesics. Conclusions: Continuing ½ the dose of neupogen to complete the pheresis process appears safe in subjects with very high white blood counts. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24975628

Chen, Weihong; Rizzieri, David; Drago, Susan

2014-06-28

388

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.  

PubMed

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-06-01

389

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System  

PubMed Central

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-01-01

390

DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes of Inquiry  

E-print Network

DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes the LSP Modes of Inquiry; Whereas currently students are not allowed to use courses in the required support for their majors to satisfy LSP Modes of Inquiry requirements unless explicitly allowed

Gering, Jon C.

391

Fast Counting of Triangles in Large Real Networks without Counting: Algorithms and Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can we quickly find the number of triangles in a large graph, without actually counting them? Triangles are important for real world social networks, lying at the heart of the clustering coefficient and of the transitivity ratio. However, straight-forward and even approximate counting algorithms can be slow, trying to execute or approximate the equivalent of a 3-way database join.

Charalampos E. Tsourakakis

2008-01-01

392

Full Multigrid Flow Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

2005-01-01

393

Studies of deionization and impedance spectroscopy for blood analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood analysis provides vital information for health conditions. For instance, typical infection response is correlated to an elevated White Blood Cell (WBC) count, while low Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin and hematocrit are caused by anemia or internal bleeding. We are developing two essential modules, deionization (DI) chip and microfluidic cytometer with impedance spectroscopy flow, for enabling the realization of a single platform miniaturized blood analyzer. In the proposed analyzer, blood cells are preliminarily sorted by Dielectrophoretic (DEP) means into sub-groups, differentiated and counted by impedance spectroscopy in a flow cytometer. DEP techniques have been demonstrated to stretch DNA, align Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and trap cells successfully. However, DEP manipulation does not function in biological media with high conductivity. The DI module is designed to account for this challenge. H Filter will serve as an ion extraction platform in a microchamber. Sample and buffer do not mix well in micro scale allowing the ions being extracted by diffusion without increasing the volume. This can keep the downstream processing time short. Micro scale hydrodynamic focusing is employed to place single cell passing along the central plane of the flow cytometer module. By applying an AC electrical field, suspended cells are polarized, membrane capacitance C m, cytoplasm conductivity ? c, and cytoplasm permittivity ? c will vary as functions of frequency. Tracing back the monitored current, the numbers of individual cell species can be evaluated.

Kwong, Charlotte C.; Li, Nan; Ho, Chih-Ming

2005-11-01

394

LIBS and LIFS for rapid detection of Rb traces in blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests that can quickly and efficiently detect traces of illegal performance enhancing drugs are becoming essential. Certain performance enhancing drugs lead to an increase in the count of red blood cells. The proportion of blood made up of red cells is normally around 42 percent. At least 90 percent of Rubidium measured in whole blood is located in the red blood cells. If Rubidium Chloride (RbCl) is given to an athlete around 30 minutes before competing and a sample of their blood (a drop on a filter) was subsequently tested for Rubidium content, the test will give a direct indication of the red blood cell count. In this contribution, we describe an efficient and fast test based on spectroscopic techniques that can be used to detect trace levels of Rubidium. Our experiments employed Rubidium nitride (RbNO3) and trace levels down to 0.3 percent were successfully detected.

Al-Jeffery, Mohammad O.; Telle, Helmut H.

2002-05-01

395

Duffy-Null–Associated Low Neutrophil Counts Influence HIV-1 Susceptibility in High-Risk South African Black Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?The Duffy-null trait and ethnic netropenia are both highly prevalent in Africa. The influence of pre-seroconversion levels of peripheral blood cell counts (PBCs) on the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 infection among Africans is unknown. Methods.?The triangular relationship among pre-seroconversion PBC counts, host genotypes, and risk of HIV acquisition was determined in a prospective cohort of black South African high-risk female sex workers. Twenty-seven women had seroconversion during follow-up, and 115 remained HIV negative for 2 years, despite engaging in high-risk activity. Results.?Pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts in women who subsequently had seroconversion were significantly lower, whereas platelet counts were higher, compared with those who remained HIV negative. Comprising 27% of the cohort, subjects with pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts of <2500 cells/mm3 had a ?3-fold greater risk of acquiring HIV infection. In a genome-wide association analyses, an African-specific polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter of Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC ?46T > C) was significantly associated with neutrophil counts (P = 7.9 × 10?11). DARC ?46C/C results in loss of DARC expression on erthyrocytes (Duffy-null) and resistance to Plasmodium vivax malaria, and in our cohort, only subjects with this genotype had pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts of <2500 cells/mm3. The risk of acquiring HIV infection was ?3-fold greater in those with the trait of Duffy-null–associated low neutrophil counts, compared with all other study participants. Conclusions.?Pre-seroconversion neutrophil and platelet counts influence risk of HIV infection. The trait of Duffy-null–associated low neutrophil counts influences HIV susceptibility. Because of the high prevalence of this trait among persons of African ancestry, it may contribute to the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Africa. PMID:21507922

