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Sample records for full thickness rotator

  1. Optimizing the management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jayson; Gross, Leeaht

    2013-12-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) on Optimizing the Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears (RC). Evidence-based information, in conjunction with clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The RC AUC Writing Panel began the development of the clinical scenarios by identifying clinical indications typical of patients commonly presenting with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in clinical practice, as well as from the current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and its supporting literature. The 432 patient scenarios and 5 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, the Review Panel, a separate group of volunteer physicians, independently reviewed these materials to ensure that they were representative of patient scenarios that clinicians are likely to encounter in daily practice. Finally, the multidisciplinary Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), may be appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or rarely appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3). PMID:24292933

  2. High incidence of acute full-thickness rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Lunsjo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Epidemiological studies of full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs) have mainly investigated degenerative lesions. We estimated the population-based incidence of acute FTRCT using a new diagnostic model. Patients and methods During the period November 2010 through October 2012, we prospectively studied all patients aged 18–75 years with acute onset of pain after shoulder trauma, with limited active abduction, and with normal conventional radiographs. 259 consecutive patients met these inclusion criteria. The patients had a median age of 51 (18–75) years. 65% were males. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the clinical findings: group I, suspected FTRCT; group II, other specific diagnoses; and group III, sprain. Semi-acute MRI was performed in all patients in group I and in patients in group III who did not recover functionally. Results We identified 60 patients with FTRCTs. The estimated annual incidence of MRI-verified acute FTRCT was 16 (95% CI: 11–23) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 18–75 years and 25 (CI: 18–36) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 40–75 years. The prevalence of acute FTRCT in the study group was 60/259 (23%, CI: 18–28). The tears were usually large and affected more than 1 tendon in 36 of these 60 patients. The subscapularis was involved in 38 of the 60 patients. Interpretation Acute FTRCTs are common shoulder injuries, especially in men. They are usually large and often involve the subscapularis tendon. PMID:25708526

  3. Lateral eyelid rotation flap: a novel technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Neelam; Batra, Jyoti; Meel, Rachna; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Chawla, Bhavna; Ghose, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study anatomical, functional, and cosmetic outcomes of a novel technique, 'Lateral Eyelid Rotation Flap' for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect. In this prospective interventional study, 10 patients with full thickness eyelid defect measuring 1/2-2/3rd of eyelid width were included. Eyelid reconstruction was performed by single surgeon, using lateral eyelid rotation flap. Anatomic outcome was assessed by analyzing horizontal and vertical palpebral apertures (HPA and VPA), eyelid contour, and lateral canthus. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring tear film break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test in both the eyes. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patients. Median age of patients was 56 years. Nine cases had full thickness defect following the excision of eyelid malignancy. The mean horizontal defect size was 17 ± 4.2 mm. HPA did not change significantly after surgery. VPA was statistically comparable to contralateral eye at 1-month follow-up. Lateral canthus angle recovered by 3rd month after surgery. TBUT and Schirmer's tests were comparable to contralateral eye. Eight patients graded cosmetic outcome as good to excellent. This is a new, single-stage technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defects, with full thickness eyelid tissue including margin. PMID:25673519

  4. Predictors of Pain and Function in Patients With Symptomatic, Atraumatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Pedroza, Angela; Jones, Grant L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of full-thickness rotator cuff tears increases with age, many patients are asymptomatic and may not require surgical repair. The factors associated with pain and loss of function in patients with rotator cuff tears are not well defined. Purpose To determine which factors correlate with pain and loss of function in patients with symptomatic, atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears who are enrolled in a structured physical therapy program. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A multicenter group enrolled patients with symptomatic, atraumatic rotator cuff tears in a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study evaluating the effects of a structured physical therapy program. Time-zero patient data were reviewed to test which factors correlated with Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. Results A total of 389 patients were enrolled. Mean ASES score was 53.9; mean WORC score was 46.9. The following variables were associated with higher WORC and ASES scores: female sex (P = .001), education level (higher education, higher score; P <.001), active abduction (degrees; P = .021), and strength in forward elevation (P = .002) and abduction (P = .007). The following variables were associated with lower WORC and ASES scores: male sex (P = .001), atrophy of the supraspinatus (P = .04) and infraspinatus (P = .003), and presence of scapulothoracic dyskinesia (P < .001). Tear size was not a significant predictor (WORC) unless comparing isolated supraspinatus tears to supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears (P = .004). Age, tear retraction, duration of symptoms, and humeral head migration were not statistically significant. Conclusion Nonsurgically modifiable factors, such as scapulothoracic dyskinesia, active abduction, and strength in forward elevation and abduction, were identified that could be addressed nonoperatively with therapy. Therefore

  5. Extensive full-thickness eyelid reconstruction with rotation flaps through “subcutaneous tunnel” and palatal mucosal grafts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian-Xia; Zuo, Lan; Huang, Xin-Yu; Cui, Ji-Zhe; Wu, Shuai; Du, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    AIM To reconstruct the extensive full-thickness defects of eyelids is a challenge for the plastic surgeon because of their complex anatomy and special functions. This article presents and discusses an improved surgical technique in which the orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap is rotated through a “subcutaneous tunnel” in conjunction with a palatal mucosal graft employed for lining. METHODS Data from 22 eyes with extensive full-thickness eyelid defects from various causes between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed in this study. After the different layers of eyelid were separated completely, a temporally based orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap was designed following fishtail lines and was mobilized, leaving the base of the pedicle intact with a submuscular tissue attachment. The flap was then rotated through a “subcutaneous tunnel” to the defect, and the donor site was closed primarily. Posterior lamellar reconstruction was performed with a mucosal graft harvested from the hard palate. RESULTS All the flaps were survived without any healing problems. There was no corneal irritation, flap contraction, or significant donor-site morbidity in the follow-up period. The incision scars were almost invisible. The defects were repaired completely, and the evaluations showed satisfactory function and appearance. CONCLUSION This technique is an improved single-stage operation and can be applied to repair large, full-thickness eyelid defects from various causes. With our method, the functional and aesthetic results can be obtained in either the upper or lower eyelids. PMID:26308255

  6. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  7. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2009-12-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  8. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2010-03-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  9. Ultrasound for the detection of full-thickness rotator cuff tears: the learning curve for an orthopaedic surgeon using a novel training method

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Edward F; Petrou, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to add to the body of evidence delineating the learning curve for a shoulder surgeon to become proficient in focussed ultrasound for the detection of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, as well as to describe a learning method for this skill. Methods Consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo an arthroscopy for rotator cuff disease were scanned immediately before surgery by a senior shoulder surgeon with limited previous experience of shoulder ultrasound. The presence or absence of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear on scan was compared with intra-operative findings as the gold standard. Results Two hundred and ten shoulders were scanned over three equal learning periods. Comparing predictive values from the first to the third training period, sensitivity improved from 0.86 to 0.95, specificity from 0.92 to 0.98, negative predictive value from 0.94 to 0.98, and positive predictive value from 0.82 to 0.95. Conclusions The high predictive values obtained in the present study for surgeon-led detection of cuff tears using ultrasound are comparable with those quoted for musculoskeletal radiologists in the literature. The present study adds evidence that a shoulder surgeon can achieve accelerated learning of this skill and offers some potentially time-saving and patient-friendly alternatives to existing guidelines.

