Note: This page contains sample records for the topic full blood count from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Complete blood count parameters for healthy, small-for-gestational-age, full-term newborns.  

PubMed

No previous study has investigated the full range of complete blood count (CBC) parameters in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns. The main aim of this study was to compare CBC and peripheral smear parameters in term, healthy SGA neonates and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates, and to establish CBC reference values for full-term SGA newborns. One hundred thirty-two healthy, term newborns (73 SGA and 59 AGA) were included. On day 1, we obtained 109 samples and on day 7 we obtained 77 samples. A CBC and peripheral smear were analyzed for each sample collected and group data were compared. We observed higher mean values for normoblast count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) count in the SGA babies than in the AGA babies on day 1. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration values for the SGA babies were decreased because of the relatively high RBC count and relatively high mean corpuscular volume we observed in this group. Of the SGA newborns, 21.9% had neutropenia and 4.7% had absolute neutrophil counts lower than 1500/microl on day 1. On both day 1 and day 7, the SGA newborns had higher mean absolute metamyelocyte counts and higher mean I : T (immature : total neutrophil ratio) values than the AGA group. The SGA babies had a lower mean absolute lymphocyte count on day 7 than the AGA group. We detected thrombocytopenia in almost one-third of the 64 SGA newborns tested on day 1. In summary, our study clearly demonstrates that CBC parameters for healthy, full-term, SGA newborns are different from those of healthy, term AGA newborns. This is the first study that has documented different mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, metamyelocyte counts, lymphocyte counts, and I : T in SGA babies compared with AGA babies. PMID:16630213

Ozyürek, E; Cetinta?, S; Ceylan, T; O?ü?, E; Haberal, A; Gürakan, B; Ozbek, N

2006-04-01

2

Interpretation of the full blood count in systemic disease - a guide for the physician.  

PubMed

The full blood count (FBC) is perhaps the single most common investigation performed in medical patients. It has the potential, when interpreted carefully and in relation to the clinical history, to provide very useful information to assist in diagnosis and management. Clinicians are often alerted to the presence of a primary haematological disorder by abnormalities in the FBC. For the purpose of this review these diseases will not be discussed in detail but the reader will be alerted to pointers which might indicate primary blood disorders throughout the text. The haematology laboratory in large teaching hospitals will often provide up to 1,500 automated FBC analyses each day. These are individually checked for 'flags' provided by the analyser which indicate values outside the normal range. It is clearly essential that clinical information is provided with the request as this will influence how the result is handled by scientific and medical staff. Furthermore, significant abnormalities will generate a blood film request and the report will be most useful when interpreted in light of the patient's working diagnosis. In cases where a diagnosis is not yet known, even brief information on presentation, for example 'collapse with hypotension', 'fever on return to UK', 'weight loss and anorexia', can all be important and help the lab provide clinicians with guidance. This short review aims to provide physicians with a workable guide to the interpretation of some of the commoner findings in the full blood count. Some of these will be very familiar to you but some will not. This review is not meant to be exhaustive as the rare minutiae will obscure the essential core material. Your haematology colleagues are always happy to help and available for assistance in difficult or problematic cases. I have not specified normal ranges in relation to each entity as these will be defined by your local laboratory. PMID:24995446

Leach, M

2014-03-01

3

Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre?>?400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis.

2014-01-01

4

Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ? 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from different areas in Iraq.

Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

2012-01-01

5

White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft

2001-01-01

6

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

2008-01-01

7

Complete blood count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... of blood cells. It can reflect acute or chronic infection, allergies, and problems with clotting. The CBC test isolates and counts the 7 types of cells found in the blood: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, red blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet.

8

White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...

1972-01-01

9

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... the three major types of cells in the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Why It's ... an infection, or has unexplained bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell ( ...

10

Low white blood cell count and cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... kill them. It is called a low white blood cell count, or neutropenia, when a person has too few ... a microliter of blood has a low white blood cell count. If the white blood cell count is very ...

11

White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

1972-01-01

12

Full counting statistics of Andreev tunneling.  

PubMed

We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions. PMID:24484157

Maisi, Ville F; Kambly, Dania; Flindt, Christian; Pekola, Jukka P

2014-01-24

13

Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to

Philippe-E. Roche; Bernard Derrida; B. Douçot

2005-01-01

14

Full counting statistics of stationary particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general theoretical framework for treating particle beams as time-stationary limits of many particle systems. Due to stationarity, the total particle number diverges, and a description in Fock space is no longer possible. Nevertheless, we show that when describing the particle detection via second quantized arrival time observables, such beams exhibit a well-defined ``local'' counting statistics, that is, full counting statistics of all clicks falling into any given finite time interval. We also treat in detail a realization of such a beam via the long time limit of a source creating particles in a fixed initial state from which they then evolve freely. From the mathematical point of view, the beam is described by a quasi-free state which, in the one-particle level, is locally trace class with respect to the operator valued measure describing the time observable; this ensures the existence of a Fredholm determinant defining the characteristic function of the counting statistics.

Kiukas, J.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Werner, R. F.

2013-04-01

15

Full counting statistics for molecular spintronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent study on the full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s. We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the master equation approach, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s, some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of master equation approach. By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically.

Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Martin, Thierry

2007-12-01

16

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

17

Full counting statistics of crossed Andreev reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the full transport counting statistics in a three-terminal tunnel device with one superconducting source and two normal-metal or ferromagnet drains. We obtain the transport probability distribution from direct Andreev reflection, crossed Andreev reflection, and electron transfer which reveals how these processes’ statistics are determined by the device conductances. The cross-correlation noise is a result of competing contributions from crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer, as well as antibunching due to the Pauli exclusion principle. For spin-active tunnel barriers that spin polarize the electron flow, crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer statistics exhibit different dependencies on the magnetization configuration and can be controlled by relative magnetization directions and voltage bias.

Morten, Jan Petter; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Belzig, Wolfgang; Brataas, Arne

2008-12-01

18

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

19

Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality.

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

20

Are Placental Chorionic Capillary Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts Useful Compared to Umbilical Cord Blood Tests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare measurement of fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in paired histologic samples of the placenta and umbilical cord bloods. Method: Forty-five randomly selected pregnancies had two determinations of the NRBC count. A sample of umbilical venous blood had a NRBC count measured and sections of the placenta were examined for their villous capillary NRBC counts. Results:

Joan M. McCarthy; Enid Gilbert-Barness; John C. M. Tsibris; William N. Spellacy

2007-01-01

21

Automated counting of nucleated red blood cells in blood samples of newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in blood samples interfere with the white blood cell (WBC) count on many types of automated haematology analysers. This makes it necessary to correct the WBC count by counting NRBC microscopically. This report describes the evaluation of two analysers, the Cell-Dyn 4000 and the Sysmex XE-2100, which use new techniques to recognize and enumerate

M. H. De Keijzer; W. Van Der Meer

2002-01-01

22

Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 ± 85.1 and 5.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 ± 9.0 and 0.8 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ?13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely.

Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

2014-01-01

23

Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin

2003-01-01

24

Full counting statistics of a single-molecule quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the full counting statistics of a single quantum dot strongly coupled to a local phonon and weakly tunnel connected to two metallic electrodes. By employing the generalized nonequilibrium Green-function method and the Lang-Firsov transformation, we derive an explicit analytical formula for the cumulant generating function, which makes one able to identify distinctly the elastic and inelastic contributions to the current and zero-frequency shot noise. We find that at zero temperature, the inelastic effect causes upward steps in the current and downward jumps in the noise at the bias voltages corresponding to the opening of the inelastic channels, which are ascribed to the vibration-induced complex dependencies of electronic self-energies on the energy and bias voltage. More interestingly, the Fano factor exhibits oscillatory behavior with increasing bias voltage and its minimum value is observed to be smaller than one-half.

Dong, Bing; Ding, G. H.; Lei, X. L.

2013-08-01

25

Full counting statistics for charge inside a quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the average current and its fluctuation (noise) have been powerful tools to study the quantum transport in mesoscopic systems. Recently it became possible to measure the higher moment of the current probability distribution and moreover, the current distribution itself (‘full counting statistics’ (FCS)) by using quantum point-contact charge-detectors. Motivated by recent experiments, we evaluate the FCS for the probability distribution of electron number inside a quantum dot (QD). We show that a non-Gaussian exponential distribution appears when there is no dot state close to the lead chemical potentials. We propose the measurement of the joint probability distribution of current through the QD and electron number inside the QD, which reveals correlations between the two observables and reflects the asymmetry of tunnel barriers. We also show that for increasing strength of tunneling, the quantum fluctuations qualitatively change the probability distribution of the electron number.

Utsumi, Yasuhiro

2007-12-01

26

Umbilical cord blood as a replacement source for admission complete blood count in premature infants  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesize that a complete blood count (CBC) with manual differential from umbilical cord blood is equivalent to a CBC with manual differential obtained from the neonate on admission. Study Design A CBC and manual differential was performed on 174 paired umbilical cord blood and admission blood samples from infants <35 weeks gestation. Paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the primary statistical tools used for data analysis. Result Cord and admission blood white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin and platelet count all significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with paired neonatal samples (R = 0.82, 0.72, 0.76). Admission blood WBC count fell within the variation of WBC count values from currently accepted neonatal admission blood sources. Cord blood hemoglobin was not clinically different than admission hemoglobin (1.0 g dl?1). Cord blood platelet counts were not different from admission blood platelet counts (5800 cells per ?l, P = 0.23). The immature to total granulocyte ratio was not different between samples (P = 0.34). Conclusion Umbilical cord blood can be used for admission CBC and differential in premature infants.

Carroll, PD; Nankervis, CA; Iams, J; Kelleher, K

2013-01-01

27

Evaluation of an automatic platelet counting system utilizing whole blood  

PubMed Central

Technicon's newly developed platelet AutoCounter utilizes an electro-optical system which detects and counts particles by sensing the scattering of light which occurs when blood cells flow through the illuminated sensing chamber of a micro-optical system. The system utilizes whole blood collected into EDTA. Blood samples, which can be handled at the rate of 40 per hour, are diluted with 2M urea which in addition causes lysis of the erythrocytes. The haemolysate thus obtained is delivered to the particle counter after a two-minute reaction time, the cell count finally being displayed on a continuous chart recorder. An evaluation of this machine has been carried out in the Department of Haematology, the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, on hospital specimens from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases. The results of this evaluation are presented. Reproducibility studies indicate a coefficient of variation of 4% at any platelet level. The percentage drift per sample ranges from +0·4 to ?0·4% of the total count. Carry-over and departures from linearity are statistically significant; however, the magnitude of these deviations is not sufficient to cause concern in routine use. Acceptable agreement is noted between machine counts and the counts obtained by technicians using phase-contrast microscopy with the exception of two anomalous individuals. Discrepant counts were noted in patients with elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and also in patients with disturbance of immunoglobulins. A modification to the sampling probe which eliminates the former problem is described. The AutoCounter described in this paper provides a fast, reliable, and accurate service laboratory platelet counting system. Images

Rowan, R. M.; Allan, W.; Prescott, R. J.

1972-01-01

28

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding.

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-05-01

29

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence.  

PubMed

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

2014-01-01

30

Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence  

PubMed Central

The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding.

Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atature, Mete

2014-01-01

31

[Standardization of regional cerebral count corrected by equilibrium blood count with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT].  

PubMed

To standardize the regional cerebral count with 99mTc-HMPAO, equilibrium blood count of which trapping mechanism is the same as the brain was used in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease. We injected 99mTc-HMPAO 740 MBq in 10-15 sec and got sequential arterial sampling in patients who were undertaken with PET. Four hours later 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT was taken and a venous sampling was drawn for determining the equilibrium blood count. Correlation between the area of arterial time activity curve and equilibrium venous blood count was 0.93. After 44 regions (36 in cortical area, 8 in deep area) with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT were placed, SPECT counts were corrected by standardization of equilibrium venous blood count. The correlation between rCBF determined from C15O2 PET and corrected SPECT counts was 0.80 and 0.67, cortical area and deep area, respectively. We concluded that 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT count can be corrected by equilibrium blood count to standardize the regional cerebral counts. PMID:7967196

Tanaka, R; Hayashida, K; Hirose, Y; Ishida, Y; Miyashita, K; Kaminaga, T; Nishimura, T

1994-09-01

32

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practicing Counting Count the number of bunnies and match it to the correct number of characters on the right. Click on the correct one. Bunny Count Practice counting by 1 Countin by 1 Practice counting Sea Horses! Counting Sea Horses ...

Person, Ms.

2007-11-28

33

Increased reticulocyte count from cord blood samples using hypotonic lysis.  

PubMed

Human reticulocytes are one of the fundamental components needed to study the in vitro invasion processes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Additionally examinations of reticulocytes and their binding proteins are difficult in areas of the world that do not have access to advanced equipment or stem cell lines. These issues are particularly relevant to malaria vaccine candidate studies that are directed against surface proteins that the parasites use to gain entry into erythrocytes. Described here is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the reticulocyte count of cord blood samples. Exposure of cord blood to hypotonic saline (0.2%) for 5 min selectively lyses the non-reticulocytes resulting in an average 3.6-fold increase in reticulocyte count. Our studies show that this enrichment process does not damage the hemoglobin of the remaining erythrocytes which are still capable of supporting Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth. This economical and rapid method of enrichment could facilitate studies of in vitro laboratory culturing of other malaria parasite species which preferentially invade reticulocytes such as P. vivax. PMID:22841523

Grimberg, Brian T; Scheetz, Emily A; Erickson, John J; Bales, Jacquelyn M; David, Makindi; Daum-Woods, Kathleen; King, Christopher L; Zimmerman, Peter A

2012-10-01

34

Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones.

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

2013-01-01

35

White blood count in patients on regular haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were compared in patients with chronic renal failure treated successively by conservative means (low-protein diet), regular haemodialysis, and renal allotransplantation. The lowest total white cell and neutrophil counts and the highest lymphocyte counts were found in patients on regular haemodialysis. A rapid fall in neutrophil count during the first half-hour of dialysis and

M. Papadimitriou; L. R. I. Baker; B. Seitanidis; L. H. Sevitt; A. E. Kulatilake

1969-01-01

36

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in twins.  

PubMed

We counted nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) per 100 white blood cells (WBC) in the umbilical cord blood from 98 twins born to 49 women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies at > or = 34 weeks of gestation to better characterize NRBC in twins. Twelve women with monochorionic (MC) placentas and 37 with dichorionic (DC) placentas gave birth at 36.7 +/- .9 and 36.5 +/- 2 weeks of gestation, respectively. All twins were born with an Apgar score of > or = 7 at 1 min. Log10 (NRBC/100 BC) in 98 twins exhibited a nearly normal distribution, and was significantly associated with gestational age for both MC (r = -0.457, p = 0.025) and DC twins (r = - 0.275, p = 0.018), and with birth weight for both MC (r = -0.682, p < 0.001) and DC twins (r = -0.336, p = 0.003). Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) tended to be larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the MC group, and significantly larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the DC group (p < 0.05). Intertwin difference in Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) was defined as the value of Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the smaller twin minus Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the larger twin, and became greater with increasing intertwin difference in birth weight (r = 0.411, p = 0.003). These findings suggest that neonatal NRBC reflected gestational age and birth weight in twins. This preliminary observation using a small number of twins suggests that the smaller twin may have experienced a relative lack of oxygen compared with the larger twin in utero. PMID:11344673

Mori, H; Mori, K; Kojima, Y; Ohkuchi, A; Funamoto, H; Minakami, H; Sato, I; Nakano, T

2001-01-01

37

Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  

PubMed

Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca

2004-04-01

38

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Beck, Mrs.

2006-12-08

39

Nucleated red blood cell count in term and preterm newborns: reference values at birth.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of nucleated red blood cell count at birth in relation to neonatal outcome has been established. However, reference values were needed to usefully interpret this variable. The normal range of reference values for absolute nucleated red blood cell count in 695 preterm and term newborns is reported. PMID:15724047

Perrone, S; Vezzosi, P; Longini, M; Marzocchi, B; Tanganelli, D; Testa, M; Santilli, T; Buonocore, G

2005-03-01

40

Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The WBC count of the DIFF channel was highly correlated with the WBC count of the microscopic reference method (r ¼ 0.99; WBC analyser ¼ 0.870 ? WBC reference method þ 0.413). In contrast, no agreement existed between WBC counts generated by the WBC\\/BASO channel of the analyser and the reference method (r ¼ 0.52; WBC analyser ¼ 0.008

R. de Jonge; R. Brouwer; M. Smit; R. J. E. M. Dolhain; J. M. W. Hazes; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; J. Lindemans

2003-01-01

41

Umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts: normal values and the effect of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the umbilical cord blood nucleated red blood cell (UC-nRBC) count in uncomplicated pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section or delivered vaginally.Methods:A total of 57-term singleton pregnancies were studied: 33 with elective cesarean sections and 24 with vaginal deliveries. UC-nRBC was analyzed for its nucleated red blood cell counts. A logarithmic transformation of the data was used for statistical

J M McCarthy; T Capullari; Z Thompson; Y Zhu; W N Spellacy; Joan McCarthy

2006-01-01

42

Reticulocyte count and reticulocyte maturation profile in human umbilical cord blood from healthy newborns.  

PubMed

Most fetal hematologic parameters show a significant relationship with gestational age: a linear increase is evident throughout gestation for several hematologic parameters. A few reports have described reference values for umbilical cord blood reticulocyte counts performed with automated hematology analyzers. Our aim was to use automated hematology analyzers (ADVIA 120; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) to establish reference intervals for reticulocyte parameters in cord blood from healthy newborns of 34 to 42 weeks of gestation. We also investigated whether differences in reticulocyte parameters exist between the sexes and between different weeks of gestation. We enrolled 98 healthy, appropriate for gestational age newborns. In term infants, the reticulocyte percentage, the absolute reticulocyte count, and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content decreased significantly as the gestational age increased, but the maturation subpopulations did not change significantly. We found no significant differences between the sexes. In conclusion, our results contribute to the establishment of reference intervals for cord blood from full-term newborns that are measured with an automated hematology analyzer. PMID:20223743

Maconi, Mariacaterina; Formisano, Debora; Cavalca, Leandra; Rolfo, Alessandro; Cardaropoli, Simona; Danise, Paolo

2010-03-01

43

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

44

Preprocedural white blood cell count and death after percutaneous coronary intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.

Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer

2003-01-01

45

System-level training of neural networks for counting white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because

Nipon Theera-umpon; Paul D. Gader

2002-01-01

46

Traumatic Lumbar Punctures in Neonates: Test Performance of the Cerebrospinal Fluid White Blood Cell Count  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are often used to diagnose meningitis in neonates given antibiotics before the lumbar puncture is performed. Traumatic lumbar punctures are common and complicate interpretation of CSF white blood cell counts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of adjusting CSF white blood cell counts based on CSF and peripheral red blood cell counts. Methods Cohort study of lumbar punctures performed between 1997 and 2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical group. Traumatic lumbar punctures were defined as CSF specimens with ?500 red blood cells/mm3. CSF white blood cell counts were adjusted downward for traumatic lumbar punctures using several commonly used methods. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of unadjusted and adjusted CSF white blood cell counts for predicting meningitis in neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures. Results Of 6,374 lumbar punctures, 2,519 (39.5%) were traumatic. 114/6,374 (1.8%) were positive for meningitis; 50 neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures had meningitis. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for white blood cell count unadjusted and adjusted by all methods were similar. Conclusions Adjustment of CSF white blood cell counts to account for increased red cells does not improve diagnostic utility. Adjustment can result in loss of sensitivity with marginal gain in specificity. Adjustment of WBC counts in the setting of a traumatic lumbar puncture does not aid in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal meningitis in neonates.

Greenberg, Rachel G.; Smith, P. Brian; Cotton, C. Michael; Moody, M. Anthony; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

2009-01-01

47

Measurement of 90sr in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation counting with full spectrum DPM method.  

PubMed

90Sr activity was measured with the full spectrum DPM (FS-DPM) counting method after plotting the quench correction curves of 90Sr and 90Y, and the FS-DPM method was applied to determine the 90Sr in liquid waste samples. The optimum regions of 90Sr and 90Y were set for measuring 90Sr with the dual label DPM (DL-DPM) method. The direct measurement of purified 90Sr with spectrum unfolding techniques could overcome the disadvantages of the DL-DPM method. The activities of 90Sr in the 90Sr/90Y standardized solution measured with the FS-DPM protocols were close to the true activity. The concentrations of 90Sr in the liquid waste samples measured with the FS-DPM counting method were compared with those obtained with conventional methods. PMID:12150285

Lee, M H; Chung, K H; Choi, G K; Lee, C W

2002-08-01

48

Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention.

Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram

2014-01-01

49

Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced

M. Habibzadeh; A. Krzyzak; T. Fevens; A. Sadr

2011-01-01

50

Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed

Farley E. Yang; Florin Vaida; Lani Ignacio; Alan Houghton; Jaishanker Nautiyal; Howard Halpern; Harold Sutton; Srinivasan Vijayakumar

1995-01-01

51

Full Counting Statistics of Laser Excited Rydberg Aggregates in a One-Dimensional Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study the full counting statistics of few-body Rydberg aggregates excited from a quasi-one-dimensional atomic gas. We measure asymmetric excitation spectra and increased second and third order statistical moments of the Rydberg number distribution, from which we determine the average aggregate size. Estimating rates for different excitation processes we conclude that the aggregates grow sequentially around an initial grain. Direct comparison with numerical simulations confirms this conclusion and reveals the presence of liquidlike spatial correlations. Our findings demonstrate the importance of dephasing in strongly correlated Rydberg gases and introduce a way to study spatial correlations in interacting many-body quantum systems without imaging.

Schempp, H.; Günter, G.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Hofmann, C. S.; Breyel, D.; Komnik, A.; Schönleber, D. W.; Gärttner, M.; Evers, J.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

2014-01-01

52

Full counting statistics of laser excited Rydberg aggregates in a one-dimensional geometry.  

PubMed

We experimentally study the full counting statistics of few-body Rydberg aggregates excited from a quasi-one-dimensional atomic gas. We measure asymmetric excitation spectra and increased second and third order statistical moments of the Rydberg number distribution, from which we determine the average aggregate size. Estimating rates for different excitation processes we conclude that the aggregates grow sequentially around an initial grain. Direct comparison with numerical simulations confirms this conclusion and reveals the presence of liquidlike spatial correlations. Our findings demonstrate the importance of dephasing in strongly correlated Rydberg gases and introduce a way to study spatial correlations in interacting many-body quantum systems without imaging. PMID:24483893

Schempp, H; Günter, G; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Hofmann, C S; Breyel, D; Komnik, A; Schönleber, D W; Gärttner, M; Evers, J; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M

2014-01-10

53

Many-Body Entanglement: a New Application of the Full Counting Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement entropy is a measure of quantum correlations between separate parts of a many-body system, which plays an important role in many areas of physics. Here we review recent work in which a relation between this quantity and the Full Counting Statistics description of electron transport was established for noninteracting fermion systems. Using this relation, which is of a completely general character, we discuss how the entanglement entropy can be directly measured by detecting current fluctuations in a driven quantum system such as quantum point contact.