Ramsuran, Veron; Kulkarni, Hemant; He, Weijing; Mlisana, Koleka; Wright, Edwina J.; Werner, Lise; Castiblanco, John; Dhanda, Rahul; Le, Tuan; Dolan, Matthew J.; Guan, Weihua; Weiss, Robin A.; Clark, Robert A.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Ndung'u, Thumbi

2011-01-01

396

Counting atoms in a deep optical microtrap.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a method to count small numbers of atoms held in a deep, microscopic optical dipole trap by collecting fluorescence from atoms exposed to a standing wave of light that is blue detuned from resonance. While scattering photons, the atoms are cooled by a Sisyphus mechanism that results from the spatial variation in light intensity. The use of a small blue detuning limits the losses due to light-assisted collisions, thereby making the method suitable for counting several atoms in a microscopic volume. PMID:21478976

McGovern, Matthew; Hilliard, Andrew J; Grünzweig, Tzahi; Andersen, Mikkel F

2011-04-01

397

Development and Evaluation of a Novel In-Clinic Automated Hematology Analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for Canine Erythrocyte Indices, Leukogram, Platelet Counts and Reticulocyte Counts  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

FUJINO, Yasuhito; NAKAMURA, Yoichi; MATSUMOTO, Hideaki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

2013-01-01

398

Development and evaluation of a novel in-clinic automated hematology analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for canine erythrocyte indices, leukogram, platelet counts and reticulocyte counts.  

PubMed

A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2013-11-01

399

[Microvzor-2: a system for automated dry blood smear analysis].  

PubMed

Upgraded system Microvzor-2 for investigation of blood morphology in space flight is composed of soft- and hardware for dry smear image analysis. Ground-based testing showed that it could be utilized to investigate a broad spectrum of blood parameters in space flight, including erythrocytes, hemoglobin content in erythrocytes, volumetric erythrocyte distribution, diagnostics of anisocytosis, and poikilocytosis, leukocytes and leukocyte count. Analyzed are smears prepared from a fixed volume of finger blood. The process consists of smear scanning, input of the vision field images in the spacecraft computer and ensuing automated identification and counting. Information is stored in a dedicated database. Results of analysis are displayed as forms and cell galleries. PMID:12572126

Verdenskaia, N V; Vinogradov, A G; Gusev, A A; Ivanova, I A; Ivanova, S M; Kozharinov, V I; Kozinets, G I; Pogorelov, V M; Sazonov, V V

2002-01-01

400

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

401

Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: Low CD4 counts and risk of infection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with primary brain tumors are often treated with high doses of corticosteroids for prolonged periods to reduce intracranial swelling and alleviate symptoms such as headaches. This treatment may lead to immunosuppression, placing the patient at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The risk of contracting some types of infection may be reduced with prophylactic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of low CD4 counts and whether monitoring CD4 counts during and after radiotherapy (RT) is warranted. Methods and Materials: CD4 counts were measured during RT in 70 of 76 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Grade III and IV astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with corticosteroids and seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Weekly CD4 measurements were taken in the most recent 25 patients. Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg p.o. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or dapsone (100 mg p.o. daily) in those with sulfa allergy was prescribed only if patients developed a low CD4 count. Carmustine chemotherapy wafers were placed at surgery in 23% of patients, evenly distributed between the groups. No patient received any other chemotherapy concurrent with RT. Results: CD4 counts decreased to <200/mm{sup 3} in 17 (24%) of 70 patients. For the 25 patients with weekly CD4 counts, all CD4 counts were >450/mm{sup 3} before RT, but 6 (24%) of 25 fell to <200/mm{sup 3} during RT. Patients with counts <200/mm{sup 3} were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (41% vs. 9%, p <0.01) and be hospitalized for infection (23% vs. 4%, p <0.05) during RT. Overall survival was not significantly different between the groups. All patients with low CD4 counts were treated with prophylactic antibiotics, and no patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. No patients developed a serious adverse reaction to antibiotic therapy. The mean dose of steroids, mean minimal white blood cell count, and number of patients treated with Gliadel wafers were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study have confirmed the clinical impression that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and RT in patients with primary brain cancer is sufficient to result in severe immunosuppression and place these patients at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections. A protocol of prophylactic antibiotics for those at risk may help prevent a potentially fatal side effect of treatment. A prospective study is underway to determine the frequency, depth, and prognostic implications of this finding.

