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Sample records for full blood count

  1. Cord blood full blood count parameters in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adewumi, Adediran; Titilope A, Adeyemo; Akinsegun, Akinbami A; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Ebele, Uche; Sulaimon, Akanmu A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Full blood count (FBC), one of the most frequently requested for laboratory investigations, is a simple, fast and cheap test and is a reliable indicator of health. Due to its usefulness in the assessment of health status of individuals, its parameters in cord blood, a major source of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation and an ideal source for laboratory investigations for newborns were determined to provide a useful guide to local neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians. Methods Three millilitres of umbilical cord blood was collected from 130 normal birth weight newborns (69 males and 61 females) whose cord were clamped immediately after delivery, at a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria and full blood count parameters were determined using Sysmex autoanalyzer, model KX-21N. Consented mothers of the newborns were selected based on, age between 18 and 45 years; uneventful pregnancy and delivery and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration ? 10 g/dL. Results There were no statistical gender differences in the mean values of Hb concentrations (M = 13.27 ±1.60 g/dL; F = 13.32±1.61g/dL; p = 0.93), total white cell count (M = 3.16±5.43 × 109/L; F = 13.07±4.98 × 109/L; p= 0.92), platelet count (M= 223.64± 64.21 × 109/L; F = 226.69±80.83 × 109/L; p = 0.81) and other parameters. Conclusion Mean values of full blood count parameters obtained in this study are comparable to reports from other studies in developing countries and could be a useful guide for neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians in our geographical location. PMID:25396018

  2. Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls. PMID:24009939

  3. Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre?>?400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis. PMID:25018781

  4. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Test: Hemoglobin Blood Culture Anemia Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests All About Allergies Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures (Video Landing Page) Getting a ...

  5. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  6. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    and circulate throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic system. An infection or a physical injury results and manual counting methods. Introduction White blood cells are the effector cells of the immune system

  18. Full counting statistics for molecular spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Martin, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    We report our recent study on the full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s. We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the master equation approach, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s, some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of master equation approach. By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically.

  19. Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Jenkins, E; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased linearly and the number of neutrophils increased exponentially from a mean value of 0.2 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 0.8 x 10(9)/l at 31 weeks and then 8.5 x 10(9)/l at term. Early myeloid cells, eosinophils, and basophils were observed in 24%, 55%, and 15% of the blood films respectively; they contributed less than 2% to the total leucocyte count and there were no significant changes with gestation. The physiological leucopenia observed in fetuses early in the third trimester may partly explain the predisposition of premature neonates to infection. PMID:1586178

  20. Full counting statistics of Majorana interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strübi, Grégory; Belzig, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Bruder, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    We study the full counting statistics of interferometers for chiral Majorana fermions with two incoming and two outgoing Dirac fermion channels. In the absence of interactions, the FCS can be obtained from the 4×4 scattering matrix S that relates the outgoing Dirac fermions to the incoming Dirac fermions. After presenting explicit expressions for the higher-order current correlations for a modified Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer, we note that the cumulant-generating function can be interpreted such that unit-charge transfer processes correspond to two independent half-charge transfer processes, or alternatively, to two independent electron-hole conversion processes. By a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we verify that this factorization property holds for a general SO(4) scattering matrix, i.e. for a general interferometer geometry.

  1. Full counting statistics of persistent current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komnik, A.; Langhanke, G. W.

    2014-10-01

    We develop a method for the calculation of charge-transfer statistics of persistent current in nanostructures in terms of the cumulant generating function (CGF) of transferred charge. We consider a simply connected one-dimensional system (a wire) and develop a procedure for the calculation of the CGF of persistent currents when the wire is closed into a ring via a weak link. For the noninteracting system we derive a general formula in terms of the two-particle Green's functions. We show that, contrary to the conventional tunneling contacts, the resulting cumulant generating function has a doubled periodicity as a function of the counting field. We apply our general formula to short tight-binding chains and show that the resulting CGF perfectly reproduces the known evidence for the persistent current. Its second cumulant turns out to be maximal at the switching points and vanishes identically at zero temperature. Furthermore, we apply our formalism for a computation of the charge-transfer statistics of genuinely interacting systems. First we consider a ring with an embedded Anderson impurity and employing a self-energy approximation find an overall suppression of persistent current as well as of its noise. Finally, we compute the charge-transfer statistics of a double-quantum-dot system in the deep Kondo limit using an exact analytical solution of the model at the Toulouse point. We analyze the behavior of the resulting cumulants and compare them with those of a noninteracting double-quantum-dot system and find several pronounced differences, which can be traced back to interaction effects.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS

    E-print Network

    DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

  3. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Indications for a WBC count include infectious and inflammatory diseases; leukemia and lymphoma; and bone marrow disorders. ... numbers of WBCs (leukocytosis) may indicate: infectious diseases ... (such as rheumatoid arthritis or allergy) leukemia severe ...

  4. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes unusually large cell Sizes in all cell categories. Cell measurements revealed erythrocytes larger than those

  5. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergy) Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis) Some leukemias (e.g., chronic myeloid leukemia) Known as basopenia As with eosinophils, numbers are normally low in the blood; usually not ...

  6. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R (2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  7. Full counting statistics of chaotic cavities from classical action correlations

    E-print Network

    G. Berkolaiko; J. M. Harrison; M. Novaes

    2008-05-30

    We present a trajectory-based semiclassical calculation of the full counting statistics of quantum transport through chaotic cavities, in the regime of many open channels. Our method to obtain the $m$th moment of the density of transmission eigenvalues requires two correlated sets of $m$ classical trajectories, therefore generalizing previous works on conductance and shot noise. The semiclassical results agree, for all values of $m$, with the corresponding predictions from random matrix theory.

  8. Full counting statistics of chaotic cavities with many open channels

    E-print Network

    Marcel Novaes

    2007-02-16

    Explicit formulas are obtained for all moments and for all cumulants of the electric current through a quantum chaotic cavity attached to two ideal leads, thus providing the full counting statistics for this type of system. The approach is based on random matrix theory, and is valid in the limit when both leads have many open channels. For an arbitrary number of open channels we present the third cumulant and an example of non-linear statistics.

  9. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  10. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  11. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  12. Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Julia C

    2011-01-01

    As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

  13. Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers

    PubMed Central

    NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

  14. FULL ARTICLE It's in your blood: spectral biomarker candidates

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    and patients with urinary tract infection were analysed with advanced automated high throughput Fourier transFULL ARTICLE It's in your blood: spectral biomarker candidates for urinary bladder cancer from analysis, cancer biomarker, urinary bladder cancer 1. Introduction Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one

  15. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  16. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  17. Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, E. J.; Pedersen, B.; Frederiksen, R.; Dahl, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.?METHODS—The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking.?RESULTS—Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation.?CONCLUSIONS—Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.?? PMID:10319062

  18. White Blood Cell Count and Mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC. PMID:17481443

  19. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B.; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  20. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test.

    PubMed

    Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  3. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  4. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1.25 while the optical count was lower by a mean factor of 0.87. The degree of impedance count overestimation was particularly consistent while the optical count underestimation was more variable. Linearity studies of 10 fresh platelet units showed no deviation in the range 0-2305 x 10(9) l(-1) for impedance and 0 to 1420 x 10(9) l(-1) for the optical counts, and the relative numerical relationships between impedance and optical counts were conserved throughout the range of dilutions tested. In the CD4000 optical analysis, blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA showed a distinctive elliptical population distribution that fell within the system thresholds. In contrast, the optical pattern observed for platelet units (in CPD) and ACD-anticoagulated venous blood showed a wider 90 degrees scatter with a population of platelet events above the upper parallel discriminator. As these were excluded from the optical count (but were still identified as platelets by the immunoplatelet method) it meant that the optical counts of samples in citrate-based anticoagulants were systematically lower than immunoplatelet counts. Platelet units (n = 15) analysed daily over a seven day period of storage revealed that the greatest decline in platelet counts was with the optical measurement while the most stable value was obtained by impedance analysis. The results of the immunoplatelet analysis further suggested a progressive increase in small platelets with increasing storage time. The use in this study of a standardised immunoplatelet reference method to examine the question of analyser suitability for determining platelet counts/yields of platelet units thus provided a number of important findings. An impedance platelet counting method is utilised by the great majority of haematology instruments in current use, and in common with the CD4000 analyser, a correction factor is employed to take account of RBC/platelet coincidence. This study found that when analysed samples such as platelet units were RBC-free, that an inappropriate correction factor was applied. Consequently, the CD4000

  5. Majorana zero modes choose Euler numbers as revealed by full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2015-11-01

    We study transport properties of a quantum dot coupled to a Majorana zero mode and two normal leads. We investigate the full counting statistics of charge tunneling events and obtain complete information on current fluctuations through the dot. Using the Keldysh path-integral approach, we compute the cumulant generating function of the current. We first consider a spinless case and find that for the symmetric dot-lead couplings, the zero-frequency cumulants are independent of the microscopic parameters and exhibit a universal pattern described by Euler numbers. We then consider the spinful system and investigate the effect of both weak and strong Coulomb interactions. We show that cases with and without Majorana coupling exhibit qualitatively different full counting statistics of charge tunneling events despite the fact that differential linear conductance might have zero-bias features in both cases.

  6. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal One ...

  7. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  8. Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis. PMID:25914844

  9. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  10. Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood cell counts and the Dst

    E-print Network

    Dasso, Sergio

    for the transport of oxygen, coagulation and the immune response respectively. In the healthy subject, blood cell type of blood cell are expected to reflect the intrinsic dynamics of the hematologic system and its response to various intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations. We analyze blood cell counts from two sheep over

  11. Measurement of 90sr in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation counting with full spectrum DPM method.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Chung, K H; Choi, G K; Lee, C W

    2002-08-01

    90Sr activity was measured with the full spectrum DPM (FS-DPM) counting method after plotting the quench correction curves of 90Sr and 90Y, and the FS-DPM method was applied to determine the 90Sr in liquid waste samples. The optimum regions of 90Sr and 90Y were set for measuring 90Sr with the dual label DPM (DL-DPM) method. The direct measurement of purified 90Sr with spectrum unfolding techniques could overcome the disadvantages of the DL-DPM method. The activities of 90Sr in the 90Sr/90Y standardized solution measured with the FS-DPM protocols were close to the true activity. The concentrations of 90Sr in the liquid waste samples measured with the FS-DPM counting method were compared with those obtained with conventional methods. PMID:12150285

  12. Lindblad equation approach for the full counting statistics of work and heat in driven quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Mihail Silaev; Tero T. Heikkilä; Pauli Virtanen

    2014-06-25

    We formulate the general approach based on the Lindblad equation to calculate the full counting statistics of work and heat produced by driven quantum systems weakly coupled with a Markovian thermal bath. The approach can be applied to a wide class of dissipative quantum systems driven by an arbitrary force protocol. We show the validity of general fluctuation relations and consider several generic examples. The possibilities of using calorimetric measurements to test the presence of coherence and entanglement in the open quantum systems are discussed.

  13. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free ?-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  14. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  15. Full counting statistics for transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet: Incoherent tunneling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, K.-I.; Utsumi, Y.; Martin, T.

    2007-05-01

    Full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet is studied. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s . We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master-equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the application of the master-equation approach to our system, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s , some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus, the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of the master-equation approach for an arbitrary value of spin s . By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically. The obtained FCS generating function is spin independent in the large bias regime, whereas for a small bias voltage, it suggests transport through our molecular quantum dot magnet looks exactly like that of a spinless fermion in the limit of large s . This rather counterintuitive consequence is subject to a direct experimental check.

  16. Large Scale-Invariant Fluctuations in Normal Blood Cell Counts A sign of criticality?

    E-print Network

    Perazzo, C A; Chialvo, D R; Willshaw, P; Perazzo, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Elmer A.; Chialvo, Dante R.; Willshaw, Peter

    2000-01-01

    All types of blood cells are formed by differentiation from a small self-maintaining population of pluri-potential stem cells in the bone marrow. Despite abundant information on the molecular aspects of division, differentiation, commitment and maturation of these cells, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of the system as a whole, and how it works to maintain this complex ``ecology'' in the observed normal ranges throughout life. Here we report unexpected large, scale-free, fluctuations detected from the first long-term analysis of the day-to-day variability of a healthy animal's blood cell counts measured over one thousand days. This scale-invariance cannot be accounted for by current theoretical models, and resembles some of the scenarios described for self-organized criticality.

  17. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  19. Full counting statistics of information content in the presence of Coulomb interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the Rényi entropy of a positive integer order M for a reduced density matrix of a single-level quantum dot connected to left and right leads. We exploit a 2 ×2 modified Keldysh Green-function matrix obtained by the discrete Fourier transform of a 2 M ×2 M multicontour Keldysh Green-function matrix. A moment-generating function of self-information is deduced from the analytic continuation of M to the complex plane. We calculate the probability distribution of self-information and find that, within the Hartree approximation, the on-site Coulomb interaction affects rare events and modifies a bound of the probability distribution. A simple equality, from which an upper bound of the average, i.e., the entanglement entropy, would be inferred, is presented. For noninteracting electrons, the entanglement entropy is expressed with current cumulants of the full counting statistics of electron transport.