Klich, Israel; Levitov, Leonid

2009-05-01

54

Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

2013-01-01

55

Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

2014-01-01

56

Full counting statistics for the number of electrons in a quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent real-time electron counting experiments, we evaluate the full counting statistics for the probability distribution of the electron number inside a quantum dot which is weakly coupled to source and drain leads. A non-Gaussian exponential distribution appears when there is no dot state close to the lead chemical potentials. We propose the measurement of the joint probability distribution of current and electron number, which reveals correlations between the two observables. We also show that for increasing strength of tunneling, the quantum fluctuations qualitatively change the probability distribution of the electron number. In this paper, we derive the cumulant generating functions (CGFs) of the joint probability distribution for several cases. The Keldysh generating functional approach is adopted to obtain the CGFs for the resonant-level model and for the single-electron transistor in the intermediate conductance regime. The general form for the CGF of the joint probability distribution is provided within the Markov approximation in an extension of the master equation approach [D. A. Bagrets and Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085316 (2003)].

Utsumi, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

57

Single-step preparation and image-based counting of minute volumes of human blood.  

PubMed

Current flow-based blood counting devices require significant medical infrastructure and are not appropriate for field use. In this article we report on the development of a sample preparation, measurement, and analysis method that permits automated and accurate counting of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as allowing a 3-part differential of the WBCs to be performed on extremely small volumes of whole blood. This method is compatible with portable instrumentation that can be deployed in the field. The method consists of serially diluting blood samples first with sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, then in acridine orange dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, followed by fluorescence and dark field imaging with low magnification objectives. Image analysis is performed to extract cell counts and differentials. We performed a paired analysis of 20 volunteers with complete blood count values both within and beyond the normal reference range using a commercial automated hematology analyzer and the image-based method, with the new method achieving accuracies comparable to that of the commercial system. Because the sample preparation and imaging are simple and inexpensive to implement, this method has applications for pediatrics, clinician offices, and global health in regions that do not have access to central hematology laboratories. PMID:24955810

Smith, Zachary J; Gao, Tingjuan; Chu, Kaiqin; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Tatsukawa, Keith; Heifetz, Laurence; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

2014-08-21

58

Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

59

Blood sample stability at room temperature for counting red and white blood cells and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood handling required for different cellular variables is different. In a practical setting of blood sampling approximately 4 h separated from the first analysis, we compared the analysis of blood cell variables at this 4-h point with analysis of blood stored for ?48 h (over the weekend) at room temperature.Blood was collected from 304 apparently healthy individuals aged between 17

S. A. Vogelaar; D. Posthuma; D. I. Boomsma; C. Kluft

2002-01-01

60

Full counting statistics of energy fluctuations in a driven quantum resonator  

SciTech Connect

We consider the statistics of time-integrated energy fluctuations of a driven bosonic single-mode resonator, as measured by a quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, using the standard Keldysh prescription to define higher moments. We find that, due to an effective cascading of fluctuations, these statistics are surprisingly nonclassical: the low-temperature, quantum probability distribution is not equivalent to the high-temperature classical distribution evaluated at some effective temperature. Moreover, for a sufficiently large drive detuning and low temperatures, the Keldysh-ordered quasiprobability distribution characterizing these fluctuations fails to be positive-definite; this is similar to the full counting statistics of charge in superconducting systems. We argue that this indicates a kind of nonclassical behavior akin to that tested by Leggett-Garg inequalities.

Clerk, A. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2011-10-15

61

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner

1999-01-01

62

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

2010-01-01

63

Haematological Alterations Observed in Equine Routine Complete Blood Counts. A Retrospective Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Results on more than 1000 complete blood counts (CBC) performed on hot-blooded horses, including Thoroughbred, Standardbred,\\u000a and Arabian, have been reviewed. All the data were processed and stored at the Laboratory of Haematology, Department Veterinary\\u000a Clinic, University of Pisa, over the last 2 years, and involved samples withdrawn from both inpatients and outpatients of\\u000a the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a ?The CBC is

A. GAVAZZA; A. J. DELGADILLO; B. GUGLIUCCI; A. PASQUINI; G. LUBAS

2002-01-01

64

Subjective Poor Sleep and White Blood Cell Count in Male Japanese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to

Naoko NISHITANI; Hisataka SAKAKIBARA

2007-01-01

65

Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

2013-09-01

66

DETERMINATION OF CARBON14 AND TRITIUM IN BLOOD AND OTHER WHOLE TISSUES. LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF TISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation counting of carbon-14 and tritium in blood, heart, ; kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and muscle tissue was investigated. The dissolution ; of tissues into two different solvent systems and their counting are discussed. ; The effect of dilution of such solvent and color quenched solutions is shown. ; Some counting efficiencies obtained for carbon-14, tritium, and suIfur-35 in

R. J. Herberg

1960-01-01

67

White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow.

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

2014-01-01

68

A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C

2011-12-01

69

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts: relationship to abnormal fetoplacental circulation detected by Doppler studies.  

PubMed

Increased neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts are thought to be related to intrauterine hypoxemia. We sought to determine the effect of increasing circulatory impairment in fetuses on the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. One hundred thirty-four singleton pregnancies were included in the study and were allocated to 4 study groups according to Doppler findings. The systolic-to-diastolic ratios of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, and uterine arteries were recorded. Fetuses were assigned to the following groups on the basis of the last Doppler examination before delivery: group 1, normal systolic-to-diastolic ratios in the examined vessels; group 2, a systolic-to-diastolic ratio greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and no abnormal Doppler findings in the uterine arteries; group 3, systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in all examined vessels; and group 4, absence of end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the uterine arteries. A blood sample from the umbilical artery was obtained within 1 minute after birth, and nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were counted by light microscopy. Nucleated red blood cell counts were higher in fetuses in group 4 (median, 72.0; range, 9-720; P < .001) and group 3 (median, 38.4; range, 7-201; P < .001) than in fetuses in group 1 (median, 5.1; range, 0-20). Neonates in group 4 had significantly lower birth weights (P < .001), lower arterial and venous pH values (P < .05), and lower Apgar scores after 5 minutes (P < .01) as well as an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery because of fetal distress (P < .001). The number of fetuses in group 4 with a cord blood base deficit of less than -8 mmol/L was increased. Nucleated red blood cell counts were comparable in fetuses in group 2 (median, 5.4; range, 0-37) and group 1. In groups 1 to 3 no brain-sparing effect occurred, whereas in 15 of 21 cases in group 4 a brain-sparing effect was present. Multivariate analysis revealed that Doppler results of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, and uterine arteries were independent determinants of neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. Increasing abnormalities seen on fetoplacental Doppler studies are associated with increasing numbers of nucleated red blood cells at birth. Given the known relationship between abnormal Doppler flow and intrauterine hypoxemia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count might become an additional valuable tool in the surveillance of growth-restricted fetuses. PMID:11270521

Axt-Fliedner, R; Ertan, K; Hendrik, H J; Schmidt, W

2001-03-01

70

Improved particle identification using cluster counting in a full-length drift chamber prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-cell prototype drift chambers were built at TRIUMF and tested with a ~210MeV/c beam of positrons, muons, and pions. A cluster-counting technique is implemented which improves the ability to distinguish muons and pions when combined with a traditional truncated-mean charge measurement. Several cluster-counting algorithms and equipment variations are tested, all showing significant improvement when combined with the traditional method. The results show that cluster counting is a feasible option for any particle physics experiment using drift chambers for particle identification. The technique does not require electronics with an overly high sampling rate. Optimal results are found with a signal smoothing time of ~5ns corresponding to a ~100MHz Nyquist frequency.

Caron, Jean-François; Hearty, Christopher; Lu, Philip; So, Rocky; Cheaib, Racha; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Faszer, Wayne; Beaulieu, Alexandre; de Jong, Samuel; Roney, Michael; de Sangro, Riccardo; Felici, Giulietto; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Piccolo, Marcello

2014-01-01

71

Blood count in new onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction - A hypothesis generating study.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies identified high white and red blood cell count as potential risk factors for new onset AF. The objective of this retrospective, nested case-control study was to examine the association of different parameters of the blood count with the development of new onset of AF after AMI. Methods: A total of 66 consecutive patients with new onset AF after AMI and 132 sex and age matched controls were enrolled into the study and analyzed whether parameters of the blood count, including leukocytes, platelets, haemoglobin, haematocrit or erythrocyte count, are associated with the occurrence of AF after AMI. All AMI patients had undergone coronary angiography. Results: Patients with post-AMI AF displayed significantly higher levels of haemoglobin (14.2 g/dl, IQR 12.4-15 vs. 12.9 g/dl, IQR 11.7-13.8; P< 0.001), haematocrit (41.7 %, IQR 36.6-44.3 vs. 38.7 %, IQR 34.7-41.5; P 0.0015), and erythrocyte count (4.6 T/l, IQR 4.1-5 vs. 4.2 T/l, IQR 3.9-4.65; P< 0.001). In the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis, the blood parameters most strongly associated with the outcome were serum haemoglobin (crude OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40- 3.47, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.71- 8.54, P 0.001) and erythrocyte count (crude OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36-3.22, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.73- 8.33, P 0.001), whereas haematocrit did not reach statistical significance. Interpretation & conclusions: This study shows a significant independent association between serum haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count and occurrence of AF after AMI. However, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these associations and its potential clinical applicability need to be further elucidated. PMID:24927345

Distelmaier, Klaus; Maurer, Gerald; Goliasch, Georg

2014-04-01

72

Blood count in new onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction - A hypothesis generating study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies identified high white and red blood cell count as potential risk factors for new onset AF. The objective of this retrospective, nested case-control study was to examine the association of different parameters of the blood count with the development of new onset of AF after AMI. Methods: A total of 66 consecutive patients with new onset AF after AMI and 132 sex and age matched controls were enrolled into the study and analyzed whether parameters of the blood count, including leukocytes, platelets, haemoglobin, haematocrit or erythrocyte count, are associated with the occurrence of AF after AMI. All AMI patients had undergone coronary angiography. Results: Patients with post-AMI AF displayed significantly higher levels of haemoglobin (14.2 g/dl, IQR 12.4-15 vs. 12.9 g/dl, IQR 11.7-13.8; P< 0.001), haematocrit (41.7 %, IQR 36.6-44.3 vs. 38.7 %, IQR 34.7-41.5; P 0.0015), and erythrocyte count (4.6 T/l, IQR 4.1-5 vs. 4.2 T/l, IQR 3.9-4.65; P< 0.001). In the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis, the blood parameters most strongly associated with the outcome were serum haemoglobin (crude OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40- 3.47, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.71- 8.54, P 0.001) and erythrocyte count (crude OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36-3.22, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.73- 8.33, P 0.001), whereas haematocrit did not reach statistical significance. Interpretation & conclusions: This study shows a significant independent association between serum haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count and occurrence of AF after AMI. However, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these associations and its potential clinical applicability need to be further elucidated.

Distelmaier, Klaus; Maurer, Gerald; Goliasch, Georg

2014-01-01

73

Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compared three blood sampling tubes of different size: 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6 mL. All tubes were made of plastic and contained 3.2% sodium-citrate as anticoagulant. Platelet aggregation was investigated in 12 healthy individuals employing the Multiplate® Analyser comparing tubes of 3.6 mL and 1.8 mL. Platelet count was determined for each of the sampling tubes after 10, 60, and 120 min. Results: No significant differences were found in any of the RoTEM® measurements between the three sizes of tubes (p=0.07-0.53). Platelet aggregation was significantly lower when using smaller tubes (p=0.0004). The platelet count remained stable using a 3.6 mL tube during the entire observation period of 120 min (p=0.74), but decreased significantly after 60 min when using tubes smaller than 3.6 mL (p<0.0001). Conclusions: RoTEM® analyses were not affected by the size of blood sampling tubes. Therefore, 1.8 mL tubes should be preferred for RoTEM® analyses in order to minimise the volume of blood drawn. With regard to platelet aggregation analysed by impedance aggregometry tubes of different size cannot be used interchangeably. If platelet count is determined later than 10 min after blood sampling using tubes containing citrate as anticoagulant, a 3.6 mL tube should be preferred to avoid false low values. PMID:24310772

Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Hvas, Anne-Mette

2014-05-01

74

The value of white blood cell counts before revision total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from

J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman

2003-01-01

75

Perinatal asphyxia is associated with the umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell count in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.  

PubMed

Nucleated red blood cells are commonly present in the blood of newborns. Our objective was to investigate the value of umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. NRBCs were counted in umbilical cord blood samples of neonates born to 43 pre-eclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. Pre-eclamptic women were further subgrouped based on the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction. The NRBC count differed significantly between pre-eclamptic women with and without intrauterine growth restriction, and controls (26.3 +/- 7.5; 17.1 +/- 6.8; and 9.9 +/- 2.7; p < 0.001). A NRBC count of 18.5 or above could predict fetal asphyxia with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 80.0%. The umbilical cord NRBC count is effective in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. PMID:20455723

Bayram, F; Ozerkan, K; Cengiz, C; Develio?lu, O; Cetinkaya, M

2010-05-01

76

Hematologic variables and venous thrombosis: red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count are associated with an increased risk  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that leukocytes and erythrocytes play a role in coagulation. However, whether leukocytes, erythrocytes and other hematologic variables are associated with risk of venous thrombosis is not well known. To study this, we used data from 2473 patients with venous thrombosis and 2935 controls. The variables assessed were: total leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes and red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width). We found a strong dose-response relation for higher red cell distribution width and monocyte count with risk of venous thrombosis, with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.0–4.8) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–5.8), respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein level, malignancy and co-morbidities. Monocyte count and red cell distribution width were associated with venous thrombosis even within reference ranges. A low monocyte count (<0.12×109/L) was associated with a lower risk of venous thrombosis after full adjustment (odds ratios 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–0.8). In summary, high red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count, two parameters that are inexpensive and easily obtainable, were clearly associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanism and the use of these variables in prediction models for first and recurrent thrombosis.

Rezende, Suely Meireles; Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

2014-01-01

77

Evaluation of the effect of one stage versus two stage full mouth disinfection on C-reactive protein and leucocyte count in patients with chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy is carried out in quadrant basis with 1-2 week interval. This time lag may result in re-infection of instrumented pocket and may impair healing. Therefore, a new approach to full-mouth non-surgical therapy to be completed within two consecutive days with full-mouth disinfection has been suggested. In periodontitis, leukocyte counts and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are likely to be slightly elevated, indicating the presence of infection or inflammation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of one stage and two stage non-surgical therapy on clinical parameters along with CRP levels and total white blood cell (TWBC) count. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients were selected and were divided into two groups. Group 1 received one stage full mouth dis-infection and Group 2 received two stages FMD. Plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, serum CRP and TWBC count were evaluated for both the groups at baseline and at 1 month post-treatment. Results: The results were analyzed using the Student t-test. Both treatment modalities lead to a significant improvement of the clinical and hematological parameters; however comparison between the two groups showed no significant difference after 1 month. Conclusion: The therapeutic intervention may have a systemic effect on blood count in periodontitis patients. Though one stage FMD had limited benefits over two stages FMD, the therapy can be accomplished in a shorter duration.

Pabolu, Chandra Mohan; Mutthineni, Ramesh Babu; Chintala, Srikanth; Naheeda; Mutthineni, Navya

2013-01-01

78

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

79

Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.

Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej

2013-01-01

80

White Blood Cells Count and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Association between white blood cell (WBC) count and diabetes risk has been recently suggested. We assessed whether WBC count is an independent risk factor for diabetes incidence among young healthy adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS WBC count was measured in 24,897 young (mean age 30.8 ± 5.36 years), normoglycemic men with WBC range of 3,000 to 12,000 cells/mm3. Participants were periodically screened for diabetes during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. RESULTS During 185,354 person-years of follow-up, diabetes was diagnosed in 447 subjects. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels revealed a 7.6% increase in incident diabetes for every increment of 1,000 cells/mm3 (P = 0.046). When grouped in quintiles, a baseline WBC count above 6,900 cells/mm3 had an independent 52% increase in diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.52 [95% CI 1.06–2.18]) compared with the lowest quintile (WBC <5,400 cells/mm3). Men at the lowest WBC quintile were protected from diabetes incidence even in the presence of overweight, family history of diabetes, or elevated triglyceride levels. After simultaneous control for risk factors, BMI was the primary contributor of the variation in multivariate models (P < 0.001), followed by age and WBC count (P < 0.001), and family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS WBC count, a commonly used and widely available test, is an independent risk factor for diabetes in young men at values well within the normal range.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2013-01-01

81

White Blood Cell Count and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported that inflammatory markers are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). White blood cell (WBC) count is a widely available and broadly utilized marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between increased WBC count and incident AF, and whether this association is mediated by smoking, myocardial infarction and heart failure. We examined participants in the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine the relation between WBC count and incident AF over 5-year follow-up period. We adjusted for standard AF risk factors, and smoking, previous myocardial infarction, as well as interim myocardial infarction and heart failure prior to incident AF. Our sample consisted of 936 participants, mean age was 76±6 years and 61% were women. Median WBC count was 6.4*109/L (25th-75th percentile 5.6*109/L- 7.8*109/L). During a median follow-up of 5 years, 82 participants (9%) developed new-onset AF. After adjusting for standard risk factors for AF, increased WBC count was significantly associated with incident AF, with a hazard ratio per standard deviation (0.26*109/L) increase of 2.22, (95% confidence interval, 1.10–4.48; P=0.03). We found no substantive differences adjusting for smoking, previous myocardial infarction, interim myocardial infarction and heart failure. In conclusion, in our community-based sample, increased WBC count was associated with incident AF during 5-years of follow-up. Our findings provide additional evidence for the relation between systemic inflammation and AF.

Rienstra, Michiel; Sun, Jenny X.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

2011-01-01

82

Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.  

PubMed

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

2011-08-01

83

Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2013-01-01

84

Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and

Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv

2008-01-01

85

Effect of revascularization on mortality associated with an elevated white blood cell count in acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured

Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol

2003-01-01

86

Clinical Value of the Total White Blood Cell Count and Temperature in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in

Taylor Cardall; Judd Glasser; David A. Guss

2004-01-01

87

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

88

Acute drop in blood monocyte count differentiates NEC from other causes of feeding intolerance.  

PubMed

Objective:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC.Study Design:We reviewed medical records of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMCs) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC).Result:We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26 to 29 in both the groups). In stage II NEC, AMCs decreased from median 1.7 × 10(9)?l(-1) (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98 to 2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62 to 2.1); P<0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 10(9)?l(-1) (IQR 0.1.5 to 3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6 to 1.9); P<0.05. There was no change in AMCs in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMCs of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.77).Conclusion:We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979

Remon, J; Kampanatkosol, R; Kaul, R R; Muraskas, J K; Christensen, R D; Maheshwari, A

2014-07-01

89

Reticulocyte count  

MedlinePLUS

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. ... marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how ...

90

Full-counting statistics of heat transport in harmonic junctions: transient, steady states, and fluctuation theorems.  

PubMed

We study the statistics of heat transferred in a given time interval t_{M}, through a finite harmonic chain, called the center, which is connected to two heat baths, the left (L) and the right (R), that are maintained at two temperatures. The center atoms are driven by external time-dependent forces. We calculate the cumulant generating function (CGF) for the heat transferred out of the left lead, Q_{L}, based on the two-time quantum measurement concept and using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The CGF can be concisely expressed in terms of Green's functions of the center and an argument-shifted self-energy of the lead. The expression of the CGF is valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. We consider three initial conditions for the density operator and show numerically, for a one-atom junction, how their transient behaviors differ from each other but, finally, approach the same steady state, independent of the initial distributions. We also derive the CGF for the joint probability distribution P(Q_{L},Q_{R}), and discuss the correlations between Q_{L} and Q_{R}. We calculate the CGF for total entropy production in the reservoirs. In the steady state we explicitly show that the CGFs obey steady-state fluctuation theorems. We obtain classical results by taking ??0. We also apply our method to the counting of the electron number and electron energy, for which the associated self-energy is obtained from the usual lead self-energy by multiplying a phase and shifting the contour time, respectively. PMID:23004738

Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

2012-05-01

91

Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449

Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

2012-10-01

92

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70?km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400?km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778?Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-Ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

93

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant

Christian Seliger; Beatrice Schaerer; Marina Kohn; Helene Pendl; Steffen Weigend; Bernd Kaspers; Sonja Härtle

94

Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count.  

PubMed

We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels, and a 1-h exposure to normal room air. Blood samples were collected at the baseline at 30?min during each exposure, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4?h after each exposure. The values of white blood cells (WBC) at 1?h (p?=?0.010), 3?h (p?=?0.040), and 4?h (p?=?0.008) following SHS were significantly increased compared with the baseline values. Also, there was a positive association between the WBC and cotinine levels (r?=?0.28, p?=?0.007). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels significantly increased the WBC for at least 4?h following the exposure time. This effect of SHS on WBC has dose-response characteristics and should be considered to prescribing CBC. PMID:23544435

Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Wallace Hayes, A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Flouris, Andreas D

2014-01-01

95

[New complete blood count parameter to evaluate iron status of haemodialysis patients].  

PubMed

The presence of functionnal iron deficiency during erythropoietin therapy especially in patients with chronic renal failure leads to a diagnostic problem due to the low sensitivity and specificity of the biological parameters usually used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. However, this diagnostic appears to be essential in so far as its treatment consists in intravenous iron perfusion that allow an optimal efficiency of erythropoietin therapy. Hypochromic red blood cells and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) are two new parameters that are given by Bayer blood count analyser (H3 and ADVIA 120) that may be usefull in the diagnostic of functionnal iron deficiency. The measurement is based on optical red cell analysis by laser beam diffraction in two angles that permit to analyze content and volume. Reticulocytes are identified by dying of residual nucleic acid. Many papers have demonstrated the usefulness of these parameters in the initial take care and follow up of haemodialysis patient. It seems that these parameters are complementary and need to be analysed simultaneously; Hypochromic red blood cells having the most interesting sensibility specificity ratio but reticulocyte hemoglobin content being superior in the understanding of acute modification. PMID:17373278

Salignac, Sylvain; Lecompte, Thomas

2006-11-01

96

Negative correlation between blood cell counts and serum neopterin concentration in patients with HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic disturbances are common in patients with HIV-1 infection. Recent studies on immune activation markers such as neopterin demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with chronic immune activation. We investigated a possible association between serum neopterin concentrations and blood cell counts (CD4+ T cells, white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells) and hemoglobin and hematocrit in 94 HIV-1-seropositive individuals [52 Walter Reed (WR) stage 1, 31 WR2, one WR5, and 10 WR6]. There were significant negative correlations between neopterin concentrations and CD4+ T cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. These correlations were also significant if either only WR1 and WR2 patients or the entire set of data were considered for calculations. Thus, hematological abnormalities are associated with chronic immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection. Large amounts of neopterin are released by human macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) further enhances the effect of IFN gamma. Therefore, our data suggest that activated immune cells and specific cytokines such as IFN gamma and TNF alpha are involved inhibiting hematopoiesis. PMID:1674419

Fuchs, D; Shearer, G M; Boswell, R N; Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Reibnegger, G; Werner, E R; Zajac, R A; Wachter, H

1991-02-01

97

Full counting statistics of generic spin entangler with quantum dot-ferromagnet detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement between spatially separated electrons in nanoscale transport is a fundamental property, yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Here we propose and analyse theoretically the transport statistics of a generic spin entangler coupled to a hybrid quantum dot-ferromagnet detector system. We show that the full distribution of charges arriving at the ferromagnetic terminals provides complete information on the spin state of the particles emitted by the entangler. This provides means for spin entanglement detection via electrical current correlations, with optimal measurement strategies depending on the a priori knowledge of ferromagnet polarization and spin-flip rates in the detector dots. The scheme is exemplified by applying it to Andreev and triple dot entanglers.

Malkoc, O.; Bergenfeldt, C.; Samuelsson, P.