Hughes, Michael A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Parisi, Michele [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Grossman, Stuart [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)]. E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu

2005-08-01

402

Perioperative blood management  

PubMed Central

Perioperative anaemia and allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) are known to increase the risk of adverse clinical outcomes. The quality, cost and availability of blood components are also major limitations with regard to ABT. Perioperative patient blood management (PBM) strategies should be aimed at minimizing and improving utilization of blood components. The goals of PBM are adequate preoperative evaluation and optimization of haemoglobin and bleeding parameters, techniques to minimize blood loss, blood conservation technologies and use of transfusion guidelines with targeted therapy. Attention to these details can help in cost reduction and improved patient outcome.

Manjuladevi, M; Vasudeva Upadhyaya, KS

2014-01-01

403

ISON Comet..... Marco Fulle  

E-print Network

ISON Comet..... Marco Fulle INAF Trieste Comet Lovejoy C/2011W3 on 22 Dec 2011 #12;#12;Comet ISON C/2012S1 at 5.2 AU from the Sun (7 Jan 2013) #12;Comet ISON C/2012S1 at 0.6AU from the Sun (16 Nov 2013) #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;In meteorites Na/K = 15 In Comet Panstarrs C/2011L4 Na/K = 54 solar radiation

Â?umer, Slobodan

404

Neptune - full ring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of Voyager 2 images (FDS 11446.21 and 11448.10), two 591-s exposures obtained through the clear filter of the wide angle camera, show the full ring system with the highest sensitivity. Visible in this figure are the bright, narrow N53 and N63 rings, the diffuse N42 ring, and (faintly) the plateau outside of the N53 ring (with its slight brightening near 57,500 km).

1989-01-01

405

Automated imaging, identification, and counting of similar cells from digital hologram reconstructions.  

PubMed

This paper presents our method, which simultaneously combines automatic imaging, identification, and counting with the acquisition of morphological information for at least 1000 blood cells from several three-dimensional images of the same sample. We started with seeking parameters to differentiate between red blood cells that are similar but different with respect to their development stage, i.e., mature or immature. We highlight that these cells have different diffractive patterns with complementary central intensity distribution in a given plane along the propagation axis. We use the Fresnel approximation to simulate propagation through cells modeled as spheroid-shaped phase objects and to find the cell property that has the dominant influence on this behavior. Starting with images obtained in the reconstruction step of the digital holographic microscopy technique, we developed a code for automated simultaneous individual cell image separation, identification, and counting, even when the cells are partially overlapped on a slide, and accurate measuring of their morphological features. To find the centroids of each cell, we propose a method based on analytical functions applied at threshold intervals. Our procedure separates the mature from the immature red blood cells and from the white blood cells through a decision based on gradient and radius values. PMID:21743570

Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Mihaela; Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Costescu, Julia; Kusko, Mihai; Paun, Irina Alexandra; Scarlat, Eugen

2011-07-10

406

Morphological studies of peripheral blood cells of the Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral blood cells of one-year-old Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) have been studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The erythrocyte count was 84.86 × 104 cell mm?3 in the peripheral blood of the fish and that of leukocytes was 2.24 × 104 cell mm?3. The erythrocytes and four main types of leucocyte—thrombocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes (including neutrophils and eosinophils),\\u000a and monocytes, were identified in the peripheral blood.

Gao Zexia; Wang Weimin; Yang Yi; Khalid Abbas; Li Dapeng; Zou Guiwei; James S. Diana