  20. Full counting statistics of energy fluctuations in a driven quantum resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Clerk, A. A.

    2011-10-15

    We consider the statistics of time-integrated energy fluctuations of a driven bosonic single-mode resonator, as measured by a quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, using the standard Keldysh prescription to define higher moments. We find that, due to an effective cascading of fluctuations, these statistics are surprisingly nonclassical: the low-temperature, quantum probability distribution is not equivalent to the high-temperature classical distribution evaluated at some effective temperature. Moreover, for a sufficiently large drive detuning and low temperatures, the Keldysh-ordered quasiprobability distribution characterizing these fluctuations fails to be positive-definite; this is similar to the full counting statistics of charge in superconducting systems. We argue that this indicates a kind of nonclassical behavior akin to that tested by Leggett-Garg inequalities.

  1. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection. PMID:25836768

  2. Full counting statistics in the not-so-long-time limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Sam T.; Schmitteckert, Peter; Saleur, Hubert

    2015-10-01

    The full counting statistics of charge transport is the probability distribution {p}n({t}m) that n electrons have flown through the system in measuring time tm. The cumulant generating function (CGF) of this distribution F(? ,{t}m) has been well studied in the long time limit {t}m\\to ? , however there are relatively few results on the finite measuring time corrections to this. In this work, we study the leading finite time corrections to the CGF of interacting Fermi systems with a single transmission channel at zero temperature but driven out of equilibrium by a bias voltage. We conjecture that the leading finite time corrections are logarithmic in tm with a coefficient universally related to the long time limit. We provide detailed numerical evidence for this with reference to the self-dual interacting resonant level model. This model further contains a phase transition associated with the fractionalization of charge at a critical bias voltage. This transition manifests itself technically as branch points in the CGF. We provide numerical results of the dependence of the CGF on measuring time for model parameters in the vicinity of this transition, and thus identify features in the time evolution associated with the phase transition itself.

  3. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  4. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2 Indians BUREAU...OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white...

  5. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a...

  6. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a...

  7. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a...

  8. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a...

  9. 25 CFR 111.2 - Enrolling non-full-blood children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a...

  10. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  11. Early natural killer cell counts in blood predict mortality in severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Host immunity should play a principal role in determining both the outcome and recovery of patients with sepsis that originated from a microbial infection. Quantification of the levels of key elements of the immune response could have a prognostic value in this disease. Methods In an attempt to evaluate the quantitative changes in the status of immunocompetence in severe sepsis over time and its potential influence on clinical outcome, we monitored the evolution of immunoglobulins (Igs) (IgG, IgA and IgM), complement factors (C3 and C4) and lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells (CD19+) and natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+)) in the blood of 50 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at day 1, day 3 and day 10 following admission to the ICU. Results Twenty-one patients died, ten of whom died within the 72 hours following admission to the ICU. The most frequent cause of death (n = 12) was multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. At day 1, survivors showed significantly higher levels of IgG and C4 than those who ultimately died. On the contrary, NK cell levels were significantly higher in the patients who died. Survivors exhibited a progressive increase from day 1 to day 10 on most of the immunological parameters evaluated (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, CD4+, CD8+ T cells and NK cells). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, including age, sex, APACHE II score, severe sepsis or septic shock status and each one of the immunological parameters showed that NK cell counts at day 1 were independently associated with increased risk of death at 28 days (hazard ratio = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.29 to 8.64; P = 0.013). Analysis of survival curves provided evidence that levels of NK cells at day 1 (> 83 cells/mm3) were associated with early mortality. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the prognostic role of NK cells in severe sepsis and provide evidence for a direct association of early counts of these cells in blood with mortality. PMID:22018048

  12. Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

  13. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-quare test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC. PMID:25567613

  14. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  15. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  16. Seasonal Variations of Complete Blood Count and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the US Population - Analysis of NHANES Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported seasonal differences in gene expression in white blood cells, adipose tissue, and inflammatory biomarkers of the immune system. There is no data on the seasonal variations of these biomarkers in the US general population of both children and adults. Then aim of this study is to explore the seasonal trends in complete blood count (CBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large non-institutionalized US population. Methods Seven cross-sectional data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999–2012 were aggregated; participants reporting recent use of prescribed steroids, chemotherapy, immunomodulators and antibiotics were excluded. Linear regression models were used to compare levels of CBC and CRP between winter-spring (November-April) and summer-fall (May-October), adjusting for demographics, personal behavioral factors, and chronic disease conditions. Results A total of 27,478 children and 36,644 adults (?18 years) were included in the study. Levels of neutrophils, white blood cell count (WBC), and CRP were higher in winter-spring than summer-fall (p?0.05). Red blood cell components were lower in winter-spring than in summer-fall, while the opposite was seen for platelets. Conclusions This large population-based study found notable seasonal variations in blood cell composition and inflammatory biomarkers, with a more pro-inflammatory immune system seen in winter-spring than summer-fall. The red blood cell patterns could have implications for the observed cardio-vascular seasonality. PMID:26544180

  17. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 ?L, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible. PMID:26496235

  18. Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

  19. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  20. White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

  1. Toward a reference method for leukocyte differential counts in blood: comparison of three flow cytometric candidate methods.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Mikael; Davis, Bruce H; Fest, Thierry; Wood, Brent L

    2012-11-01

    A Complete Blood Count performed by an automated hematology analyzer frequently requires a microscopic slide review. Recently, we and others have proposed combinations of monoclonal antibodies for an extended leukocyte differential by flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these proposals. Ninety-two samples were analyzed at 2 sites to compare the accuracy of three published methods. Reference methods used were i) cell counter for leukocyte count and ii) microscopic review as defined by CSLI H20-A2 for cell subsets. Comparison of flow cytometers from 2 manufacturers (FC500 and CANTO/LSRII) was performed. Published protocols were adapted to three different models of flow cytometer and each provided similar results in leukocyte subset enumeration, although some discrepancies were noted for each protocol in comparison with the reference method. The conclusion is that each protocol carries advantages and disadvantages and there is no clear "winner". This study supports the fact that flow cytometry is a candidate to become a reference method for the leukocyte differential. None of the tested protocols clearly demonstrated superiority and each had demonstrable deficiencies. Additional work to develop a consensual 8 to 10 color panel is concluded to be necessary for a satisfactory reference method. PMID:22736499

  2. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  3. Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hai-Bin

    2013-12-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

  4. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  5. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  6. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  7. Full-counting statistics of charge and spin transport in the transient regime: A nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gao-Min; Wang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    We report the investigation of full-counting statistics (FCS) of transferred charge and spin in the transient regime where the connection between central scattering region (quantum dot) and leads are turned on at t =0 . A general theoretical formulation for the generating function (GF) is presented using a nonequilibrium Green's function approach for the quantum dot system. In particular, we give a detailed derivation on how to use the method of path integral together with nonequilibrium Green's function technique to obtain the GF of FCS in electron transport systems based on the two-time quantum measurement scheme. The correct long-time limit of the formalism, the Levitov-Lesovik formula, is obtained. This formalism can be generalized to account for spin transport for the system with noncollinear spin as well as spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we have calculated the GF of spin-polarized transferred charge, transferred spin, as well as the spin transferred torque for a magnetic tunneling junction in the transient regime. The GF is compactly expressed by a functional determinant represented by Green's function and self-energy in the time domain. With this formalism, FCS in spintronics in the transient regime can be studied. We also extend this formalism to the quantum point contact system. For numerical results, we calculate the GF and various cumulants of a double quantum dot system connected by two leads in the transient regime. The signature of universal oscillation of FCS is identified. On top of the global oscillation, local oscillations are found in various cumulants as a result of the Rabi oscillation. Finally, the influence of the temperature is also examined.

  8. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  9. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  10. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

  11. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  12. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by

  14. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  15. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or surgery) Burns Kidney failure Lupus Rheumatoid arthritis Malnutrition, thyroid problems Certain medicines Bleeding Mild to moderate ... Inflammatory bowel disease Other diseases that might cause malnutrition Certain drugs Infection Chemotherapy and other medicines Malaria ...

  16. Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

    2006-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

  17. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³?Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  18. Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Rhiannon S.; Hyland, Catherine A.; Flower, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV) mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety. PMID:25408849

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Plateletworks® in the Measurement of Blood Cell Counts as compared to the Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Erick; Qureshi, A. Mabood; Bally, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Prior to undergoing cardiac surgery many patients may have impaired platelet function due to platelet inhibition. Point of care testing (POCT) that produces quick results of platelet counts and function allow earlier clinician interpretation, diagnosis and treatment. Before being adopted for routine clinical use, a POCT device’s performance must be evaluated by standard laboratory techniques to ensure high quality results. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the Plateletworks® BC 3200 automated hematology analyzer by correlating its precision, accuracy and linearity for the measurement of blood counts to our hospital central laboratory analyzer (Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800). The study utilizes well described methods for Within-Run and Day-to-Day precision, comparison of methods (bias), and linearity. Control samples from the manufacturer were used for the precision studies, blood samples from 115 cardiac surgical subjects were used for comparison of methods and accuracy, and pre-diluted control samples from the manufacturer were used for the linearity studies. The precision of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Within-Run precision was acceptable ranging from 0.65–6.4%. Likewise, the CV for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Day-to-Day precision was acceptable ranging from 1.45% to 6.7%. The correlation and accuracy between the two analyzers for the evaluated parameters (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin) was acceptable. The linearity for the measured parameters was also acceptable with a range between 98–100%. The performance of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable for providing blood cell counts as compared to our central hospital laboratory analyzer. PMID:26405360

  20. Association of White Blood Cell Count and Differential with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Bekwelem, Wobo; Chen, Lin Y.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Norby, Faye L.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although inflammation is involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the association of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential with AF has not been thoroughly examined in large cohorts with extended follow-up. Methods We studied 14,500 men and women (25% blacks, 55% women, mean age 54) free of AF at baseline (1987–89) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a community-based cohort in the United States. Incident AF cases through 2010 were identified from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge records and death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AF associated with WBC count and differential. Results Over a median follow-up time of 21.5 years for the entire cohort, 1928 participants had incident AF. Higher total WBC count was associated with higher AF risk independent of AF risk factors and potential confounders (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase). Higher neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively associated with AF risk, while an inverse association was identified between lymphocyte count and AF (multivariable adjusted HRs 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11; 0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.97 per 1-SD, respectively). No significant association was identified between eosinophils or basophils and AF. Conclusions High total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts were each associated with higher AF risk while lymphocyte count was inversely associated with AF risk. Systemic inflammation may underlie this association and requires further investigation for strategies to prevent AF. PMID:26313365

  1. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/?L, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/?L and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/?L for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and immunologic parameters in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:26622258

  2. Tissue structure and blood microcirculation monitoring by speckle interferometry and full-field correlometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Lobachev, Mickail I.; Lyakin, Dmitry V.; Radchenko, Elena Y.; Chaussky, Anatoly A.; Konstantinov, Kirill V.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper a few speckle techniques is discussed from the point of view of their application for medical diagnosis in dermatology and ophthalmology using monitoring of tissue structure and blood microcirculation. The basic principles of proposed techniques and corresponding hard and software descriptions are presented. Results of model (tissue phantoms), in vitro and in vivo measurements for the human eye tissues and skin are discussed.

  3. CBC blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells ( WBC count ) The total amount of hemoglobin in the blood The fraction of the blood ... following measurements: Average red blood cell size (MCV) Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH) The amount ...