2014-02-01

98

Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70?years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P?count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke.

2012-01-01

99

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks when you move to a higher altitude. Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin ...

100

[Relationships between hemopoiesis and peripheral blood counts in untreated and 32P-treated patients with polycythaemia vera (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The composition of the hemopoiesis was determined in iliac crest biopsies of 51 patients with polycythaemia vera. There was a good correlation between thrombopoiesis and thrombocytes and, to a minor degree also between erythropoiesis and erythrocytes in untreated patients as well as between granulopoiesis and granulocytes in 32P-treated patients. In patients with normal blood counts there existed no correlation between the bone marrow and the blood counts within smaller limits of the cell count. Histomorphometric analysis shows no difference either between untreated and 32P-treated patients or between patients with and without splenomegaly. This is an argument against a significant intrasplenic hemopoiesis or an intrasplenic cell pooling, or destruction (hypersplenism), respectively. The blood sinusoids are hyperplastic and distended. With increasing hyperplasia of the hemopoiesis the sinusoids become relatively smaller. So changes in vascularisation may be of importance in the infrequent transitions into myelofibrosis and/or leukemia. PMID:966631

Hauswaldt, C; Schröter, C

1976-09-01

101

Automated screening for myelodysplastic syndromes through analysis of complete blood count and cell population data parameters.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) requires a high clinical index of suspicion to prompt bone marrow studies as well as subjective assessment of dysplastic morphology. We sought to determine if data collected by automated hematology analyzers during complete blood count (CBC) analysis might help to identify MDS in a routine clinical setting. We collected CBC parameters (including those for research use only and cell population data) and demographic information in a large (>5,000), unselected sequential cohort of outpatients. The cohort was divided into independent training and test groups to develop and validate a random forest classifier that identifies MDS. The classifier effectively identified MDS and had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.942. Platelet distribution width and the standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width were the most discriminating variables within the classifier. Additionally, a similar classifier was validated with an additional, independent set of >200 patients from a second institution with an AUC of 0.93. This retrospective study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying MDS in an unselected outpatient population using data routinely collected during CBC analysis with a classifier that has been validated using two independent data sets from different institutions. PMID:24276948

Raess, Philipp W; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Njo, Tjin L; Klop, Boudewijn; Sukhachev, Dmitry; Wertheim, Gerald; McAleer, Tom; Master, Stephen R; Bagg, Adam

2014-04-01

102

Numerical simulations versus theoretical predictions for a non-Gaussian noise induced escape problem in application to full counting statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical approach for characterizing the influence of asymmetry of noise distribution on the escape rate of a multistable system is presented. This was carried out via the estimation of an action, which is defined as an exponential factor in the escape rate, and discussed in the context of full counting statistics paradigm. The approach takes into account all cumulants of the noise distribution and demonstrates an excellent agreement with the results of numerical simulations. An approximation of the third-order cumulant was shown to have limitations on the range of dynamic stochastic system parameters. The applicability of the theoretical approaches developed so far is discussed for an adequate characterization of the escape rate measured in experiments.

Khovanov, I. A.; Khovanova, N. A.

2014-02-01

103

Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe ?-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.  

PubMed

Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ?30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ?30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy ?-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the ?-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations. PMID:23208229

Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

2013-02-01

104

Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs, and (5) AO/PI dual staining method. The results show comparable total PBMC counting among all five methods, which validate the AO/PI staining method for PBMC measurement in the image cytometry method. PMID:23201386

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

2013-02-28

105

Relevance of the eosinophil blood count in bancroftian filariasis as a screening tool for the treatment  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Lymphatic filariasis constitutes a major public health issue in French Polynesia. Diagnosis has been revolutionized with the availability of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) tests which are easy to perform but are costly. Filariasis is responsible for acquired eosinophilia and eosinophil blood count (EBC) is commonly used as a screening tool. Methods We retrospectively analysed all the results of EBCs and CFA tests performed in our laboratory over a 2-year period. We calculated the prevalence of antigenemia for nine different eosinophil cutoffs. We calculated the number of patients detected by CFA testing and the number of estimated CFA-positive patients according to their EBC. Results Over a 2-year period, we detected 7503 eosinophilic patients. For an EBC above 500/mm3, the prevalence of positive CFA was 25.78% and the estimated number of positive CFA patients was 1934. During the same period, as CFA determination is not routinely performed, only 141 patients were detected and treated. Conclusion Our current strategy against lymphatic filariasis which combines annual mass drug administration, systematic treatment of antigenemic and microfilaraemic patients, and vector control; failed to reach the target of 1% prevalence. Unfortunately, mainly for economical reasons, the antigenemia cannot be determined for all patients. In complement to existing strategy, we propose an additional action based on the treatment of eosinophilic patients in order to reduce the filariasis prevalence in our country.

Musso, Didier

2013-01-01

106

The value of serum bilirubin level and of white blood cell count as severity markers for acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

Discussions regarding the correlations between elevated white blood cell levels and clinical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis are well known. Recent studies show that a high level of serum bilirubin could emerge as a prognostic marker for gangrenous or perforated stages of acute appendicitis. We studied the correlations between anatomical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis and white blood cell count, serum total bilirubin, and indirect serum bilirubin on a large series of cases, in the course of one year, in our department. Although there being a correlation between severe forms of acute appendicitis (gangrenous, perforated), elevated white blood cell count, elevated serum bilirubin (mostly the indirect fraction), none of the indicators proved to have a definitive diagnostic value. Cases with perforation and localized generalized peritonitis are more frequently associated with elevated bilirubin levels. PMID:24331322

Socea, B; Carâp, A; Rac-Albu, M; Constantin, V

2013-01-01

107

Estimating malaria parasite density among pregnant women at central Sudan using actual and assumed white blood cell count  

PubMed Central

Background Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Methods Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman’s WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. Results The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /?l, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. Conclusion The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient`s actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density.

2014-01-01

108

Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi.

Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.

1998-01-01

109

Circuit theory and full counting statistics of charge transfer through mesoscopic systems: A random-matrix approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a random-matrix description of full counting statistics of charge transfer through a quantum mesoscopic system at finite temperature in the presence two nonideal contacts. Using the exact map between random-matrix theory and the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model, we demonstrate, via explicit calculations, that the saddle-point equation, derived by applying the variational principle to the supersymmetric action, can be cast in the form of the two-terminal version of Nazarov’s circuit theory, thus giving it the status of a controlled approximation. For the case in which the mesoscopic system is a quantum dot at zero temperature, this circuit theory has recently been shown [A. L. R. Barbosa and A. M. S. Macêdo, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235307 (2005)] to reproduce exactly the asymptotic semiclassical limit of the Poisson kernel in perfect agreement with a diagrammatic approach for averaging over the unitary group. We report applications of our formalism to the description of charge transfer through a quantum dot, a quantum chain, and a quantum wire. We also discuss the role of different symmetry classes (orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic) and show how to use known exact connections between the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model and random scattering matrix theories to perform both perturbative and nonperturbative calculations. We believe that our results will help unify the various approaches being currently used in mesoscopic physics of hybrid devices within a single physically sound and mathematically rigorous theoretical scheme.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macedo-Junior, A. F.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2007-08-01

110

Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system  

SciTech Connect

We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn

2013-12-15

111

A review on peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in healthy adult Indians  

PubMed Central

The CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial cells in the cascade of events in forming immune response to the foreign antigen and hence monitoring the CD4+ T cell counts to understand the extent of immune deficiency is a common practice. CD4+ T cells are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hence CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the most important marker of immune dysfunction in HIV disease progression. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). To develop the threshold levels of CD4+ T cell counts, data from western countries are being used in India. The CD4+ T cell counts are known to be influenced by race and environmental factors. Hence it is important to establish the reference ranges for the CD4+ T cell counts in the target population to understand the immune dysfunction. The information on the lower limits of the CD4+ T cells count is necessary to decide the initiation and monitoring of ART. The published data on the CD4+ T cells count in healthy Indian adult population have been reviewed, analyzed and discussed in this review article. The requirement of establishment of reference ranges in Indian population is discussed.

Shete, Ashwini; Thakar, Madhuri; Abraham, Philip Raj; Paranjape, Ramesh

2010-01-01

112

Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Na?ve Patients with Depression  

PubMed Central

Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease.

Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2012-01-01

113

Use of hematopoietic progenitor cell count on the Sysmex XE-2100 for peripheral blood stem cell harvest monitoring.  

PubMed

Successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection depends on the timing of apheresis based on CD34+ cell enumeration. Because this analysis is expensive and induces organization difficulties, we evaluated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) quantification on the Sysmex XE-2100 as a surrogate analysis. We tested 157 blood samples for CD34+ cells and HPC counts. We found a good linear correlation between HPC and CD34+ and determined simple rules allowing to use HPC count in daily practice. We set a positive cut-off >30 HPC/mm(3) for allowing PBSC harvest and a negative cut-off at 0 HPC/mm(3) for which collection should be delayed. These two situations accounted for 62% of cases and CD34+ cell count by flow cytometry confirmed HPC result in 95% of cases. Between 0 and 30 HPC/mm3, CD34+ enumeration is required for decision-making. We conclude that HPC count may be a useful surrogate for CD34+ enumeration in PBSC harvest monitoring. PMID:17327950

Letestu, Rémi; Marzac, Christophe; Audat, Françoise; Belhocine, Ramdane; Tondeur, Sylvie; Baccini, Véronique; Garçon, Loïc; Cortivo, Liliane Dal; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Lefrère, François; Valensi, Françoise; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence

2007-01-01

114

Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C

2000-01-01

115

Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.  

PubMed

The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

2014-06-01

116

Effects of low power laser-irradiation on differential blood count and body temperature in endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits.  

PubMed

Low power laser irradiation has been shown to have various immune-modulatory effects under in vitro conditions but little is known about such effects in animal models. Escherichia coli endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits were used to determine the influence of transcutaneously applied low power laser light on differential blood count and rectal temperature. After three initial immunizations animals were either boostered with 5 ng/kg of endotoxin or injected with pyrogen-free saline and subsequently underwent irradiation using two different wavelengths of red laser light and sham irradiation, respectively. Differential blood count of laser-treated animals was characterized by significantly higher lymphocyte values and lower neutrophil values at twenty hours (boostered rabbits) and twenty-three hours (non-boostered rabbits) after irradiation. Differential blood cell counts returned to baseline values within 23 hours in the boostered animals, whereas in the non-boostered rabbits lymphocytes showed a trend to further increase. Recording of rectal temperature revealed a further rise after laser application, changes being of greater magnitude and longer duration in the non-boostered animals. These results seem to indicate that a single low power laser irradiation can modulate immune-responses depending on the immunological status of the organism. PMID:9129122

Schindl, L; Schindl, M; Polo, L; Jori, G; Perl, S; Schindl, A

1997-01-01

117

Elevated white blood cell count and outcome in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.  

PubMed

A significant association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and mortality in patients with cancer has been reported, but the predictive value of elevated WBC on mortality in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the three-month outcome of cancer patients with acute VTE according to their WBC count at baseline. As of May 2007, 3805 patients with active cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 215 (5.7%) had low- (<4,000 cells/microl), 2,403 (63%) normal- (4,000-11,000 cells/microl), 1,187 (31%) elevated (>11,000 cells/microl) WBC count. During the study period 190 patients (5.0%) had recurrent VTE, 156 (4.1%) major bleeding, 889 (23%) died (399 of disseminated cancer, 113 of PE, 46 of bleeding. Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline had an increased incidence of recurrent VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.2), major bleeding (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) or death (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.2). Most of the reported causes of death were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated WBC count. Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated WBC count was independently associated with an increased incidence of all three complications. In conclusion, cancer patients with acute VTE and elevated WBC count had an increased incidence of VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death. This worse outcome was consistent among all subgroups and persisted after multivariate adjustment. PMID:18989537

Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Guijarro, Ricardo; Madridano, Olga; Monreal, Manuel

2008-11-01

118

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

2013-01-01

119

Laser Doppler blood flow imaging with a 64×64 pixel full custom CMOS sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full field laser Doppler perfusion imaging offers advantages over scanning laser Doppler imaging as the effects of movement artifacts are reduced. The increased frame rate allows rapid changes in blood flow to be imaged. A custom made CMOS sensor offers several advantages over commercial cameras as the design can be optimized to the detected signals. For example, laser Doppler signals

D. He; H. C. Nguyen; B. R. Hayes-Gill; Y. Zhu; J. A. Crowe; S. P. Morgan; G. F. Clough; C. A. Gill

2011-01-01

120

Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

1980-01-01

121

[Effect of 2-cyanoethylurea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate on the leukocyte count in peripheral blood following whole body irradiation].  

PubMed

In our investigations the qualification of the substances 2-cyanoethyl urea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate was tested for a potential reducing or shortening of the leukocyte-depression in rats after whole-body irradiation. Intravenous applications of 2-cyanoethyl urea and intramuscular injections of thymus extract showed no effect in Wistar rats not only in increase of leukocyte number of peripheral blood, but also in variation of leukocyte portion in differential blood-count. Leukocytes depression appearing in consequence of whole-body irradiation was independent of cyanoethyl urea applications and of thymus extract, too. Lithium carbonate shows a significant increase of leukocytes in peripheral blood in dependence of dosage and frequency of applications. After whole-body irradiation with 7 Gy under lithium therapy, it was shown that on day 6 after irradiation leukocyte number was significantly higher than in controls. Radiogenic leukopenia phase was reduced significantly by lithium. PMID:3101018

Saul, G; Rose, H; Kehrberg, G

1986-10-01

122

Complete blood count reference intervals and age- and sex-related trends of North China Han population.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Defining common reference intervals (RIs) are encouraging. The aim of this study is to establish RIs for complete blood count (CBC) in a Chinese Han population and probe their age- and sex-related CBC trends. Additionally, we will compare the CBC RIs of Han with those of other races. Methods: In total 1259 Han individuals (584 male and 675 female) were recruited in North China. CBC was processed on Sysmex XE-2100, Coulter LH750 and Mindray BC5800 whose traceability was well verified. The non-parametric 2.5th-97.5th percentiles RIs were calculated. Results: The RIs for CBC parameters did not show apparent analyzer-specificity, apart from mean cellular volume (MCV), mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HBG), hematocrit (HCT), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MGHC) are higher in males; and their male mean values tend to drop after 40 years; conversely, the female mean values tend to rise. Platelet (PLT) is higher in females and tends to drop after 40 years in both sexes. White blood cell (WBC) and absolute count of neutrophils (NE) and monocytes (MO) are higher in males, but there is no apparent change with age. Lymphocytes (LY) absolute count declines with age in males, but the same change in females is not obvious. RIs for HBG and HCT are similar among Han, Nordic, US European and US Mexican populations and are lower in US Africans. WBC RIs for Han and US African populations are lower than that for US Europeans and US Mexicans. Conclusions: RIs for major blood cell parameters are not method-dependent; variations obviously exist in age, sex and race. Consequently, common RIs for most CBC parameters appear inapplicable. PMID:24497225

Qiao, Rui; Yang, Shuo; Yao, Bei; Wang, Hongya; Zhang, Jie; Shang, Hong

2014-07-01

123

[Effect of sample volumes and utilized anticoagulants on the measurement of complete blood counts including 3-part differentials using capillary blood].  

PubMed

We collected the different volumes of venous blood(60 microL, 125 microL, 250 microL and 500 microL) into micro sample cups from respective volunteer to compare complete blood count (CBC) among 4 sample volumes, and found that 60 microL of sample volume seemed enough for CBC measurement using Microsemi LC-667 CRP (Horiba Co.). Subsequently, we measured CBC using 60 microL of peripheral blood after combining one of the 3 capillary tubes (heparin coated, EDTA coated and plain) with either EDTA coated or plain micro sample cups to examine the effect of anticoagulants contained into these commercially available maneuvers for capillary blood sampling. When we used the plain micro sample cup, platelet aggregation and false increase of white blood cell(WBC) count were observed irrespective to the combination of capillary tubes. We also tried whether commercially recommended volume (250 microL) of sample could be obtained by either fingertip or earlobe puncture from volunteers, and found that 7 of 16 fingertip and only 1 earlobe punctures could achieve sufficient volume. Whereas, at least 60 microL of sample were available more than 80% of volunteers by both methods, and CBC data obtained from these lesser samples obtained by fingertip puncture showed no statistically significant differences when compared with those of conventional venous samples (2 mL). From these findings, we concluded that at least 60 microL of capillary blood obtained from fingertip then collected into EDTA coated micro sample cup was enough to measure CBC using Microsemi LC-667 CRP. PMID:23947185

Inaba, Tohru; Yuasa, Soichi; Nakanishi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mayako; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Kensuke; Oku, Narihiro; Fujita, Naohisa

2013-06-01

124

Laser Doppler blood flow imaging with a 64×64 pixel full custom CMOS sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full field laser Doppler perfusion imaging offers advantages over scanning laser Doppler imaging as the effects of movement artifacts are reduced. The increased frame rate allows rapid changes in blood flow to be imaged. A custom made CMOS sensor offers several advantages over commercial cameras as the design can be optimized to the detected signals. For example, laser Doppler signals are known to have a bandwidth from DC up to ~20KHz and be of a low modulation depth. Therefore a design that can amplify the AC component and have a sampling rate and an antialiasing filter appropriate to the signal bandwidth would be beneficial. An additional advantage of custom made sensors is that on-chip processing of blood flow allows the data bottleneck that exists between the photo-detector array and processing electronics to be overcome, as the processed data can be read out from the image sensor to a PC or display at a low data rate. A fully integrated 64x64 pixel array for imaging blood flow is presented. On-chip analog signal processing is used to amplify the AC component, normalize the AC signal by the DC light intensity and provide anti-aliasing. On-chip digital signal processing is used to implement the filters required to calculate blood flow. The imaging array has been incorporated into a device that has been used in a clinical setting. Results are presented demonstrating changes in blood flow in occlusion and release tests.

He, D.; Nguyen, H. C.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Zhu, Y.; Crowe, J. A.; Morgan, S. P.; Clough, G. F.; Gill, C. A.

2011-02-01

125

The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction mortality in patients ?65 years of age: findings from the cooperative cardiovascular project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is

Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz

2001-01-01

126

CD34 counts to predict the adequate collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential prerequisite for successful procurement of sufficient autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) for engraftment is the optimal timing of collection. A number of surrogate markers of peripheral blood progenitor cells were analysed to identify a single test which could predict the optimum time to harvest, providing at least 2 × 106 CD34+ cells\\/kg patient body weight. The study

S Armitage; R Hargreaves; D Samson; M Brennan; E Kanfer; C Navarrete

1997-01-01

127

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. FINDINGS: The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed

Christine J Piek; Bas Brinkhof; Jan Rothuizen; Aldo Dekker; Louis C Penning

2011-01-01

128

White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

129

Relationship between baseline white blood cell count and degree of coronary artery disease and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.

Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson

2002-01-01

130

[Accreditation of automated complete blood count by the LH750 Analyzer (Beckman Coulter) in Georges Pompidou Hospital (Paris, France)].  

PubMed

Preliminary evaluation of quantitative clinical laboratory measurements is a prerequisite for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, according to the French Committee of Accreditation guidelines following the European reference Standard EN ISO 15189. Numerous papers have been published regarding biochemistry and immunology. However, data are lacking for automated complete blood count accreditation. We report here our experience at Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou hematology laboratory and present the performance characteristics of two mirrored LH750 Beckman-Coulter analysers, including precision, accuracy and uncertainty of measurement. PMID:24342794

Robinet, Sylvain; Lemaire, Pierre; Louis, Gauthier; Vieillefond, Vincent; Daigneau, Yolande; Gaillaud, Emilie; Vincent, Béatrice; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Siguret, Virginie

2013-01-01

131

White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2013-01-01

132

White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

2013-03-01

133

Normal limits of gated blood pool SPECT count-based regional cardiac function parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Computations of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) ejection fraction (EF) have been well\\u000a validated against other imaging modalities. As GBPS images depict the entire extent of both blood pools, it is possible to\\u000a compute not only global but also regional biventricular function parameters, which have the prospect of being clinically useful\\u000a for

Kenneth J. Nichols; Andrew Van Tosh; Pieter De Bondt; Steven R. Bergmann; Christopher J. Palestro; Nathaniel Reichek

2008-01-01

134

Dynamics of Blood Count after Rheohemapheresis in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Possible Association with Clinical Changes  

PubMed Central

Background. Rheohemapheresis (RHF) is a method that can stop the activity of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, and the effects of the RHF procedures extend beyond the time of the individual procedures. Patients and Methods. We present the data for 46 patients with AMD treated with a series of 8 rheohemapheretic procedures. Blood count parameters were measured before the first and the last procedures. The clinical effect was judged by changes in the drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) area before and after the rheopheretic sessions. Results. Rheopheresis caused a decrease in hemoglobin (P < 0.001), a decrease in leukocytes (P < 0.034), and an increase in platelets (P < 0.005). We found a negative correlation between the amount of platelets and their volume (P < 0.001, Pearson correlation coefficient: ?0.509). We identified the platelet/MPV ratio as a good predictor of the clinical outcome. Patients with a platelet/MPV ratio greater than 21.5 (before the last rheopheresis) had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.003, sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 80%). Conclusion. Several basic blood count parameters after RHF can be concluded to significantly change, with some of those changes correlating with the clinical results (reduction of the DPED area).

Kostal, Milan; Blaha, Milan; Rencova, Eva; Lanska, Miriam; Rozsival, Pavel; Kratochvilova, Vera

2014-01-01

135

Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.  

PubMed

In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks. PMID:23717809

Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

2012-07-01

136

[Effect of thymus extract TFX (Polfa) on hemoglobin level and peripheral blood erythrocyte count].  

PubMed

Calf thymus preparation (TFX-Polfa) was administered + to 25 patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis in the II and III phase of the disease. Only patients not tolerating gold or D-penicillamine because of allergy or other complications, were included into the study. TFX was administered in a daily dose of 10 mg TFX protein i.m. for 60 consecutive days, followed by the treatment in outpatient clinic for successive++ 10 months. Statistically significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte counts was produced by both a 2-month intensive treatment and a 12-month of therapy with TFX. PMID:2277791

Lewandowicz, J

137

Predictive value of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.

Marcelo A. Beltrán; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille

2007-01-01

138

Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve

1988-01-01

139

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in leukemic phase: extraordinarily high white blood cell count.  

PubMed

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of T/null-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that commonly involves nodal and extranodal sites. The World Health Organization of lymphoid neoplasms recognizes two types: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive or ALK negative, the former as a result of abnormalities involving the ALK gene at chromosome 2p23. Patients with ALCL rarely develop a leukemic phase of disease, either at the time of initial presentation or during the clinical course. Described herein is a patient with ALK+ ALCL, small cell variant, associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35), who initially presented with leukemic involvement and an extraordinarily high leukocyte count of 529 x 10(9)/L, which subsequently peaked at 587 x 10(9)/L. Despite chemotherapy the patient died 2(1/2) months after diagnosis. In the literature review 20 well-documented cases are identified of ALCL in leukemic phase reported previously, with a WBC ranging from 15 to 151 x 10(9)/L. Leukemic phase of ALCL occurs almost exclusively in patients with ALK+ ALCL, most often associated with the small cell variant and the t(2;5)(p23;q35), similar to the present case. Patients with leukemic phase ALK+ ALCL appear to have a poorer prognosis than most patients with ALK+ ALCL. PMID:19432678

Nguyen, Jacqueline T; Condron, Michael R; Nguyen, Nghia D; De, Jitakshi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Padula, Anthony

2009-05-01

140

Elevated Serum Levels of CCL17 Correlate with Increased Peripheral Blood Platelet Count in Patients with Active Tuberculosis in China ?  