  10. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  11. Partial and full-thickness neuroretinal transplants.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, F; Juliusson, B; Arnér, K; Ehinger, B

    1999-01-01

    Adult and embryonic rabbit retinal sheets were transplanted into the subretinal space of adult rabbits. The transplants were either full-thickness with intact layering, or gelatin embedded and vibratome sectioned with the inner retina removed. The full-thickness grafts were positioned subretinally by means of a glass capillary in which they were partially folded. The vibratome sectioned ones were placed using a plastic injector in which the gelatin embedded graft was flat. The embryonic full-thickness grafts were followed clinically up to 3 months, and the other 3 transplant types up to 1 month postoperatively, after which the retina was sectioned and stained for light microscopy. Surgical complications were more common in eyes receiving vibratome sectioned grafts with 10 out of 34 eyes displaying blood in the vitreous. Four of these eyes also developed total retinal detachment. Out of 17 eyes receiving full-thickness grafts, only one displayed these complications. Histologically, 11 out of 13 embryonic full-thickness transplants revealed straight, laminated transplants with correct polarity, and with all normal retinal layers present. In these transplants, fusion with the host increased in time. Of the adult full-thickness transplants, only 1 out of 4 survived, and this graft showed signs of degeneration. The vibratome sectioned adult transplants in a few cases survived the first two postoperative weeks. In these grafts, both inner and outer retina were present, indicating an incomplete vibratome sectioning. With longer postoperative times, the number of surviving transplants in this group diminished considerably. All vibratome sectioned embryonic transplants developed into rosettes and sometimes also into laminated sections with reversed polarity. It can be concluded that in rabbits, the surgical technique used for vibratome sectioned transplants requires a larger sclerotomy and retinotomy, since they have to be kept flat in the transplanting instrument due to

  12. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  13. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  14. Hubble Captures A Full Rotation Of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Pictures of the planet Mars taken with the recently refurbished NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will provide the most detailed global view of the red planet ever obtained from Earth.

    The images were taken by HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on March 10, 1997, just before Mars opposition, when the red planet made one of its closest to the Earth (about 60 million miles or 100 million km).

    These pictures were taken during three HST orbits that were separated by about six hours. This timing was chosen so that Mars, with its 24-hour 39- minute day, would rotate about 90 degrees between orbits. This imaging sequence therefore covers most of the Martian surface. These observations will be combined with others planned for March 30 to provide complete coverage.

    During each orbit, Mars was observed in nine different colors spanning the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The specific colors were chosen to clearly discriminate between airborne dust, ice clouds, and prominent Martian surface features. The color picture shown here was created by combining images taken in blue (433 nm), green (554 nm), and red (763 nm) colored filters. The Martian north pole is at the top (near the center of the bright polar cap) and East is to the right. The center of the disk is at about 23 degrees north latitude, and the central longitudes are near 160, 210, and 305 degrees.

    These images show the planet on the last day of Martian spring in the northern hemisphere (just before summer solstice). The annual north polar carbon dioxide frost (dry ice) cap is rapidly sublimating, revealing the much smaller permanent water ice cap. This polar cap remnant, along with a few nearby detached regions of surface frost are most obvious in pictures taken through ultraviolet, blue, and green filters. These filters also show numerous bright water ice clouds. The brightest clouds are in the vicinity of the giant volcanos on the Tharsis Plateau (to right of center on left image), and in the giant

  15. Full tape thickness feature conductors for EMI structures

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Knudson, Richard T.; Smith, Frank R.; Barner, Gregory

    2014-06-10

    Generally annular full tape thickness conductors are formed in single or multiple tape layers, and then stacked to produce an annular solid conductive wall for enclosing an electromagnetic isolation cavity. The conductors may be formed using punch and fill operations, or by flowing conductor-containing material onto the tape edge surfaces that define the interior sidewalls of the cavity.

  16. Minimum wafer thickness by rotated ingot ID wafering. [Inner Diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient utilization of materials is critical to certain device applications such as silicon for photovoltaics or diodes and gallium-gadolinium-garnet for memories. A variety of slicing techniques has been investigated to minimize wafer thickness and wafer kerf. This paper presents the results of analyses of ID wafering of rotated ingots based on predicted fracture behavior of the wafer as a result of forces during wafering and the properties of the device material. The analytical model indicated that the minimum wafer thickness is controlled by the depth of surface damage and the applied cantilever force. Both of these factors should be minimized. For silicon, a minimum thickness was found to be approximately 200 x 10 - 6th m for conventional sizes of rotated ingot wafering. Fractures through the thickness of the wafer rather than through the center supporting column were found to limit the minimum wafer thickness. The model suggested that the use of a vacuum chuck on the wafer surface to enhance cleavage fracture of the center supporting core and, with silicon, by using 111-line-type ingots could have potential for reducing minimum wafer thickness.

  17. Microvascular Reconstructions of Full-Thickness Oncological Chest Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Tukiainen, Erkki; Popov, Pentscho; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the suitability of microvascular flaps for the reconstruction of extensive full-thickness defects of the chest wall. Summary Background Data: Chest wall defects are conventionally reconstructed with pedicular musculocutaneous flaps or the omentum. Sometimes, however, these flaps have already been used, are not reliable due to previous operations or radiotherapy, or are of inadequate size. In such cases, microvascular flaps offer the only option for reconstruction. Methods: From 1988 to 2001, 26 patients with full-thickness resections of the chest wall underwent reconstruction with microvascular flaps. There were 8 soft tissue sarcomas, 8 recurrent breast cancers, 5 chondrosarcomas, 2 desmoid tumors, 1 large cell pulmonary cancer metastasis, 1 renal cancer metastasis, and 1 bronchopleural fistula. The surgery comprised 5 extended forequarter amputations, 5 lateral resections, 8 thoracoabdominal resections, and 8 sternal resections. The mean diameter of a resection was 28 cm. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with 16 tensor fasciae latae, 5 tensor fascia latae combined with rectus femoris, and 3 transversus rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. In 2 patients with a forequarter amputation, the remnant forearm was used as the osteomusculocutaneous free flap. Results: There were no flap losses or perioperative mortality. Four patients needed tracheostomy owing to prolonged respiratory difficulties. The mean survival time for patients with sarcomas was 39 months and for those with recurrent breast cancer 18 months. Conclusions: Extensive chest wall resections are possible with acceptable results. In patients with breast cancer, the surgery may offer valuable palliation and in those with sarcomas it can be curative. PMID:14631216

  18. Fracture analysis of full-thickness clad beam specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed on full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material with metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks. A summary of the testing program is provided and the analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from displacement data using finite-element techniques and estimation schemes based on the {eta}-factor method. The J-Q methodology was used to assess crack-tip stress triaxiality in the clad beam specimens. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model was also utilized to analyze constraint conditions in the clad beam specimens and appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for loss of in-plane constraint for uniaxially tested beams.