  4. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratory’s routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  5. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—?) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—? levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—? levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes. PMID:25817350

  6. Decreased coronary blood flow velocity in patients with aortic insufficiency but normal coronary arteries: the use of TIMI frame count in aortic insufficiency cases

    PubMed Central

    Icli, Abdullah; Mutlu, Halil; Karabag, Turgut; Kahraman, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with aortic insufficiency (AI) may suffer from anginapector is in the absence of obstructive coronaryartery disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate coronary blood flow using the thrombolysis in myocardialinfarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) method in patients with AI and normal coronaryarteries. The study included 64 patients (Group 1; meanage 62.4 ± 13.2 years) with moderate to severe AI who had under gonecoronaryangio graphy that resulted in angiographically normal coronaries, and 42 patients with a typical chest pain and angiographically normal coronaryarteriogram (Group 2; meanage 58.8 ± 9.8 years). All patients under went coronaryangiography either to exclude coronaryartery disease or to evaluate their coronaryanatomy before aorticvalve replacement. TFC was calculated and compared for each artery, including the left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (LCX), and right coronaryartery (RCA) in both groups. The base line characteristics of the study groups were similar. In both groups, TIMI-3 flow was present in eachartery at the time of arteriography, and the coronaryarteries were entirely normal. LCx and RCA frame counts and corrected LAD frame counts were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (26.4 ± 2.1 vs. 24.3 ± 3.6, P < 0.05; 22.1 ± 2.3 vs. 20.5 ± 2.9, P < 0.05; and 22.5 ± 1.8 vs. 20.5 ± 2.4, P < 0.05, respectively). The TFC method may be used as a marker forcoronary flowvelocity in patients with aortic insuffiency and angiographically normal coronaryarteries toestimate decreased coronary blood flowve locity. PMID:26629157

  7. [Modification of phagocytic microbicide function by antifungal agents--measuring luminol enhanced chemoluminescence in full blood].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, L; Wilhelm, E; Thomas, H; Bernhardt, H

    1996-01-01

    Fungus infections are becoming more important in surgical intensive medicine, and various preparations are now available to treat them. The goal of our investigations was to determine the influence of the antimycotics in current use on the microbicide phagocytic function by measuring chemiluminescence. To this end the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in whole blood samples from a total of 29 healthy donors was measured with a LKB 1251 Luminometer after stimulation with zymosan or a Canadida albicans preparation. We tested the substances amphotericin B, flucytosin (Ancotil), fluconazol (Diflucan) and itraconazol (Sempera), each in three different concentrations within the recommended dose range and compared the results with those in an untreated sample. For the insertions of amphotericin B or intraconazol after zymosan stimulation no significant differences in the measurements were found (50.84 vs 47.99 mV and 46.10 vs 47.89 mV) compared with the blank test. Similar situations revealed by the tests with C. albicans administration (15.21 vs 12.35 mV and 11.16 vs 11.91 mV). However, the tests with flucytosin in the higher concentration range, after stimulation with either zymosan or C. albicans, evidenced a significant reduction in the measurements (34.70 vs 52.74 mV, P<0.005, and 10.98 vs 14.57 mV, P<0.01). The tests with fluconazol showed a decrease of the chemiluminescence exclusively for the highest concentration in the C. albicans group (14.36 vs 17.20 mV, P<0.005). Our results indicate a negative influence of the phagocytes on the oxidative metabolism especially with flucytosin in the higher concentrations. This emphatically confirms demands for exact indications and dosage of antimycotics and their correct administration. PMID:8649130

  8. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development - A study based on The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Lindegaard, Hanne; Vestergaard, Hanne; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-12-20

    Background. Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of malignant disease and a host anti-tumor effect. The association between eosinophilia and the development of solid tumors has never before been examined in an epidemiological setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. Material and methods. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (< 0.5 × 10(9)/l), mild (? 0.5-1.0 × 10(9)/l) or severe (? 1.0 × 10(9)/l) eosinophilia. From the Danish Cancer Registry we ascertained solid tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's comorbidity index. Results. The risk for breast cancer was significantly lower in individuals exhibiting mild eosinophilia than in individuals with normal eosinophil counts [OR (95% confidence intervals) = 0.51 (0.35-0.76), p = 0.0005]. The risk of bladder cancer, however, increased with severity of eosinophilia [2.27 (1.53-3.39), p < 0.0001 and 2.62 (0.96-7.14), p = 0.0592 for mild and severe eosinophilia, respectively]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for remaining solid cancers. Conclusion. We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associate with a decreased risk of breast cancer and an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution. PMID:24358991

  9. A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C.

    1996-08-09

    Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Development of full-thickness human skin equivalents with blood and lymph-like capillary networks by cell coating technology.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Fujimoto, Kumiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer, and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 ? cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25850823

  11. CSF cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is ... The CSF cell count may help detect: Meningitis and infection of the brain or spinal cord Tumor, abscess, or area of ...

  12. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  13. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  14. T-cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune ...

  15. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  16. Effect of pre-warming EDTA blood samples to 37oC on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats and horses

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tim L.; Archer, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of pre-analytical error for platelet counts in dogs, cats and horses. In humans, it is suggested that pre-warming blood samples to 37oC prior to haematology analysis...

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

  18. Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masato; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Yamada, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2007-07-15

    A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some specific atoms such as Fe and Zn were obtained from photon-counting calculations. An energy resolution of 220 eV at the Fe K{alpha} line was obtained from the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by the photon-counting method. The newly developed three-dimensional element mappings of the specific atoms were accomplished by the photon-counting method and a reconstruction technique using computed tomography.

  19. Impact of Admission White Blood Cell Count on Short- and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohan; Huang, Bi; Lu, Haisong; Zhao, Zhenhua; Lu, Zhinan; Yang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shu; Hui, Rutai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown inflammation is involved in the development of acute aortic dissection (AAD). The hypothesis that white blood cell count (WBCc) on admission may have an impact on the short- and long-term outcomes of type A AAD was tested in a large-scale, prospective observational cohort study. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 570 consecutive patients with type A AAD in Fuwai hospital were enrolled and were followed up. Baseline characteristics and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary outcomes were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. During a median of 1.89 years of follow-up, the 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality were 10.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified admission WBCc as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality when considered as a continuous variable or as a categorical variable using the cutoff of 11.0??×?109?cells/L (all P?11.0?×?109?cells/L) remained an independent predictor of 30-day mortality of AAD (hazard ratio?=?3.31, 95% confidence interval 1.38–7.93, P?=?0.007). No impact of admission WBCc was observed on the long-term all-cause mortality. In conclusion, elevated admission WBCc may be valuable as a predictor of 30-day mortality, and may be useful in the risk stratification of type A AAD during hospitalization. PMID:26496299

  20. Counting Quail 

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

  1. AB157. Evaluation of thalassemia screening program by using red blood count in pregnant women at Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thong Van; Van Nguyen Le, Khanh; Pham, Van Hung; Nguyen, Truc Thanh Thi; Le, Linh Khanh Thi; Le, Khoa Kieu; Nguyen, Truong Van

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate thalassemia carrier screening program using red blood count indices (RBC) at Hung Vuong hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, from June 2010 to March 2013. Methods All pregnant women visiting Hung Vuong hospital were screened thalassemia carrier by using RBC. Serum ferritin and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed among microcytic hypochromic anemia women [mean cellular volume (MCV) <80 fL or mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH) <28 pg]. Their partners were also asked to be screened by these tests. The anemia couples were consulted to identify thalassemia mutation. The couples who were at high risk of having thalassemia major fetus were then advised to undergo invasive procedure such as amniocentesis or cordocentesis. The couples having confirmed thalassemia major fetus were offered pregnancy termination. Results Among 2,982 microcytic hypochromic anemia pregnant women, 21% of them (633/2,982) have their partners detected to have the same condition. Among those anemia couples, 51% (324/633) were both alpha thalassemia carriers, 10% (62/633) were both beta thalassemia carriers and 39% (247/633) were two different types of thalassemia carriers. Among alpha thalassemia mutations, --SEA mutation has the highest proportion (67%, 337/502). The mean of MCV and MCH of --SEA mutation carriers were 67.9±4.7 and 21.9±1.5 respectively. Among 1,249 beta thalassemia cases diagnosed through RBC and hemoglobin electrophoresis, 54% (678/1,249) had HbE peak with 75.7±5.1 MCV and 25.2±1.9 MCH and the other 46% (571/1,249) had 67.7±6.7 MCV and 22±2.3 MCH. Among the couples who were both microcytic hypochromic anemia, only 33% (209/633) of them agreed to undergo amniocentesis or cordocentesis to identify the affected fetuses. We found 40 hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome cases and 4? thalassemia major cases. All the thalassemia major fetuses were terminated, except 1? thalassemia major fetus carrying Cd 26 (HbE disease) and Cd 41/42 mutations. Conclusions Thalassemia is a common inherited condition in Viet Nam. The number of ? thalassemia carriers is twice as many as beta thalassemia carriers. --SEA and CD 26 (HbE disease) mutations are the most common mutations of ? thalassemia and beta thalassemia, respectively. In order to reduce the number of major thalassemia fetuses, thalassemia screening strategy by RBC in preconceptional couples or in first-visit pregnant women is effective and applicable in Viet Nam.

  2. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood Centers ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... Our Partners PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  3. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood Centers ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... someone's future. PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  4. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  5. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  6. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  7. Triple-label beta liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, T R; Moffett, T C; Revkin, J H; Ploger, J D; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1992-07-01

    The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three beta-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory using the multiple tracer indicator dilution technique for assessing rates of transmembrane transport and cellular metabolism. The details of sample preparation, and of stabilizing the liquid scintillation spectra of the tracers, are critical to obtaining good accuracy. Reproducibility is enhanced by obtaining detailed efficiency/quench curves for each particular set of tracers and solvent media. The numerical methods for multiple-isotope quantitation depend on avoiding error propagation (inherent to successive subtraction techniques) by using matrix inversion. Experimental data obtained from triple-label beta counting illustrate reproducibility and good accuracy even when the relative amounts of different tracers in samples of protein/electrolyte solutions, plasma, and blood are changed. PMID:1514684

  8. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

  9. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  10. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be recommended based on your condition.

  11. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?-Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  12. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  13. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  14. Allergy Blood Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as: Allergy Screen Formal name: Allergen-specific IgE Antibody Test Related tests: Total IgE , Complete Blood Count , ... know? How is it used? The allergen-specific IgE antibody test is a blood test used to help ...

  15. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Random blood sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test ... hours (fasting) At any time of the day (random) ... dL) is considered normal. If you had a random blood glucose test, a normal result depends on ...

  16. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  17. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  18. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  19. Taking the Count 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The counting of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) used as alpha particle detectors is made quick and easy through a computer-assisted counting program. The software was developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The use...

  20. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  1. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  2. Blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  3. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  4. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  5. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  6. Cluster of differentiation 4+ cell count mean value, reference range and its influencing factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seronegative pregnant women in Lagos

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, A. A.; Dosunmu, A. O.; Adediran, A.; Adewunmi, A. A.; Rabiu, K. A.; Osunkalu, V.; Ajibola, S.; Uche, E. I.; Adelekan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immunity in pregnancy is physiologically compromised and this may affect cluster of differentiation four (CD4) count levels. It is well established that several factors affect CD4 count level in pregnancy. This study aims to determine the effects of maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education as they influence CD4 count in pregnancy and also to determine the mean and reference range of CD4 count in pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Ante-natal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. About 5 mls of blood was collected into Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid (EDTA) bottles from HIV-negative pregnant women in various gestational ages of pregnancy. CD4+ cell count and full blood count of all samples were done within 3 hours of collection. The descriptive data was given as means ± standard deviation (SD). Pearson's chi-squared test and correlation were used for analytical assessment. Results: A total of 74 pregnant women were recruited. The age range was 19–41 years and a mean age of 30.42 ± 5.34 years. The CD4+ cell count was not statistically significant when compared with participants ages P = 0.417, neither with gestational ages P = 0.323, nor with parity P = 0.247 nor level of education P = 0.96. An overall mean CD4+ cell count was 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l and the range was 193–1370 cells/?l. Conclusion: Maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education had no significant effects on CD4+ cell count levels in pregnancy. The mean CD4+ cell count of HIV-negative pregnant women in Lagos is 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l. PMID:24791043

  7. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  12. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  13. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- ... couldn't keep working and stay alive. White Blood Cells White blood cells (also called leukocytes, say: LOO- ...

  14. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bank will store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ... to make blood. There's currently no man-made alternative to human blood. However, researchers have developed medicines ...

  15. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you need a blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  16. Quality Counts Exhibitor Card 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth

    2004-01-27

    This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, ...

  17. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  18. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  19. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  20. Mean platelet volume and platelet counts in type 2 Diabetes: Mellitus on treatment and non-diabetic mellitus controls in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinsegun, Akinbami; Akinola Olusola, Dada; Sarah, John-Olabode; Olajumoke, Oshinaike; Adewumi, Adediran; Majeed, Odesanya; Anthonia, Ogbera; Ebele, Uche; Olaitan, Okunoye; Olanrewaju, Arogundade; Kingsley, Aile

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Mean platelet volume and platelet counts are indicators of thrombotic potentials, and risk factors for microvascular complications in diabetics. This study aimed to establish variations in platelet counts and mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and non-diabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 non-diabetic controls. Four and half milliliters of blood was collected from diabetics and non diabetic controls into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. Full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KN-21N, (manufactured by Sysmex corporation Kobe, Japan) a three- part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample including platelet counts and mean platelet volume. Results The mean fasting blood sugar for the diabetics was 147.85±72.54 mg/dl and the controls 95.20±30.10 mg/dl. The mean platelet count for the diabetics was 235.29±76.81*109/L and controls, 211.32±66.44*109/L. The mean platelet volume, for the diabetics was 8.69±0.67 fl and the controls, 8.91±0.80 fl. There was a statistically significant difference in platelet counts of diabetics and healthy controls p =0.038 while none existed between the mean platelet volume in diabetics and healthy controls p = 0.593. Conclusion This study revealed a higher mean platelet count for diabetics on treatment than for non diabetic controls while mean platelet volume was lower in cases than controls. However, both parameters in diabetics on treatment were within the normal reference range for healthy individuals. PMID:25368731

  1. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  2. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  3. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  4. Maternal smoking and cord blood immunity function.