PubMed Central

The serum levels of Th2 markers, including CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC]), CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC]), and soluble CD30, were measured in 101 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients, 103 healthy community controls, and 18 tuberculosis patients in recovery. The levels of CCL17/TARC (249.8 ± 19.91 versus 143.9 ± 10.54, P < 0.0001) and sCD30 (7.78 ± 0.44 versus 4.93 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis than in controls; however, the CCL22/MDC serum level had no statistical difference between the groups (579.9 ± 16.42 versus 556.5 ± 15.29, P = 0.298). The counts of platelet and eosinophil in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis are significantly increased as well (289.4 ± 8.14 versus 248.3 ± 5.34 [P < 0.0001] and 165.1 ± 14.33 versus 102.5 ± 10.72 [P = 0.0005], respectively), and the platelet counts were positively correlated with serum TARC levels (Pearson r = 0.456, P < 0.0001), which indicates a new source of Th2 bias showing in active TB patients.

Feng, Yonghong; Yin, Hongyun; Mai, Guangliang; Mao, Ling; Yue, Jun; Xiao, Heping; Hu, Zhongyi

2011-01-01

141

Elevated serum levels of CCL17 correlate with increased peripheral blood platelet count in patients with active tuberculosis in China.  

PubMed

The serum levels of Th2 markers, including CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC]), CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC]), and soluble CD30, were measured in 101 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients, 103 healthy community controls, and 18 tuberculosis patients in recovery. The levels of CCL17/TARC (249.8 ± 19.91 versus 143.9 ± 10.54, P < 0.0001) and sCD30 (7.78 ± 0.44 versus 4.93 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis than in controls; however, the CCL22/MDC serum level had no statistical difference between the groups (579.9 ± 16.42 versus 556.5 ± 15.29, P = 0.298). The counts of platelet and eosinophil in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis are significantly increased as well (289.4 ± 8.14 versus 248.3 ± 5.34 [P < 0.0001] and 165.1 ± 14.33 versus 102.5 ± 10.72 [P = 0.0005], respectively), and the platelet counts were positively correlated with serum TARC levels (Pearson r = 0.456, P < 0.0001), which indicates a new source of Th2 bias showing in active TB patients. PMID:21270281

Feng, Yonghong; Yin, Hongyun; Mai, Guangliang; Mao, Ling; Yue, Jun; Xiao, Heping; Hu, Zhongyi

2011-04-01

142

A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  

PubMed

Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

2010-06-01

143

Nucleated red blood cell counts in term neonates with umbilical artery pH < or = 7.00.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts are elevated in term neonates who have severe fetal acidemia at birth. The neonatal NRBC counts of term (gestational age > or = 37 weeks) neonates with pathological acidemia were compared with those from control neonates who met the following criteria: gestational age > or = 37 weeks, birth weight > or = 2800 g, umbilical artery pH > or = 7.25, and a 5-minute APGAR > 7. Pathological acidemia was defined as an umbilical artery pH < or = 7.0 and a base excess > -12 mEq/L. Twenty-six neonates met all inclusion criteria and were compared to 78 controls. The mean NRBC/100 WBC was 11.9 +/- 13.5 (range 0 to 45) for acidemic neonates compared to 3.9 +/- 2.9 NRBC/100 WBC (range 0 to 11) for control neonates [p <0.001]. Our findings suggest that the onset of hypoxia-ischemia in pregnancies complicated by severe fetal acidemia often begins prior to the intrapartum period. PMID:11383706

Blackwell, S C; Refuerzo, J S; Hassan, S S; Wolfe, H M; Berry, S M; Sorokin, Y

2001-01-01

144

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

145

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (an analysis of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction [SOLVD])  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase

Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski

1999-01-01

146

Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: Should obese patients have their own "normal values?".  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly. Am. J. Hematol. 89:671-677, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24644218

Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George

2014-07-01

147

Genome-Wide Investigation of Regional Blood-Based DNA Methylation Adjusted for Complete Blood Counts Implicates BNC2 in Ovarian Cancer.  

PubMed

Due to its potential as a biomarker for early cancer detection, blood-based DNA methylation (DNAm) is of interest in cancer research. Specifically, highly predictive mechanisms for early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are desired, so previous studies have compared DNAm between EOC cases and controls. However, case-control studies are confounded by the distribution of white blood cell types through an immune response induced by the cancer. Rather than determining the distribution of the cell types manually or investigating isolated cell types, an alternative approach involves the use of complete blood count (CBC), which is routinely collected. In the analysis of an EOC case-control study of DNAm, we incorporate CBC measures to adjust for this confounding and compare DNAm between 242 EOC cases and 181 age-matched controls (assayed on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 or HumanMethylation450 Beadchips), at both the individual CpG and CpG island levels. We found that adjustment for leukocyte distribution using CBC measurements dramatically reduced confounding, with 62 single CpG sites found to be associated with EOC status after adjustment (P < 5E-8). Additionally, regional DNAm was assessed by applying principal components analysis to CpG islands. The top associated CpG island (P = 7E-6) was located in the promoter/transcription start site of the human basonuclin 2 gene (BNC2), a known susceptibility gene for EOC risk identified through GWAS. Follow-up studies are necessary to establish the role of BNC2 in blood-based DNA and EOC, including prospective studies to validate this region as a potential biomarker and predictor of EOC susceptibility. PMID:24853948

Winham, Stacey J; Armasu, Sebastian M; Cicek, Mine S; Larson, Melissa C; Cunningham, Julie M; Kalli, Kimberly R; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L

2014-07-01

148

Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.  

PubMed

A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew

2007-01-01

149

Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

1984-01-01

150

Comparison of platelet clumping and complete blood count results with Sysmex XT-2000iV in feline blood sampled on EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD (citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole)  

Microsoft Academic Search

False thrombocytopenia may result from platelet aggregation, especially in feline ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) blood specimens. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) was added to 46 feline EDTA specimens to test its anti-aggregation action. Platelet aggregation was estimated from blood films and a complete blood count was performed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser. Platelet aggregation score was >2 in 11\\/46

Fanny Granat; Anne Geffré; Jean-Pierre Braun; Catherine Trumel

2011-01-01

151

Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900?cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts.

Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun

2014-01-01

152

Relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a function of white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts during maintenance chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Several reports document an inverse correlation between bioavailability of maintenance chemotherapeutic agents and the likelihood of relapse in childhood. White blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) are easily ascertainable parameters which might be expected to reflect plasma levels of chemotherapy. To determine whether WBC and ANC predict outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we did a multivariate analysis of means of these values during maintenance therapy in patients with ALL treated on a single protocol. Of the 52 patients, 15 (29%) relapsed. For those still disease-free, minimum time of follow-up is 7-8/12 years. During the first year of maintenance therapy, mean WBC (x 10(3)/mm3) in the relapsed and nonrelapsed groups were 4.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.9 +/- 0.7, respectively (p = 0.03); mean ANC (x 10(3)/mm3) were 3.0 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.05). However, the range of values was large with considerable overlap between the two groups. There was no obvious difference in distribution of values when confounding prognostic features were adjusted for in the analysis. No significant differences were seen between WBC or ANC during the second year of therapy. Larger numbers of patients will be needed to ascertain whether specific guidelines for dosage modifications can be made on the basis of serial WBC. Future pharmacokinetic studies should look at possible correlations with mean WBC and ANC. PMID:1524994

Lucas, K; Gula, M J; Blatt, J

1992-01-01

153

Cord-blood tyrosine levels in the full-term phenylketonuric fetus and the "justification hypothesis".  

PubMed Central

The "justification hypothesis" attributes mental retardation in phenylketonuria (PKU) to an inability of the heterozygous mother to deliver an appropriate amount of tyrosine to the PKU fetus who, in turn, is unable to correct for this deficiency because of its genetic constitution. We tested this hypothesis by measuring concentrations of tyrosine and phenylalanine in cord blood obtained at delivery from nine infants with PKU and five infants with persistent (non-PKU) hyperphenylalaninemia (PHP). For each of these specimens there were four control cord-blood specimens from infants born on the same day and, generally, in the same hospital. PKU and PHP groups were similar with respect to cord-blood tyrosine and phenylalanine values. There was no biologically significant deficiency of tyrosine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP deficiency of tyrosine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP groups (54 +/- 10 microM, mean +/- SD) compared with controls (61 +/- 16 microM, P = 0.13). On the other hand, phenylalanine in cord blood of the pooled PKU and PHP groups was significantly increased (144 +/- 30 microM, mean +/- SD) compared with controls (128 +/- 24, P = 0.004). The mangitude of the differences in cord-blood tyrosine and phenylalanine between control and PKU subjects are so small that it is unlikely that they have any consequences for physical and mental development. The justification hypothesis, as it pertains to blood tyrosine at term, is not upheld.

Scriver, C R; Cole, D E; Houghton, S A; Levy, H L; Grenier, A; Laberge, C

1980-01-01

154

Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People  

PubMed Central

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

155

Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.  

PubMed

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

2014-05-01

156

Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.  

PubMed

Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ? 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management. PMID:23928130

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

2013-12-01

157

The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  

PubMed

Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

1992-12-01

158

Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p?0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p?0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p?0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2013-07-01

159

Lack of dietary calcium effect on chlordecone increased white blood cell count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat.  

PubMed

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ppm of chlordecone (Cd) mixed in calcium-sufficient (Ca-S) or calcium-deficient (Ca-D) diet for 15 days. The control rats fed with Ca-D diet exhibited a significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts compared to the rats fed with Ca-S diet. Dietary calcium (Ca), however, did not elicit any significant effect on total iron content and iron-binding capacity (transferrin) of control rats, whereas Cd at higher concentrations significantly increased WBC counts, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of both Ca-S and Ca-D rats. The data suggest that dietary Ca did not alter Cd-increased WBC count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat. PMID:8727520

Chetty, K N; Fantroy, L; Landau, G; Ivie, G W

1996-04-01

160

[White blood cells counts and parasite density in malaria in children aged 6 to 60 months in urban areas of Togo].  

PubMed

Rational use of the artemisinin-based combination therapies in Togo requires laboratory parasitemia values to confirm suspected malaria. This study was conducted to determine the impact of the measured white blood cell (WBC) count on the determination of malaria parasite density among children younger than 5 years old infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in Togo. This cross-sectional study of 267 children from four pediatric centers diagnosed malaria with both thick and thin blood smears and counted WBCs with a hematology analyzer. The parasite densities, calculated with the number of WBCs and estimated with an assumed count of 8,000/?L, were compared with the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test. The children's median age was 35 months (interquartile range [24-48]), with a sex ratio of 1.32. The median WBC value was 8,300 cells/?L (range: 1,300-24,900 cells/?L). The median parasitemia value calculated with the absolute WBC count was 35,714 (range: 139-48,860 parasites/?L) was not statistically different from that estimated with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L - 33 125 parasites/?L (p = 0.564). This study shows that malaria parasite density obtained by assuming 8000 cells/?L does not result in overestimations for children aged 6-59 months. PMID:24480599

Dorkenoo, A M; Layibo, Y; Agbo, Y M; Morgah, K; Agbèrè, D

2013-01-01

161

Low level leucocyte counting: a critical variable in the validation of leucodepleted blood transfusion components as highlighted by an external quality assessment study.  

PubMed

Leucocyte counts of < 5 x 106 per blood transfusion product are currently recommended in the UK in order to reduce transfusion-related infections and febrile reactions. Routine leucocyte depletion, however, requires the development of reliable internal and external quality assurance (EQA) programmes. We report preliminary findings from the UK NEQAS for Low-Level Leucocyte Counting from 18 UK Transfusion Centres over a four month period. Data analysis showed that the IMAGN 2000 had the lowest CVs (range 7.5-36%, mean 16.7) for samples with counts of 5-30 cells/microl when compared to the flow cytometric (range 13.8-88%, mean 29.5) and Nageotte methods (range 20.6-117%, mean 61.8). In addition, laboratories using commercial nuclear stains (LeucoCOUNTTM) had consistently lower CVs than those using 'in-house' propidium iodide staining methods. Important differences in flow cytometric gating strategies were also identified. This study highlights the current variability in low level leucocyte counting, especially within the critical range of 5-30 cells/microl (equating to < 5 x 106/l). The acceptance of consensus protocols, including gating strategies and nuclear staining techniques, is required to reduce the observed interlaboratory variation. Finally, we demonstrate that stabilized blood preparations can be successfully used to provide a national/international low-level leucocyte EQA scheme. PMID:11422230

Barnett, D; Goodfellow, K; Ginnever, J; Granger, V; Whitby, L; Reilly, J T

2001-02-01

162

Full characterization of PDX, a neuroprotectin/protectin D1 isomer, which inhibits blood platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

Our study aimed to establish the complete structure of the main dihydroxy conjugated triene issued from the lipoxygenation (soybean enzyme) of docosahexaenoic acid, named PDX, an isomer of protectin/neuroprotectin D1 (PD1/NPD1) described by Bazan and Serhan. NMR approaches and other chemical characterization (e.g. GC-MS, HPLC and LC-MS/MS) indicated that PDX is 10(S),17(S)-dihydroxy-docosahexa-4Z,7Z,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-enoic acid. The use of (18)O(2) and mass spectrometry showed that PDX is a double lipoxygenation product. Its structure differs from PD1, with E,Z,E geometry (PDX) instead of E,E,Z (PD1) and S configuration at carbon 10 instead of R. PDX inhibits human blood platelet aggregation at sub-micromolar concentrations. PMID:19818771

Chen, P; Fenet, B; Michaud, S; Tomczyk, N; Véricel, E; Lagarde, M; Guichardant, M

2009-11-01

163

Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules.

Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

2006-01-01

164

Differences in normal values for murine white blood cell counts and other hematological parameters based on sampling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: The effect of blood sampling site on the hemogram and neutrophil adhesion molecules was examined in BALB\\/c mice.¶Materials and methods: Blood samples were drawn from the tail, eye, and heart during anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. Cell numbers were quantified with an automated counter and flow cytometry was used to quantify CD11b and CD18.¶Results: Total white blood

J. A. Nemzek; G. L. Bolgos; B. A. Williams; D. G. Remick

2001-01-01

165

Assumed White Blood Cell Count of 8,000 Cells/?L Overestimates Malaria Parasite Density in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/?L to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/?L, and 5,500 cells/?L in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/?L could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Gomes, Luciano T.; Ribatski-Silva, Daniele; Mendes, Clebson Rodrigues J.; Leal-Santos, Fabio A.; Simoes, Luciano R.; Mello, Marcia Beatriz C.; Fontes, Cor Jesus F.

2014-01-01

166

The relationship between nucleated red blood cell counts at birth and neuropsychological outcome in preterm-birth preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between a putative marker of antenatal hypoxia, nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in circulating neonatal blood obtained shortly after birth, and motor, memory and intellectual development at preschool age in children with history of preterm birth (gestational ages 24–34 weeks). ^ Children with congenital disorders and children who

Angela K DeBastos

2007-01-01

167

Comparative clinical study of canine and feline total blood cell count results with seven in-clinic and two commercial laboratory hematology analyzers  

PubMed Central

Background A CBC is an integral part of the assessment of health and disease in companion animals. While in the past newer technologies for CBC analysis were limited to large clinical pathology laboratories, several smaller and affordable automated hematology analyzers have been developed for in-clinic use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare CBC results generated by 7 in-clinic laser- and impedance-based hematology instruments and 2 commercial laboratory analyzers. Methods Over a 3-month period, fresh EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n = 260) and cats (n = 110) were analyzed on the LaserCyte, ForCyte, MS45, Heska CBC, Scil Vet ABC, VetScan HMT, QBC Vet Autoread, CELL-DYN 3500, and ADVIA 120 analyzers. Results were compared by regression correlation (linear, Deming, Passing-Bablok) and Bland-Altman bias plots using the ADVIA as the criterion standard for all analytes except HCT, which was compared with manual PCV Precision, linearity, and carryover also were evaluated. Results For most analytes, the in-clinic analyzers and the CELL-DYN performed similarly and correlated well with the ADVIA. The biases ranged from ?0.6 to 2.4 × 109/L for WBC count, 0 to 0.9 × 1012/L for RBC count, ? 1.5 to 0.7g/dL for hemoglobin concentration, ?4.3 to 8.3 fL for MCV, and ?69.3 to 77.2 × 109/L for platelet count. Compared with PCV, the HCT on most analyzers had a bias from 0.1% to 7.2%. Canine reticulocyte counts on the LaserCyte and ForCyte correlated but had a negative bias compared with those on the ADVIA. Precision, linearity, and carryover results were excellent for most analyzers. Conclusions Total WBC and RBC counts were acceptable on all in-clinic hematology instruments studied, with limitations for some RBC parameters and platelet counts. Together with evaluation of a blood film, these in-clinic instruments can provide useful information on canine and feline patients in veterinary practices.

Becker, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Giger, Urs

2009-01-01

168

White blood-cell count and the risk of impaired fasting glucose or Type II diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   To investigate the association between white blood-cell (WBC) count and the development of diabetes, independent of cigarette\\u000a smoking. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   We examined 2953 Japanese men who were office workers and between 35 and 59 years of age and who did not have impaired fasting\\u000a glucose (IFG) (a fasting glucose concentration of 6.1–6.9 mmol\\/l), Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (a

N. Nakanishi; H. Yoshida; Y. Matsuo; K. Suzuki; K. Tatara

2002-01-01

169

CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects.  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationships among CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. After 2 days of incubation, propidium iodide DNA staining and flow cytometry revealed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with the lowest CD4+-cell numbers (0 to 99/microl; n = 20) showed the highest frequency of apoptosis: 22.4% +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard error) versus 13.8% +/- 1.2% and 12.7% +/- 1.4% among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with 100 to 499 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 19) and >500 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 17), respectively. Each of these means differed significantly from the mean frequency of apoptosis (6.3% +/- 0.7%) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-seronegative controls (P < 0.001, Student's t test). After incubation, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing Fas antigen was increased for the HIV-1-infected subjects, and this was most evident for patients with more advanced disease. Among patients with fewer than 100 CD4+ cells/microl, 64.4% +/- 5.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were Fas+, as opposed to 25.8% +/- 3.0% and 14.5% +/- 1.7% Fas+ cells among patients with more than 100 CD4+ cells/microl and healthy controls, respectively (P < 0.05 for each group comparison). Interestingly, in all populations, most apoptotic cells did not express Fas. Thus, apoptosis and Fas expression are increased in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-infected patients and these phenomena are enhanced as disease progresses.

Patki, A H; Georges, D L; Lederman, M M

1997-01-01

170

Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as unique extramedullar involvement in a patient with normal peripheral blood lymphocyte count (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis).  

PubMed

Skin infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very rare and almost all reported cases occur in advanced stage. We report a patient with no relevant past medical history who presented with cutaneous erythematous plaques. A punch biopsy showed typical CLL morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Subsequent studies revealed a normal lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, and there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Flow cytometry demonstrated a clonal B-cell population both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (1.60 × 10(9)/l) with a CLL phenotype, but it did not fulfill required criteria for CLL diagnosis. Without cutaneous involvement, this case should be classified as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. PMID:23639136

Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Fuente, María-José; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández-Figueras, Maria-Teresa; Juncà, Jordi; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ariza, Aurelio

2013-08-01

171

A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C. [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

1996-08-09

172

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

173

An anatomical study of the full-length phrenic nerve and its blood supply: clinical implications for endoscopic dissection.  

PubMed

For surgeries aimed at the dissection of full-length phrenic nerve, a full appreciation of its trajectory, blood supply and correlation with adjacent anatomical structures is necessary, especially for endoscopic manipulations. A fresh cadaver study was conducted with the purpose of avoiding surgical complications and ensuring further efficacy and efficiency of endoscopic manipulations. Ten fresh adult cadavers were dissected. Special attention was paid to the topography of the origin, the trajectory of the phrenic nerve, and its anatomic communication with the surrounding vessels and organs. In the second side of the cadavers, thoracic endoscopic manipulations and observations were also performed. The full length of the phrenic nerve was 24.6 ± 1.7 and 30.6 ± 1.8 cm on the right and left side, respectively; the blood supply of the phrenic nerve in the thoracic cavity came exclusively from the pericardiacophrenic artery; the distance between the origin of the pericardiacophrenic artery and that of the internal thoracic artery ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm on the right side, and from 1.4 to 5.6 cm on the left; most of the pericardiacophrenic veins intermingled with small vessels of pericardium and pleura, forming a venous network and joining the innominate vein. Endoscopic dissection of the thoracic phrenic nerve together with the accompanying pericardiacophrenic artery can be performed. Extreme attention should be paid during surgery to a section of about 6 cm in length of the artery originating from the internal thoracic artery, while the accompanying veins do not require to be spared. PMID:21993978

Jiang, Su; Xu, Wen-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong

2011-12-01

174

Analysis of cytotoxicity and invasiveness of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) isolated from drinking water on blood media.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria are naturally present in all aqueous environments. These bacteria undergo multiplication cycles in drinking water, especially in closed containers (bottled water) or in tap water when chlorine levels are dissipated, such as in dead ends in water mains or household plumbing. A study was undertaken to estimate health risk from these naturally occurring bacteria by the determination of cytotoxicity and invasiveness in a human enterocyte cell line. HPC bacteria were isolated from bottled and tap water samples by enumerating them under physical and chemical conditions analogous to human physiology. All HPC bacteria were examined at both log and lag phase of their growth cycles. Bacterial broth supernatant fluids were also tested to serve as critical negative controls. Naturally occurring HPC bacteria demonstrated low invasiveness and cytotoxicity with more than 95% of isolates showing equivalency to broth supernatant fluid. When showing either invasiveness or cytotoxicity, only a small number of cells from the culture were positive. Of those that were positive, log phase HPC bacteria were significantly more cytotoxic and invasive than those from stationary phase. Bacterial broth controls demonstrated varied, but often marked, cytotoxicity. PMID:9134720

Edberg, S C; Kops, S; Kontnick, C; Escarzaga, M

1997-04-01

175

Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients.

Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen

2014-01-01

176

Single cell impedance cytometry for identification and counting of CD4 T-cells in human blood using impedance labels.  

PubMed

Single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry has been used to identify cells at high speed, on the basis of their dielectric properties. However, there is no electrical analogue to a fluorescent label, meaning that it is not possible to identify subpopulations of cells. We demonstrate discrimination and enumeration of antigenically defined cell subpopulations using an alternating current (AC) impedance labeling method. Small antibody conjugated beads are mixed with cells and bind to the target population, changing the electrical properties of the target subset of cells. The principle of the technique is demonstrated by identifying and enumerating the CD4 T-lymphocyte subpopulation in human whole blood. The technique represents a simple method for detecting a subpopulation of cells within a heterogeneous mix. The impedance-based antibody identification method could form the basis of simple low-cost point of care diagnostic technologies. PMID:20104894

Holmes, David; Morgan, Hywel

2010-02-15

177

Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Popwell, Ms.