2007-01-01

407

Home medical Blood pressure monitors Blood  

E-print Network

A blood pressure monitor, or sphygmomanometer, uses an inflatable air-bladder cuff and a listening device or pressure sensor to measure blood pressure in an artery. This monitoring can be performed by using either of two methods: a manually inflated cuff with a stethoscope for listening to arterial wall sounds (the auscultatory method), or a blood pressure monitor that contains a pressure sensor for sensing arterial wall vibrations (the oscillometric method). Automatic monitor types The two main types of automatic blood pressure monitors are upperarm and wrist models. The upper-arm model has a cuff that is placed on the upper arm; the cuff is connected by a tube to the monitor that rests on a surface near the arm. The wrist model is smaller and the entire unit wraps around the wrist—this is a much more space-critical design. Some upper-arm models require manual inflation of the cuff, but most upper-arm and all wrist models have fully automatic inflation. Measurement techniques An automatic blood pressure monitor inflates a cuff surrounding an arm with sufficient pressure to prevent blood flow in the local main artery. This pressure is gradually released until the moment that the blood begins to flow through the artery, the measurement of which determines the systolic pressure. Pulse rate is also sensed at this time. The measurement taken when the blood flow is no longer restricted determines the diastolic pressure. This complete measurement cycle is performed automatically with a pump, cuff, valve, and pressure sensor. The signal from the pressure sensor is conditioned with an op-amp circuit or by an instrumentation amplifier before data conversion by an analogto-digital converter (ADC). The systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and pulse rate are then calculated in the digital domain using a method Upper-arm blood pressure monitor Wrist blood pressure monitor

Pressure Monitors

408

Imaging morphodynamics of human blood cells in vivo with video-rate third harmonic generation microscopy.  

PubMed

With a video-rate third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy system, we imaged the micro-circulation beneath the human skin without labeling. Not only the speed of circulation but also the morpho-hydrodynamics of blood cells can be analyzed. Lacking of nuclei, red blood cells (RBCs) shows typical parachute-like and hollow-core morphology under THG microscopy. Quite different from RBCs, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appear in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. PMID:23162724

Chen, Chien-Kuo; Liu, Tzu-Ming

2012-11-01

409

Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.  

PubMed

White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations of diverse ancestral backgrounds. PMID:21738480

Nalls, Michael A; Couper, David J; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J A; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V; Toniolo, Daniela; Zakai, Neil A; Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; Folsom, Aaron R; Reiner, Alex P; Gieger, Christian; Lagou, Vasiliki; Felix, Janine F; Völzke, Henry; Gouskova, Natalia A; Biffi, Alessandro; Döring, Angela; Völker, Uwe; Chong, Sean; Wiggins, Kerri L; Rendon, Augusto; Dehghan, Abbas; Moore, Matt; Taylor, Kent; Wilson, James G; Lettre, Guillaume; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C; Pirastu, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S; Meisinger, Christa; Sambrook, Jennifer; Arepalli, Sampath; Nauck, Matthias; Prokisch, Holger; Stephens, Jonathan; Glazer, Nicole L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Prokopenko, Inga; Illig, Thomas; Patel, Kushang V; Garner, Stephen F; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Oostra, Ben A; Thein, Swee Lay; Coresh, Josef; Wichmann, H-Erich; Menzel, Stephan; Lin, JingPing; Pistis, Giorgio; Uitterlinden, André G; Spector, Tim D; Teumer, Alexander; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M; Chakravarti, Aravinda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Melzer, David; Ouwehand, Willem H; Levy, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Singleton, Andrew B; Hernandez, Dena G; Longo, Dan L; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Psaty, Bruce M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Ganesh, Santhi K

2011-06-01

410

What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

2006-01-01

411

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

412

KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

Shulman, Shanna

413

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

414

Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

2013-01-01

415

A Topological Constraint Language with Component Counting  

E-print Network

A Topological Constraint Language with Component Counting Ian Pratt-Hartmann Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, U.K. ipratt@cs.man.ac.uk ABSTRACT. A topological constraint language, topological constraint languages typically allow us to make assertions such as "region ¢¡ touches

Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

416

KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

417

KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

418

KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

419

County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

420

KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

421

Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

422

Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

423

Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

424

Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

425

On probabilistic inference by weighted model counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent and eective approach to probabilistic inference calls for reducing the problem to one of weighted model counting (WMC) on a propositional knowledge base. Specically, the approach calls for encoding the probabilistic model, typically a Bayesian network, as a propositional knowledge base in conjunctive normal form (CNF) with weights associated to each model according to the network parameters. Given

Mark Chavira; Adnan Darwiche

2008-01-01

426

Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds  

SciTech Connect

We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.

Braungardt, Sibylle [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Rodriguez, Mirta [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

427

Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

Balling, Laura Winther

2013-01-01

428

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

429

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

430

Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

1991-01-01

431

On Count/Mass Distinction in Slovene  

E-print Network

construe counting grape M by inserting divs to say, for instance, that one has eaten three bowls of grapes (32’a) or, alterna- tively, use grape C to imply that three individual grapes have been eaten (-b). 130 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic...