  19. Predicting full thickness skin sensitization using a support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Serom; Dong, David Xu; Jindal, Rohit; Maguire, Tim; Mitra, Bhaskar; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To assess the public’s propensity for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), many alternatives to in vivo chemical screening have been developed which generally incorporate a small panel of cell surface and secreted dendritic cell biomarkers. However, given the underlying complexity of ACD, one cell type and limited cellular metrics may be insufficient to predict contact sensitizers accurately. To identify a molecular signature that can further characterize sensitization, we developed a novel system using RealSkin, a full thickness skin equivalent, in co-culture with MUTZ-3 derived Langerhan’s cells. This system was used to distinguish a model moderate pro-hapten isoeugenol (IE) and a model strong pre-hapten p-phenylenediamine (PPD) from irritant, salicylic acid (SA). Commonly evaluated metrics such as CD86, CD54, and IL-8 secretion were assessed, in concert with a 27-cytokine multi-plex screen and a functional chemotaxis assay. Data were analyzed with feature selection methods using ANOVA, hierarchical cluster analysis, and a support vector machine to identify the best molecular signature for sensitization. A panel consisting of IL-12, IL-9, VEGF, and IFN-γ predicted sensitization with over 90% accuracy using this co-culture system analysis. Thus, a multi-metric approach that has the potential to identify a molecular signature may be more predictive of contact sensitization. PMID:25025180

  20. Nonlinear coupling between thickness- shear and thickness-stretch modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz resonator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zengtao; Hu, Yuantai; Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi

    2009-01-01

    We point out an implication of the Poynting effect in nonlinear elasticity. It is shown that, due to the Poynting effect, thickness-stretch vibration can be induced in a plate thickness-shear mode resonator of rotated Y-cut quartz when the thickness-shear deformation is no longer infinitesimal. This nonlinear coupling is particularly strong when the frequency of the thickness-stretch mode is twice the frequency of the thickness-shear mode. The induced thickness-stretch vibration affects the operating thickness-shear mode through Mathieu's equation. PMID:19213649

  1. Venous Graft for Full-thickness Palpebral Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scevola, Anna; Sanna, Marco Pietro Giuseppe; Maxia, Sara; Esposito, Salvatore; Di Giulio, Stefano; Sartore, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    Full-thickness palpebral reconstruction is a challenge for most surgeons. The complex structures composing the eyelid must be reconstructed with care both for functional and cosmetic reasons. It is possible to find in literature different methods to reconstruct either the anterior or posterior lamella, based on graft or flaps. Most patients involved in this kind of surgery are elderly. It is important to use easy and fast procedures to minimize the length of the operation and its complications. In our department, we used to reconstruct the anterior lamella by means of a Tenzel or a Mustardé flap, whereas for the posterior lamella, we previously utilized a chondromucosal graft, harvested from nasal septum. Thus, these procedures required general anesthesia and long operatory time. We started using a vein graft for the posterior lamella. In this article, we present a series of 9 patients who underwent complex palpebral reconstruction for oncological reasons. In 5 patients (group A), we reconstructed the tarsoconjunctival layer by a chondromucosal graft, whereas in 4 patients (group B), we used a propulsive vein graft. The follow-up was from 10 to 20 months. The patient satisfaction was high, and we had no relapse in the series. In group A, we had more complications, including ectropion and septal perforations, whereas in group B, the operation was faster and we noted minor complications. In conclusion, the use of a propulsive vein to reconstruct the tarsoconjunctival layer was a reliable, safe, and fast procedure that can be considered in complex palpebral reconstructions. PMID:26034651

  2. All-Endoscopic Single-Row Repair of Full-Thickness Gluteus Medius Tears

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2016-01-01

    Abductor tendon tears typically develop insidiously in middle-aged women and can lead to debilitating lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg limp. The gluteus medius tendon is most commonly torn and may show fatty degeneration over time, similar to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder. Endoscopic repair offers a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. This article describes the workup, examination, and endoscopic repair of a full-thickness gluteus medius tear presenting as lateral hip pain and weakness. The surgical repair for this case used a single-row suture anchor technique. In addition, the indications and technique for a double-row repair will be discussed. PMID:27073767

  3. Sensitivity to full-field visual movement compatible with head rotation: variations among axes of rotation.

    PubMed

    Harris, L R; Lott, L A

    1995-01-01

    Movement detection thresholds for full-field visual motion about various axes were measured in three subjects using a two-alternative forced-choice staircase method. Thresholds for 1-s exposures to rotation about different rotation axes varied significantly over the range 0.139 +/- 0.05 deg/s to 0.463 +/- 0.166 deg/s. The highest thresholds were found in response to rotation about axes closely aligned to the line of sight. Variations among the thresholds for different axes could not be explained by different movement patterns in the fovea or variations in motion sensitivity with eccentricity. The variations can be well simulated by a three-channel model for coding the axis and velocity of full-field visual motion. A three-channel visual coding system would be well suited for extracting information about self-rotation from a complex pattern of retinal image motion containing components due to both rotation and translation. A three-channel visual motion system would also be readily compatible with vestibular information concerning self-rotation arising from the semicircular canals. PMID:8527373

  4. Analysis of thickness modes of contoured doubly rotated, quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    EerNisse, E P

    2001-09-01

    It is the intent of this work to provide a working resource for calculating all three mode families of a doubly rotated, contoured quartz resonator. It is shown that the theoretical development of Stevens and Tiersten [1] can be used for this purpose. Their approach uses a transformation of the mechanical displacement vector to the eigenvector triad of the pure thickness solution. The solution methodology here reorganizes the transformation matrix Q in their formulation to calculate the other two mode families. Calculations compare well with experimental results for the three mode families of an SC-cut crystal and an FC-cut crystal and with published calculations for the SBTC-cut mode family with major displacement along the x3 blank axis. The key constants for the SC-cut are presented for workers to use in the future. In addition, the equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived for the two additional mode families using assumptions parallel to those used by Stevens and Tiersten [1]. Calculations with these equations are presented for completeness to support the present conclusions by showing the equivalence of either simply reorganizing the Q matrix or using separate equations for each of the three mode families. PMID:11570760

  5. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Elastic Analysis of Rotating Thick Cylindrical Shells with Variable Thickness Using Disk Form Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Jabbari, Mehdi; Ghannad, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Using disk form multilayers, a semi-analytical solution has been derived for determination of displacements and stresses in a rotating cylindrical shell with variable thickness under uniform pressure. The thick cylinder is divided into disk form layers form with their thickness corresponding to the thickness of the cylinder. Due to the existence of shear stress in the thick cylindrical shell with variable thickness, the equations governing disk layers are obtained based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). These equations are in the form of a set of general differential equations. Given that the cylinder is divided into n disks, n sets of differential equations are obtained. The solution of this set of equations, applying the boundary conditions and continuity conditions between the layers, yields displacements and stresses. A numerical solution using finite element method (FEM) is also presented and good agreement was found. PMID:24719582

  6. Hip Rotational Velocities During the Full Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Gulgin, Heather; Armstrong, Charles; Gribble, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Since labral pathology in professional golfers has been reported, and such pathology has been associated with internal/external hip rotation, quantifying the rotational velocity of the hips during the golf swing may be helpful in understanding the mechanism involved in labral injury. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the peak internal/external rotational velocities of the thigh relative to the pelvis during the golf swing. Fifteen female, collegiate golfers participated in the study. Data were acquired through high-speed three dimensional (3-D) videography using a multi-segment bilateral marker set to define the segments, while the subjects completed multiple repetitions of a drive. The results indicated that the lead hip peak internal rotational velocity was significantly greater than that of the trail hip external rotational velocity (p = 0.003). It appears that the lead hip of a golfer experiences much higher rotational velocities during the downswing than that of the trail hip. In other structures, such as the shoulder, an increased risk of soft tissue injury has been associated with high levels of rotational velocity. This may indicate that, in golfers, the lead hip may be more susceptible to injury such as labral tears than that of the trailing hip. Key points Lead hip of golfer experiences significantly higher rotational velocities than the trail hip. Golfers may be more susceptible to injuries on the lead hip. Clubhead velocities were consistent with elite female golfers. PMID:24149541

  7. Faraday rotation density measurements of optically thick alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegen, E.; Kadlecek, S.; Anderson, L. W.; Walker, T. G.; Erickson, C. J.; Happer, William

    2001-03-01

    We investigate the measurement of alkali number densities using the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light. We find that the alkali number density may be reliably extracted even in regimes of very high buffer gas pressure, and very high alkali number density. We have directly verified our results in potassium using absorption spectroscopy on the second resonance (4 2S→5 2P).