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, R; Ramadas, D; Layward, L; Harvey, B A; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Thymidine uptake in PHA-stimulated culture of cord blood cells from smoking mothers is greater than that from non-smoking mothers. There was no such difference when separated lymphocytes were studied; this suggests that smoking suppresses a suppressor cell. No difference was detected in haemoglobin, immunoglobulins, transferrin, cell counts, E-rosette counts and leucocyte mobility. PMID:477029

  5. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin B12 and Folate ; Haptoglobin ; G6PD ; Iron Tests ; Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy At ... include: Iron studies Vitamin B12 and Folate Haptoglobin G6PD Erythropoietin Sometimes a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy ...

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  7. every moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14

    E-print Network

    Bentley, Katie

    , by diagnosing more cancers at a point when they can be successfully treated. Thank you for your support. Youevery moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14 #12;FOR EVERYONE TOUCHED BY CANCER, EVERY MOMENT COUNTS. ONE DAY WE WILL BEAT CANCER. THROUGH RESEARCH WE WILL MAKE IT SOONER. #12;BEATING CANCER SOONER Half

  8. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  9. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  10. Increased post-induction intensification improves outcome in children and adolescents with a markedly elevated white blood cell count (?200 × 10(9) /l) with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but not B cell disease: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Caroline; Gaynon, Paul S; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Seibel, Nita L

    2015-02-01

    Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ?200 × 10(9) /l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 10(9) /l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival. PMID:25308804

  11. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  12. Counting RG flows

    E-print Network

    Sergei Gukov

    2015-03-04

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence --- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  13. The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Olusola Akinola; Uche, Ebele; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Odesanya, Majeed; John-Olabode, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Okunoye, Olaitan; Arogundade, Olanrewaju; Aile, Kingsley; Ekwere, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background High red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is related to impairment of erythropoiesis, reflecting chronic inflammation and increased levels of oxidative stress, both of which are telltale signs of type 2 diabetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the RDW and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure, and compare the results from diabetics with nondiabetic controls. Methods This was an unmatched case-control study involving 200 participants consisting of 100 diabetics and 100 nondiabetic controls. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from all of the diabetics and nondiabetic controls, and placed into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. A full blood count was performed using the Sysmex KX-21N, a three-part auto analyzer able to run 19 parameters per sample, including RDW. Blood pressure was measured during sample collection and in a sitting position. Results The mean fasting blood sugar level was 95.20±30.10 mg/dL in the controls, and 147.85±72.54 mg/dL in the diabetics. The mean blood pressures for diabetics was 138/90 mmHg and for non-diabetics 120/80 mmHg. The mean RDW-SD (RDW standard deviation) was 46.44±4.64 fl in the controls, and 46.84±3.18 in the diabetics. The mean RDW-CV (RDW coefficient of variation) was 14.74%±1.94% in controls, and 14.80±0.71 for diabetics. No statistically significant correlation was found between the RDW-SD and fasting blood sugar/blood pressure in the diabetics. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the RDW-CV and blood pressure in the diabetics. Conclusion A positive correlation between the RDW-CV and blood pressure was established in the diabetics in this study. PMID:25278786

  14. Blood smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... due to: Breakdown of red blood cells (decreased osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol ... blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased osmotic fragility Presence of elliptocytes may be a sign ...

  15. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  16. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%-45% ...

  17. Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC??=??15.00) and PTAFR (FC??=??13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

  18. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... important for other components such as platelets and plasma, where most of the red blood cells have ...

  19. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type has a marker known as "B." Type AB. The blood cells in this type have both ... of the four main blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) may or may not have Rh ... marker and Rh factor, but not A marker. AB negative. This blood type has A and B ...

  20. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  1. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count

  2. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  3. Counting Statistics I. ESSENTIAL EQUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    if the half-life is "short"). III. FOR HOW LONG SHOULD I COUNT ? For how long should I count to get the net of signal and life is easy. A problem arises when S > 1 while S 1. In this case, given to do it: the result is considered accurate within the quoted interval 19 times out of 20). EXAMPLE

  4. AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

  5. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  6. Accuracy of Platelet Counting by Optical and Impedance Methods in Patients with Thrombocytopaenia and Microcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Al-Farsi, Raya; Al-Hashmi, Sulaiman; Al-Riyami, Hamad; Khan, Hammad; Al-Kindi, Salam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Obtaining accurate platelet counts in microcytic blood samples is challenging, even with the most reliable automated haematology analysers. The CELL-DYN™ Sapphire (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois, USA) analyser uses both optical density and electronic impedance methods for platelet counting. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of optical density and electrical impedance methods in determining true platelet counts in thrombocytopaenic samples with microcytosis as defined by low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells. Additionally, the impact of microcytosis on platelet count accuracy was evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out between February and December 2014 at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Blood samples were collected and analysed from 189 patients with thrombocytopaenia and MCV values of <76 femtolitres. Platelet counts were tested using both optical and impedance methods. Stained peripheral blood films for each sample were then reviewed as a reference method to confirm platelet counts. Results: The platelet counts estimated by the impedance method were on average 30% higher than those estimated by the optical method (P <0.001). The estimated intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.41–0.62), indicating moderate reliability between the methods. The degree of agreement between methods ranged from ?85.5 to 24.3 with an estimated bias of ?30, suggesting that these methods generate different platelet results. Conclusion: The impedance method significantly overestimated platelet counts in microcytic and thrombocytopaenic blood samples. Further attention is therefore needed to improve the accuracy of platelet counts, particularly for patients with conditions associated with microcytosis. PMID:26629371

  7. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... minutes. It's a lot like getting a blood test . After you're done, you'll want to sit and rest for a few minutes, drink lots of fluids, and take it easy the rest of the day (no hard workouts!). Your local blood bank or Red Cross can give you more information ...

  8. Choosing a Blood Cancer Specialist or Treatment Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Mouth and Throat Sores Pain ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  9. Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen

    E-print Network

    Yu, Haifeng

    Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen Advanced Digital Sciences Center binbin of Singapore haifeng@comp.nus.edu.sg December 2013 Abstract Counting the number of RFID tags, or RFID counting of RFID counting (i.e., to reduce the time needed to do the counting). This paper aims to gain deeper

  10. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  11. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Blood Glucose Record Definition: Hyperglycemia Definition: Hypoglycemia Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood ... Record Getting a Blood Test (Video) Diabetes Center Definition: Blood Glucose Level Blood Test (Video) Blood Glucose ...

  12. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  13. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe; Smits, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes. PMID:22848485

  14. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also help save lives. Donate Now Find CPR Classes American Red Cross first aid, CPR and AED ... Testing Clinical Services Infectious Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App ...

  15. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also help save lives. Donate Now Find CPR Classes American Red Cross first aid, CPR and AED ... Testing Clinical Services Infectious Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App ...

  16. Blood Smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their function, and their lifespan. Examples include anemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms , bone marrow disorders , and leukemia . Usually, only normal, ... the number of eosinophils Leukemia or myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative neoplasm — immature white blood cells such as blasts may ...

  17. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive ... disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile and they're used only ...

  18. Blood Typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causing anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma ... need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ...

  19. Blood typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  20. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  1. Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

  2. *Total enrollment excludes freshmen student counts. 6/27/2015 University of Rochester

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    *Total enrollment excludes freshmen student counts Sciences Undergraduate Enrollment Audio and Music Engineering** Year Full-Time Enrollment at Fall Census Degrees Granted Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors

  3. *Total enrollment excludes freshmen student counts. 10/7/2014 University of Rochester

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    *Total enrollment excludes freshmen student counts Sciences Undergraduate Enrollment Audio and Music Engineering** Year Full-Time Enrollment at Fall Census Degrees Granted Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors

  4. Platelet count in 100 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rahim, R; Nahar, K; Khan, I A

    2010-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders are most common medical complication of pregnancy and the major causes of maternal & perinatal disease and death worldwide. The aim of the study was to see the platelet count in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). It was a prospective study. The study was done on 100 cases of PIH patients in Gynae & Obstetrics department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period of January to July 2006. Among the 100 cases 60 were eclamptic, 34 were pre eclamptic (PE) and 06 were gestational hypertensive (GH) patients. All the necessary informations and data were collected by interviewing the patients or their attendants on a pre-designed data collection sheet. Blood sample were collected from the patients and required investigations were done. Most of the eclampsia cases were from below average socioeconomic status of family, and other two groups were from average socioeconomic status of family. Among eclamptic patients 76.60% were primigravida. In eclamptic group 93.33% did not get any antenatal care but 83.33% GH cases had regular antenatal care. Among the eclamptic group mean maternal age was 23.12 years. In our study 47.00% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). Among eclampsia group 60.00% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). In our study 12% cases developed postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and among them 66.67% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). Although there is chance of development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and Liver Failure in patients with low platelet count, but in our study there is no such incidence. In our study mortality was 3% and all were in eclamptic group. Those patients had low platelet count 74.28% had low birth weight (LBW) babies. Platelet count is a very important investigation for antenatal mother having PIH, as it is directly related to maternal and perinatal outcome. PMID:20046164

  5. Comparison of conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry versus microflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within the framework of full method validation for simultaneous quantification of 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Koenig, Magdalena; Tingelhoff, Eva; Staeheli, Sandra N; Roemmelt, Andreas T; Kraemer, Thomas

    2015-02-13

    Microflow liquid chromatography (MFLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is claimed to improve analysis throughput, reduce matrix effects and lower mobile phase consumption. This statement was checked within the framework of method validation of a multi-analyte procedure in clinical and forensic toxicology employing MFLC-MS/MS and conventional LC-MS/MS. 200 ?L whole blood were spiked with 50 ?L internal standard mixture and extracted by protein precipitation. The concentrated extract was separated into two vials. One was analyzed using a Thermo Fisher Ultimate liquid chromatography system coupled to an ABSciex 5500 QTrap mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) and one by an ABSciex Eksigent Microflow LC system coupled to an ABSciex 4500 linear ion trap quadrupole MS (MFLC-MS/MS). Both methods were fully validated and compared in terms of selectivity, stability, limits, calibration model, recovery (RE), matrix effects (ME), bias, imprecision and beta tolerance interval for 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics including 9 metabolites. Both methods had comparable LODs, LOQs and calibration models with some exceptions. The MFLC system showed slightly higher coefficients of variation (CVs) in the RE experiments. ME were reproducible in both systems but with lower CVs in the conventional LC system. Acceptance criteria for imprecision and bias were fulfilled for 32 analytes on the LC and for 28 analytes on the MFLC system. Beta tolerance intervals indicated better reproducibility in terms of narrower intervals for the conventional LC system. The advantages of the MFLC system were low mobile phase consumption, short run time, and better peak separation. The systems were comparable in terms of peak interference, LOD, ME, bias and imprecision. The advantages of the conventional LC system were more data points per peak, linear calibration models, stable retention times and better beta tolerance intervals. Due to higher robustness, the conventional LC system was finally chosen for routine application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25596763

  6. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  8. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  9. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  10. Nature Notes, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1999 2 Counting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A Timetable

    E-print Network

    ___ Nature Notes, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1999 2 Counting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A Timetable for the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbird MigrMigrMigrMigraaaation Through Saint Louistion

  11. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  12. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Pathogen?Reduced Blood Components Specialist in Blood Bank Technology AABB-Fenwal Scholarships Calendar of Events Research ... You Donate To donate blood, find a blood bank near you using AABB’s blood bank locator. Then, ...

  13. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Blood Test: Estradiol Male Reproductive System Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Blood Test: ... Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

  14. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePLUS

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  15. Why People with Cancer Might Need Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This destroys the blood-making cells in the bone marrow. These patients often have very low blood cell counts after the procedure and need transfusions. Last Medical Review: 10/07/2013 Last Revised: 10/07/2013 ...

  16. Blood flow

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  17. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 ?L of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells ?L(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells ?L(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263

  18. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  19. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  20. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  1. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  2. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  3. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  4. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  5. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  6. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  7. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  8. Electron counting in quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    Electron counting in quantum dots Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics ·Charge detection in quantum dots ·Time-resolved single electron interference ·Backaction ·Graphene quantum dots Zürichwith B. Küng T. Choi S. Gustavsson I. Shorubalko U. Gasser T. Ihn #12;Spectroscopy of electronic states source

  9. Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

  10. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  11. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  12. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  13. Optimization of a cell counting algorithm for mobile point-of-care testing platforms.