2010-09-20

178

Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

179

Reduced birth weight in relation to pesticide mixtures detected in cord blood of full-term infants  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to pesticides may be associated with decreased fetal growth. The specific pesticides investigated and results reported across studies have been inconsistent, and there is a mounting need for the consideration of mixtures rather than individual agents in studies of health outcomes in relation to environmental exposures. There are also many individual pesticides that have not been investigated in human health studies to date. We conducted a pilot study in rural Zhejiang province, China, measuring 20 non-persistent pesticides (10 insecticides, 6 herbicides, 3 fungicides, and 1 repellant) in umbilical cord blood of 112 full term (>37 weeks) infants. The pesticides detected with the greatest frequency were diethyltoluamide (DEET) (73%), a repellant, and vinclozolin (49%), a fungicide. The samples had detectable concentrations for a mean of 4.6 pesticides (SD=1.9) with a maximum of 10. Adjusting for potential confounders, newborn birth weight was inversely associated with the number of pesticides detected in cord blood (p = 0.04); birth weight decreased by a mean of 37.1 grams (95% CI, ?72.5 to ?1.8) for each detected pesticide. When assessing relationships by pesticide type, detection of fungicides was also associated with decreased birth weight (adjusted ? = ?116 grams [95% CI, ?212 to ?19.2]). For individual pesticides analyzed as dichotomous (detect vs. non-detect) variables, only vinclozolin (adjusted ? = ?174 grams [95% CI, ?312 to ?36.3] and acetochlor (adjusted ? = ?165 grams [95% CI, ?325 to ?5.7]) were significantly associated with reduced birth weight. No significant associations were seen between birth weight and individual pesticides assessed as continuous or 3-level ordinal variables. Our findings from this pilot investigation suggest that exposure to fungicides may adversely impact fetal growth. Exposure to mixtures of multiple pesticides is also of concern and should be explored in addition to individual pesticides. Additional research is needed to establish causality and to understand the function and impact of fungicides and pesticide mixtures on fetal development.

Wickerham, Erin L.; Lozoff, Betsy; Shao, Jie; Kaciroti, Niko; Xia, Yankai; Meeker, John D.

2012-01-01

180

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2010-01-01

181

National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2-24 months in the PCV-7 era  

PubMed Central

Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced.

Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline

2013-01-01

182

Improvement of the Eakins and Brown Method for Measuring 59Fe and 55Fe in Blood and Other Iron-Containing Materials by Liquid Scintillation Counting and Sample Preparation Using Microwave Digestion and Ion-Exchange Column Purification of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous measurement of59Fe and55Fe in whole blood by liquid scintillation counting by the Eakins and Brown (EB) method is extensively used in iron absorption studies. The EB method requires many steps which increase the chances of error and decrease its sensitivity. We describe two modifications to the above method consisting of microwave digestion and column purification of iron. This

Fernando E. Viteri; Bettina A. Kohaut

1997-01-01

183

The measurement of red blood cell volume change induced by Ca2+ based on full field quantitative phase microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the measurement of red blood cell (RBC) volume change induced by Ca2+ for a live cell imaging with full field quantitative phase microscopy (FFQPM). FFQPM is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer combined with an inverted microscopy system. We present the effective method to obtain a clear image and an accurate volume of the cells. An edge detection technique is used to accurately resolve the boundary between the cell line and the suspension medium. The measurement of the polystyrene bead diameter and volume has been demonstrated the validity of our proposed method. The measured phase profile can be easily converted into thickness profile. The measured polystyrene bead volume and the simulated result are about 14.74 ?m3 and 14.14 ?m3, respectively. The experimental results of our proposed method agree well with the simulated results within less than 4 %. We have also measured the volume variation of a single RBC on a millisecond time scale. Its mean volume is 54.02 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.52 ?m3. With the proposed system, the shape and volume changes of RBC induced by the increased intracellular Ca2+ are measured after adding ionophore A23187. A discocyte RBC is deformed to a spherocyte due to the increased intracellular Ca2+ in RBC. The volume of the spherocyte is 47.88 ?m3 and its standard deviation is 0.19 ?m3. We have demonstrated that the volume measurement technique is easy, accurate, and robust method with high volume sensitivity (<0.0000452 ?m3) and this provides the ability to study a biological phenomenon in Hematology.

Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Ji Yong; Yang, Wenzhong; Kim, Dug Young

2009-02-01

184

Nucleated red blood cell counts: An early predictor of brain injury and 2-year outcome in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the era of cooling-based treatment.  

PubMed

Background: Raised nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in neonates may indicate in utero hypoxia and brain damage. Objective: The study aimed to examine the use of NRBC counts as a predictor of brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated under current cooling-based strategy. Methods: Forty-three neonates with asphyxia between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively investigated. Twenty neonates with moderate/severe HIE underwent hypothermia (HT), and 23 with mild HIE were treated in normothermia (NT). Neonates were divided into groups according to the presence of cerebral parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2weeks after birth. All patients were followed-up neurologically for ?24months. NRBC counts during the first 3days were compared between groups. Results: Eleven HT (HT-N) and 21 NT (NT-N) neonates had normal MRI, and 9 HT (HT-L) and 2 NT (NT-L) neonates had parenchymal lesions. NRBC counts, both absolute and /100 white blood cells (WBC) counts, during the first 3days in HT-L and NT-L were significantly higher than those in HT-N and NT-N, particularly within 6hours after birth (HT-N: 502 [0-3060]/mm(3) vs HT-L: 2765 [496-6192]; 0 [0-3417] vs NT-L: 4384 [3978-4789], median [range]). Neonates with /100 white blood cells ?6/mm(3) and absolute NRBC counts ?1324/mm(3) within 6hours of birth had high risks of abnormal MRIs and 2-year outcomes. Conclusions: NRBC counts can predict brain injury and neurological outcomes in cooled and non-cooled asphyxiated neonates. PMID:23860386

Li, Jingang; Kobata, Keisuke; Kamei, Yoshiya; Okazaki, Yoko; Nishihara, Masato; Wada, Hiroshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Funato, Masahisa; Jenkin, Graham

2014-06-01

185

Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young

2013-01-01

186

Blood Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... may cause some short-term discomfort. Most people don't have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells ...

187

An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.  

PubMed

Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34? stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34? stem cell count (PBCD34) ?8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34? targets in ?3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34? target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies. PMID:23426644

Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J

2013-08-01

188

Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p?=?1.5*10?18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2?=?83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p?=?1.5*10?4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p?=?0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p?=?0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p?=?7.7*10?13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p?=?7.7*10?5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

2010-01-01

189

Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.  

PubMed

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

2011-12-01

190

Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.

Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colon, Lisandra; Sepulveda Garcia, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramon; Cuyar Bermudez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Baez, Fernando; Vazquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

2011-01-01

191

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

Thorsen

2012-11-24

192

Effects of 6 times daily milking during early versus full lactation of Holstein cows on milk production and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different milking frequencies on entire lactation production performance in Holstein cows. One hundred twenty Holstein cows were assigned to 3 milking treatments (35 multiparous and 5 primiparous cows in each): 1) milking 6 times daily for the entire lactation (6x); 2) milking 6 times daily for the first 90 d in milk (DIM) and switching to 3 times daily milking afterward (6x-3x); and 3) milking 3 times daily for the entire lactation (3x). Milk yield was recorded every other day during the first 60 DIM and on 2 consecutive days per week subsequently. Cows were weighed and scored for their body condition immediately after parturition and monthly afterward. Blood and milk samples were taken from each cow on 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 210, and 270 DIM, with an additional blood sampling on 15 DIM. Milk and fat corrected milk yield was greater for 6x and 6x-3x cows than for 3x cows (36.82, 37.32, and 36.1, 36.75 versus 34.56, 35.33 kg/d, respectively) during the experimental period. Milk fat and lactose percentage were not different among treatments, but milk protein was lower in 6x cows than in 6x-3x and 3x cows. Blood glucose concentration was higher and blood nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration were lower in 3x cows than in 6x and 6x-3x cows during early lactation. Dry matter intake was greater in 6x cows than in 6x-3x and 3x cows (23.05, 22.58, and 22.45 kg/d, respectively). The 3x cows began to gain weight earlier than the 6x and 6x-3x cows, but there was no difference among groups for BW change regarding the entire experimental period. These results indicate that increasing milking frequency to 6 times daily increases milk yield only during early lactation and that there are no advantages of milking 6 times daily compared with 3 times daily during the mid and late lactation periods. Given the results of this study and the economical aspects of production, milking 6 times daily until 90 DIM and subsequently switching to milking 3 times daily is preferred. PMID:20723679

Eslamizad, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M

2010-09-01

193

Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Mcduffee, Ms.

2008-11-12

194

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

195

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

... measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... of bleeding is much higher. Even every day activities can cause this bleeding. You need to know ...

196

Cerenkov counting.  

PubMed

When auditing research laboratories, health physics personnel are often alarmed to find liquid scintillation vials that only contain filters and no cocktail. They are then surprised when lab personnel state that they don't need cocktail to count their samples. While not frequently used by the health physicist, counting of samples by using Cerenkov radiation is valid and advantageous when correctly used. PMID:11045514

BenZikri, A

2000-11-01

197

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

198

Peripheral blood leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in tularemia caused by the type B strain of francisella tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behavior of leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in tularemia caused by Type B ofFrancisella tularensis was analyzed in different clinical forms and severities of disease in 101 adult tularemia patients. The mean leukocyte count was 8.3×109\\/l and the leukocyte differential count was also usually normal. The behavior of leukocytes was similar in different clinical

H. Syrjälä

1986-01-01

199

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

200

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

201

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

202

Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the sequence. Have the students start counting around the circle one by one until the last number in the sequence is reached. When the last number is reached all students clap and that student is out and sits down on the floor in the middle of the circle. Start the counting sequence over again until another student reaches the number at the end of the sequence; everyone claps and that student sits in the center with the first student. Continue repeating the sequence until only one child is left standing and the rest are seated in the center of the circle. For example: for the counting sequence 1-10: the first student says "one," the next student says "two" and so on until the 10th students gets to "ten" at this point everyone claps and the tenth child sits in the center of the circle. The eleventh student starts over with "one" and so on.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

203

Genetic and Functional Analysis of Full-Length Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Genes Derived from Brain and Blood of Patients with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain is distinct from that in lymphoid tissues, indicating tissue-specific compartmentalization of the virus. Few primary HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from uncultured brain tissues have been biologically well characterized. In this study, we analyzed 37 full-length env genes from uncultured brain biopsy and blood samples from four patients

Asa Ohagen; Amy Devitt; Kevin J. Kunstman; Paul R. Gorry; Patrick P. Rose; Bette Korber; Joann Taylor; Robert Levy; Robert L. Murphy; Steven M. Wolinsky; Dana Gabuzda

2003-01-01

204

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

205

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

206

The Picture of Inflammation: A New Concept That Combines the White Blood Cell Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate into a New Hematologic Diagnostic Modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians who work in small clinics, far away from medical centers, cannot obtain relevant information regarding the acute phase response at low cost and real time. Methods: We adopted a simple slide test and image analysis to determine the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, their degree of adhesiveness\\/aggregation as well as that of the red

Rivka Rotstein; Renato Fusman; David Zeltser; Itzhak Shapira; Esther Shabtai; Dani Avitzour; Nicole Sadees; David Levartovsky; Nadir Arber; Amiram Eldor; Shlomo Berliner

2001-01-01

207

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

208

Full-field laser Doppler blood-flow imaging and monitoring using an intelligent CMOS camera and area illumination (Invited Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus for parallel, full-field, laser Doppler perfusion imaging has been developed and applied for measurements of blood flow in human skin. This new imaging system allows obtaining 2D flow maps or to monitor flux signals from a plurality of separate predetermined points simultaneously with a 2D matrix of photodetectors. The uniform area illumination is achieved with a highly multimode optical fiber. The detection part of the system is based on an intelligent CMOS camera (iMVS-155) with a built-in digital signal processor. The imaging time of the system is 4 times quicker than for conventional scanning laser Doppler imager. The performance of the system was tested on artificial samples demonstrating linear response to the velocity up to 3 mm/sec. Also, the results of the measurements obtained with the new system on human skin are reported.

Serov, A.; Steinacher, B.; Lasser, T.

2005-06-01

209

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts and Their Associations With Circulating Interleukin6 Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory biomediator, and age-related increases in IL-6 levels are associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality in older adults. Although white blood cells (WBC), or leukocytes, are known to produce IL-6 in vitro, their in vivo relationship with circulating IL-6 levels is not well established. Methods. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Women's

Sean Leng; Qian-Li Xue; Yi Huang; Richard Semba; Paulo Chaves; Karen Bandeen-Roche; Linda Fried; Jeremy Walston

210

Effects of Daflon 500 mg* on haemoconcentration and alterations of white blood cell count elicited by the upright position in anaesthetized dogs.  

PubMed

In the passive upright position, arterial and venous pressures in the human feet increase capillary pressure which leads to the filtration of fluid from the circulating plasma into the tissues of the feet. Loss of fluid concentrates both red cells and plasma so that the haematrocrit and plasma protein concentration of venous blood leaving the feet greatly exceed their mean values in the circulation. To study this phenomenon in animals, we used Beagle dogs in upright position. In blood of saphenous vein, red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration have been studied. As in human (Moyses et al. Haemoconcentration and accumulation of white cells in the feet during venous stasis. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 1987;5:311-20) red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration increase in upright position. The increases in red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration were higher and levels were greater after 2 hours when compared to the corresponding values after 1 hour. Daflon 500 mg, a micronized purified flavonoidic fraction, (200 mg/kg-1 per os) administered 20 minutes before upright position, significantly reduced these increases. This model might be a suitable model to test drugs interfering with venous stasis. PMID:8919260

Delbarre, B; Delbarre, G; Pillion, G; Calinon, F

1995-09-01

211

Superiority of total white blood cell count over other leukocyte differentials for predicting long-term outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Leukocytes have been found to be the predictor of outcome following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: We sought to determine the relationship between leukocyte differentials and developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Materials and methods: A total of 490 consecutive patients were enrolled, and MACE incidence was evaluated at long-term follow-up period. Results: Total white blood cell (WBC) was higher in subjects occurring MACE. Moreover, elevated total WBC, ?7.5?×?10(3)/µL, independently predicted MACE. Discussion and conclusion: Elevated admission total WBC can predict long-term MACE in NSTE-ACS patients better than other differentials. PMID:24796431

Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Yousef; Taghipour-Sani, Leila

2014-08-01

212

Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.

2007-10-25

213

Biological Effects of Fast Neutrons. Mortality and Changes in Blood Cell Count of Mice after Complete Exposure to Fast Neutrons and X-Rays . Biologische Wirkung Schneller Neutronen. Mortalitaet und Veraenderungen im Blutbild von Maeusen Nach Ganskoerperbestrahlung MIT Schnellen Neutronen und Roentgenstrahlen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological effects of fast neutrons in the energy range 2 to 6 MeV were studied in mice and compared with the effects of X-rays. The total mortality after 30 days, the mortality patterns, and the changes in blood cell count were examined. After neutro...

F. J. Otto

1972-01-01

214

Functions and diseases of red and white blood cells.  

PubMed

Red and white blood cells have two main functions: the carriage of oxygen; and defence against microbial attack. The full blood count is one of the most frequently requested routine blood tests; it provides key indices such as haemoglobin and the number of white cell subsets, and provides information to aid diagnosis of a range of conditions, including anaemia, infection, leukaemia, myeloma and lymphoma. PMID:24683693

Blann, Andrew

215

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...

216

Capillary blood collection in haematology  

PubMed Central

A capillary blood collection technique which facilitates the estimation of routine haematological parameters, including platelet count and sedimentation rate, is described. The technique requires 0·5 ml of blood, allows closer reproducibility than pipette collection methods, is suitable for monitoring blood counts in patients receiving cytotoxic agents, and can be integrated with semi-and fully-automated production lines. Images

Stuart, J.; Barrett, B. A.; Prangnell, D. R.

1974-01-01

217

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

218

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

219

Relation between white blood cell count and final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the INFUSE AMI trial).  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) on presentation is associated with an increased risk of cardiac mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the responsible mechanisms are unknown. We therefore sought to investigate whether elevated WBCc is associated with increased infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Intracoronary Abciximab and Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients With Large Anterior Myocardial Infarction trial. INFUSE AMI randomized patients with STEMI and proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion to bolus intracoronary abciximab versus no abciximab and to manual aspiration versus no aspiration. WBCc at hospital admission was available in 407 of 452 randomized patients. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of WBCc. At 30 days, a significant stepwise increase in infarct size (percentage of total left ventricular mass) was apparent across tertiles of increasing WBCc (median [interquartile range] for tertiles I vs II vs III = 11.2% [3.8% to 19.6%] vs 17.5% [0.5% to 22.9%] vs 19.1% [13.7 to 26.0], respectively, p <0.0001). Absolute infarct mass in grams and abnormal wall motion score were also significantly increased across tertiles of WBC. By multivariate linear regression analysis, WBCc was an independent predictor of infarct size along with intracoronary abciximab randomization, age, time from symptom onset to first device, proximal left anterior descending location, and baseline TIMI flow of 0/1. In conclusion, in patients with anterior wall STEMI, an elevated admission WBCc is a powerful independent predictor of infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24063843

Palmerini, Tullio; Brener, Sorin J; Genereux, Philippe; Maehara, Akiko; Della Riva, Diego; Mariani, Andrea; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Godlewski, Jacek; Parise, Helen; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Ochala, Andrzej; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W

2013-12-15

220

The extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel in diabetes mellitus patients with acute coronary syndrome is not related to glycaemic control: roles of white blood cell count and body weight.  

PubMed

It was the study objective to determine whether glycaemic control affects the extent of platelet inhibition by thienopyridines as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the proportion of high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity is higher in DM, the contributions of glycaemic control and other factors associated with DM, such as excess body weight and inflammation, to this impaired platelet inhibition by thienopyridines have not yet been fully characterised. In this study, the extent of P2Y12 ADP receptor pathway inhibition was evaluated by the VASP-FCT. Platelet activation was expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel (LR) was defined as a PRI of >61%. Four hundred forty-five consecutive ACS patients (DM = 160, NDM = 285) were enrolled. The proportion of LR was higher in DM patients (50 vs. 37.5%). In DM, PRI was not correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or glycaemia. In a univariate analysis, LR was associated with age, male sex, overweight, and white blood cell count (WBC). In a multivariate analysis, WBC >10,000 and body weight >80 kg were the sole independent predictors of LR to clopidogrel (hazard ratio (HR) 3.02 [1.36-6.68], p=0.006 and HR 2.47 [1.14-5.35], p = 0.021, respectively). Conversely, in non-DM patients, ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the sole independent predictor of LR. In conclusion, in ACS DM patients undergoing PCI, the extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel is not related to glycaemic control but is related to body weight and inflammatory status as assessed by the WBC. PMID:22740070

Morel, Olivier; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Hess, Sebastien; Reydel, Antje; Crimizade, Ulun; Jesel, Laurence; Radulescu, Bogdan; Wiesel, Marie L; Gachet, Christian; Ohlmann, Patrick

2012-08-01

221

Counting statistics in multistable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a microscopic model for stochastic transport through a single quantum dot that is modified by the Coulomb interaction of environmental (weakly coupled) quantum dots, we derive generic properties of the full counting statistics for multistable Markovian transport systems. We study the temporal crossover from multimodal to broad unimodal distributions depending on the initial mixture, the long-term asymptotics and the divergence of the cumulants in the limit of a large number of transport branches. Our findings demonstrate that the counting statistics of a single resonant level may be used to probe background charge configurations.

Schaller, Gernot; Kießlich, Gerold; Brandes, Tobias

2010-05-01

222

Comparable kinetics of myeloablation between fludarabine\\/full-dose busulfan and fludarabine\\/melphalan conditioning regimens in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fludarabine was utilized in the conditioning regimen of 30 adult patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In 18 patients it was combined with full-dose busulfan (FluBu) as a myeloablative regimen and in 12 cases with melphalan (FluMel) as a reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. Patients in the FluBu group were younger than in the FluMel group (P=0.03). Of

S Chunduri; L C Dobogai; D Peace; Y Saunthararajah; H Y Chen; N Mahmud; J Quigley; R Hoffman; E Jessop; R Beri; D Rondelli

2006-01-01

223

Full Counting Statistics for Brownian Sieves and Brownian Molecular Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Brownian sieve is a spatially periodic microstructured device that combines the effects of thermal noise, local spatial asymmetry, and external forces to separate particles based on their transport properties. By treating the motion of an individual particle as a cyclical process in which the particle fluctuates away from and returns to the origin of some unit cell I derive generalized fluctuation-dissipation and reciprocal relations for the averages (and for all moments) of the number of periodic displacements that are exact and valid for arbitrary values of the external forces. These relations hold not only for Brownian sieves, but for all molecular machines in which a nanoscale system couples two chemical, mechanical, or transport processes by a cycle in which the molecular machine itself fluctuates away from, and then returns to some arbitrary reference state, in the process doing or receiving work on or from the environment.

Astumian, R. Dean

2009-03-01

224

A Spoken Word Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This word count is a composite listing of the different words spoken by a selected sample of 54 English-speaking adults and the frequency with which each of the different words was used in a particular test. The stimulus situation was identical for each subject and consisted of 20 cards of the Thematic Apperception Test. Although most word counts…

Jones, Lyle V.; Wepman, Joseph M.

225

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

226

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Christian, Mrs.

2007-03-21

227

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

University, Cornell

228

Lakota Winter Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different human societies across the millennia have sought to record their histories in a multitude of ways, and the Lakota people of the Northern Plains elected to record their experiences through what are known as winter counts. These winter counts are essentially histories or calendars in which events are recorded by pictures, with one picture for each year. These rather fascinating documents were used in conjunction with extensive oral histories, and as such, most of these events were widely known and recognized by a majority of the Lakota. This particular website from the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History allows visitors to view these winter counts, learn more about the Lakota, and view interviews with contemporary Lakota people about the winter counts. The site also contains an audio glossary and a number of helpful resources for educators.

229

Reticulocyte Count Test  

MedlinePLUS

... reticulocyte count is performed with an automated instrument (hematology analyzer) and can be done simultaneously with a ... Neoplasms Elsewhere On The Web American Society of Hematology: Anemia Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation FamilyDoctor.org: ...

230

Counting Knights and Knaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

2013-01-01

231

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

Chapman, Frank

232

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, J.E.

1985-03-05

233

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

234

Preparation of blood-deficient model and research of angelica polysaccharide on enriching blood in chickens.  

PubMed

In this study cyclophosphamide was used to prepare the blood-deficient model. The red blood cell count and hemoglobin content were measured. The experimental chickens presented the symptoms of blood-deficient syndrome, dullness, shrinkinginto oneself, broken winded, loose feather, waxy eyelid, and pale tongue. At the same time, red blood cell count and hemoglobin content decreased significantly. Angelica polysaccharide as the effective component of Angelica Sinensis could significantly increase the red blood cell count and the hemoglobin content of blood-deficient chickens. The results indicated that cyclophosphamide could significantly reduce the red blood count and hemoglobin content, and make the ideal blood-deficient model successfully. Angelica polysaccharide had the function of enriching blood in different ways. On the one hand Angelica polysaccharide enriched he blood directly, increased the number of RBC and hemoglobin; on the other hand it regulated the hematopoietic factors, enriched the blood indirectly. PMID:22675393

Hou, Haifeng; Bao, Yongzhan; Li, Qian; Shi, Wanyu

2012-01-01

235

WY Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

236

Fraction Counting Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

2012-12-17

237

Hematologic, Blood Electrolyte and Blood Biochemical Values of Egyptian Domesticated Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin estimations, packed cell volumes, and total and differential leukocyte counts were made on blood samples from 50 donkeys, 50 mules, 50 camels and 50 cattle from Cairo. These same samples were assayed for serum glutamic pyruv...