  8. Allowable silicon wafer thickness versus diameter for ingot rotation ID wafering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Inner diameter (ID) wafering of ingot rotation reduce the ID saw blade diameter was investigated. The blade thickness can be reduced, resulting in minimal kerf loss. However, significant breakage of wafers occurs during the rotation wafering as the wafer thickness decreases. Fracture mechanics was used to develop an equation relating wafer thickness, diameter and fracture behavior at the point of fracture by using a model of a wafer, supported by a center column and subjected to a cantilever force. It is indicated that the minimum allowable wafer thickness does not increase appreciably with increasing wafer diameter and that fracture through the thickness rather than through the center supporting column limits the minimum allowable wafer thickness. It is suggested that the minimum allowable wafer thickness can be reduced by using a vacuum chuck on the wafer surface to enhance cleavage fracture of the center core and by using 111 ingots.

  9. Reconstruction of full-thickness lower eyelid defect using superficial temporal artery island flap combined with auricular cartilage graft.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Zhao, Yanyong

    2015-03-01

    Full-thickness lower eyelid defect is one of common surgical diseases, which may lead to exposure keratopathy, corneal ulceration, and blindness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of superficial temporal artery island flap combined with auricular cartilage graft on the repair of full-thickness lower eyelid defect.In this study, the reconstructions in 6 patients who had unilateral full-thickness lower eyelid defects due to ocular traumas or surgical resections of malignant tumors were carried out. The island flap of the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery reconstructed the outer layer and the total lower lid was supported with the plane of an auricular cartilage strip, offering a proper contour and physical strength to maintain a normal eyelid height. The follow-up time ranged from 6 to 24 months. No major complications including partial or total flap necrosis, signs of infection, venous congestion, and hematoma were seen in any of the patients, and all cases have been reconstructed well both aesthetically and functionally, showing esthetic eyelid contour, good color, and texture match.Superficial temporal artery island flap combined with auricular cartilage graft is a useful method functionally and cosmetically for the reconstructions of full-thickness lower eyelid defects because of its advantages including rich vascularity based on superficial temporal artery, wide pedicle rotational arc, which could be transferred throughout the face region, good eyelid contour with color and texture match, limited donor-site scar, and minimal postoperative morbidity. PMID:25692897

  10. Non-Exposure, Device-Assisted Endoscopic Full-thickness Resection.

    PubMed

    Bauder, Markus; Schmidt, Arthur; Caca, Karel

    2016-04-01

    Recent developments have expanded the frontier of interventional endoscopy toward more extended resections following surgical principles. This article presents two new device-assisted techniques for endoscopic full-thickness resection in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Both methods are nonexposure techniques avoiding exposure of gastrointestinal contents to the peritoneal cavity by a "close first-cut later" principle. The full-thickness resection device is a novel over-the-scope device designed for clip-assisted full-thickness resection of colorectal lesions. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric subepithelial tumors can be performed after placing transmural sutures underneath the tumor with a suturing device originally designed for endoscopic antireflux therapy. PMID:27036899

  11. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha-1, respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha-1). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  12. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  13. Effect of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burns in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C

    2016-08-01

    The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits. PMID:26192365

  14. Stability of resistive wall modes with plasma rotation and thick wall in ITER scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.

    2004-11-01

    The rotation effect on resistive wall modes (RWMs) is examined for realistically shaped, high-beta tokamak equilibria, including reactor relevant cases with low mach number M and realistic thick walls. For low M, Stabilization of RWMs arises from unusually thin inertial layers. The investigation employs the newly developed adaptive eigenvalue code (AEGIS: Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution), which describes both low and high n modes and is in good agreement with GATO in the benchmark studies. AEGIS is unique in using adaptive methods to resolve such inertial layers with low mach number rotation. This feature is even more desirable for transport barrier cases. Additionally, ITER and reactors have thick conducting walls ( ˜.5-1 m) which are not well modeled as a thin shell. Such thick walls are considered here, including semi-analytical approximations to account for the toroidally segmented nature of real walls.

  15. Skin resurfacing in a circumferential full thickness burn to the penis: lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Thompson, Richard; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis is a rarely encountered injury. However, when it does occur, it proves a management challenge to the plastic and burns surgeon in terms of reconstruction. This is due to the need of not only regaining adequate function of the organ, but also because of the need for a pleasing aesthetic outcome. Split-skin grafts have been utilised successfully to resurface full thickness burns of the penis and have given good results. Yet the success of split-skin grafts, especially those applied to an anatomically challenging region of the body such as the penis, depends on a number of carefully thought-out steps. We discuss the case of a circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis which was treated with split-skin grafting and highlight important pitfalls that the plastic and burns surgeon need to be aware of to ensure a successful outcome. PMID:23946511

  16. The use of collagen-based matrices in the treatment of full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wiebke; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Werner, Jan-Ole; Schiefer, Jennifer; Rothenberger, Jens; Hübner, Gunnar; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Chronic and complex full-thickness wounds have become increasingly prevalent. Besides autologous skin transplantation, innovative wound dressing products have gained interest, as the functional and esthetic outcome is still limited. In this respect, the effect of a novel modifiable collagen-gelatin fleece on the healing of deep dermal wounds was examined and compared with untreated controls and Matriderm(®). A total of 48 full-thickness skin defects were generated on six minipigs and treated with the novel collagen-gelatin fleece of different thicknesses in single or multiple application (n=36) or treated with Matriderm(®) in a single application (n=6), or the wounds were left untreated (n=6). Wound healing was analyzed planimetrically by wound closure per time and histologically with regard to epidermal thickness and cell density. Compared to untreated wounds, wound closure per time and histological skin quality with regard to the mean epidermal thickness and epidermal cell amount were enhanced in both treatment groups. Overall, the best results for the novel collagen-gelatin fleece were achieved for multiple applications with a thickness of 150g/m(2). The novel biomaterial shows accelerated and improved dermal wound repair in a minipig model. As the manufacturing process of the scaffold allows the integration of bioactive substances such as antibiotics and growth factors, we intend to design a composite biomaterial using this scaffold as a carrier matrix. PMID:27297940

  17. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-09-23

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multi-purpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  18. Utilization of the scrotum as a full thickness skin graft in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sean; Gottfried, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, intact, male dog was presented for degloving wounds to the distal pelvic limbs due to vehicular trauma. Treatment involved serial debridement of the wounds and use of the scrotal skin as a full thickness, meshed skin graft applied to the dorsal aspect of the left pes with a successful outcome. PMID:21286329