    PubMed

    Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an AndroidTM smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

  14. Optimization of a Cell Counting Algorithm for Mobile Point-of-Care Testing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an Android™ smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

  15. Iron stores in regular blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Uche, Ebele I; Adeyemo, Titilope A; Damulak, Dapus O; Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Akanmu, Alani S

    2013-01-01

    Background Apart from challenging the bone marrow to increase its red cell production, thereby producing more blood for the donor, regular blood donation has been shown to have several benefits, one of which is preventing accumulation of body iron which can cause free radical formation in the body. This study was carried out to assess body iron stores in regular blood donors. Methods A total of 52 regular (study) and 30 first-time (control) volunteer blood donors were studied prospectively. Twenty milliliters of venous blood was drawn from each subject, 5 mL of which was put into sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid specimen bottles for a full blood count, including red blood cell indices. The remaining sample was allowed to clot in a plain container, and the serum was then retrieved for serum ferritin, serum iron, and serum transferrin receptor measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume in the study group (13.47 ± 2.36 g/dL and 42.00 ± 7.10, respectively, P = 0.303) were not significantly higher than in the control group (12.98 ± 1.30 g/dL and 39.76 ± 4.41, respectively, P = 0.119). Mean serum ferritin was 102.46 ± 80.26 ng/mL in the control group and 41.46 ± 40.33 ng/mL in the study group (P = 0.001). Mean serum ferritin for women in the study group (28.02 ± 25.00 ng/mL) was significantly lower than for women in the control group (56.35 ± 34.03 ng/mL, P = 0.014). Similarly, men in the study group had a lower mean serum ferritin (48.57 ± 45.17 ng/mL) than men in the control group (145.49 ± 87.74 ng/mL, P = 0.00). The mean serum transferrin receptor value was higher in the study group (1.56 ± 0.88 ?g/mL) than in the control group (1.19 ± 0.38 ?g/mL, P = 0.033). Conclusion These findings suggest that hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, and serum iron levels are not significantly affected by regular blood donation and that regular blood donors appear to have reduced iron stores compared with controls. PMID:23807865

  16. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... problems. Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  17. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

  18. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erd?s, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  19. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  1. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  6. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  7. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do You Have High ... is stated as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to the ...

  8. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  9. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ... learn more about your blood pressure numbers . Interactive High Blood Pressure Guide Find videos, quizzes, trackers and more with ...

  10. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > Parents > Cancer Center > Treatment & Prevention > Cord-Blood ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Childbirth > Cord-Blood ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  12. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you, if you need blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  14. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  15. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  16. RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON

    E-print Network

    RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

  17. Counting Morse Functions Liviu I. Nicolaescu

    E-print Network

    Counting Morse Functions Liviu I. Nicolaescu 2011 Liviu I. Nicolaescu (Notre Dame) Counting Morse functions 2011 1 / 48 #12;1 Arnold's snakes 2 Morse functions on S1 3 Morse functions on S2 General facts Morse perestroika Reeb graphs Counting Morse trees 4 A problem of V.I. Arnold Liviu I. Nicolaescu (Notre

  18. Radix Sorts key-indexed counting

    E-print Network

    Sedgewick, Robert

    1 Radix Sorts key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort applicationAt(int k); public int length(int); } #12;4 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix is possible and practical #12;8 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort

  19. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  20. Direct determination of radiation dose in human blood

    E-print Network

    Tanir, Ayse Gunes; Sahiner, Eren; Bolukdemir, Mustafa Hicabi; Koc, Kemal; Meric, Niyazi; Kelec, Sule Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose is to measure the internal radiation dose (ID) using human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of ID received by a person. This study has shown that it is possible to determine ID in human blood exposed to internal or external ionizing radiation treatment both directly and retrospectively. OSL technique was used to measure the total dose from the blood sample. OSL counts from the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic or treatment purposes and from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose were both used for measurements. The decay and dose-response curves (DRC) were plotted for different doses. The doses received by different blood aliquots have been determined by interpolating the natural luminescence counts to DRC. In addition, OSL counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. The blood aliquots were given different 0-200Gy beta doses and their ...

  1. Full Technical Report Full Technical Report 2013

    E-print Network

    ICTP 2013 Full Technical Report #12;Full Technical Report 2013 The Abdus Salam International Centre INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR THEORETICAL PHYSICS FULL TECHNICAL REPORT 2013 ISSN 2079-9187 Compiled by the ICTP pio@ictp.it www.ictp.it #12;#12;ICTP Full Technical Report 20134 INTRODUCTION This document

  2. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  3. Transfusions of blood products and cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, J F; Cata, J P

    2015-10-01

    Approximately half of cancer patients scheduled for major surgery are anemic. Also, a significant number of patients will present to the operating room with low platelet counts and coagulopathic disorders. Unfortunately, administration of red blood cells, platelets concentrates and fresh-frozen plasma is associated with unwanted adverse effects including fever, hemolytic reactions and transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM). TRIM is a multifactorial immunologic phenomenon in the recipient mediated by donor leukocytes, microparticles such as ectosomes, and growth factors. As some of these molecules are secreted in a time-dependent manner, blood storage time may play an important in TRIM, although the evidence is limited. Perioperative administration of red blood cells and associated TRIM has also been associated with increased recurrence of certain solid tumors, such as colorectal, lung, and hepatobiliary tumors. In this continuing education article, we review the available evidence on how perioperative blood product transfusions can affect oncological outcomes, such as cancer recurrence. PMID:25896733

  4. Counting gauge invariants: the plethystic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Hanany, Amihay; He, Yang-Hui

    2007-03-01

    We propose a programme for systematically counting the single and multi-trace gauge invariant operators of a gauge theory. Key to this is the plethystic function. We expound in detail the power of this plethystic programme for world-volume quiver gauge theories of D-branes probing Calabi-Yau singularities, an illustrative case to which the programme is not limited, though in which a full intimate web of relations between the geometry and the gauge theory manifests herself. We can also use generalisations of Hardy-Ramanujan to compute the entropy of gauge theories from the plethystic exponential. In due course, we also touch upon fascinating connections to Young Tableaux, Hilbert schemes and the MacMahon Conjecture.

  5. Counting Patterns in Degenerated Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuel, Grégory

    Biological sequences like DNA or proteins, are always obtained through a sequencing process which might produce some uncertainty. As a result, such sequences are usually written in a degenerated alphabet where some symbols may correspond to several possible letters (ex: IUPAC DNA alphabet). When counting patterns in such degenerated sequences, the question that naturally arises is: how to deal with degenerated positions ? Since most (usually 99%) of the positions are not degenerated, it is considered harmless to discard the degenerated positions in order to get an observation, but the exact consequences of such a practice are unclear. In this paper, we introduce a rigorous method to take into account the uncertainty of sequencing for biological sequences (DNA, Proteins). We first introduce a Forward-Backward approach to compute the marginal distribution of the constrained sequence and use it both to perform a Expectation-Maximization estimation of parameters, as well as deriving a heterogeneous Markov distribution for the constrained sequence. This distribution is hence used along with known DFA-based pattern approaches to obtain the exact distribution of the pattern count under the constraints. As an illustration, we consider a EST dataset from the EMBL database. Despite the fact that only 1% of the positions in this dataset are degenerated, we show that not taking into account these positions might lead to erroneous observations, further proving the interest of our approach.

  6. Electron counting in a silicon single-electron pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanttu, Tuomo; Rossi, Alessandro; Yen Tan, Kuan; Huhtinen, Kukka-Emilia; Chan, Kok Wai; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S.

    2015-10-01

    We report electron counting experiments in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot architecture which has been previously demonstrated to generate a quantized current in excess of 80 pA with uncertainty below 30 parts per million. Single-shot detection of electrons pumped into a reservoir dot is performed using a capacitively coupled single-electron transistor. We extract the full probability distribution of the transfer of n electrons per pumping cycle for n=0,1,2,3,{and} 4. We find that the probabilities extracted from the counting experiment are in agreement with direct current measurements in a broad range of dc electrochemical potentials of the pump. The electron counting technique is also used to confirm the improving robustness of the pumping mechanism with increasing electrostatic confinement of the quantum dot.

  7. Decreased Platelet Count in Patients Receiving Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Buyun; Gong, Dehua; Xu, Bin; He, Qunpeng; Liu, Zhihong; Ji, Daxi

    2014-01-01

    Background A decreased platelet count may occur and portend a worse outcome in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We aim to investigate the incidence of decreased platelet count and related risk factors in patients receiving CRRT. Methods In this retrospective study, we screened all patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) at Jinling Hospital between November 2008 and October 2012. The patients were included who received uninterrupted CVVH for more than 72 h and had records of blood test for 4 consecutive days after ruling out pre-existing conditions that may affect the platelet count. Platelet counts before and during CVVH, illness severity, CVVH settings, and outcomes were analyzed. Results The study included 125 patients. During the 3-day CVVH, 44.8% and 16% patients had a mild decline (20–49.9%) and severe decline (?50%) in the platelet count,respectively; 37.6% and 16.0% patients had mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 50.1–100×109/L) and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count ?50×109/L), respectively. Patients with a severe decline in the platelet count had a significantly lower survival rate than patients without a severe decline in the platelet count (35.0% versus 59.0%, P?=?0.012), while patients with severe thrombocytopenia had a survival rate similar to those without severe thrombocytopenia (45.0% versus 57.1%, P?=?0.308). Female gender, older age, and longer course of the disease were independent risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count. Conclusions A decline in the platelet count and thrombocytopenia are quite common in patients receiving CVVH. The severity of the decline in the platelet count rather than the absolute count during CVVH may be associated with hospital mortality. Knowing the risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count may allow physicians to prevent such an outcome. PMID:24824815

  8. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  9. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image. PMID:25880881

  10. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  11. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  12. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  13. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  14. Faint star counts with HST

    E-print Network

    Flynn, C; Bahcall, J N; Flynn, Chris; Gould, Andrew; Bahcall, John

    1998-01-01

    We describe a program of star counts in the range 19 1.0) stars at these magnitudes are primarily disk and spheroid M dwarfs. The stars are found both on dedicated images as part of the parallel program and by using appropriate archive data. We measure the faint end of the luminosity functions of the disk and spheroid (i.e. stellar halo). We measure the low mass end of the mass function and show that M dwarfs do not dominate the total disk or spheroid mass. We place strong I-band constraints on the amount of halo dark matter in the form of low mass stars (such as M dwarfs or cool white dwarfs). The disk and spheroid contribute only a minor amount of optical depth toward the Magellanic clouds.

  15. Well coincidence counting and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.

    1994-03-01

    In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

  16. Estimating relative abundance from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

  17. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  18. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk. PMID:25710019

  19. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

  20. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  2. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  3. Blood Sugar and Fats

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 4, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 123 Blood Sugar and Fats SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS (ARVs)? ... test for blood glucose levels: A random blood glucose test. This measures the glucose in a sample ...

  4. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Of ThiS page. If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  5. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  6. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  7. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  8. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... platelets. The remainder is a fluid called plasma. Blood cells are produced in bone marrow. Red cells, white ... carry oxygen and help control bleeding. Plasma carries blood cells. Plasma is the liquid portion of your blood ...

  9. Blood (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sternum (the breastbone). The cells travel through the circulatory system suspended in a yellowish fluid called plasma, which ... Problems Blood Culture von Willebrand Disease Heart and Circulatory System Cancer Center Anemia Leukemia Blood Test: Complete Blood ...

  10. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  11. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  12. Counting cells with a low-cost integrated microfluidics-waveguide sensor

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daniel; Ghansah, Isaac; LeBlanc, John; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device that enables low-cost and rapid counting of cells from a drop of blood. We demonstrate a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by ion exchange in glass that underlies a microfluidic structure for capturing cells. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated by the number of metal nanoparticles tagged to the cells because of the interaction of the metal particles with the evanescent field of the waveguide. Calibration of the sensor using bead-tagged lymphocytes captured from human blood showed that the sensor could semi-quantitatively count as few as 100 cells/µL of blood. This technology enables the enumeration of specifically captured cells, allowing for a point-of-care, hand-held device for fast and affordable cell counting in screening, remote, or resource-poor settings. PMID:22454696

  13. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Exchange AABB Center for Patient Safety Publications Suppliers Guide Cellular Therapies Patient Blood Management Transfusion Medicine Advocacy Billing and Reimbursement Initiatives Regulatory/ ...

  14. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed-and sometimes practiced-as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood-shed or given-is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy. PMID:25467858

  15. Effect of marginal dietary zinc on blood fractions of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brenckle, L.B.; Rasmussen, A.I.

    1986-03-05

    Use of blood components as indices of zinc (Zn) status has been proposed. This study evaluated changes in whole blood counts and Zn concentration of blood fractions in rats fed marginal dietary Zn. Rats (175-199 gm) were divided into 2 groups after 1 wk acclimation on a 6 ppm soybean-based Zn ration: a low Zn group (n=72) fed the 6 ppm Zn ration ad lib, and a pair-fed Zn-adequate group (n=72) fed the same ration supplemented to 30 ppm Zn. RBC Zn, WBC/platelet Zn, RBC count. WBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wks on blood obtained by cardiac puncture. Samples from 2 rats were pooled for Zn determinations. Low Zn rats decreased food intake, failed to gain weight, and 29% exhibited hair loss and/or scaly paws. RBC count, Hb, and Hct increased with time in both groups: the increase in RBC count preceeded that of Hb. Despite this different rate of change, RBC Zn results were the same regardless of basis of expression. WBC count decreased with time in both groups. Differences in pooled RBC Zn values between or within groups were not significant. The greatest difference between groups occurred at wk 2 when pooled WBC/platelet Zn was low in both groups, body weight differences became significant, and hair loss was first seen in low Zn rats. However, convincing evidence for changes in blood fractions due to marginal dietary Zn intake is not apparent despite other evidence of Zn deficiency in the low Zn group.