B. A. M. Bostros A. Y. Awad A. R. Kozman P. K. Hildebrandt R. R. Maronpot

1970-01-01

238

Reticulocyte counting in thalassemic and other conditions with the R-1000 Sysmex analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Precise reticulocyte counts are difficult to obtain by the manual method when their percentage in the blood is low or normal. In these instances, rapid reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry appears to offer more accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to establish reticulocyte counts in heterozygous ß-thalassemia for reference purposes and to evaluate the performance of

G. S. Paterakis; E. Voskaridou; A. Loutradi; J. Rombos; D. Loukopoulos

1991-01-01

239

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2009-04-01

240

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2010-04-01

241

Cluster of differentiation 4+ cell count mean value, reference range and its influencing factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seronegative pregnant women in Lagos  

PubMed Central

Background: Immunity in pregnancy is physiologically compromised and this may affect cluster of differentiation four (CD4) count levels. It is well established that several factors affect CD4 count level in pregnancy. This study aims to determine the effects of maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education as they influence CD4 count in pregnancy and also to determine the mean and reference range of CD4 count in pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Ante-natal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. About 5 mls of blood was collected into Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid (EDTA) bottles from HIV-negative pregnant women in various gestational ages of pregnancy. CD4+ cell count and full blood count of all samples were done within 3 hours of collection. The descriptive data was given as means ± standard deviation (SD). Pearson's chi-squared test and correlation were used for analytical assessment. Results: A total of 74 pregnant women were recruited. The age range was 19–41 years and a mean age of 30.42 ± 5.34 years. The CD4+ cell count was not statistically significant when compared with participants ages P = 0.417, neither with gestational ages P = 0.323, nor with parity P = 0.247 nor level of education P = 0.96. An overall mean CD4+ cell count was 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l and the range was 193–1370 cells/?l. Conclusion: Maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education had no significant effects on CD4+ cell count levels in pregnancy. The mean CD4+ cell count of HIV-negative pregnant women in Lagos is 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l.

Akinbami, A. A.; Dosunmu, A. O.; Adediran, A.; Adewunmi, A. A.; Rabiu, K. A.; Osunkalu, V.; Ajibola, S.; Uche, E. I.; Adelekan, A.

2014-01-01

242

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

... drawn are slight: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling light-headed Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Multiple punctures to locate veins This test is often performed on people with ...

243

Count Models in Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Crime can be measured in many metrics, including occurrence (yes\\/no), seriousness (e.g., felony\\/misdemeanor), and frequency\\u000a or rate. Frequency can be considered in two analogous ways – how soon until an occurrence (the rate) or how many occurrences\\u000a per unit such as weeks, months, or years (counts). We can also look at frequency with respect to other units such as population

John M. MacDonald; Pamela K. Lattimore

244

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

245

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Goulder, Nicky; Lodge, Samantha

2013-01-01

246

Blast counts in blood progenitor cell (BPC) collections correlate with CD34+ cells and CFU-GM and are a useful predictor of haemopoietic recovery after autologous BPC transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the quality of blood progenitor cell (BPC) collections is based mainly on CD34+ cell enumeration by flow cytometry, or scoring of granulocyte–macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM). A minimum cell dose for haemopoietic recovery can be defined by both assays; however, the CFU-GM assay can not be used for ‘real-time’ decisions, whereas CD34+ cell scoring requires facilities and expertise which

A Mijovic; K Fishlock; A Pagliuca; GJ Mufti

1998-01-01

247

Blood conservation techniques: where to begin.  

PubMed

Blood conservation techniques are used to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. One of the most important blood conservation techniques is the optimization of blood counts prior to invasive procedures with anticipated blood loss. Infusion nurses need to understand the importance of treating patients who require the use of parenteral iron to attempt to optimize their blood counts before procedures. Infusion nurses provide a vital link to patient safety and treatment. This article will also discuss other methods of blood conservation frequently used to protect a scarce resource and reduce inappropriate transfusions. PMID:24006113

Stover, John C; Broomer, Bob W

2013-01-01

248

Intentional Control of Event Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event counting depends on simple, well-learned knowledge but is effortful and error-prone. In 6 experiments, the authors examined event-counting performance, testing a model that suggests that counting is controlled by minimal goal representations coordinated with perceptual events by temporal synchrony. In Experiment 1, they examined self-paced counting with or without delays that disrupted participants' preferred pacing. In subsequent experiments, participants

Richard A. Carlson; Daniel N. Cassenti

2004-01-01

249

Counting supersymmetric branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for ? ? 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.

Kleinschmidt, Axel

2011-10-01

250

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Hartman, Jayne

2012-07-23

251

Photon counting and Laguerre detection.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

Gagliardi, R. M.

1972-01-01

252

Elevated blood pressure among U.S. adults with diabetes, 1988–1994 1 1 The full text of this article is available via AJPM Online at http:\\/\\/www.elsevier.com\\/locate\\/ajpmonline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent guidelines and clinical trial results emphasize the importance of controlling blood pressure among people with diabetes. We estimated the prevalence of elevated blood pressure among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes, and examined the extent to which elevated blood pressure is being treated and controlled.Methods: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), a probability survey of the

Linda S Geiss; Deborah B Rolka; Michael M Engelgau

2002-01-01

253

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants.

Prochazka, Vit; Pytlik, Robert; Janikova, Andrea; Belada, David; Salek, David; Papajik, Tomas; Campr, Vit; Furst, Tomas; Furstova, Jana; Trneny, Marek

2014-01-01

254

Microfluidic lysis of human blood for leukocyte analysis using single cell impedance cytometry.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates an integrated microfluidic system that performs a full blood count using impedance analysis. A microfluidic network design for red blood cell (RBC) lysis is presented, and the diffusive mixing processes are analyzed using experimental and simulated results. Healthy and clinical bloods analyzed with this system, and the data shows good correlation against data obtained from commercial hematology machines. The data from the microfluidic system was compared against hospital data for 18 clinical samples, giving R(2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.99 for lymphocytes, 0.89 for monocytes, and 0.99 for granulocytes in terms of relative counts and 0.94 for lymphocytes, 0.91 for monocytes, and 0.95 for granulocytes in terms of absolute counts. This demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this new system for a point-of-care purpose. PMID:22148390

Han, Xiaojun; van Berkel, Cees; Gwyer, James; Capretto, Lorenzo; Morgan, Hywel

2012-01-17

255

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

256

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

257

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

258

Modal Logics with Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

259

Counting coalescent histories.  

PubMed

Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula. PMID:17563317

Rosenberg, Noah A

2007-04-01

260

Count Us In  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Online division, this interactive site contains age-appropriate and visually-appealing games designed to help young people understand basic number concepts. There are fifteen games in total, all of which may be downloaded for use in the classroom or at home, at no charge. Some of the games include activities that allow students to design patterns using objects contained with a bookshelf or the ever-popular sheep counting game, where participants must move sheep from left to right until there are the same number of sheep in each paddock. Additionally, there is a section that explains the purpose of each game, and a help feature within each game that helps users become acclimated to the goal of each activity. The site is rounded out by a selection of teacher resources designed to complement each game on the site.

261

K.CC Counting Mat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

262

Morphological Granulometric Features of Nucleus in Automatic Bone Marrow White Blood Cell Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of counts of different types of white blood cells in the bone marrow, called differential counts, provides invaluable information to doctors for diagnosis. Due to the tedious nature of the differential white blood cell counting process, an automatic system is preferable. In this paper, we investigate whether information about the nucleus alone is adequate to classify white blood

Nipon Theera-umpon; Sompong Dhompongsa

2007-01-01

263

Youth Count: Exploring How KIDS COUNT Grantees Address Youth Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by the 2004 Kids Count Databook essay, "Moving Youth From Risk to Opportunity," this new report highlights the history of data collection, challenges and innovative strategies of 12 Annie E. Casey Foundation KIDS COUNT grantees in their work to serve the needs of older youth. (Contains 3 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia; Gaines, Elizabeth; Ferber, Thaddeus; Yohalem, Nicole

2005-01-01

264

Changes in white blood cells in sheep blood during selenium supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of selenium supplementation on white blood cell parameters in the blood of ewes. The total white blood cell (WBC) and differentiation of leukocytes in blood smear were detected by a microscopic analysis, and the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets were detected by flow cytometry. A decrease in the count

L. Pisek; J. Travnicek; J. Salat; V. Kroupova; M. Soch

2008-01-01

265

Nucleated red blood cells in cord blood of singleton term neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish normal values for nucleated red blood cells in term singletons and factors associated with their elevation.STUDY DESIGN: Cord blood was prospectively collected from term singleton gestations from Feb. 1 to July 31, 1995. Umbilical vein white blood cells and nucleated red blood cells were counted and umbilical arterial pH was determined. Medical records provided

Kathleen M. Hanlon-Lundberg; Russell S. Kirby; Sweeta Gandhi; Fredrik F. Broekhuizen

1997-01-01

266

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

267

Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting principle.

2012-01-01

268

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ...

269

Whole blood viscosity issues VII: The correlation with leucocytosis and implication on leukapheresis  

PubMed Central

Background: Blood hyperviscosity has been acknowledged to be a complicating factor in polycythaemia and hyperproteinaemia. Hyperleucocytosis has also been implicated in hyperviscosity and may be a basis for therapeutic leukapheresis. Aims: This issue in the series seeks to determine the association and correlation between whole blood viscosity and white blood cell count (WBCC), with a view to advance the cause of a neglected clinical pathology index. Materials & Methods Based on archived clinical pathology data, 10,857 cases that were concomitantly tested for full blood count and total proteins in the 2008 calendar year were audited for hyperleucocytosis. Whole blood viscosity level was determined and compared in the group with leucocytosis relative to the group with leucopenia and normal WBCC. The confounding effects of age, gender and red blood cell indices were evaluated. The correlation between whole blood viscosity and WBCC was also determined. Results As a generalization, hypoviscosity is observed among individuals who presented hyperleucocytosis. There is no correlation (r = 0.20) between leucocytosis and blood viscosity. Conclusion : It is known that anaemia and thromboembolism, which can be associated with leucocytosis, predispose to hypoviscosity. The finding from this study provides evidence of association between hypoviscosity and leucocytosis. The absence of association and insignificant correlation between leucocytosis and hyperviscosity may be one explanation for ineffectiveness of therapeutic leukapheresis. Further, the non-correlation lends credence to specificity of blood viscosity, for which critical leucocytosis is not a substitute.

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

2010-01-01

270

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

271

Blood substitutes.  

PubMed

The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role. PMID:24819476

Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

2014-07-11

272

An optimal algorithm for counting network motifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs occurring at significantly higher frequencies in a given graph compared with random graphs of similar degree distribution. Recently, network motifs have attracted attention as a tool to study networks microscopic details. The commonly used algorithm for counting small-scale motifs is the one developed by Milo et al. This algorithm is extremely costly in CPU time and actually cannot work on large networks, consisting of more than 100,000 edges on current CPUs. We here present a new optimal algorithm, based on network decomposition for counting K-size network motifs with constant memory costs and a CPU cost linear with the number of counted motifs. Our algorithm performs better than previous full enumeration algorithms in terms of running time. Moreover, it uses a constant amount of memory. It also outperforms sampling algorithms. Our algorithm permits the counting of three and four motif for large networks that consists of more than 500,000 nodes and 5,000,000 links. For large networks, it performs more than a thousand times faster than current algorithms.

Itzhack, Royi; Mogilevski, Yelena; Louzoun, Yoram

2007-07-01

273

Aedes aegypti egg counting system.  

PubMed

New monitoring methods of dengue vector and evaluation of public policies on dengue control are major concerns for several tropical countries. Drawback on monitoring methods base on oviposition surveys are the counting process of mosquito eggs, information store and analysis. Here we present a new automated egg counting system for remote Aedes aegypti population survey. The system is base on an optical scanning platform, a man-machine interface, and a software for mosquitoes eggs counting. Acquired information are sent over the internet and remotely analyzed. Prototypes of the device were installed and implement in two different cities. PMID:22255902

da Silva, M G N M; Rodrigues, M A B; de Araujo, R E

2011-01-01

274

Generalized model for coincidence counting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the multiplicative processes associated with coincidence counting techniques, for example in the NDA of plutonium bearing materials. The model elucidates both the physical processes and the underlying m...

M. S. Lu T. Teichmann

1992-01-01

275

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

276

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

277

Semiparametric Model for Citation Counts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pattern of yearly citation counts of a scientific paper, which expresses in some way its importance, is modeled as a discrete time stochastic process with a conditional distribution dependent on a few parameters characterizing the particular scientifi...

A. P. Vanderplas

1988-01-01

278

The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) database  

PubMed Central

Background The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person’s state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. Methods and results The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Conclusion This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration.

Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Karlslund, Willy; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Felding, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

2014-01-01

279

Why People with Cancer Might Need Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... a large area of the bones, it can affect the bone marrow and lead to low blood cell counts. Bone marrow transplant (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) patients get large doses of ...

280

Counting on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on December 29, 2002, and authored by John B. Horrigan and Lee Rainie, this 17-page report was sponsored by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. The report draws on a recent sample of 2,000 Americans who were queried about their Internet usage, including what type of information they expected to be able to find online. Overall, 97 percent of all Internet users surveyed expected to be able to find online information about either government, health care, news, or commerce, which can be compared to the 64 percent of non-Internet users who thought they would be able to find similar information online. Interestingly enough, 86 percent of all senior citizens who used the Internet also felt they would be able to find this type of information, compared to the much lower 41 percent of non-Internet using senior citizens. The full report also contains an important section detailing the report's methodology.

Horrigan, John B.; Rainie, Lee.

2002-01-01

281

Donating Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

282

What's Blood?  

MedlinePLUS

... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

283

Sampling Site Matters When Counting Lymphocyte Subpopulations  

PubMed Central

Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre

2012-01-01

284

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

285

Photon Counting - One More Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

Stanton, Richard H.

2012-05-01

286

Photon counting threshold optimization in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of detection threshold on the performance of ideal photon counting sensors is investigated in mammography for several X-ray tube anode/filter combinations and various breast thicknesses. Based on linear X-ray system theory, a method is proposed to take into consideration detector contrast modulation in the domain of X-ray energy as well as effects related to scattered radiation. Breast screening procedures are modelled as radiographic tasks in which low-contrast objects (tumours or microcalcifications) have to be detected in a noisy image background. For ideal photon counting detectors, results at zero spatial frequency show that higher detection thresholds must be implemented when imaging a thick compressed breast, compared to a thin compressed breast. In practice, the photon counting threshold also affects the image noise and the spatial resolution of hybrid pixel detectors, by tuning the amount of charge-shared events. To be generalized to more realistic imaging situations, this analysis must be performed over the full range of spatial frequencies and include additional detector noise parameters.

Marchal, Julien; Hussein, Khalid; John, Lester R.; Vaughan, Christopher L.

2006-07-01

287

An accurate segmentation method for white blood cell images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part of our research work on an Automated Cell Count project is described. A major requirement for this project is an efficient method to segment cell images. This work presents an accurate segmentation method for an automatic count of white blood cells. First a simple thresholding approach is applied to give initial labels to pixels in the blood cell

Qingmin Liao; Yingying Deng

2002-01-01

288

Counting Lattice-Gas Invariants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized is a method to count the number of invariants in a lattice-gas automata. A simple calculation proves that a deterministic FHP lattice-gas with a definite chirality, possesses only three invariants: the total mass and the two components of momen...

J. Yepez

1993-01-01

289

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

290

KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

291

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

292

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

293

Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

294

Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

295

Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

Pride, R. A.

1980-01-01

296

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2000-01-01

297

[Validity of the AgNOR count in cervical pathology].  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on ten cases each of normal ectocervix, CIN 1, 2 and 3 to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the means of normal tissue toward condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1 and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p < 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations on the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise from one layer to the next, while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the pattern of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1465312

Leopardi, O; Colecchia, M; Colavecchio, A

1992-01-01

298

Impact of JAK2 V617F Mutation on Hemogram Variation in Patients with Non-Reactive Elevated Platelet Counts  

PubMed Central

Background Non-reactive platelet counts elevation occurs mainly in myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), which have been reported to be closely associated with JAK2 V617F mutation. Complete blood cell count (CBC) is essential in diagnosis of MPDs, however, the impact of JAK2 V617F mutation on the patients’ hemogram variation remains not clear. Methods JAK2 V617F mutation was detected by allele specific real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR (AS-qPCR). Results Of the 402 non-reactive platelet elevating patients, JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in 222 (55.2%) patients. RBC counts, WBC counts, platelet-large contrast ratio (P-LCR), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were much higher in JAK2 V617F mutated patients, except platelet counts. In addition, when the patients were classified into subgroups by blood cell counts, it was found that JAK2 V617F mutation rate increased progressively with the increase of RBC counts and WBC counts, other than platelet counts. Furthermore, trilineage hyperplasia group showed highest JAK2 V617F mutation rate (93.26%), followed by the bilineage hyperplasia groups. Lastly, JAK2 V617F mutant allele burden was found much higher in polycythemia vera (PV) patients [median(P25–P75): 45.02%(35.12%–54.22%)] than in essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients [median(P25–P75): 28.23%(17.77%–41.66%)], and that it increased with WBC counts (r?=?0.393, p?=?0.000) and RBC counts(r?=?0.215, p?=?0.001), other than platelet counts (r?=??0.051, p?=?0.452). Further analysis revealed that in ET patients, JAK2 V617F mutant allele burden correlated with WBC counts and platelet counts positively, other than RBC counts, while in PV patients, it correlated with WBC counts and RBC counts positively, but not platelet counts. Conclusions JAK2 V617F mutation occurs frequently in patients with non-reactive elevated platelet counts. The presence of JAK2 V617F mutation has great impact on hemogram variation, including RBC counts, WBC counts, platelet parameters and lineage hyperplasia, but not on platelet counts. Besides, JAK2 V617F mutant allele burden affects the blood cell proliferation pattern.

Zhou, Juan; Ye, Yuanxin; Zeng, Shugen; Zhou, Yi; Mao, Zhigang; Song, Xingbo; Ying, Binwu; Lu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Lanlan

2013-01-01

299

Blood Types  

MedlinePLUS

... can be reduced. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs ... Plasma White Blood Cells and Granulocytes Iron and Blood Donation Iron Info. for All Donors Iron Info. for ...

300

Blood transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... the general public. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate their ... make arrangements with your hospital or local blood bank before your sugary to have directed donor blood. ...

301

Microdetermination of Insect Blood Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS of estimating insect blood volume depend either on haemocyte counts before and after an injection of a measured volume of saline or on the dilution of amaranth dye by the haemolymph1. The latter method has been recommended for repeatable and consistent results with locusts2. Neither method, however, is likely to be practical for experiments with small insects, for example,

H. H. Shatoury

1966-01-01

302

Correlations between hematopoietic progenitor cell counts as measured by Sysmex and CD34+ cell harvest yields following mobilization with different regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The Sysmex SE-9000 cell counter provides an estimate of immature cells referred to as hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). HPC counts should correlate with CD34+ counts in mobilized peripheral blood and apheresis to allow optimization of apheresis timing. Methods. We correlated the HPC counts as measured in the immature information channel with CD34+ cell levels as determined by FACS (HPCA-2

W. Vogel; H. Kopp; L. Kanz; H. Einsele

2002-01-01

303

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

304

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

PubMed Central

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

305

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

J. G. Timothy

1988-01-01

306

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

Timothy, J. G.

307

Electron counting in quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of

S. Gustavsson; R. Leturcq; M. Studer; I. Shorubalko; T. Ihn; K. Ensslin; D. C. Driscoll; A. C. Gossard

2009-01-01

308

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

309

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

310

Blood cell diagnostics by a chip lensless microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the digital inline holographic microscopy for blood cell counting. The microscope unit contains a pinhole chip for illumination, a micro-fluidic chip, and a CMOS-chip for detection. The design is adapted and tested for blood cell diagnostics. A single hologram delivers a stack of images for all z-positions in the micro-fluidic channel and is the basic for counting of flowing cells. Images of flowing red blood cells are presented providing clinical diagnostics.

Riesenberg, R.; Kanka, M.; Mayer, G.

2014-02-01

311

Effects of isotretinoin on the platelet counts and the mean platelet volume in patients with acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the platelet counts and the mean platelet volume in patients who received isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Method. A total of 110 patients were included in this retrospective study. Complete blood count parameters were recorded prior to and three-months following the treatment. Results. Both platelet counts and the mean platelet volume were significantly decreased following the treatment. No significant differences were noted on the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count. Conclusion. Platelet counts and mean platelet volume significantly decreased following isotretinoin treatment. Since the decrease of platelet counts and the mean platelet volume was seen concomitantly, it is concluded that the effect of isotretinoin was through the suppression of bone marrow. PMID:24605049

Ataseven, Arzu; Ugur Bilgin, Aynur

2014-01-01

312

Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509

Bolat, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan

2013-11-01

313

[Concentrated red blood cells transfusion in Yaoundé, Cameroon: what quality?].  

PubMed

As part of a quality assurance process in the transfusion service of a hospital blood bank of Yaoundé, Cameroon, a selection of units of red cell concentrates (RCC) were evaluated for volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit levels as well as blood cell content. Blood samples were all collected into standard double blood bags containing an anticoagulant, citrate-phosphate-dextrose and adenine. During a three-month period, 35 bags intended for the preparation of the RCC were analysed. After relevant screening for transfusion transmissible infections ,and ABO and rhesus (RH1) blood grouping, the bags were centrifuged to obtain RCC. The resultant red cell bags were weighed and the volumes estimated. Full blood counts were performed on samples of the RCC using an electronic particle counter (DIANA 5, HYCEL Diagnostics, Reims, France). The results obtained showed that, based on ISO 9001: 2000 norms, there were 57, 66 and 80% of RCC respectively with volumes, hemoglobin levels as well as hematocrit that were in conformity with the norms. When the data was analysed based on the Algerian norms, 83, 66 and 95% respectively conformed. The significance of these findings and the need for establishing local norms for quality assurance in our community are discussed. PMID:18295526

Mbanya, D; Nouthe, B; Tayou Tagny, C; Moudourou, S; Ngogang, J

2007-11-01

314

7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007. FSA shall determine the number of eligible persons...

2009-01-01

315

7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007. FSA shall determine the number of eligible persons...

2010-01-01

316

Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

2014-03-01

317

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

318

Haematological and blood chemical values from Bothrops ammodytoides (ophidia-crotalidae) in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish reference haematological and blood chemistry parameters, blood samples were obtained from 50 healthy\\u000a specimens ofBothrops ammodytoides kept in captivity. The haematological parameters determined were: red blood cell count (RBC); total leucocyte (WBC) and differential\\u000a leucocyte cell count; thrombocyte count; haematocrit (PCV); haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. F. Gould; G. Malinskas; J. Gould; M. Scaglione; L. Scaglione; J. J. Heker; C. Simoncini; H. Dinápoli

1999-01-01

319

SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

320

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

321

Cyclic reference counting by typed reference fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting strategy is a natural choice for real-time garbage collection, but the cycle collection phase which is required to ensure the correctness for reference counting algorithms can introduce heavy scanning overheads. This degrades the efficiency and inflates the pause time required for garbage collection. In this paper, we present two schemes to improve the efficiency of reference counting algorithms.

J. Morris Chang; Wei-Mei Chen; Paul A. Griffin; Ho-Yuan Cheng

322

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

323

A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.  

PubMed

The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

1980-08-01

324

Full-Text Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on full-text databases provides information on search strategy, performance measurement, and the benefits and limitations of full text compared to bibliographic database searching. Various use studies and uses of full-text databases are also listed. (21 references) (LAE)

Siddiqui, Moid A.