Mitrovi?, Moreno

2011-01-01

432

KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

Boeke, Kaye

433

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

434

Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity  

SciTech Connect

We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

Albrecht, Dylan [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

2011-02-15

435

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

436

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

437

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

438

Crowd Counting and Profiling: Methodology and Evaluation  

E-print Network

, and Tao Xiang Abstract Video imagery based crowd analysis for population profiling and density estimation for video imagery based crowd counting, and provides a systematic evalu- ation of different methods using [35]. For instance, a crowd crush at the 2010 Love Parade music festival in Germany, caused a death

Gong, Shaogang

439

Concurrent Cycle Collection in Reference Counted Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic storage reclamation via reference counting has important advantages, but has always suffered from a major weakness due to its inability to reclaim cyclic data structures. We describe a novel cycle collection algorithm that is both concurrent — it is capable of collecting garbage even in the presence of simultaneous mutation — and localized — it never needs to perform

David F. Bacon; V. T. Rajan

2001-01-01

440

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES Alexander Barvinok, Zur Luria, Alex, the permanent approximation algo­ rithm, and an integral representation for the number of contingency tables. 1 # i=1 r i = n # j=1 c j = N. A contingency table with margins (R, C) is an m � n non­negative integer

Yong, Alexander

441

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES Alexander Barvinok, Zur Luria, Alex algo- rithm, and an integral representation for the number of contingency tables. 1. Introduction Let R = N. A contingency table with margins (R, C) is an m Ã? n non-negative integer matrix D = (dij

Barvinok, Alexander

442

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count...  

E-print Network

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count... TsunamiReady communities are prepared! Schools, playgrounds, hospitals, factories and homes are often built in areas vulnerable to tsunamis. The Tsunami in coastal areas to reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. How can I learn more

443

Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

444

Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

Johnston, Janet M.

445

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

446

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

447

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

448

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

449

Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

Education Week, 2007

2007-01-01

450

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

451

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

452

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

453

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

454

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

455

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

456

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

457

Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

458

WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

459

"Wake Up Brains" with Skip Counting Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 4-minute video teacher Jan Saul demonstrates how she incorporates music and kinesthetic activity in warm-up activities in her grade 3 class. The songs involve skip-counting, laying the foundation for memorization of multiplication facts. The page included a link to the vendor of the recordings and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

460

Full containment spray drying  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

Masters, K.

1999-11-01

461

Autologous cord blood transfusion.  

PubMed

Newborn piglets were exsanguinated (60% of blood volume) and retransfused 1 h later. One test group received adult pig red blood cells, the other piglet cord blood cells; controls were infused with plasma. While all controls died, satisfactory results were achieved in piglets transfused with either adult or foetal blood. The feasibility of collecting human cord blood for transfusion was assessed in 100 samples of human cord blood. Blood was collected aseptically and aerobic and anaerobic cultures set up. All samples of cord blood were sterile, and all were Mycoplasma negative. Coagulation parameters were analysed in eight cord plasma samples stored at -20 degrees C for 45 days. No significant abnormalities were found immediately after birth or after storage. PMID:7949798

Ballin, A; Kenet, G; Gutman, R; Samra, Z; Zakut, H; Meytes, D

1994-07-01

462

Cord blood testing  

MedlinePLUS

... this and other, future medical purposes. Cord blood banking for personal use is done by private companies. ... Umbilical Cord Blood Banking. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 399. ... Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol . 2008;111:475-7. (Reaffirmed 2012) ...

463

Coughing up blood  

MedlinePLUS

... Inflammation of the blood vessels in the lung (vasculitis) Injury to the arteries of the lungs Irritation of the throat from violent coughing (small amounts of blood) Pneumonia or other lung infections Pulmonary edema Systemic lupus erythematosus Tuberculosis

464

How Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in Blood Clotting Process ... excessive clot formation. Certain drugs used to treat cancer (chemotherapy drugs), such as asparaginase Some Brand Names ...

465

Low blood sugar - newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... is also called neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... should continue taking blood tests until the baby's glucose level ... tests: Newborn screening for metabolic disorders Urine tests

466

Blood Pressure Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, ... failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

467

White Blood Cell Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell ...