  16. Uncertainties in 4??-? coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??-? coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more »or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  20. Consequences arising from elevated surface temperatures on human blood.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kathrin F; Schmidt, Verena I; Mager, Ilona; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-09-01

    Heat in blood pumps is generated by losses of the electrical motor and bearings. In the presented study the influence of tempered surfaces on bulk blood and adhesions on these surfaces was examined. Titanium alloy housing dummies were immersed in 25 mL heparinized human blood. The dummies were constantly tempered at specific temperatures (37-45 °C) over 15 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for blood parameter analysis and the determination of the plasmatic coagulation cascade. The quantities of adhesion on surfaces were determined by drained weight. Blood parameters do not alter significantly up to surface temperatures of 45 °C. In comparison to the control specimen, a drop in the platelet count can be observed, but is not significantly temperature dependent. The mean mass of adhesions at 41 °C increased up to 66% compared to 37 °C. Thus, heat generated in electrical motors and contact bearings may influence the amount of adhesions on surfaces. PMID:20883396

  1. Comment on: ‘A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nijs, Robin

    2015-07-01

    In order to be able to calculate half-count images from already acquired data, White and Lawson published their method based on Poisson resampling. They verified their method experimentally by measurements with a Co-57 flood source. In this comment their results are reproduced and confirmed by a direct numerical simulation in Matlab. Not only Poisson resampling, but also two direct redrawing methods were investigated. Redrawing methods were based on a Poisson and a Gaussian distribution. Mean, standard deviation, skewness and excess kurtosis half-count/full-count ratios were determined for all methods, and compared to the theoretical values for a Poisson distribution. Statistical parameters showed the same behavior as in the original note and showed the superiority of the Poisson resampling method. Rounding off before saving of the half count image had a severe impact on counting statistics for counts below 100. Only Poisson resampling was not affected by this, while Gaussian redrawing was less affected by it than Poisson redrawing. Poisson resampling is the method of choice, when simulating half-count (or less) images from full-count images. It simulates correctly the statistical properties, also in the case of rounding off of the images.

  2. It's OK to Count on Your Fingers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1979-01-01

    In presenting a rationale for allowing--even encouraging--children to count on their fingers, the author illustrates finger counting systems from African and American Indian tribes and the medieval European system cataloged by the Venerable Bede. She cites number words from many languages which derive from names for gestures. (SJL)

  3. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  4. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  5. COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve

    E-print Network

    COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

  6. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  7. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  8. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling

    E-print Network

    Carin, Lawrence

    1 Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling Mingyuan Zhou and Lawrence Carin Abstract The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB process, gamma process, hierarchical Dirichlet process, mixed membership modeling, mixture modeling

  9. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

  10. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  11. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  15. Enhancements of counting invariants: the column group

    E-print Network

    Hennig, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The column group is a subgroup of the symmetric group on the elements of a finite rack (or quandle) which is invariant under rack (or quandle) isomorphism. We use this group to define enhancements of the rack and quandle counting invariants which specialize to the standard counting invariants but contain more information in general.

  16. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  17. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  18. People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically EndanPeople taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

  19. Cord blood haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in newborns of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Gbadegesin, Abidoye; Adeyemo, Titilope A.; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Osunkalu, Vincent; Ogbenna, Ann; Akanmu, Alani S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pre-delivery haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers were determined, and cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of their newborns were compared. This is to establish the mean values for pre-delivery haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers and the cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of their newborns at term. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was done involving 142 pregnant women and their newborns. They were divided into two groups - the anaemic group (n = 65) and the non-anaemic (n = 77) group. Five millilitres of blood was collected from each woman and 2 ml was collected from the cord of their newborns into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottle and plain bottle for full blood count analysis and ferritin assay, respectively. Results: The mean pre-delivery haemoglobin concentrations of the women in anaemic group and non-anaemic group were 9.5 ± 1.01 g/dl and 12.15 ± 1.07 g/dl, respectively, and their mean serum ferritin concentrations were 64.45 ± 138.76 ?g/l and 32.83 ± 35.36 ?g/l, respectively. The mean cord blood haemoglobin concentrations for anaemic and for non-anaemic groups were 12.54 ± 2.54 g/dl and 13.44 ± 2.23 g/dl (P = 0.02), respectively, and the mean cord blood serum ferritin concentrations (non-anaemic, 69.38 ± 78.88 ?g/l; anaemic, 7.26 ± 115.60 ?g/l) (P = 0.00) were higher in the newborns of non-anaemic than of anaemic mothers. Significant association was found between maternal anaemia and cord blood ferritin concentrations (P = 0.025). Conclusion: Maternal anaemia has significant effects on cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. PMID:23661895

  20. Dying Dyons Don't Count

    E-print Network

    Miranda C. N. Cheng; Erik Verlinde

    2008-10-31

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the "immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  1. Dying dyons don't count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2007-09-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with Script N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the ``immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  2. Estimating departure times from traffic counts using dynamic assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, B.N.; Southworth, F.

    1989-05-01

    A dynamic traffic assignment algorithm and observed traffic counts are used to estimate the distribution of departure times in a trip matrix. The objective is to find the maximum entropy distribution of departure times by origin zone subject to observed traffic counts on a subset of network links. The procedure results in the estimated number of trip departures from each origin in 10-15 minute time intervals of the full analysis period. Such an analysis period will typically range from one to three hours long. We first review the dynamic assignment algorithm developed and tested in a previous paper, and then describe its use with traffic counts to estimate the departure times of a trip matrix. We present an application to a Pittsburgh network in which trip departures are estimated for each 10-minute interval of a peak-hour survey trip matrix. Computational advances such as parallel computing will enable the procedure to be run on large networks while counts are being monitored. Such an application may provide near real-time detection of temporal trip departure profiles by origin zone. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Estimating departure times from traffic counts using dynamic assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, B.N.; Southworth, F. )

    1989-07-01

    A dynamic traffic assignment algorithm and observed traffic counts are used to estimate the distribution of departure times in a trip matrix. The objective is to find the maximum entropy distribution of departure times by origin zone subject to observed traffic counts on a subset of network links. The procedure results in the estimated number of trip departures from each origin in 10-15 minute time intervals of the full analysis period. Such an analysis period will typically range from one to three hours long. We first review the dynamic assignment algorithm developed and tested in a previous paper, and then describe its use with traffic counts to estimate the departure times of a trip matrix. We present an application to a Pittsburgh network in which trip departures are estimated for each 10-minute interval of a peak-hour survey trip matrix. Computational advances such as parallel computing will enable the procedure to be run on large networks while counts are being monitored. Such an application may provide near real-time detection of temporal trip departure profiles by origin zone. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Blood contamination of used dental anesthetic cartridges.

    PubMed

    Romito, L; Svetanoff, E; Palenik, C J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of blood contamination found in and/or on used dental anesthetic cartridges and to measure antibacterial effects after exposure to a local anesthetic solution. The study analyzed a total of 1000 used cartridges from an oral surgery clinic, containing 1 of 3 anesthetic types. Blood testing included visual observations (using a dissecting microscope) and chemical analyses. From each cartridge, either 0.5 ml of residual anesthetic solution or a combination of anesthetic solution plus added saline was removed. Using reagent strip dipsticks, the solutions were analyzed for minute amounts of blood. Visual examinations were scored on a positive or negative scale. In addition, 4 types of bacteria were mixed with lidocaine or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for up to 30 days, and viable cell counts decreases were measured for the 2 solutions. A majority of the cartridges evaluated contained lidocaine, and while only 7 of the 1000 cartridges examined contained visible blood, the reagent strips detected blood in more than 76% of all cartridges. Lidocaine and PBS produced similar bacterial death rates. The authors concluded that blood contamination levels in the absence of pronounced antibacterial activity indicate that dental anesthetic cartridges could be considered a potential type of regulated medical waste. PMID:23454319

  5. Counting statistics for mesoscopic conductors with internal degrees of freedom

    E-print Network

    Christopher Birchall; Henning Schomerus

    2010-04-29

    We consider the transport of electrons passing through a mesoscopic device possessing internal dynamical quantum degrees of freedom. The mutual interaction between the system and the conduction electrons contributes to the current fluctuations, which we describe in terms of full counting statistics. We identify conditions where this discriminates coherent from incoherent internal dynamics, and also identify and illustrate conditions under which the device acts to dynamically bunch transmitted or reflected electrons, thereby generating super-Poissonian noise.

  6. Clinical use of blood, blood components and blood products.

    PubMed Central

    Blajchman, M A; Shepherd, F A; Perrault, R A

    1979-01-01

    The goal of modern transfusion therapy is to provide appropriate replacement therapy with blood components as opposed to whole blood for patients with specific hematologic deficiencies. A prerequisite of component therapy is, therefore, correct identification of the deficiency. Appropriate use of components avoids many of the hazards associated with the use of whole blood, and at the same time makes maximal use of this valuable resource. Blood components separated from whole blood soon after collection and appropriately stored can, in combination, provide all the factors present in fresh whole blood. Red cell concentrates prepared from multiple packs have a hematocrit of approximately 70%. They may be stored for up to 3 weeks at 4 degrees C and are recommended for most situations requiring red cell transfusions. Platelet concentrates, which can be stored for up to 72 hours at 22 degrees C, may be used for thrombocytopenic patients. Fresh frozen plasma, stored plasma, cryoprecipitated factor VIII, factor VIII concentrate and factor IX complex concentrate are available for the proper treatment of patients with hemorrhagic disorders due to coagulation factor deficiencies. Similarly, albumin and immune serum globulin are available for their oncotic and antibody properties respectively. Thus, the availability and appropriate use of the various blood products allows not only optimal transfusion therapy for each patient, but also fuller utilization of national blood resources. PMID:466591

  7. Associations Between Haemonchus contortus Infection in Lambs and Blood Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the principal stomach worms of sheep, and infection is characterized by anemia. Estimates of the average blood loss per worm per day range from .003 to .05 ml. Studies have shown that high eosinophilia was correlated with low fecal egg count (FEC) and, therefore, res...

  8. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  9. Neotyphodium Coenophialum Alters Blood Metabolites Involved in Nitrogen, Energy, and Minteral Metabolism in Growing Steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood metabolite changes in steers during summer-long grazing of toxic endophyte-infected pastures were investigated as a part of a larger study for determination of physiological genomic and metabolic pathways for alkaloid metabolism. Blood cell counts, differentials, and serum metabolites of grow...

  10. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  11. Total Lymphocyte Count and Haemoglobin Concentration Combined as a Surrogate Marker for Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-limited Setting as against CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-naïve adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283

  12. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  13. Clinical relevance of spore and pollen counts.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay; Barnes, Charles

    2003-08-01

    Many people with allergies monitor daily pollen and spore counts with the belief that they can act on that information to improve their health. Because many factors can affect personal exposure, the value of community-wide counts for an individual is questionable. These factors include the presence of local pollen and spore sources, diurnal variations, weather effects, air pollution, and a particle-free bioaerosol. To take advantage of bioparticulate counts, the public needs to be informed about their meaning and factors that can influence personal exposure. PMID:14524382

  14. Using BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for Absolute Cluster of Differentiation Type 4 Cell Count Measurement on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow Cytometers: A Method Comparison Study from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Florian; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Bernasconi, Andrea; Moyo, Buhlebenkosi; Havazvidi, Liberty; Bastard, Mathieu; Flevaud, Laurence; Taziwa, Fabian; Makondo, Eliphas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood collected in conventional EDTA tubes requires laboratory analysis within 48 hours to provide valid CD4 cell count results. This restricts access to HIV care for patients from rural areas in resource-constraint settings due to sample transportation problems. Stabilization Tubes with extended storage duration have been developed but not yet evaluated comprehensively. Objective To investigate stability of absolute CD4 cell count measurement of samples in BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes over the course of 30 days. Methods This was a laboratory-based method comparison study conducted at a rural district hospital in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe. Whole peripheral blood from 88 HIV positive adults was drawn into BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes and re-tested 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days after collection on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow cytometers in parallel. Absolute CD4 cell levels were compared to results from paired samples in EDTA tubes analysed on BD FacsCount at the day of sample collection (references methodology). Bland-Altman analysis based on ratios of the median CD4 counts was used, with acceptable variation ranges for Limits of Agreements of +/-20%. Results Differences in ratios of the medians remained below 10% until day 21 on BD FacsCount and until day 5 on Partec Cyflow. Variations of Limits of Agreement were beyond 20% after day 1 on both cytometers. Specimen quality decreased steadily after day 5, with only 68% and 40% of samples yielding results on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow at day 21, respectively. Conclusions We do not recommend the use of BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for absolute CD4 cell count measurement on BD FacsCount or Partec Cyflow due to large variation of results and decay of specimen quality. Alternative technologies for enhanced CD4 testing in settings with limited laboratory and sample transportation capacity still need to be developed. PMID:26295802

  15. Full counting statistics of vibrationally-assisted electronic conduction: transport and fluctuations of the thermoelectric efficiency

    E-print Network

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira

    2015-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of charge and energy transport in electron conducting junctions with electron-phonon interactions, specifically, the thermoelectric efficiency and its fluctuations. The system comprises donor and acceptor electronic states, representing a two-site molecule or a double quantum dot system. Electron transfer between metals through the two molecular sites is coupled to a particular vibrational mode which is taken to be either harmonic or anharmonic- a truncated (two-state) spectrum. Considering these models we derive the cumulant generating function in steady state for charge and energy transfer, correct to second-order in the electron-phonon interaction, but exact to all orders in the metal-molecule coupling strength. This is achieved by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach (harmonic mode) and a kinetic quantum master equation method (anharmonic mode). From the cumulant generating function we calculate the charge current and its noise and the large deviation fun...