1991-01-01

325

A fast segmentation scheme for white blood cell images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a fast segmentation scheme for automatic differential counting of white blood cells. The segmentation procedure consists of three phases. First a novel simple algorithm is proposed for localization of white blood cells. The algorithm is based on a priori information about blood smear images. In the second phase the different cell components are separated with automatic thresholding. The thresholds

Istvh Cseke

1992-01-01

326

Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk  

PubMed Central

Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented.

Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

1982-01-01

327

Are routine pre-operative blood tests required in children undergoing primary cleft lip and/or palate repair?  

PubMed

Primary surgical repair of cleft lip and/or palate is performed before 9 months of age, often representing the first surgical intervention these children encounter. Obtaining pre-operative blood tests in young children often produces much anxiety for all involved. We reviewed the electronic data of 282 children over a five-year period undergoing primary cleft repairs to determine the value of pre-operative full blood count, and transfusion requirements. Of these, three children required post-operative blood transfusion. In two cases concurrent illness contributed to transfusion requirement. To determine if our findings were consistent with those at other Cleft Centres, the views of primary cleft surgeons in the UK and Ireland were obtained using a questionnaire. A 96% response rate was achieved. The majority of cleft surgeons stated they no longer request routine pre-operative blood tests. Few could recall any of their patients requiring transfusion, and in those that did there was an underlying medical condition contributing to transfusion requirement, and an equal number whom could not have been predicted pre-operatively. The benefit of obtaining routine full blood count and group and save in children undergoing cleft repair is small in comparison to the stress caused from obtaining these bloods, and has significant cost implications to the Health Service. PMID:19541557

Eley, Karen A; Goodacre, T E

2010-06-01

328

Young Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basketball team might look for "young blood" to pep up its starting lineup. Now, scientists are using young blood--literally--to revive aging muscles. This Science Update focuses on a study revealing that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells and faster healing in the muscles and livers of older mice.

Science Update (;)

2005-04-04

329

Blood Types  

MedlinePLUS

... you'd like to help, learn more about blood donation . It's one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives! Reviewed by: Maureen F. Edelson, MD Date reviewed: February 2011 Back ... Cell Transplants Health Care: What Do You Know? Blood Transfusions Donating Blood Is It Possible to Donate ...

330

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

331

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of AmericaâÂÂs children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

332

[Development of blood cell measurement].  

PubMed

Automated blood cell analyzers used in hematology laboratories are required to measure many specimens rapidly and efficiency has been realized through increasing the measurement parameters and throughput volume in one instrument. In the period of 1950's through the early part of 1960's, only red blood cells and white blood cells could be counted. In 1965, Technicon Corporation developed an instrument which can measure the number of blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and calculate corpuscular constants simultaneously. Thereafter, the methodologies for simultaneous platelet measurement and precise determination of blood cell distribution have been developed. Then, the development of new reagents has achieved three part differentials in the distribution of white blood cells. Thanks to this development, microscopic white blood cell differentials has been replaced by blood cell analyzers in screening tests. Though blood cell analyzers may be further improved by expanding of the number of parameters available for simultaneous measurements, meeting social needs in the new era will not be possible without the creation and realization of new concepts employing new technologies such as IT (Information Technology). PMID:11215173

Okada, T

2000-10-01

333

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

334

Chains of Full Afls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If a full Abstract Family of Languages (AFL) L is not closed under substitution, then the result of substituting members of L into L, is not substitution closed and hence L generates an infinite hierarchy of full AFLs. If L1 and L2 are two incomparable fu...

S. A. Greibach

1969-01-01

335

No effect of lysis solutions on absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count and CD45 index in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management. At the present time, no standardized flow cytometry (FCM) protocol to measure B-lymphocytes counts is established. The aims of the present study were first to evaluate the effect of different lysis solutions and of red blood cell lysis per se on CLL lymphocytes count and B-lymphocytes CD45 expression and second to compare absolute B-lymphocytes counts obtained by single (SP) and dual platforms (DP). Absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts and CD45 expression in 35 whole-blood CLL samples were determined by FCM using either different lysis solutions or using a no wash no lyse (NWNL) protocol. Single platform using microbeads was also evaluated for absolute quantification. The absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts using different red blood cell lysis solutions correlated with NWNL method without any effect on CD45 expression. Bland and Altman plot showed homogenous distribution of bias; mean bias was less than 1% for all lysing solutions. Moreover, no statistically significant difference between SP and DP was observed. The type of lysis solution influences neither the CD19+ B-lymphocytes count nor the CD45 expression. The two systems, SP and DP, yield comparable values with excellent agreement. However, the tendency of slightly lower results with SP showed the requirement of larger studies before standardization of B-lymphocytes count in CLL patients. PMID:21638772

Mekouar, Hassan; Mullier, François; Dinon, Quentin; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Bernard

2011-11-01

336

Clinical application of reticulocyte counts in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Reticulocytes are anucleate immature red blood cells that contain a network of RNA, organelles, and mitochondria, which stain with supravital dyes. Both aggregate and punctate reticulocytes are present in domestic cats, and aggregate reticulocytes are used to assess the degree of regeneration in anemic dogs and cats. Multiple factors influence the degree of regenerative response to anemia. These factors include time of reticulocyte measurement, concurrent diseases, species, and ongoing therapy. Although many automated systems for reticulocyte enumeration exist, manual counts remain the gold standard in veterinary medicine. PMID:14664196

Cowgill, Elizabeth S; Neel, Jennifer A; Grindem, Carol B

2003-11-01

337

Full counting statistics for orbital-degenerate impurity Anderson model with Hund's rule exchange coupling.  

PubMed

We study nonequilibrium current fluctuations through a quantum dot, which includes a ferromagnetic Hund's rule coupling J, in the low-energy Fermi liquid regime using the renormalized perturbation theory. The resulting cumulant for the current distribution in the particle-hole symmetric case shows that spin-triplet and spin-singlet pairs of quasiparticles are formed in the current due to the Hund's rule coupling, and these pairs enhance the current fluctuations. In the fully screened higher-spin Kondo limit, the Fano factor takes a value F(b)=(9M+6)/(5M+4) determined by the orbital degeneracy M. We also investigate the crossover between the small and large J limits in the two-orbital case M=2, using the numerical renormalization group approach. PMID:23004997

Sakano, Rui; Nishikawa, Yunori; Oguri, Akira; Hewson, Alex C; Tarucha, Seigo

2012-06-29

338

Transient and steady state behavior of full counting statistics in thermal transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of heat transferred in a given time interval tM, through a finite harmonic system, which is connected with two heat baths, maintained at two different temperatures. We calculate the cumulant generating function (CGF) for heat transfer using non-equilibrium Green's function method. The CGF can be concisely expressed in terms of Green's functions of the system and the self-energy of the lead with shifted arguments, Â(,') = ?L(?+x(?), ?' + x(?')) - ?L(,'), where ?L(,') is the contour-ordered self-energy of the left lead. The expression of CGF is valid in both transient and steady state regimes. We present a transient result of the first four cumulants of a graphene junction. It is found that measurement causes the energy to flow into the leads. In the steady state we show that the CGF obey &`grave;steady state fluctuation theorem''. We also study the CGF for the joint probability distribution of left and right lead heat flux P(QL,QR), which is important to calculate the correlations between QL and QR, and also the total entropy that flows into the leads. We also discuss the CGF for the total entropy production for two lead system without the center part.

Agarwalla, Bijay; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

2012-02-01

339

Full counting statistics of Andreev reflection: Signatures of a quantum transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing semiclassical circuit theory, we study the charge-transfer statistics of a quantum dot (chaotic cavity) connected to a normal metal and a superconducting reservoir via two non-ideal barriers. We assume the absence of a magnetic field and a low-energy regime so that the energy dependence of the Andreev reflection eigenvalues can be neglected. We calculate analytically the first three charge-transfer cumulants and the density of Andreev reflection eigenvalues. We observe an interesting signature in the charge-transfer cumulants of a quantum transition that takes place in the chaotic cavity [A. M. S. Macêdo and A. M. C. Souza, Phys. Rev. E 71, 066218 (2005)] associated with the formation of Fabry-Perot modes. Our results compare well with numerical simulations obtained from the scattering matrix formalism.

Duarte-Filho, G. C.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

2009-07-01

340

Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate time-resolved counting of single atoms extracted from a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The atoms are detected with a high-finesse optical cavity and single atom transits are identified. An atom laser beam is formed by continuously output coupling atoms from the Bose-Einstein condensate. We investigate the full counting statistics of this beam and measure its second order correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau}) in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss type experiment. For the monoenergetic atom laser we observe a constant correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau})=1.00{+-}0.01 and an atom number distribution close to a Poissonian statistics. A pseudothermal atomic beam shows a bunching behavior and a Bose distributed counting statistics.

Oettl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Koehl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zuerich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-08-26

341

Evaluation of the Sysmex XT-2000iV haematology analyser for rat, dog and mouse whole blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sysmex XT-2000iV is a dedicated haematology analyser with full blood count, reticulocyte and five-population differential\\u000a leucocyte capabilities for several laboratory animal species. The laboratory animal species chosen for this study were rat,\\u000a dog and mouse. Results from dipotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) samples from these species were compared with the laboratory’s established haematology analyser, the Bayer (now Siemens)\\u000a Advia

R. A. Mathers; G. O. Evans; J. Bleby; T. Tornow

2008-01-01

342

Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers

Martin Horlitz; Annabelle Lucas; Markus Sprenger-Haussels; Jörg Hoheisel

2009-01-01

343

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

344

A Novel Low Power Energy Recovery Full Adder Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low power and low transistor count static energy recovery full adder (SERF) is presented in this paper. The power consumption and general characteristics of the SERF adder are then compared against three low power full adders; the transmission function adder (TFA), the dual value logic (DVL) adder and the fourteen transistor (14T) full adder. The proposed SERF adder

R. Shalem; Lizy Kurian John; Eugene John

1999-01-01

345

Electron counting in quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of conventional current meters. In addition to measuring the average current, the counting procedure also makes it possible to investigate correlations between charge carriers. Electron correlations are conventionally probed in noise measurements, which are technically challenging due to the difficulty to exclude the influence of external noise sources in the experimental setup. Using real-time charge detection techniques, we circumvent the problem by studying the electron correlation directly from the counting statistics of the tunneling electrons. In quantum dots, we find that the strong Coulomb interaction makes electrons try to avoid each other. This leads to electron anti-bunching, giving stronger correlations and reduced noise compared to a current carried by statistically independent electrons. The charge detector is implemented by monitoring changes in conductance in a nearby capacitively coupled quantum point contact. We find that the quantum point contact not only serves as a detector but also causes a back-action onto the measured device. Electron scattering in the quantum point contact leads to emission of microwave radiation. The radiation is found to induce an electronic transition between two quantum dots, similar to the absorption of light in real atoms and molecules. Using a charge detector to probe the electron transitions, we can relate a single-electron tunneling event to the absorption of a single photon. Moreover, since the energy levels of the double quantum dot can be tuned by external gate voltages, we use the device as a frequency-selective single-photon detector operating at microwave energies. The ability to put an on-chip microwave detector close to a quantum conductor opens up the possibility to investigate radiation emitted from mesoscopic structures and gives a deeper understanding of the role of electron-photon interactions in quantum conductors. A central concept of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality; matter exhibits both wave- and particle-like properties and cannot be described by either formalism alone. To investigate the wave properties of the electrons, we perform experiments on a structure containing a double quantum dot embedded in the Aharonov-Bohm ring interferometer. Aharonov-Bohm rings are traditionally used to study interference of electron waves traversing different arms of the ring, in a similar way to the double-slit setup used for investigating interference of light waves. In our case, we use the time-resolved charge detection techniques to detect electrons one-by-one as they pass through the interferometer. We find that the individual particles indeed self-interfere and give rise to a strong interference pattern as a function of external magnetic field. The high level of control in the system together with the ability to detect single electrons enables us to make direct observations of non-intuitive fundamental quantum phenomena like single-particle interference or time-energy uncertainty relations.

Gustavsson, S.; Leturcq, R.; Studer, M.; Shorubalko, I.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-06-01

346

Full Wave Rectification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Victoria Junior College contains an interactive simulation of full wave rectification. Slider bars allow the user to adjust capacitance and ohm levels. The simulation includes an animated graph.

2012-12-24

347

Full Binary Adder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The full binary adder is used in computing or data processing equipment. The circuitry utilizes the presences and absences of pulses to represent 0's' and 1's'. The circuitry consists of four diodes, six transistors, and nine resistors.

D. H. Schaefer

1965-01-01

348

Importance of the TIMI frame count: implications for future trials  

PubMed Central

Although the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade classification scheme is widely used to assess angiographic outcomes, it is limited by poor reproducibility and its categoric nature. The corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) is a simple, more objective continuous variable index of coronary blood flow that can be broadly and inexpensively applied. This measure of the time for dye to traverse a coronary artery is both accurate (highly correlated with Doppler velocity measurements) and precise (reproducible). The method has been prospectively validated as providing independent risk stratification above and beyond the conventional TIMI flow grades. It has been shown to be a predictor of restenosis, and has been of value in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction. In view of the above and its ease of use, we anticipate that CTFC will become a widely used method to evaluate coronary blood flow.

Appleby, Mark A; Michaels, Andrew D; Chen, Michael; Michael, C Gibson

2000-01-01

349

Photon counting with an EMCCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 ¯e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

2010-02-01

350

Full moon and crime.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

1984-01-01

351

Blood Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

1992-01-01

352

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein thrombosispulmonary embolismstrokeheart attackblood thinners

353

Full Multigrid Flow Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

2005-01-01

354

Attenuated cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and sepsis in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white-blood cell count (WBC) has been identified as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis. Whereas a low CSF WBC indicates the presence of sepsis with early meningitis in patients with meningococcal infections, the relation between CSF WBC and outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis is not understood. METHODS:

Martijn Weisfelt; Diederik van de Beek; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Johannes B Reitsma; Jan de Gans

2006-01-01

355

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered “packages” of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis

Mark G Neerhof; James C Dohnal; Edward R Ashwood; In-Sik Lee; Maurizio M Anceschi

2001-01-01

356

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH GLASS FIBER PAPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of counting C¹⁴ on cellulose paper was compared ; with that of glass fiber paper. It was observed that cellulose paper is only ; about 60% as efficient as glass fiber paper. Identical amounts of fucose-1-C\\/sup ; 14\\/ were placed on each type of paper and the disks were counted in a nonpolar ; scintillation fluid. The proportionality

K. G. Pinter; J. G. Hamilton; O. N. Miller

1963-01-01

357

Optical Channels: Practical Limits with Photon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optical communication, ideal amplification of the received signal leads to a limiting signaling rate of 1 nat per photon. This is much inferior to the optimum limit ofkTjoules\\/nat, which we can theoretically approach by counting photons. Practically, the rates we can attain by photon counting will be limited by how elaborate codes we can instrument rather than by thermal

J. Pierce; J. R. PIERCE

1978-01-01

358

Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118

JOSE BELDA; RICHARD LEIGH; KRISHNAN PARAMESWARAN; PAUL M. O'BYRNE; MALCOLM R. SEARS; FREDERICK E. HARGREAVE

2000-01-01

359

A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

Landau, Jacob M.

360

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

361

Photon counts from stellar occultation sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

Buglia, James J.

1987-01-01

362

Decreased Platelet Count in Patients Receiving Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration: A Single-Center Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background A decreased platelet count may occur and portend a worse outcome in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We aim to investigate the incidence of decreased platelet count and related risk factors in patients receiving CRRT. Methods In this retrospective study, we screened all patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) at Jinling Hospital between November 2008 and October 2012. The patients were included who received uninterrupted CVVH for more than 72 h and had records of blood test for 4 consecutive days after ruling out pre-existing conditions that may affect the platelet count. Platelet counts before and during CVVH, illness severity, CVVH settings, and outcomes were analyzed. Results The study included 125 patients. During the 3-day CVVH, 44.8% and 16% patients had a mild decline (20–49.9%) and severe decline (?50%) in the platelet count,respectively; 37.6% and 16.0% patients had mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 50.1–100×109/L) and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count ?50×109/L), respectively. Patients with a severe decline in the platelet count had a significantly lower survival rate than patients without a severe decline in the platelet count (35.0% versus 59.0%, P?=?0.012), while patients with severe thrombocytopenia had a survival rate similar to those without severe thrombocytopenia (45.0% versus 57.1%, P?=?0.308). Female gender, older age, and longer course of the disease were independent risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count. Conclusions A decline in the platelet count and thrombocytopenia are quite common in patients receiving CVVH. The severity of the decline in the platelet count rather than the absolute count during CVVH may be associated with hospital mortality. Knowing the risk factors for a severe decline in the platelet count may allow physicians to prevent such an outcome.

Wu, Buyun; Gong, Dehua; Xu, Bin; He, Qunpeng; Liu, Zhihong; Ji, Daxi

2014-01-01

363

CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD CHEMISTRY VALUES FOR THE COMMON BUZZARD (Buteo buteo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTR^CT.--Clinical hematology and serum chemistry values for 23 clinically normal Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) have provided reference values for use in clinical pathology. Hematological values, including red and white blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte differential count and red cell indices were established. Reference values of blood chemical parameters, including total plasma protein, total plasma solids, fibrinogen, glucose, aspartate

MAURO HERNANDEZ; SONSOLES MARTIN; PALOMA FORES

364

Neptune - full ring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of Voyager 2 images (FDS 11446.21 and 11448.10), two 591-s exposures obtained through the clear filter of the wide angle camera, show the full ring system with the highest sensitivity. Visible in this figure are the bright, narrow N53 and N63 rings, the diffuse N42 ring, and (faintly) the plateau outside of the N53 ring (with its slight brightening near 57,500 km).

1989-01-01

365

Blood cardioplegia.  

PubMed

We present the technical details of blood cardioplegia as the standard clinical practice in most centers today. In addition, the contribution refers to the advanced strategies using blood cardioplegia in specific situations, including warm cardioplegia induction, controlled reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction, and the application of leucocyte filtration. PMID:24413326

Martin, Jürgen; Benk, Christoph

2006-01-01

366

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

367

Correlation of platelet count and acute ST-elevation in myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been substantiated by studies that demonstrated significant clinical benefits associated with antiplatelet therapy. Initial platelet counts in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) may be a useful adjunct for identifying those patients who may or may not respond to fibrinolytic agents. Patient with acute STEMI has variable level of platelet count and with higher platelet count have poor in hospital outcome. There are many predictors of poor outcome in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) like cardiac biomarkers (Troponin I, Troponin T and CK-MB), C-Reactive Protien (CRP) and WBC (White Blood Cell) counts. Platelet count on presentation of STEMI is one of them. Higher platelet count is associated with higher rate of adverse clinical outcome in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), like heart failure, arrhythmia, re-infarction & death. So, categorization of patient with STEMI on the basis of platelet counts may be helpful for risk stratification and management of these patients. PMID:20639847

Paul, G K; Sen, B; Bari, M A; Rahman, Z; Jamal, F; Bari, M S; Sazidur, S R

2010-07-01

368

Skin Tags: A Link Between Lesional Mast Cell Count/Tryptase Expression and Obesity and Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of skin tags (STs) is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs) involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control). Results: All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%). STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin (P < 0.001), with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions: STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Attia, Enas AS; Osman, Wesam M; El Gendy, Marwa A

2013-01-01

369

The Ratio of Monocytes to Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Increased Susceptibility to Clinical Malaria in Kenyan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children bear the brunt of the disease and though older children and adults suffer relatively fewer clinical attacks, they remain susceptible to asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. A better understanding of the host factors associated with immunity to clinical malaria and the ability to sustain asymptomatic P. falciparum infection will aid the development of improved strategies for disease prevention. Methods and Findings Here we investigate whether full differential blood counts can predict susceptibility to clinical malaria among Kenyan children sampled at five annual cross-sectional surveys. We find that the ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes, measured in peripheral blood at the time of survey, directly correlates with risk of clinical malaria during follow-up. This association is evident among children with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection at the time the cell counts are measured (Hazard ratio (HR) ?=? 2.7 (95% CI 1.42, 5.01, P ?=? 0.002) but not in those without detectable parasitaemia (HR ?=? 1.0 (95% CI 0.74, 1.42, P ?=? 0.9). Conclusions We propose that the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, which is easily derived from routine full differential blood counts, reflects an individual's capacity to mount an effective immune response to P. falciparum infection.

Warimwe, George M.; Murungi, Linda M.; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Nyangweso, George M.; Wambua, Juliana; Naranbhai, Vivek; Fletcher, Helen A.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Bejon, Philip; Osier, Faith H. A.; Marsh, Kevin

2013-01-01

370

Current markers of the Athlete Blood Passport do not flag microdose EPO doping.  

PubMed

The Athlete Blood Passport is the most recent tool adopted by anti-doping authorities to detect athletes using performance-enhancing drugs such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). This strategy relies on detecting abnormal variations in haematological variables caused by doping, against a background of biological and analytical variability. Ten subjects were given twice weekly intravenous injections of rhEPO for up to 12 weeks. Full blood counts were measured using a Sysmex XE-2100 automated haematology analyser, and total haemoglobin mass via a carbon monoxide rebreathing test. The sensitivity of the passport to flag abnormal deviations in blood values was evaluated using dedicated Athlete Blood Passport software. Our treatment regimen elicited a 10% increase in total haemoglobin mass equivalent to approximately two bags of reinfused blood. The passport software did not flag any subjects as being suspicious of doping whilst they were receiving rhEPO. We conclude that it is possible for athletes to use rhEPO without eliciting abnormal changes in the blood variables currently monitored by the Athlete Blood Passport. PMID:21336951

Ashenden, Michael; Gough, Clare E; Garnham, Andrew; Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken

2011-09-01

371

Multiscale full waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and apply a full waveform inversion method that incorporates seismic data on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, thereby constraining the details of both crustal and upper-mantle structure. This is intended to further our understanding of crust-mantle interactions that shape the nature of plate tectonics, and to be a step towards improved tomographic models of strongly scale-dependent earth properties, such as attenuation and anisotropy. The inversion for detailed regional earth structure consistently embedded within a large-scale model requires locally refined numerical meshes that allow us to (1) model regional wave propagation at high frequencies, and (2) capture the inferred fine-scale heterogeneities. The smallest local grid spacing sets the upper bound of the largest possible time step used to iteratively advance the seismic wave field. This limitation leads to extreme computational costs in the presence of fine-scale structure, and it inhibits the construction of full waveform tomographic models that describe earth structure on multiple scales. To reduce computational requirements to a feasible level, we design a multigrid approach based on the decomposition of a multiscale earth model with widely varying grid spacings into a family of single-scale models where the grid spacing is approximately uniform. Each of the single-scale models contains a tractable number of grid points, which ensures computational efficiency. The multi-to-single-scale decomposition is the foundation of iterative, gradient-based optimization schemes that simultaneously and consistently invert data on all scales for one multi-scale model. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in a full waveform inversion for Eurasia, with a special focus on Anatolia where coverage is particularly dense. Continental-scale structure is constrained by complete seismic waveforms in the 30-200 s period range. In addition to the well-known structural elements of the Eurasian mantle, our model reveals a variety of subtle features, such as the Armorican Massif, the Rhine Graben and the Massif Central. Anatolia is covered by waveforms with 8-200 s period, meaning that the details of both crustal and mantle structure are resolved consistently. The final model contains numerous previously undiscovered structures, including the extension-related updoming of lower-crustal material beneath the Menderes Massif in western Anatolia. Furthermore, the final model for the Anatolian region confirms estimates of crustal depth from receiver function analysis, and it accurately explains cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise at 10 s period that have not been used in the tomographic inversion. This provides strong independent evidence that detailed 3-D structure is well resolved.