  19. Full-thickness skin avulsion of right leg following car accident trauma.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad Zaghi

    2008-05-15

    The report presents a 24 year-old man who admitted at the orthopedic center with full-thickness skin avulsion of the right leg, due to his leg being caught under the wheel of a truck and subsequently traumatized. The day after injury, plastic and reconstructive surgery consult was done. After thoroughly irrigation, the 20 cm laceration was repaired above the knee. There was full-thickness skin necrosis below the knee down to the dorsal surface of the right leg (atypical form of skin avulsion). Debridment and graft was performed for the first stage. During the second stage, re-grafting was performed and the gasterocnemious flap was transposed to cover the Tibia bone. This study confirms early Plastic and reconstructive surgery consult from the trauma of lower extremities associated with skin lesion. PMID:18817278

  20. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails. PMID:26777605

  1. Full-thickness excision using transanal endoscopic microsurgery for treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Jie; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jiao-Lin; Lin, Guo-Le; Qiu, Hui-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of full-thickness excision using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) in the treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS: We analyzed the data of all rectal neuroendocrine tumor patients who underwent local full-thickness excision using TEM between December 2006 and December 2014 at our department. Data collected included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, operative details, postoperative outcomes, pathologic findings, and follow-ups. RESULTS: Full-thickness excision using TEM was performed as a primary excision (n = 38) or as complete surgery after incomplete resection by endoscopic polypectomy (n = 21). The mean size of a primary tumor was 0.96 ± 0.21 cm, and the mean distance of the tumor from the anal verge was 8.4 ± 1.4 cm. The mean duration of the operation was 57.6 ± 13.7 min, and the mean blood loss was 13.5 ± 6.6 mL. No minor morbidities, transient fecal incontinence, or wound dehiscence was found. Histopathologically, all tumors showed typical histology without lymphatic or vessel infiltration, and both deep and lateral surgical margins were completely free of tumors. Among 21 cases of complete surgery after endoscopic polypectomy, 9 were histologically shown to have a residual tumor in the specimens obtained by TEM. No additional radical surgery was performed. No recurrence was noted during the median of 3 years’ follow-up. CONCLUSION: Full-thickness excision using TEM could be a first surgical option for complete removal of upper small rectal neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:26290641

  2. Monoblock Expanded Full-thickness Graft for Resurfacing of the Burned Face in Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Allam, A M; El Khalek, A E A; Mustafa, W; Zayed, E

    2007-12-31

    It has been emphasized by many authors that to obtain better aesthetic results in a burned facial area to be resurfaced - if it extends into more than one aesthetic territory - the units involved should be combined into a single large composite unit allowing the largest possible skin graft to be used. Unfortunately, the donor site for full-thickness grafts is limited in young patients and hence tissue expansion is used. A monoblock expanded full-thickness skin graft for facial resurfacing after post-burn sequelae excision was used in 12 young patients after expansion of the superolateral aspect of the buttock. Females made up the majority of the patients (75%) and the ages ranged between 8 and 18 yr. The operating time was 3-3.5 hours, in two sessions. Post-operatively, we recorded partial graft necrosis in two cases (16.7%) and infection in one (8.3%), and some minor donor-site-related complications were reported, such as haematoma in one patient (8.3%), wound infection in one patient (8.3%), and wide scarring in two patients (16.7%). At follow-up, eight of the patients (66.7%) were satisfied with their new facial look as the mask effect of facial scarring had been overcome. With monoblock expanded full-thickness graft we were able to resurface the face in nine cases (75%). A second complementary procedure to reconstruct the eyebrows or reshape the nose was required in two cases (16.7%). We concluded that the monoblock expanded full-thickness graft was a suitable solution for limitation of the donor site in young patients, as the resulting wound could be closed primarily with a scar that could be concealed by the underwear, with lim. PMID:21991093

  3. Spontaneous eyelid expansion after full thickness eyelid resection and direct closure

    PubMed Central

    Thaller, V; Then, K; Luhishi, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Direct closure of eyelid defects gives excellent functional results but is usually restricted to defects measuring less than a quarter of the eyelid length for fear of distorting the palpebral aperture and compromising lid function. The authors have used direct closure in larger defects. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of direct closure of full thickness eyelid margin defects under tension on the palpebral aperture dimensions.
METHODS—A consecutive series of patients who had undergone one eyelid, full thickness lid resection repaired by direct closure were identified and invited to have both eyes photographed. The palpebral apertures of both eyes were measured from the photographs by a masked observer. The amount of eyelid resected was recorded from the operation notes. The unoperated palpebral aperture was used as the control. The result were analysed using a paired samples t test.
RESULTS—The photographs of 18 patients were included in the analysis. The mean width of excised full thickness lid tissue was 15 mm (range 7-26 mm). The mean vertical palpebral aperture height was 9.2 (SD 1.4) mm in the operated eye as opposed to 9.3 (SD 1.2) mm in the non-operated eye. The mean horizontal palpebral aperture width was 26.1 (SD 1.9) mm in the operated eye as opposed to 26.4 (SD 1.8) mm in the non-operated eye. There was no statistically significant difference between the operated and unoperated horizontal and vertical palpebral measurements.
CONCLUSIONS—Direct closure of large full thickness eyelid defects is possible in selected patients with excellent functional and cosmetic results. Eyelid tissue expansion occurs spontaneously following direct eyelid defect closure under tension, restoring the palpebral aperture dimensions.

 PMID:11734520

  4. Full-thickness Scalp Injury Due to Hair Braiding and Weave

    PubMed Central

    Grunzweig, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Full-thickness scalp necrosis secondary to hair weave placement is a rare but serious complication of a common hairstyle. The defects can be large and may necessitate complex reconstruction with hair-bearing tissue. We report on the case of a young woman with extensive scalp loss following tight spiral braiding. The case description illustrates this relatively unknown complication, its treatment, and possible preventative measures. PMID:26495190

  5. Bubaline Cholecyst Derived Extracellular Matrix for Reconstruction of Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Poonam; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Naveen; Vellachi, Remya; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Dubey, Prasoon; Singh, Kiranjeet; Shrivastava, Sonal; Shrivastava, Sameer; Maiti, S. K.; Hasan, Anwarul; Singh, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM) of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS) and open wound (C) in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS). In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM). Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III) as compared to control (I) and b-CS (II) on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III) as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats. PMID:27127678

  6. The Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Full-Thickness Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haojie; Huang, Hong; Chen, Deyun; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASCs on full-thickness skin grafts. Specifically, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs that are mediated via regulation of the phenotypes of activated macrophages. Methods. ASCs were isolated, cultured, and injected under full-thickness skin grafts in 15 rats (ASC group). An additional 15 rats served as controls (PBS group). Skin graft survival assessment and vascularization detection were assessed with H&E staining and laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDF). The effects of ASCs on angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen accumulation-promoting, and antiscarring were assessed. Results. We found that the skin graft survival rate was significantly increased in the ASC group. The neovascularization, collagen deposition, collagen type I to type III ratio, and levels of VEGF and TGF-β3 in the ASC group were markedly higher than those in the PBS group at day 14. Additionally, in the ASC group, the levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were remarkably decreased, whereas the levels of IL-10 and Arg-1 were substantially increased. Conclusions. Our results confirm that ASCs transplantation can effectively improve full-thickness skin graft survival. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory role of ASCs may indirectly contribute to skin graft survival via its effect on macrophage polarization. PMID:27413735