468

Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-05-15

469

Dual porosity CNL count rate processing  

SciTech Connect

The standard method of computing porosity for the two-detector Compensated Neutron Log (CNL) is to use the ratio of near to far detector count rates. This procedure has the advantage that, to first order, environmental effects tend to cancel, leaving only residual effects to be corrected using a series of departure curves. Recently, a new four-detector Dual Porosity CNL tool has been introduced which uses two epithermal neutron detectors in addition to the two standard thermal neutron detectors. Two separate porosity measurements are thus obtained, one from each pair of detectors. In clean formations, the measured porosities agree. However, in shaly formations containing high neutron absorbers the porosity measured by the epithermal detectors reads lower and agrees more closely with density derived porosity. To maintain reasonable count rates, the epithermal detectors are spaced closer to the neutron source than the thermal neutron detectors. As a result of a detailed study of the tool response to many environmental variables, a new data processing technique has been developed using individual detector count rates. The method is analogous to the ''spine-and-ribs'' analysis developed for the FDC tool. Parameters which have been studied are borehole size, tool standoff, mudcake thickness, mud weight, borehole salinity, formation salinity, formation matrix, formation gas, temperature and pressure. Examples are given of how some of these parameters affect the individual count rates. The new processing method can be used to compute both epithermal and thermal neutron porosity. In the latter case, however, additional input parameters relating to neutron absorbers should be specified. Examples illustrating the improvements obtained with count rate processing are presented.

Scott, H.D.; Flaum, C.; Sherman

1982-09-01

470

What is Blood Pressure?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about heart health (on page 34 of the PDF), learners measure their own blood pressure using an electronic blood pressure monitor with a self-inflating cuff (included in cost of materials) and learn about the health effects of high blood pressure. Learners also discover how to interpret the blood pressure number (diastolic vs. systolic) and healthy ranges. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and web resources.

Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Matyas, Marsha L.; Mcneel, Ronald L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

471

Understanding Blood Pressure  

E-print Network

Understanding Blood Pressure · Monitorathomewithadigitalmonitor. · Useleftarmwithcorrectsizecuff. · Avoidcaffeine,alcohol,andtobacco. Steps to Follow FOR AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. Bottom number = Diastolic (force between heart beats) Top

472

Blood groupings in Marshallese.  

PubMed

The absence of the Diego blood factor, the extremely low incidence of the M gene, and the unusually high R(1) gene frequency of the Marshallese more nearly resemble the blood groupings of the people of the western islands of Indonesia than the blood groupings of the Amerindians. PMID:13635003

SUSSMAN, L N; MEYER, L H; CONARD, R A

1959-03-01

473

Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoints of clinical trials of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs. Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation. Methods Accurate manual parasite counts were done on 497 images of a range of thick blood films with varying densities of malaria parasites, to establish a uniformly reliable standard against which to assess the digital technique. By utilizing descriptive statistical parameters of parasite size frequency distributions, particle counting algorithms of the digital image analysis programme were semi-automatically adapted to variations in parasite size, shape and staining characteristics, to produce optimum signal/noise ratios. Results A reliable counting process was developed that requires no operator decisions that might bias the outcome. Digital counts were highly correlated with manual counts for medium to high parasite densities, and slightly less well correlated with conventional counts. At low densities (fewer than 6 parasites per analysed image) signal/noise ratios were compromised and correlation between digital and manual counts was poor. Conventional counts were consistently lower than both digital and manual counts. Conclusion Using open-access software and avoiding custom programming or any special operator intervention, accurate digital counts were obtained, particularly at high parasite densities that are difficult to count conventionally. The technique is potentially useful for laboratories that routinely perform malaria parasite enumeration. The requirements of a digital microscope camera, personal computer and good quality staining of slides are potentially reasonably easy to meet. PMID:19775454

Frean, John A

2009-01-01

474

Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi  

SciTech Connect

Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)] [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15

475

Whole blood viscosity assessment issues III: Association with international normalized ratio and thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies are being used interchangeably or in combination. While international normalized ratio is assessed to determine anticoagulant's contraindication/need, whole blood viscosity is not assessed to determine the need for antiplatelet. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate whether whole blood viscosity value is associated with levels of international normalized ratio and platelet count. Materials and Methods: De-identified archived clinical pathology data for the year 2008 were audited. All cases of international normalized ratio, which were concomitantly tested for haematocrit and total proteins, were extracted (n=7,387). Whole blood viscosity levels were extrapolated. Whether differences are associated with normal vs. high international normalized ratio and thrombocytopenia vs. thrombocytosis were evaluated. Results: Multivariate analysis show that whole blood viscosity levels statistically significantly differs between international normalized ratio and platelet counts (p<0.001). Platelet count is statistically significantly lower in low blood viscosity when compared with hyperviscosity and normoviscosity (p<0.001). Conversely, international normalized ratio is statistically significantly higher in low blood viscosity relative to hyperviscosity (p<0.001) and normoviscosity (p<0.002). No difference was observed between hyperviscosity and normoviscosity in platelet count or international normalized ratio. Conclusion: The observation corroborates with previous reports to suggest putting into perspective the specificity of whole blood viscosity relative to stasis, against which antiplatelet is employed. It indicates that low whole blood viscosity is synonymous to high international normalized ratio whereby anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies are contraindicated. International normalized ratio, platelet count and blood viscosity are laboratory indices to consider in constituting antiplatelet monitoring panel. PMID:22558578