Fichtner, Andreas; Trampert, Jeannot; Cupillard, Paul; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay; Capdeville, Yann; Villaseñor, Antonio

2013-07-01

372

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol.  

PubMed

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered "packages" of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis because it is rapid, objective, and inexpensive and can be performed in any hospital laboratory. The current methodologies for specimen preparation vary widely among laboratories, most notably with respect to centrifugation, resulting in differences in maturity cutoffs used. Our goal was to establish a consensus regarding a standardized methodology for the lamellar body count. Institutions that previously had published their results with lamellar body counts were invited to contribute. The consensus of the four participating institutions includes the following: centrifugation is not a necessary step and should be abandoned, maturity is suggested by a count of 50,000/microL or greater, and immaturity is suggested by a count of 15,000/microL or lower. As the lamellar body count gains wider acceptance as a primary assay for assessing fetal lung maturity, the test must be performed uniformly and accurately, given the implications of acting on a falsely negative test resulting from improper methodology. PMID:11165603

Neerhof, M G; Dohnal, J C; Ashwood, E R; Lee, I S; Anceschi, M M

2001-02-01

373

Full Scale Tunnel (FST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

1930-01-01

374

Full Scale Tunnel (FST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

1930-01-01

375

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

376

A two-dimensional photon counting array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional photon counting array in operation at Mount Stromlo is described and its performance discussed. The detector consists of a highly intensified Fairchild SL 62925 charge coupled device (CCD) where the spectral response of the system can be varied by the use of intensifiers which have different cathode types (S-20, S-25) as the first electron-emitting surface. The format of the external memory is 760 x 488 event-centered pixels. Prior frame subtraction is used to achieve counting rates of 5 Hz pixel with 3% coincidence correction. The advantages of photon-counting array systems over analog CCD detectors are discussed.

Stapinski, T. E.; Rodgers, A. W.; Ellis, M. J.

1981-04-01

377

Full Color Holographic Endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

2013-02-01

378

Full Jupiter Mosaic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

2007-01-01

379

Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

2010-02-01

380

Biology of Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Back to Top ... Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders ...

381

Blood Substitutes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The functional characteristics of heme proteins can be modified to produce hemoglobins that can be used as blood substitutes in different therapeutic applications. Stable polymers of tetrameric hemoglobin, and of myoglobin molecules, are provided for use ...

C. Fronticelli W. S. Brinigar

2004-01-01

382

Blood typing  

MedlinePLUS

... cleaned with a germ-killing product. An elastic band is placed around the upper arm to apply ... into a tube. During the procedure, the elastic band is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood ...

383

Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs ... Research Programs and Awards Research Recommendations Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood Current Issue First Edition ...

384

Blood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs ... Research Programs and Awards Research Recommendations Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood Current Issue First Edition ...

385

HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

386

Photon Counting Imager using CMOS Compatible Photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a CMOS compatible photodetector purposed for a photon counting imager. Several structures have been designed and implemented using standard industrial CMOS technology. First test results are presented in this paper.

Ville Nieminen; Juha Kostamovaara; Anssi Mäkynen

2006-01-01

387

Large Actuator Count MEMS Deformable Mirror Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-actuator-count deformable mirrors (DM) are essential for high- contrast imaging systems NASA is developing for exoplanet detection. These same mirrors can be used to correct aberrations from atmospheric turbulence for free- space communications and ...

M. A. Helmbrecht

2010-01-01

388

Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ?. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time\\/space tradeoffs.

Ziv Bar-yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

2002-01-01

389

Erythropoietin increases reticulocyte counts and maintains hematocrit in neonates requiring surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background Limited erythropoietin (Epo) production diminishes neonates’ ability to regenerate blood removed by phlebotomy. Neonates requiring surgery are at risk to receive multiple transfusions. We sought to determine if recombinant Epo administration to neonates requiring surgery would stimulate erythropoiesis. Methods Infants were randomized in double-masked fashion to receive Epo (200 units kg?1 d?1) or placebo for 14 days. Complete blood count, absolute reticulocyte count (ARC), phlebotomy losses, and transfusions were measured during the study period. Infants were transfused using a strict transfusion protocol. Results In the Epo group (n = 10, 2034 ± 308 g, 8 ± 2 days old; mean ± SEM), ARC increased significantly, whereas in the placebo group (n = 10, 2400 ± 184 g, 7 ± 2 days old), ARC remained low. Hematocrits in the Epo group trended upward from 34.4 ± 1.7% to 37.3 ± 1.9% (although not statistically significant) despite phlebotomy losses of 53 ± 12 mL/kg. Hematocrits in the placebo group were 35.9 ± 1.8% and 33.2 ± 1.6% on days 1 and 15, respectively, with phlebotomy losses of 27 ± 5 mL/kg. There were no differences in absolute neutrophil counts or platelet counts between groups at the end of the study. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusions Infants randomized to Epo increased reticulocyte counts and hematocrits without adverse effects. Erythropoietin administration may provide an adjunct to present care in decreasing or eliminating erythrocyte transfusions in surgical neonates.

Bierer, Ryann; Roohi, Mahshid; Peceny, Connie; Ohls, Robin K.

2011-01-01

390

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

391

Large Volume Scintillation Chamber for Radon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 450-cc cylindrical Lucite chamber covered internally with ZnS(Ag) and viewed at each end by 5-in. photo-multiplier tubes with summed outputs has been used routinely as a low background (?0.8 counts per min for a new chamber) Rn scintillation counter. The counter is simple to construct and has operated reliably for about two years. The counting efficiency for Rn in

Hobart W. Kraner; Gerald L. Schroeder; Anthony R. Lewis; Robley D. Evans

1964-01-01

392

Delta neutrophil index in automated immature granulocyte counts for assessing disease severity of patients with sepsis.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between calculated immature granulocyte (IG) counts and the severity of sepsis. Coagulation parameters, fibrinolytic indices, bacterial isolation rates in blood cultures, and mortality were observed in 237 patients with suspected sepsis. The difference in leukocyte subfractions (delta neutrophil index; DN) identified by a cytochemical myeloperoxidase reaction and by a nuclear lobularity assay was determined with a blood cell analyzer (ADVIA 120, Siemens, Inc.). DN was strongly correlated with manual IG counts (r = 0.75, p <0.05). Patients with high DN (>40%) averaged 40% lower in platelet count, 26% prolongation of prothrombin time (PT), and 35% diminution of antithrombin III (AT III) activity, vs those with low DN (5-20%). Overt disseminated intravascular coagulation was more prevalent as the DN increased, and reached a peak in patients with DN >40%. DN values were closely associated with PT (r = 0.35, p <0.05), AT III activity (r = -0.36, p <0.05), and platelet count (r = -0.27, p <0.05). Positive blood culture rate averaged 3.5-fold higher in patients with DN >40% vs the subgroup with low DN of 5-10%. The mortality rate of patients with DN >40% markedly exceeded the mortality rate of patients with DN of 5-10% (79% vs 15%, p <0.05). Thus, DN has implications for the severity of sepsis and may be valuable to assess the prognosis of patients with suspected sepsis. PMID:18715852

Nahm, Chung Hyun; Choi, Jong Weon; Lee, Jongwook

2008-01-01

393

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower platelet and leukocyte counts: results from the Moli-sani study.  

PubMed

Platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts are 2 markers of inflammation and have been linked to the risk for cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease. A Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with reduced inflammation and mortality for major chronic diseases. We aimed at evaluating the association between the MD and both PLT and WBC counts. This cross-sectional analysis in a population-based cohort study included 14,586 healthy Italian citizens enrolled within the Moli-sani study. Adherence to MD was appraised by either the MD Score (MDS) or the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI). PLT and WBC counts were both inversely related to MD adherence (MDS: P < .0001 and P = .008, respectively). As compared with those with poorer MD adherence, subjects with greater adherence had both reduced odds of being in the highest PLT-count group (MDS: odds ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.80) and increased odds of being in the lowest WBC-count group (IMI: odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.86). The association between WBC count and MDS disappeared when further adjusted for PLT count, whereas the association between PLT count and the MD was not affected by adjustment for WBCs. Food antioxidant and dietary fiber content modified the inverse association between MDS and WBC count and partially accounted for the association with PLTs. PMID:24687087

Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

2014-05-01

394

Potential clinical implications of interlaboratory variability in CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

The CD4+ T-lymphocyte count is an important factor in the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies have found significant variability among the counts determined by different laboratories. We conducted a study of lymphocyte phenotyping in four laboratories to assess this variability and its possible clinical implications. One laboratory was situated at the study site; the other three were selected randomly from a total of 11 commercial and hospital laboratories available locally. Blood specimens were obtained from 24 patients and were sent to the four laboratories for a complete blood count and a lymphocyte subset analysis. Using the Kruskall-Wallis test, we found that the laboratories' ranks of four individual components of the CD4 cell count differed significantly: total white blood cell count (P < .0001), lymphocyte percentage (P = .003), lymphocyte count (P = .002), and CD4 percentage (P = .0004). Of the 24 patients in this survey, 14 (58.3%) had CD4-count results with enough variation to have led to conflicting treatment recommendations; three of the 24 patients fulfilled the revised Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition of AIDS on the basis of results from some but not all laboratories. In addition, the laboratories disagreed on whether CD4 cell counts of nine patients (37.5%) had increased or decreased since the previous determination. We conclude that when strict thresholds of CD4 cell counts are used as a basis for treatment recommendations or for diagnosis of AIDS, interlaboratory variability may be sufficient to alter the decisions made. PMID:8589131

Sax, P E; Boswell, S L; White-Guthro, M; Hirsch, M S

1995-11-01

395

Fluorescence flow cytometry methodology to exclude platelet aggregate interference when measuring feline CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts.  

PubMed

Changes in individual feline lymphocyte subsets over the course of infection, immune-mediated disease, or treatment can be used clinically to monitor disease progression. However, interference by platelet aggregates is a common problem when measuring feline lymphocyte subtype counts using flow cytometry in whole blood specimens. In this study, buffer was used to lyse red blood cells so that lymphocytes could be isolated, and then a gate containing a highly purified population of lymphocytes was characterized and fixed using fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. After tagging platelets with anti-CD61AF647 antibody to reduce aggregate interference, lymphocyte subtypes were measured using simultaneous 3-color channels with fluorescent anti-CD markers. When CD61AF647 exclusion of platelet aggregates was used, CD4%, CD8%, CD8low% and CD4:CD8 counts increased significantly (all specimens, n=66, P<0.001; >20% CD61 in the fixed gate, n=21, P<0.01). The methodology showed robust stability and precision over 3 days (n=10 specimens), yielding average day-to-day coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.15%, 5.01%, 7.33%, 7.77% and 9.35% for white blood cell (WBC) counts, lymphocyte counts, CD4 lymphocyte counts, CD8 lymphocyte counts and CD4:CD8, respectively. PMID:23846026

Lin, Juiming; Litster, Annette

2013-10-01

396

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Shannon, Darbianne

2012-07-13

397

Blood Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

1999-01-01

398

An area efficient readout architecture for photon counting color imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of several energy levels, namely color imaging, in photon counting X-ray image sensors is a trade-off between circuit complexity and spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a pixel architecture that has full resolution for the intensity and uses sub-sampling for the energy spectrum. The results show that this sub-sampling pixel architecture produces images with an image quality which is, on average, 2.4 dB (PSNR) higher than those for a single energy range architecture and with half the circuit complexity of that for a full sampling architecture.

Lundgren, Jan; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt; Norlin, Börje; Abdalla, Suliman

2007-06-01

399

A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4+ T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects  

PubMed Central

Practical HIV diagnostics are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. While HIV infection can be diagnosed using simple, rapid, lateral flow immunoassays, HIV disease staging and treatment monitoring require accurate counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. To address the limitations of current expensive, technically demanding and/or time-consuming approaches, we have developed a simple CD4 counting microfluidic device. This device uses cell affinity chromatography operated under differential shear flow to specifically isolate CD4+ T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microlitres of unprocessed, unlabeled whole blood. CD4 counts are obtained under an optical microscope in a rapid, simple and label-free fashion. CD4 counts determined in our device matched measurements by conventional flow cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R2 = 0.93). This CD4 counting microdevice can be used for simple, rapid and affordable CD4 counting in point-of-care and resource-limited settings.

Cheng, Xuanhong; Irimia, Daniel; Dixon, Meredith; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Demirci, Utkan; Zamir, Lee; Tompkins, Ronald G.

2013-01-01

400

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2007-11-20

401

Automated TIMI frame counting using 3-d modeling.  

PubMed

Three dimensional coronary modeling and reconstruction can assist in the quantitative analysis of coronary flow velocity from 2-d coronary images. In this paper a novel method to assess coronary flow velocity is proposed. First, 3-d models of the coronary arteries are estimated from bi-plane X-ray images using epipolar constraint energy minimization for the selected fiducial points like bifurcations, and subsequently 3-d B-spline energy minimization for the arterial segments. A 4-d model is assembled from a set of 3-d models representing different phases of the cardiac cycle. The 4-d model is fitted to the 2-d image sequences containing basal or hyperemic blood flow information. Then, by counting the frames in analogy with TIMI frame counting, an index of the mean coronary flow velocity can be estimated. Our experimental results show that the algorithm correlates with r=0.98 (P<0.0001, 95% CI 0.92-0.99) to the clinical measurements of the TFC. PMID:22867533

ten Brinke, G A; Slump, C H; Stoel, M G

2012-10-01

402

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

403

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

404

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... iron may build up in your body ( iron overload ). This can put your organs at risk. Iron overload can happen after as few as 10 red blood cell transfusions (20 units). Iron overload can be treated with iron chelators. Learn more ...

405

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:May 15,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined ...

406

Blood Type Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Us About Us Media Center Careers Our Mission Diversity Our Regions Leadership Donating Blood First Time Donors ... Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive ...

407

[The effect of Fenbion, an anthelmintic, on blood in heifers].  

PubMed

The complex effects of the anthelminthic Fenbion (prepared on the basis of fenbendazole, Bioveta Nitra) were investigated; its effects on the blood picture were studied in heifers with the liveweight of 400 kg, until the sixth day after its single application at doses of 15 and 30 mg per kg liveweight. The haemoglobin (Hb) content decreased in keeping with the physiological standard. The haematocrit (Hk) value decreased below the reference standard from 0.31 and 0.32 l per l on days five and six to 0.28-0.29 l per l. The total leucocyte counts increased from 8.60-9.64 G per l to 10.54-11.0 G per 1. This means that on the first days after administration Fenbion has negative effects on erythropoiesis, and as a stressor it evokes defense reactions of the organism. Differential blood counting: leucocyte counts increased to 0.71-0.73 arb. u. on days three to four. The increase in lymphocyte counts in the blood after Fenbion administration is likely to be related to the cellular immunobiological defense reaction of the organism. The counts of segmented leucocytes decreased, the counts of eosinophils increased irregularly, those of basophils and monocytes were highly variable, and the counts of monocytes increased irregularly in a large span, or they decreased. PMID:1807024

Pjescak, M; Kovác, S; Cernek, J

1991-02-01

408

Original Contribution CHANGES IN LEVELS OF SOME INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE PARAMETERS, BLOOD VITAMINS E AND A IN STALLIONS, FOLLOWING CASTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined in stallions the impact of castration on total differential count of leukocytes and the classical pathway of complement activation (CPCA), blood vitamins A and E levels. The stallions were castrated with an emasculator, while in standing position, using the open technique. The number of leukocytes was counted in the Burker chamber, and the leukogram on blood smear. The

D. Goundasheva; H. Hubenov; K. Kostov; T. Karadjov

2005-01-01

409

Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

Cox, Colin

2013-06-01

410

Standardisation of (210)Pb by ?erenkov counting.  

PubMed

A standard of (210)Pb in solution was produced at the National Physical Laboratory by a novel technique combining ?erenkov counting with the established liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique known as the CIEMAT/NIST method. Coincidence counting was applied in order to validate the measurements and the activity concentrations of the solution determined with each technique are shown to be in agreement. Radiochemical separation of the (210)Pb from its daughters was also necessary and the scheme for the separation is described. After performing this two-stage standardisation, the uncertainty was successfully lowered to 0.66% (k=1). This uncertainty is approximately a factor of four lower than previously achieved at NPL by the classical method of standardisation of radionuclides, i.e. coincidence counting. PMID:21288729

Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C; Gilligan, Chris R D; Pearce, Andy K

2011-05-01

411

Dye free automated cell counting and analysis.  

PubMed

We have developed an automated cell counting method that uses images obtained at multiple focal heights to enumerate cells in confluent culture. By taking the derivative of image intensity with respect to focal height using two complementary images, we are able to count high-density monolayers of cells over a large image area. Our method resists errors arising from variability in the focal plane caused by flatness or tilt non-uniformities with a minimal amount of focal plane alignment, allowing the automated collection of images across a large area. PMID:23055412

Dehlinger, Dietrich; Suer, Lynn; Elsheikh, Maher; Peña, José; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

2013-03-01

412

Utah rig count indicates lively activity  

SciTech Connect

A flurry of drilling applications late last year suggests that a number of operators in Utah look forward to a fairly busy 1984. The Utah Overthrust, and the Uinta and Paradox basins are expected to see continued exploration and development work this year. This article discusses the exploratory and oil drilling activity planned for Utah. The rig count in Utah in early December was about 55, not far below the number of rigs that were drilling in the state in 1981, when the count was in the 60's.

Rountree, R.

1984-01-01

413

Jefferson's Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Website to the recent broadcast of the Frontline documentary "Jefferson's Blood" is unusually rich in content, perhaps because it was used post-airing to feature Frontline's presence on the Web. Exploring the history and current controversy over Jefferson's longtime relationship with his slave and mistress Sally Hemings, the site features video excerpts from the broadcast; extended documentation of the DNA debate over Jefferson's extant ancestry; memoirs of four of Jefferson's slaves; essays and interviews from well-known Jefferson scholars, such as Joseph Ellis and Annette Gordon-Reed; discussions by sociologists, historians, and journalists of the nation's historical response to mixed ancestry and its threat to the white mystique; annotated links to premium Jefferson Websites; a teacher's guide; and a good deal more. The site admirably confirms that, when it comes to the question of race in America, there are few historical narratives more telling or more complicated than the one Thomas Jefferson wrote in his own blood.

414

White Blood Cell Classification based on the Combination of Eigen Cell and Parametric Feature Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of white blood cells in different classes help doctors to diagnose patients. A technique for automating the differential count of white blood cell is presented. The proposed system takes an input, color image of stained peripheral blood smears. The process in general involves segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In this paper, features extracted from the segmented cell are motivated

P. Yampri; C. Pintavirooj; S. Daochai; S. Teartulakarn

2006-01-01

415

Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

Thompson, Joselyn H.

416

Distribution of Ethylene Oxide in Human Blood and its Implications for Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of radioactivity following the incubation of human blood with radiolabelled ethylene oxide was investigated in vitro. After incubation, the individual blood samples were separated into lymphocytes and high (Mr > 10,000) and low (Mr < 10,000) molecular fractions of erythrocyte cytoplasm and blood plasma. The radioactivity was determined in each sample by liquid scintillation counting.In erythrocyte cytoplasm, the

U. Föst; E. Hallier; H. Ottenwälder; H. M. Bolt; H. Peter

1991-01-01

417

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce

Fanping Bu; Ryan Greene-Roesel; Mara Chagas Diogenes; David R Ragland

2007-01-01

418

Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

2002-01-01

419

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

420

A variable length counting Bloom filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new data structure called variable length counting Bloom filter is proposed for membership queries. This data structure uses variable length counters instead of fixed length counters in Bloom filter. Rules for the operations of the filter are defined. The size of the new data structure is analyzed. Both the analysis and the simulation show that it

Lichun Li; Bingqiang Wang; Julong Lan

2010-01-01

421

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

422

A box-counting red herring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Box counting is commonly used as a method to determine the multifractal spectrum of measured time series. Here we show that ?-correlated signals, having an (hyper)exponential amplitude distribution, can generate a spurious detection of multifractality. The situation becomes even worse for nonlinearly-filtered, linear autoregressive processes. Care should thus be exerted when claiming the presence of multifractality in measured data.

von Hardenberg, J.; Thieberger, R.; Provenzale, A.

2000-05-01

423

Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

Education Week, 2007

2007-01-01

424

COUNTING DEAD BIRDS: EXAMINATION OF METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied three methods (line transect, circular quadrat, complete count) for esti- mating density of dead birds, using models of sparrows and meadowlarks placed at a density of 50 birds of each type\\/ha. Line transects with a 500-m search line were used in cultivated pasture and native prairie habitats. The number of birds found by individual searchers in line transects

H. Philibert; G. Wobeser; R. G. Clark

425

Promoting health: making every contact count.  

PubMed

This article describes a new training programme devised and run by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) to assist staff to make every patient contact count. The aim of the training programme is to help nurses become more effective when offering opportunistic health promotion advice as part of their routine work, and avoid generating resistance to change. PMID:24641058

Percival, Jennifer

426

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the status of South Carolina children on a state-wide and county basis. The statistical portrait is based on 32 indicators of well-being, grouped into 6 categories: (1) family (family characteristics, child neglect/abuse); (2) economic status (poverty, mean family income); (3) health (prenatal care,…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

427

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

428

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

429

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 20 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

430

Construction of Exponential Martingales for Counting Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let N(t) be a counting process with continuous compensator A(t) and f(t) a bounded predictabler process. If E(exp(2/f/N(t))) < infinity and E(exp (2(1 + exp/f/)A (t))) < infinity then it is shown that z(+) = exp (-integral from 0 to t (f(u)dN(u)) - integr...

W. A. Rosenkrantz

1985-01-01

431

An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

2000-01-01

432

Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

Davey, Lynn

433

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

434

MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5?, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

2006-12-01

435

Photon-counting-based dust monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single

Karel Hamal; Ivan Prochazka; Josef Blazej; Iva Eslerova; Bruno Sopko; Armin Pasta

1999-01-01

436

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

437

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

438

Study of autoabsorption for total ? and ? counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total ? and ? counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

Saettel, M. A.; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A.

2008-06-01

439

Do Important Papers Produce High Citation Counts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In honor of the centennial of the American Astronomical Society, we asked 53 senior astronomers to select what they thought were the most important papers published in the Astronomical Journal or Astrophysical Journal during this century. This selection of important papers gives us the opportunity to determine whether important papers invariably produce high citation counts. We compared those papers with

Helmut A. Abt

2000-01-01

440

Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds  

SciTech Connect

We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.

Braungardt, Sibylle [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Rodriguez, Mirta [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

441

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

442

Radar Meteor Counts: Anomalous Increase during 1963.  

PubMed

Radar meteor counts at Ottawa, Canada, show an increase of up to 50 percent in the hourly rates of short-duration echoes during the middle months of 1963. A similar increase has been observed in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:17753360

McIntosh, B A; Millman, P M

1964-12-11

443

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

444

Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

1991-01-01

445

Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

2013-01-01

446

WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

447

Agar Concentration in Counting Clostridium Colonies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decreasing the agar concentration of a counting medium from the usual 1.5% resulted in larger colonies with less interference from gas in Clostridium botulinum 115B and C. sporogenes PA 3679. Optimal agar concentration was 0.65% for C. botulinum with 24-h...

C. Eller L. Rogers E. S. Wynne

1966-01-01