  7. The Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Full-Thickness Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Hao, Haojie; Huang, Hong; Chen, Deyun; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASCs on full-thickness skin grafts. Specifically, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs that are mediated via regulation of the phenotypes of activated macrophages. Methods. ASCs were isolated, cultured, and injected under full-thickness skin grafts in 15 rats (ASC group). An additional 15 rats served as controls (PBS group). Skin graft survival assessment and vascularization detection were assessed with H&E staining and laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDF). The effects of ASCs on angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen accumulation-promoting, and antiscarring were assessed. Results. We found that the skin graft survival rate was significantly increased in the ASC group. The neovascularization, collagen deposition, collagen type I to type III ratio, and levels of VEGF and TGF-β3 in the ASC group were markedly higher than those in the PBS group at day 14. Additionally, in the ASC group, the levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were remarkably decreased, whereas the levels of IL-10 and Arg-1 were substantially increased. Conclusions. Our results confirm that ASCs transplantation can effectively improve full-thickness skin graft survival. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory role of ASCs may indirectly contribute to skin graft survival via its effect on macrophage polarization. PMID:27413735

  8. Topical vitamin K1 promotes repair of full thickness wound in rat

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Nemati, Mohammad; Behmanesh, Mohammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Application of vitamin K to the skin has been used for suppression of pigmentation and resolution of bruising. However, in rats, no study was reported on its effect regarding wound healing. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the healing effects of creams prepared from vitamin K1 on full-thickness wound in rats. Materials and Methods: For inducing full-thickness wound in rats, the excisional wound model was used. Five groups consisting of 8 rats each were used. Vitamin K cream (1% and 2%, w/w) was prepared in eucerin base and applied on the wound once a day until complete healing had occurred. Healing was defined by decreased wound margin (wound contraction), re-epithelialization, tensile strength and hydroxyproline content. Histopathological examination was also done. Results: The effects produced by the topical vitamin K showed significant (P < 0.01) healing when compared with control group in parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength. Histopathological studies also showed improvement with vitamin K. Conclusions: Topical vitamin K demonstrates wound healing potential in full-thickness wound model. PMID:25097279

  9. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    PubMed

    Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. PMID:10342473

  10. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Woo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Sang Ho; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Moh, Ji Hong; Kondo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Background Rosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice. Methods Sixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg) was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA. Conclusions Rose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing. PMID:26618114

  11. Use of dermal regeneration template (Integra) for reconstruction of full-thickness complex oncologic scalp defects.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad A A; Ali, Syed N; Farid, Mohammed; Pancholi, Megha; Rayatt, Sukh; Yap, Lok H

    2010-05-01

    The reconstruction of full-thickness scalp defects remains a surgical challenge. Different types of reconstruction had varying success including the use of dermal regeneration template (DRT). We reviewed the surgical outcome of 30 patients who underwent application of DRT for resurfacing of full-thickness scalp defects when the pericranium was excised and the outer cortex of the calvarial bone was burred after the excision of scalp neoplasm. This was a retrospective review of 30 patients who had scalp reconstruction with DRT undertaken by the senior author between October 2004 and June 2007. The mean age of patients in our series was 63 years (37-91 years). There were 14 men and 16 women. The indications for re-excision and DRT reconstruction in 28 patients were close margins and aggressive tumor type, whereas 2 patients had a recurrence. The mean defect size was 95 cm2 (16-275 cm2). The second stage of the reconstruction occurred on postoperative day 42 (postoperative days 27-62). The mean follow-up period was 14 months. Two patients had minor complications. For both stages, the combined average operative time was 128 minutes. The use of DRT is a rung of the reconstructive ladder that deserves consideration. In our series of 30 patients who required secondary reconstruction of complex scalp defects, the use of DRT has been seen to provide safe and durable soft-tissue cover for full-thickness scalp defects. The reduced operative time and inpatient stay are desirable characteristics particularly in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. PMID:20485078

  12. Carbon dioxide laser ablation with immediate autografting in a full-thickness porcine burn model.

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, R D; Goldberg, J S; Schomacker, K T; Compton, C C; Flotte, T J; Bua, D P; Greaves, K W; Nishioka, N S; Sheridan, R L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term clinical and histologic outcome of immediate autografting of full-thickness burn wounds ablated with a high-power continuous-wave CO2 laser to sharply débrided wounds in a porcine model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuous-wave CO2 lasers have performed poorly as tools for burn excision because the large amount of thermal damage to viable subeschar tissues precluded successful autografting. However, a new technique, in which a high-power laser is rapidly scanned over the eschar, results in eschar vaporization without significant damage to underlying viable tissues, allowing successful immediate autografting. METHODS: Full-thickness paravertebral burn wounds measuring 36 cm2 were created on 11 farm swine. Wounds were ablated to adipose tissue 48 hours later using either a surgical blade or a 150-Watt continuous-wave CO2 laser deflected by an x-y galvanometric scanner that translated the beam over the tissue surface, removing 200 microm of tissue per scan. Both sites were immediately autografted and serially evaluated clinically and histologically for 180 days. RESULTS: The laser-treated sites were nearly bloodless. The mean residual thermal damage was 0.18+/-0.05 mm. The mean graft take was 96+/-11% in manual sites and 93+/-8% in laser sites. On postoperative day 7, the thickness of granulation tissue at the graft-wound bed interface was greater in laser-debrided sites. By postoperative day 180, the manual and laser sites were histologically identical. Vancouver scar assessment revealed no differences in scarring at postoperative day 180. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term scarring, based on Vancouver scar assessments and histologic evaluation, was equivalent at 6 months in laser-ablated and sharply excised sites. Should this technology become practical, the potential clinical implications include a reduction in surgical blood loss without sacrifice of immediate engraftment rates or long-term outcome. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  13. QSONIC- FULL POTENTIAL TRANSONIC, QUASI-THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW THROUGH A ROTATING TURBOMACHINERY BLADE ROW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, QSONIC, has been developed for calculating the full potential, transonic quasi-three-dimensional flow through a rotating turbomachinery blade row. The need for lighter, more efficient turbomachinery components has led to the consideration of machines with fewer stages, each with blades capable of higher speeds and higher loading. As speeds increase, the numerical problems inherent in the transonic regime have to be resolved. These problems include the calculation of imbedded shock discontinuities and the dual nature of the governing equations, which are elliptic in the subcritical flow regions but become hyperbolic for supersonic zones. QSONIC provides the flow analyst with a fast and reliable means of obtaining the transonic potential flow distribution on a blade-to-blade stream surface of a stationary or rotating turbomachine blade row. QSONIC combines several promising transonic analysis techniques. The full potential equation in conservative form is discretized at each point on a body-fitted period mesh. A mass balance is calculated through the finite volume surrounding each point. Each local volume is corrected in the third dimension for any change in stream-tube thickness along the stream tube. The nonlinear equations for all volumes are of mixed type (elliptic or hyperbolic) depending on the local Mach number. The final result is a block-tridiagonal matrix formulation involving potential corrections at each grid point as the unknowns. The residual of each system of equations is solved along each grid line. At points where the Mach number exceeds unity, the density at the forward (sweeping) edge of the volume is replaced by an artificial density. This method calculates the flow field about a cascade of arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils. Three-dimensional flow is approximated in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for stream-tube convergence and radius change in the through flow direction. Several significant assumptions were made in

  14. Spatial coherence effect on layer thickness determination in narrowband full-field optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Safrani, Avner; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2011-06-20

    Longitudinal spatial coherence (LSC) is determined by the spatial frequency content of an optical beam. The use of lenses with a high numerical aperture (NA) in full-field optical coherence tomography and a narrowband light source makes the LSC length much shorter than the temporal coherence length, hence suggesting that high-resolution 3D images of biological and multilayered samples can be obtained based on the low LSC. A simplified model is derived, supported by experimental results, which describes the expected interference output signal of multilayered samples when high-NA lenses are used together with a narrowband light source. An expression for the correction factor for the layer thickness determination is found valid for high-NA objectives. Additionally, the method was applied to a strongly scattering layer, demonstrating the potential of this method for high-resolution imaging of scattering media.