  16. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  18. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  19. Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild

    E-print Network

    Hernandez Rivera, Javier

    In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...

  20. Counting Independent Sets Using the Bethe Approximation

    E-print Network

    Chandrasekaran, Venkat

    We consider the #P-complete problem of counting the number of independent sets in a given graph. Our interest is in understanding the effectiveness of the popular belief propagation (BP) heuristic. BP is a simple iterative ...

  1. On Count/Mass Distinction in Slovene

    E-print Network

    Mitrovi?, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    oznacuje oblikoslovno. V clanku so predlagane pomenoslovne in skladenjske analize števnosti slovenskega samostalnika. ENG: This paper is a model-theoretic investigation into the count/mass distinction in Slovene. It overviews and accounts for Slovene nouns...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  7. Low cost crowd counting using audio tones

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Pravein Govindan

    With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

  8. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  9. Hemodialysis effect on platelet count and function and hemodialysis-associated thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Bernardo, Angelito A

    2012-07-01

    Substantial activation of platelets can occur in the course of hemodialysis. Platelet surface markers show evidence of platelet degranulation. Some activation occurs due to exposure of blood to the roller pump segment and microbubbles may play a role. Platelet activation seems to be reduced with reused dialyzers or with those containing synthetic versus cellulosic membranes. Nevertheless, a substantial degree of platelet activation can be demonstrated with polysulfone and other synthetic membranes; the amount of activation may differ substantially among polysulfone membranes, depending on the manufacturer and the polyvinylpyrrolidone content. Platelet-platelet and platelet-leukocyte aggregates have been detected in the dialyzer blood outflow line and the consequences of these to the microcirculation are unknown. Typically, the platelet count decreases slightly during the first hour of dialysis, but mostly returns to initial values by the end of dialysis. A number of chronic hemodialysis patient cases have been reported in which a marked decrease in platelet count (50% or more) during dialysis was observed, resulting in mild degrees of predialysis thrombocytopenia. In only one case was the decrease in platelet count associated with bleeding. Dialyzer hypersensitivity symptoms are infrequently associated with a fall in platelet count. Most recent cases of dialysis-associated thrombocytopenia have been with polysulfone membranes, especially polysulfone membranes sterilized by electron beam. The exact cause of these reactions remains unknown. PMID:22592187

  10. Changes in the Differential Leukocyte Count of Chicks Inoculated with Salmonella1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E. L.; Stephens, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of Salmonella anatum and S. heidelberg infections on the differential leukocyte counts of baby chickens. Newly hatched broiler-type chicks were inoculated in the yolk sac with suspensions of either S. anatum or S. heidelberg. At 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after inoculation, blood was taken by heart puncture from chicks of both inoculated groups and from a group of uninoculated chicks. The averages of the leukocyte counts of three or four chicks from each group were used as the blood values for specific time intervals. The six classes of leukocytes counted were lymphocytes, monocytes, juveniles, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The leukocytes classified as juveniles were immature or degenerate heterophils and were found almost exclusively in the infected chicks. Changes in heterophil, juvenile, and lymphocyte counts were affected by both the number of cells in the inoculum (300 versus 3 million cells of S. anatum) and species (S. anatum and S. heidelberg). Infection with either Salmonella species resulted in the development of a severe heterophilic leukopenia, and a significant increase in the percentage of both juveniles and lymphocytes by 48 hr postinoculation. Mortality rate was higher in groups of chicks inoculated with S. heidelberg than in groups given S. anatum. PMID:5422304

  11. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  12. Rack Module Enhancements of Counting Invariants

    E-print Network

    Haas, Aaron; Nelson, Sam; Yuen, Jonah; Zhan, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a modified rack algebra Z[X] for racks X with finite rack rank N. We use representations of Z[X] into rings, known as rack modules, to define enhancements of the rack counting invariant for classical and virtual knots and links. We provide computations and examples to show that the new invariants are strictly stronger than the unenhanced counting invariant and are not determined by the Jones or Alexander polynomials.

  13. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...

  15. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  19. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  1. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  2. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

  8. Modeling HIV-1 Dynamics and the Effects of Decreasing Activated Infected T-cell Count by Filtration

    E-print Network

    Stryker, Gabrielle A.

    Modeling HIV-1 Dynamics and the Effects of Decreasing Activated Infected T-cell Count by Filtration years mathematical models have been developed using differential equations for the progression of HIV-1 such as HAART drugs. Attempts have been made to filter HIV-1 and HIV-1-infected T-cells from the blood

  9. Imaging morphodynamics of human blood cells in vivo with video-rate third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Kuo; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    With a video-rate third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy system, we imaged the micro-circulation beneath the human skin without labeling. Not only the speed of circulation but also the morpho-hydrodynamics of blood cells can be analyzed. Lacking of nuclei, red blood cells (RBCs) shows typical parachute-like and hollow-core morphology under THG microscopy. Quite different from RBCs, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appear in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. PMID:23162724

  10. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as Red blood cells - cells that carry oxygen to and from tissues and organs Platelets - cells that form clots to control bleeding Plasma - the liquid part of the blood that helps clotting. You ...

  11. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) YESTERDAY Hypertension is a silent killer because it ...

  12. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... But over time, some causes of high blood calcium can lead to osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) and kidney stones. Very high blood calcium can cause more serious problems, including kidney failure, ...

  13. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you ... Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  14. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by plaque. The buildup of plaque limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the artery. The inset image ... and narrows your coronary arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Eventually, an area ...

  15. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Bar for Blood Glucose Meter Performance Recalls & Alerts Shasta Technologies GenStrip Blood Glucose Test Strips May ... Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA ...

  16. How Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fibrin strands form a net that entraps more platelets and blood cells, producing a clot that plugs the break. ... Formation of a clot also involves activation of a sequence of blood clotting factors that ...

  17. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  18. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  19. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this and other, future medical purposes. Cord blood banking for personal use is done by private companies. ... Umbilical Cord Blood Banking. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 399. ... Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol . 2008;111:475-7. (Reaffirmed 2012) ...

  20. ACTH blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... steroid hormone cortisol. Cortisol is released by the adrenal gland. It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This ... higher-than-normal level of ACTH may indicate: Adrenal glands not producing enough cortisol ( Addison disease ) Adrenal glands ...

  1. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Blood Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Septicemia can cause a fall in blood pressure (shock), a rapid heart rate, and a decrease in ...

  2. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; Folsom, Aaron R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Gieger, Christian; Lagou, Vasiliki; Felix, Janine F.; Völzke, Henry; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Döring, Angela; Völker, Uwe; Chong, Sean; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Rendon, Augusto; Dehghan, Abbas; Moore, Matt; Taylor, Kent; Wilson, James G.; Lettre, Guillaume; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Pirastu, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Meisinger, Christa; Sambrook, Jennifer; Arepalli, Sampath; Nauck, Matthias; Prokisch, Holger; Stephens, Jonathan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Prokopenko, Inga; Illig, Thomas; Patel, Kushang V.; Garner, Stephen F.; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Oostra, Ben A.; Thein, Swee Lay; Coresh, Josef; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Menzel, Stephan; Lin, JingPing; Pistis, Giorgio; Uitterlinden, André G.; Spector, Tim D.; Teumer, Alexander; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Melzer, David; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Levy, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Longo, Dan L.; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Santhi K.

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count—6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count—17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count—6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count—2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations of diverse ancestral backgrounds. PMID:21738480

  3. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and then replaced by donor red blood cells. Red blood cell exchange is used to treat or sometimes prevent serious complications of sickle cell disease, such as stroke. Apheresis is repeated only as often as necessary because the large fluid shifts between blood vessels and tissues that occur as ...

  4. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 15 All About Blood Glucose Keeping your blood glucose (sugar)in your target range can prevent or delay the health problems ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No.15: All About Blood Glucose continued team about when and ...

  5. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra; Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  6. Soft-metric based channel decoding for photon counting receivers

    E-print Network

    Marina Mondin; Fred Daneshgaran; Inam Bari; Maria Teresa Delgado; Stefano Olivares; Matteo G. A. Paris

    2014-12-02

    We address photon-number-assisted, polarization- based, binary communication systems equipped with photon counting receivers. In these channels information is encoded in the value of polarization phase-shift but the carrier has and additional degree of freedom, i.e. its photon distribution, which may be exploited to implement binary input-multiple output (BIMO) channels also in the presence of a phase-diffusion noise affecting the polarization. Here we analyze the performances of these channels, which approach capacity by means of iteratively decoded error correcting codes. In this paper we use soft-metric- based low density parity check (LDPC) codes for this purpose. In order to take full advantage of all the information available at the output of a photon counting receiver, soft information is generated in the form of log-likelihood ratios, leading to improved frame error rate (FER) and bit error rate (BER) compared to binary symmetric channels (BSC). We evaluate the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel and show the potential gains that may be provided by photon counting detectors in realistic implementations.

  7. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. )

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  8. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  9. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  10. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  11. Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: Low CD4 counts and risk of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael A.; Parisi, Michele; Grossman, Stuart; Kleinberg, Lawrence . E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Patients with primary brain tumors are often treated with high doses of corticosteroids for prolonged periods to reduce intracranial swelling and alleviate symptoms such as headaches. This treatment may lead to immunosuppression, placing the patient at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The risk of contracting some types of infection may be reduced with prophylactic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of low CD4 counts and whether monitoring CD4 counts during and after radiotherapy (RT) is warranted. Methods and Materials: CD4 counts were measured during RT in 70 of 76 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Grade III and IV astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with corticosteroids and seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Weekly CD4 measurements were taken in the most recent 25 patients. Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg p.o. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or dapsone (100 mg p.o. daily) in those with sulfa allergy was prescribed only if patients developed a low CD4 count. Carmustine chemotherapy wafers were placed at surgery in 23% of patients, evenly distributed between the groups. No patient received any other chemotherapy concurrent with RT. Results: CD4 counts decreased to <200/mm{sup 3} in 17 (24%) of 70 patients. For the 25 patients with weekly CD4 counts, all CD4 counts were >450/mm{sup 3} before RT, but 6 (24%) of 25 fell to <200/mm{sup 3} during RT. Patients with counts <200/mm{sup 3} were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (41% vs. 9%, p <0.01) and be hospitalized for infection (23% vs. 4%, p <0.05) during RT. Overall survival was not significantly different between the groups. All patients with low CD4 counts were treated with prophylactic antibiotics, and no patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. No patients developed a serious adverse reaction to antibiotic therapy. The mean dose of steroids, mean minimal white blood cell count, and number of patients treated with Gliadel wafers were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study have confirmed the clinical impression that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and RT in patients with primary brain cancer is sufficient to result in severe immunosuppression and place these patients at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections. A protocol of prophylactic antibiotics for those at risk may help prevent a potentially fatal side effect of treatment. A prospective study is underway to determine the frequency, depth, and prognostic implications of this finding.

  12. Monitoring blood glucose - Series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... finger with the lancet to draw out a drop of blood. ... Touch the test strip to the drop of blood. The blood is automatically pulled into the test strip. The meter then calculates your blood glucose ...