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Cann, Nathan; Butkowski, Eugene

2010-01-01

476

Single-electron transistor strongly coupled to vibrations: counting statistics and fluctuation theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a simple quantum master equation approach, we calculate the full counting statistics of a single-electron transistor strongly coupled to vibrations. The full counting statistics contains both the statistics of integrated particle and energy currents associated with the transferred electrons and phonons. A universal as well as an effective fluctuation theorem are derived for the general case where the various reservoir temperatures and chemical potentials are different. The first relates to the entropy production generated in the junction, while the second reveals internal information of the system. The model recovers the Franck-Condon blockade, and potential applications to non-invasive molecular spectroscopy are discussed.

Schaller, Gernot; Krause, Thilo; Brandes, Tobias; Esposito, Massimiliano

2013-03-01

477

Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

2009-11-01

478

Full Jupiter Mosaic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

2007-01-01

479

Full Color Holographic Endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

2013-02-01

480

Blood and blood products usage in Maputo.  

PubMed

We studied retrospectively a sample of 521 order forms for blood and blood products transfusion, among the 25,845 requests sent to the Maputo Central Hospital's Blood Bank., from March 1992 to February 1993. The Paediatrics Department ordered nearly half (47.2 pc); Surgery ranked second (16.9 pc), followed by Gynaecology-Obstetrics (1604 pc) and the Intensive Care Unit (15.7 pc). Medicine issued only 3.8 pc of the orders. Children under five years old were the target of most (43.3 pc) orders; among them 71.1 pc were under three years old. The volumes ordered most often were 500 ml (25 pc) and 1,000 ml (18.3 pc). Fifty seven pc of orders were for packed blood cells, followed by whole blood (34.7 pc). Orders for fresh frozen plasma accounted for only 6.9 pc. Anaemia was the diagnosis mentioned most often (59.3 pc). In 27.1 pc of orders for anaemia, malaria was the specific cause. Haemoglobin values of transfusions' recipients ranged between 1 and 14.7 g/dL. Most (72.9 pc) were below 6 g/dL. Orders for use during the perioperative period accounted for 22.8 pc. On the basis of our results, we suggest that the Surgery and Gynaecology-Obstetrics Departments should review their policies on haemotherapy, particularly for the peri-operative method. We also suggest creation of a transfusion advisory committee, to establish guidelines and implementation mechanisms for the rational use of blood. Combined with continuous education of blood therapy prescribers, this may lead to a reduction of unnecessary transfusions and to the subsequent reduction of blood-borne disease transmission in Maputo. PMID:7923344

Barradas, R; Schwalbach, T; Nóvoa, A

1994-03-01

481

Count-based left ventricular volume determination utilizing a left posterior oblique view for attenuation correction  

SciTech Connect

This study aimed to determine the inherent error of the left ventricular volume measurement from the gated equilibrium blood pool scintigram utilizing the count-based technique. The study population consisted of 26 patients who had undergone biplane contrast ventriculography. The patients were imaged with a parallel-hole collimator in the left anterior oblique position showing the septum to best advantage. A reference blood sample was counted and radionuclide volumes calculated without correction for attenuation. Attenuation corrected volumes were derived with the factor 1/e/sup -/+d/, where d = distance from skin marker to center of the left ventricle in the orthogonal left posterior oblique view and ..mu.. = linear attenuation coefficient. A series of ..mu.. values from 0.08 to 0.15 cm/sup -1/ was evaluated. The tightest 95% confidence limits achieved for an end-diastolic 150-ml ventricle were +/- 44ml, and for an end-systolic 75-ml ventricle +/- 32 ml. In view of the magnitude of inherent error, the count-based volume measurement may be more suitable for group analyses and in cases in which an individual patient serves as his own control.

Rabinovitch, M.A.; Kalff, V.; Koral, K.; Chan, W.; Juni, J.E.; Lerman, B.; Lampman, R.; Walton, J.; Grassley, D.; Vogel, R.

1984-03-01

482

Resources and responsibility for professional education in blood transfusion therapy.  