  15. Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma: Treatment outcomes with surgical excision and full thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, I; Robert, N; Revol, M

    2016-02-01

    Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease. An often missed or delayed diagnosis, the affected finger could result in an amputation. Our aim is to focus on the results of surgical excision of fingertips squamous cell carcinoma. Between 2005 and 2011, eighteen fingers on eight patients with a mean age of 62.5 years underwent surgery. The surgical excision margin was 5mm and the defect was covered by a full thickness skin graft. Three fingers were revised for having a non-secure margin with an enlarged excision and two fingers were amputated at the distal phalange. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, resulting in an amputation of the affected finger. Aesthetic outcomes range from very good to good satisfaction except for one, which was bad. PMID:25301287

  16. Enhanced healing of full-thickness burn wounds using di-rhamnolipid

    PubMed Central

    Stipcevic, Tamara; Piljac, Ante; Piljac, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of di-rhamnolipid [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1–2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-3-hydroxydecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, also referred to as di-rhamnolipid BAC-3] relating to the process of cutaneous wound healing. Di-rhamnolipid was prepared in a eucerin ointment and applied topically on full-thickness burn wounds in normal Sprague–Dawley rats covering 5% of the total body surface area. The rate of wound closure was measured over the period of 45 days. The collagen content was evaluated microscopically, by performing densitometric analysis on Verhoeff’s stained histopathological slides of wound biopsies taken at the end of 45th day of di-rhamnolipid treatment. Di-rhamnolipid toxicity was assessed with the subcutaneous multi-dose study in Swiss–Webster mice. The treatment of full-thickness-burn wounds with topical 0.1% di-rhamnolipid accelerated the closure of wounds on day 21 of the treatment by 32% compared to the control ( p < 0.05). On day 35, the wounds closed in all animals-treated with 0.1% di-rhamnolipid ointment while some rats in the control group had open wounds on days 35 and even 45. Histologic comparisons have shown that di-rhamnolipid significantly decreased collagen content in burn wounds (47.5%, p < 0.05) as compared to the vehicle-treated (control) wounds. Di-rhamnolipid was well-tolerated. The results of this study raise the possibility of potential efficacy of di-rhamnolipid in accelerating normal wound healing and perhaps in overcoming defects associated with healing failure in chronic wounds. PMID:16380213

  17. A Novel Nude Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Scratched Full Thickness Human Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Alrobaiea, Saad M.; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Tredget, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorder that develops following deep skin injury. HTS can cause deformities, functional disabilities, and aesthetic disfigurements. The pathophysiology of HTS is not understood due to, in part, the lack of an ideal animal model. We hypothesize that human skin with deep dermal wounds grafted onto athymic nude mice will develop a scar similar to HTS. Our aim is to develop a representative animal model of human HTS. Approach: Thirty-six nude mice were grafted with full thickness human skin with deep dermal scratch wound before or 2 weeks after grafting or without scratch. The scratch on the human skin grafts was made using a specially designed jig that creates a wound >0.6 mm in depth. The xenografts were morphologically analyzed by digital photography. Mice were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: The mice developed raised and firm scars in the scratched xenografts with more contraction, increased infiltration of macrophage, and myofibroblasts compared to the xenografts without deep dermal scratch wound. Scar thickness and collagen bundle orientation and morphology resembled HTS. The fibrotic scars in the wounded human skin were morphologically and histologically similar to HTS, and human skin epithelial cells persisted in the remodeling tissues for 1 year postengraftment. Innovation and Conclusions: Deep dermal injury in human skin retains its profibrotic nature after transplantation, affording a novel model for the assessment of therapies for the treatment of human fibroproliferative disorders of the skin. PMID:27366591

  18. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality. PMID:26453400

  19. The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jang Hwan; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800), the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00) g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0). The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU) (range, 299.25-402.75 AU) and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU), respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm) with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier. PMID:25075353

  20. The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1988-01-01

    The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dabboue, Hinda; Builles, Nicolas; Frouin, Éric; Scott, Dan; Ramos, Jeanne; Marti-Mestres, Gilberte

    2015-01-01

    For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times) showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26247021

  2. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach.

    PubMed

    Dabboue, Hinda; Builles, Nicolas; Frouin, Éric; Scott, Dan; Ramos, Jeanne; Marti-Mestres, Gilberte

    2015-01-01

    For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times) showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26247021

  3. Rotational imaging optical coherence tomography for full-body mouse embryonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Sudheendran, Narendran; Singh, Manmohan; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used to study mammalian embryonic development with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolutions and without the need for any contrast enhancement probes. However, the limited imaging depth of traditional OCT might prohibit visualization of the full embryonic body. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new methodology to enhance the imaging range of OCT in embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos using rotational imaging. Rotational imaging OCT (RI-OCT) enables full-body imaging of mouse embryos by performing multiangle imaging. A series of postprocessing procedures was performed on each cross-section image, resulting in the final composited image. The results demonstrate that RI-OCT is able to improve the visualization of internal mouse embryo structures as compared to conventional OCT.

  4. Extracting full-field dynamic strain response of a rotating wind turbine using photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Health monitoring of wind turbines is typically performed using conventional sensors (e.g. strain-gages and accelerometers) that are usually mounted to the nacelle or gearbox. Although many wind turbines stop operating due to blade failures, there are typically few to no sensor mounted on the blades. Placing sensors on the rotating parts of the structure is a challenge due to the wiring and data transmission constraints. Within the current work, an approach to monitor full-field dynamic response of rotating structures (e.g. wind turbine blades or helicopter rotors) is developed and experimentally verified. A wind turbine rotor was used as the test structure and was mounted to a block and horizontally placed on the ground. A pair of bearings connected to the rotor shaft allowed the turbine to freely spin along the shaft. Several optical targets were mounted to the blades and a pair of high-speed cameras was used to monitor the dynamics of the spinning turbine. Displacements of the targets during rotation were measured using three-dimensional point tracking. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible deformation of the blades at target locations. While the structure is rotating, only flap displacements of optical targets (displacements out of the rotation plane) were used in strain prediction process. The measured displacements were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the turbine to extract full-field dynamic strain on the structure. The proposed approach enabled the prediction of dynamic response on the outer surface as well as within the inner points of the structure where no other sensor could be easily mounted. In order to validate the proposed approach, the predicted strain was compared to strain measured at four locations on the spinning blades using a wireless strain-gage system.