  13. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  14. Assessment of leucoreduction of sickle cell trait blood: quality of the filtered product

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Karim Ould; Bourdonné, Olivier; Bruneau, Sylvie; Sellami, Fatiha; Richard, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background With the implementation of universal leucoreduction of blood components in several industrialised countries, the problems associated with leucocyte filtration of sickle cell trait blood have been reconsidered. In this study, we assessed the use of high performance filters for leucoreduction of packed red blood cells donated from subjects with sickle cell trait and evaluated the incidence and recurrence of altered red blood cell filterability. Materials and methods Twenty-one volunteer donors with HbAS were compared to 21 donors with HbAA selected at random. The main parameters analysed were residual white blood cell count and post-filtration haemolysis. Filtration times, flow, volume and haemoglobin loss of the packed red blood cells were also determined. Results In all, 33% of HbAS red blood cell units with slow flow and prolonged filtration time had high residual white blood cell counts. In 7.7% of cases, despite flow through the filter, the units were not leucoreduced properly. Haemoglobin and volume loss were significantly greater in the slow filtration group. Significant post-filtration haemolysis was present in half of the units with high residual white blood cell counts. Discussion Despite the development of new technology for filtration, the problem of filterability of blood from donors with sickle cell trait is not yet resolved. Altered filterability of blood from sickle cell trait donors cannot be predicted from the donors’ characteristics and recurrence of the problem is not observed between donations. Screening blood donors for sickle cell trait to ensure the safety and quality of blood products for transfusion does, therefore, remain a relevant issue. PMID:23149143

  15. High efficiency photon counting using stopped light

    E-print Network

    A. Imamoglu

    2002-05-31

    Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: after mapping the quantum state of a propagating light pulse onto metastable collective excitations of a trapped cold atomic gas, it is possible to monitor the resonance fluorescence induced by an additional laser field that only couples to the metastable excited state. Even with a photon collection/detection efficiency as low as 10%, it is possible to achieve photon counting with efficiency approaching 100%.

  16. Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.

    We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.

  17. What Is Full Term?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fetal Medicine (SMFM) recently changed the way they define births that happen after 37 weeks of pregnancy. ... will have your baby. ACOG and SMFM now define a full-term pregnancy as a pregnancy that ...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We count... account or set aside for your use. We determine wages for each month. We count wages for...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count unearned income. 416.1123... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1123 How we count unearned income. (a) When we count unearned income. We count unearned income at the earliest of the following points: when...

  20. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  1. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  2. Whole blood serotonin and tryptophan in autism: temporal stability and the effects of medication.

    PubMed

    Minderaa, R B; Anderson, G M; Volkmar, F R; Harcherick, D; Akkerhuis, G W; Cohen, D J

    1989-03-01

    Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) was significantly increased in a drug-free autistic group (n = 17) compared to age- and sex-matched normal control (n = 20). Blood tryptophan (TRP) values and platelet counts were similar in unmedicated autistics and normal subjects; but whole blood concentrations of TRP were significantly lower, and 5-HT values tended to be lower in the medicated group compared to unmedicated autistics. Highly significant intraclass correlation coefficients and low mean percentage differences were found for repeated measures over a year's period of whole blood 5-HT and the platelet count in the unmedicated but not in the medicated group. Blood TRP values were highly variable over time in both the medicated and drug-free autistic groups. PMID:2708296

  3. Power counting in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, M. Pavon

    2015-10-01

    The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.

  4. Radio Source Counts at 232 MHZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    The Miyun Synthesis Radio Telescope(MSRT), Beijing Astronomical Observatory, has been used in a moderately deep meter-wave survey at 232 MHz, covering the sky area noth of declination 30o. The catalogue contains about 33000 radio sources. The results on source counts with this catalogue are presented in this paper. The sample consists of three sub-samples which correspond to high, middle, and low galactic latitude. The logN- logS curves for steep spectrum sources and flat spectrum sources were obtained. results on the counts are discussed.

  5. Progress on photon-counting intensified APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Cali, Antonio; Timpanaro, Cristina; Cosentino, Rosario; Scuderi, Salvatore; Modica, Angelo

    2003-02-01

    We report on the progress of the activity, started one year ago, to obtain a photon counting, MCP-based detector, optimized for high count-rate. A new electronic board, hosting both the APS and the electronics processing unit, has been developed. The new architecture of the system, designed to drive the detector, to acquire the images and compute the photon event centers, is described in detail in this paper. We also report the functional tests carried out on the sub-parts of the detector along with a preliminary characterization of the system.

  6. Blackboard biracks and their counting invariants

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Sam

    2010-01-01

    A blackboard birack is an algebraic structure with axioms encoding the blackboard-framed Reidemeister moves, incorporating quandles, racks, strong biquandles and semiquandles as special cases. In this paper we describe a family of blackboard biracks generalizing Alexander quandles, $(t,s)$-racks, Alexander biquandles and Silver-Williams switches, known as $(\\tau,\\sigma,\\rho)$-biracks. We define a counting invariant of unframed classical and virtual knots and links using labelings of link diagrams by finite blackboard biracks, and we give enhancements of the counting invariant using writhe vectors, image subbiracks, and birack polynomials.

  7. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  8. BLOOD SAMPLING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    SAFESET TM BLOOD SAMPLING SYSTEM SAFESETTM TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS TO PREVENT BLOOD BACKING UP IN LINE that all air bubbles have been eliminated when priming o Invert and tap blood sampling ports to remove air to the closed and locked position. WHEN USING A BLOOD TUBE HOLDER FOR BLOOD SAMPLING o Once blood sample has

  9. Chronic blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached. PMID:23720255

  10. Persistence and count-rate nonlinearity in the HST WFC3 IR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana; Long, Knox S.; McCullough, Peter; Riess, Adam G.; MacKenty, John; Kimble, Randy; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Hilbert, Bryan; Hill, Robert J.; Pavlovsky, Cheryl; Petro, Larry D.

    2010-07-01

    We now know that the flux of a source measured with HgCdTe arrays is not a simple, linear function, but depends on the count-rate as well as the total number of counts. In addition to the count-rate non-linearity (and probably related to the same physical mechanism), HgCdTe detectors are also susceptible to image persistence. Most of the persistence image fades in a few minutes, but there is a longer-term component that can result in faint afterimages in the next orbit, approximately 45 minutes later. For sources saturated at ~100 times full-well, the afterimages can persist for hours afterwards. This report describes results from ground and on-orbit tests to characterize the persistence and the count-rate non-linearity in the WFC3 IR detector during its first year of operation.

  11. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  12. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  13. Full Multigrid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

  14. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  15. Counting zeros of zeta functions Maciej Zworski

    E-print Network

    Baladi, Viviane

    + c, c zeta function associated with this map is givenCounting zeros of zeta functions Maciej Zworski The purpose of the talks is to explain the bounds on the dynamical zeta functions in strips in terms of the dimension of the limit set (in the case of hyperbolic

  16. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  17. Counting overlapfree binary words Julien Cassaigne

    E-print Network

    Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de

    Counting overlap­free binary words Julien Cassaigne ' Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, Paris AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 05A15 Abstract A word on a finite alphabet A is said to be overlap­free if it contains no factor of the form xuxux, where x is a letter and u a (possibly empty) word. In this paper we

  18. Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

  19. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  20. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  1. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  2. Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

  3. Arithmetic Circuits and Counting Complexity Eric Allender

    E-print Network

    Allender, Eric

    Arithmetic Circuits and Counting Complexity Classes Eric Allender Dept. of Computer Science Rutgers circuits are the focus of renewed attention in the complexity theory community. It is easy to list a few, in some cases, providing lower bounds on arithmetic circuit size can yield consequences about Boolean

  4. Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-

    E-print Network

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each

  5. High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, Henry H.

    1998-11-09

    A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered.

  6. COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV

    E-print Network

    Postnikov, Alexander

    COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We investigate the connected components of the space of Morse curves. This leads to new interesting combinatorial sequences related several conjectures. 1. Morse curves Let M be a real differentiable manifold, and let h : M R be a smooth

  7. COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV

    E-print Network

    Postnikov, Alexander

    COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We investigate the connected components of the space of Morse curves. This leads to new interesting combinatorial sequences related several conjectures. 1. Morse curves Let M be a real di#erentiable manifold, and let h : M# R be a smooth

  8. What Counts as Teacher Research?: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy

    1999-01-01

    Describes the "Book Club Plus Inquiry Group," a group of classroom teachers and university teacher educators in Michigan involved in practitioner research. Offers perspectives from the group on the question of what counts as teacher research. Concludes with a model of their conception. (SR)

  9. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  10. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

  11. An Introduction to Adults Count Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne

    This paper provides an overview of a book entitled "Adults Count Too: Mathematics for Empowerment". The introduction to the book details why the author spent three years writing about adults learning mathematics, and outlines the shape and structure of the book. A chapter from the book, entitled "A Matrix of Factors," is presented as an example of…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  14. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  19. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

  20. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  1. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  2. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

  3. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

  4. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  5. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  6. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  7. PALAEODIVERSITY AND FORMATION COUNTS: REDUNDANCY OR BIAS?

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    comprises finds from Europe and North America, where new formation discoveries reached their half-life outside Europe and North America and the formation half-life for these `new' lands is 1986, showing vertebrates at least, formation counts of various kinds are poor predictors of sampling, missing, for example

  8. Kids Count in Indiana: 1994 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This booklet provides data on a series of related measures of child and family well-being in Indiana, following national guidelines established by the Kids Count project to help Americans better understand the problems faced by children and adolescents and to foster greater commitment to improving outcomes for vulnerable children and their…

  9. False Negative Problem of Counting Bloom Filter

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    False Negative Problem of Counting Bloom Filter Deke Guo, Member, IEEE, Yunhao Liu, Senior Member a false positive, but it will never return a false negative under well-behaved operations. By investigating the mainstream variants, however, we observe that a Bloom filter does return false negatives

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  11. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  12. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  13. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  14. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  15. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

    This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

  16. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  17. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  18. Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Counting

    E-print Network

    Domshlak, Carmel

    Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Counting Carmel Domshlak J¨org Hoffmann Technion Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Countin #12;Talk Outline Probabilistic Planning Conclusion Carmel Domshlak, J¨org Hoffmann Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Countin #12

  19. Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

  20. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  1. Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

  2. All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Franna, Ed.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…

  3. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  4. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 20 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…

  5. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  6. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  7. GUIDE TO CAREERS Work experience counts

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    GUIDE TO CAREERS #12;Work experience counts We know that having a good degree is only part that they can take steps towards their career goals. If you'd like to know more about our work experience their employability skills and articulate them effectively to potential Parents and carers guide to careers

  8. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  9. Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

  10. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  11. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  12. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…

  13. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

  14. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

    This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

  15. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  16. Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

  17. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  18. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  19. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  20. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  1. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  2. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  3. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  4. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  5. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

  6. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure ...

  7. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  8. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  9. Some selected peripheral blood and haemopoietic system indices in Wistar rats with chronic vanadium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W

    1989-01-01

    1. Wistar rats of both sexes received vanadium in drinking water in the amount of 23-29 mg/kg body weight in the form of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) for a period of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. 2. Animals treated in this way ate less food and drank less AMV solution as compared with the amount of water consumed by the controls; they suffered from diarrhoea, and owing to this the increment in body weight was reduced. 3. Vanadium decreased erythropoiesis and maturation of red blood cells, which was expressed by a reduced erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level and increased reticulocyte and polychromatophilic erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood. 4. The composition percentage of the bone marrow cells and the peripheral blood leukocyte count did not undergo noticeable changes under the influence of vanadium. PMID:2567224

  10. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  11. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  12. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  13. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  14. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  15. Integrated Blood Barcode Chips

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics associated with protein degradation in sampled blood5. Simple technologies that can sensitively sample large numbers of proteins over broad concentration ranges, from small amounts of blood, and within minutes of sample collection, would assist in solving these problems. Herein, we report on an integrated microfluidic system, called the Integrated Blood Barcode Chip (IBBC). It enables on-chip blood separation and the rapid measurement of a panel of plasma proteins from small quantities of blood samples including a fingerprick of whole blood. This platform holds potential for inexpensive, non-invasive, and informative clinical diagnoses, particularly, for point-of-care. PMID:19029914

  16. Portable automatic blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzer employs chemical-sensing electrodes for determination of blood, gas, and ion concentrations. It is rugged, easily serviced, and comparatively simple to operate. System can analyze up to eight parameters and can be modified to measure other blood constituents including nonionic species, such as urea, glucose, and oxygen.

  17. Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

  18. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  19. Mechanics of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Keller, S R; Secomb, T W

    1981-05-01

    The historical development of the mechanics of blood flow can be traced from ancient times, to Leonardo da Vinci and Leonhard Euler and up to the present times with increasing biological knowledge and mathematical analysis. In the last two decades, quantitative and numerical methods have steadily given more complete and precise understanding. In the arterial system wave propagation computations based on nonlinear one-dimensional modeling have given the best representation of pulse wave propagation. In the veins, the theory of unsteady flow in collapsible tubes has recently been extensively developed. In the last decade, progress has been made in describing the blood flow at junctions, through stenoses, in bends and in capillary blood vessels. The rheological behavior of individual red blood cells has been explored. A working model consists of an elastic membrane filled with viscous fluid. This model forms a basis for understanding the viscous and viscoelastic behavior of blood. PMID:7024641

  20. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical ?2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.