PubMed

Two current problems in blood transfusion services are the widespread lack of information on this subject among practicing physicians, house staff, and medical students, and the dearth of broadly trained, full-time professionals in the field. Our most important and urgent responsibility is to train physicians who seek full-time careers in any aspect of blood transfusion services, blood center management, hospital transfusion services, research, or combination thereof. Successful training programs require sufficient space, personnel, and funds. In addition, blood centers have a responsibility to educate practicing physicians and house staff by formal teaching sessions, or informally when problems arise. Medical school curricula usually contain little on blood banking; exposure to some basic immunohematology or a visit to a blood center will help sensitize students to the availability of blood. Hospital administrators, regional medical society officers, and corporate medical directors, informed of the blood centers' activities, can help improve relationships between center, hospital, and community. PMID:7466901

Hirsch, R L

1981-01-01

483

Blood groups systems.  

PubMed

International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

2014-09-01

484

Blood groups systems  

PubMed Central

International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

2014-01-01

485

THE RELATION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA TO THE RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME, CHLORINE CONCENTRATION, AND CHLORINE DISTRIBUTION IN THE BLOOD OF DOGS  

PubMed Central

1. In normal dogs experimental hyperglycemia causes a prompt dilution of the circulating blood. This is evidenced by the increase in the relative volume of serum and the reduction of the erythrocyte counts. If the hyperglycemia is large, the viscosity of the blood is visibly diminished. 2. As the hyperglycemia increases there occurs a reduction of the serum chlorine concentration and an increase in the concentration of corpuscular chlorine. 3. Reduction of an artificial hyperglycemia restores the relative blood volumes to their normal status. The erythrocyte count rises to the normal and the corpuscular chlorine concentration is diminished. If the reduction is a large one, the viscosity of the blood is visibly increased. 4. The same types of conductivity-chloride discrepancy that occur in human blood are found in the blood of dogs. In addition, a third type is described. 5. Hyperglycemia does not cause the same changes in the volume of the average erythrocyte of the dog as it does in the case of human erythrocytes. PMID:19869037

Foshay, Lee

1925-01-01

486

Development of an automated asbestos counting software based on fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

An emerging alternative to the commonly used analytical methods for asbestos analysis is fluorescence microscopy (FM), which relies on highly specific asbestos-binding probes to distinguish asbestos from interfering non-asbestos fibers. However, all types of microscopic asbestos analysis require laborious examination of large number of fields of view and are prone to subjective errors and large variability between asbestos counts by different analysts and laboratories. A possible solution to these problems is automated counting of asbestos fibers by image analysis software, which would lower the cost and increase the reliability of asbestos testing. This study seeks to develop a fiber recognition and counting software for FM-based asbestos analysis. We discuss the main features of the developed software and the results of its testing. Software testing showed good correlation between automated and manual counts for the samples with medium and high fiber concentrations. At low fiber concentrations, the automated counts were less accurate, leading us to implement correction mode for automated counts. While the full automation of asbestos analysis would require further improvements in accuracy of fiber identification, the developed software could already assist professional asbestos analysts and record detailed fiber dimensions for the use in epidemiological research. PMID:25467412

Alexandrov, Maxym; Ichida, Etsuko; Nishimura, Tomoki; Aoki, Kousuke; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Kuroda, Akio

2015-01-01

487

CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons  

E-print Network

CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron multiplying gain), making efficient photon counting possible. CCCP will be deployed in 2009 on the ESO NTT through the 3D-NTT1 project and on the SOAR through the BTFI project.

Olivier Daigle; Jean-Luc Gach; Christian Guillaume; Simon Lessard; Claude Carignan; Sebastien Blais-Ouellette

2008-07-02

488

An Extendable Galaxy Number Count Model  

E-print Network

I review galaxy number count models and present ncmod, an extendable and general purpose model for comparing and interpreting the results of field galaxy survey data. I develop techniques and software for converting the results of a survey done in one filter into another filter, for direct comparison with other surveys. Comparison of the data from surveys which differ greatly in wavelength coverage or sensitivity is of necessity model-dependent, but comparison between similar surveys can be done in a relatively model-independent way. I extrapolate existing number counts into the ultraviolet and thermal infrared. The model is used to predict the results of future space missions, including STIS and NICMOS on HST, ISO, SIRTF and NGST.

Jonathan P. Gardner

1998-02-03

489

Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the basic blood chemistry test include blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, which tell how well the kidneys ... amount of sugar in the blood. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a measure of how well the ...

490

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate  

MedlinePLUS

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Sep 4,2014 Blood pressure and heart rate are not the same. Learn ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

491

Living with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure (HBP), you' ... Have High Blood Pressure Web page. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Many pregnant women who have HBP ...