  5. Repair of Full-Thickness Defects in Alimentary Tract Wall With Patches of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daniel S.; Manning, Melanie M.; Emmanuel, Janson; Broyles, Stuart E.; Stone, H. Harlan

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of patches of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) for the repair of full-thickness defects in alimentary tract wall. Summary Background Data A recent report of successful replacement of duodenal wall with patches of ePTFE was met with skepticism and clearly warranted confirmation as well as evaluation in repair of other segments of the abdominal intestinal tract. Methods Defects of 4 cm2 were created in various segments of canine abdominal alimentary tract (stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon) as well as in bladder dome. For the duodenum in 13 dogs, three different ePTFE fabrications were used: CVX (cardiovascular), PDX (preclude dura membrane), and DLM (dual mesh plus). In repair of the other areas in six dogs, the PDX patch was used. When the animals were killed, both gross inspection of the parietes and tissue for histologic study became the basis for evaluation. Peritoneal and intraluminal cultures of the specific study viscera were also taken. Results There were no patch failures. Only six significant adhesions were noted in 3 of the 19 dogs. Serosal surface healing was complete without exception by 1 week in all animals. Patches of CVX and PDX had heaping mucosa at the margin of well-sealed patch edges in the study involving duodenum. However, the DLM patch had an undergrowth of mucosa with partial patch separation by 1 week, beginning patch extrusion into gut lumen at 3 weeks, and total separation of patch with complete mucosal repair at 6 weeks. The fate of the PDX patches at 6 weeks in stomach, small bowel, colon, and bladder was identical to what had been observed for the PDX patch in the duodenum. All peritoneal and bladder cultures had no growth, whereas the contents of the alimentary tract grew expected flora. Conclusions These observations suggest that ePTFE may well be an acceptable membrane for at least temporary replacement of full-thickness hollow viscus defects, even in the face of heavy bacterial

  6. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  7. Full-thickness wounds resulting from 'do-it-yourself' cryolipolysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C D; Kahn, S A; Summitt, J B

    2016-04-01

    This report reviews the case of a 55-year-old woman who suffered frostbite while attempting a 'do-it-yourself' version of cryolipolysis without the guidance of a medical professional. Cryolipolysis is a well-understood process through which the careful application of below-freezing temperatures is used to induce adipose cell death while sparing the skin, reducing body fat. This patient used dry ice in lieu of professional medical equipment, resulting in 4% total body surface area full- and partial-thickness wounds to her abdomen. Ultimately, the more superficial wounds healed with xenograft and a silver-impregnated dressing. The superior, deeper wound was excised and primarily closed with a fleur-de-lis panniculectomy. Her hospital course and recovery were uneventful. This case illustrates how online information of dubious quality can put the uneducated patient at risk of injury. Health-care professionals should be aware of the questionable resources available online, and should help patients become more discerning consumers of online information. Strategies to prevent such injury should be developed on a national scale. PMID:27068348

  8. Evaluation of a bilayered, micropatterned hydrogel dressing for full-thickness wound healing.

    PubMed

    Magin, Chelsea M; Neale, Dylan B; Drinker, Michael C; Willenberg, Bradley J; Reddy, Shravanthi T; La Perle, Krista Md; Schultz, Gregory S; Brennan, Anthony B

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 12 million wounds are treated in emergency departments throughout the United States every year. The limitations of current treatments for complex, full-thickness wounds are the driving force for the development of new wound treatment devices that result in faster healing of both dermal and epidermal tissue. Here, a bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel dressing that uses microarchitecture to guide two key steps in the proliferative phase of wound healing, re-epithelialization, and revascularization, was evaluated in vitro in a cell migration assay and in vivo in a bipedicle ischemic rat wound model. Results indicate that the Sharklet™-micropatterned apical layer of the dressing increased artificial wound coverage by up to 64%, P = 0.024 in vitro. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that the bilayered dressing construction enhanced overall healing outcomes significantly compared to untreated wounds and that these outcomes were not significantly different from a leading clinically available wound dressing. Collectively, these results demonstrate high potential for this new dressing to effectively accelerate wound healing. PMID:27037279

  9. An ordinary differential equation model for full thickness wounds and the effects of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bowden, L G; Maini, P K; Moulton, D E; Tang, J B; Wang, X T; Liu, P Y; Byrne, H M

    2014-11-21

    Wound healing is a complex process in which a sequence of interrelated phases contributes to a reduction in wound size. For diabetic patients, many of these processes are compromised, so that wound healing slows down. In this paper we present a simple ordinary differential equation model for wound healing in which attention focusses on the dominant processes that contribute to closure of a full thickness wound. Asymptotic analysis of the resulting model reveals that normal healing occurs in stages: the initial and rapid elastic recoil of the wound is followed by a longer proliferative phase during which growth in the dermis dominates healing. At longer times, fibroblasts exert contractile forces on the dermal tissue, the resulting tension stimulating further dermal tissue growth and enhancing wound closure. By fitting the model to experimental data we find that the major difference between normal and diabetic healing is a marked reduction in the rate of dermal tissue growth for diabetic patients. The model is used to estimate the breakdown of dermal healing into two processes: tissue growth and contraction, the proportions of which provide information about the quality of the healed wound. We show further that increasing dermal tissue growth in the diabetic wound produces closure times similar to those associated with normal healing and we discuss the clinical implications of this hypothesised treatment. PMID:25017724

  10. The development and evolution of full thickness macular hole in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-W; Ho, T-C; Yang, C-M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the morphological changes before and after the formation of a full-thickness macular hole (MH) in highly myopic eyes. Patients and methods Retrospective observational case series. From 2006 to 2013, clinical records of patients with MH and high myopia who had optical coherence tomography (OCT) before the development of MH were reviewed. All patients had been followed for more than 1 year since MH formation to observe the morphological changes. Results Twenty-six eyes of 24 patients were enrolled. The initial OCT images could be classified into four types: (1) normal foveal depression with abnormal vitreo-retinal relationship (eight cases), (2) macular schisis without detachment (six cases), (3) macular schisis with concomitant/subsequent detachment (nine cases), and (4) macular atrophy with underlying/adjacent scar (three cases). After MH formation, one case in type 1 and one case in type 4 group developed retinal detachment (RD). In type 2 group, four cases developed RD at the same time of MH formation. The preexisting detachment in type 3 group extended in eight cases and improved in one case. Among all the cases, 14 eyes received vitrectomy and 7 eyes received gas injection. MH sealed in nine eyes after vitrectomy and four eyes by gas injection. Conclusion The study revealed four pathways of MH formation in highly myopic eyes. MH from macular schisis tended to be associated with detachment. However, the evolution and the results of surgical intervention were not always predictable. PMID:25572579

  11. Numerical simulation of full-penetration laser beam welding of thick aluminium plates with inductive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Marcel; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional laminar steady-state numerical model was developed to investigate the influence of an alternating current (ac) magnetic field during high-power full-penetration laser welding on the weld pool dynamics and weld cross section of a 20 mm thick aluminium plate in flat position. Three-dimensional heat transfer, fluid dynamics including phase transition and electromagnetic field partial differential equations were solved iteratively with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics using temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature. Thermocapillary convection at the weld pool surfaces, natural convection and latent heat of solid-liquid phase transition were taken into account in this model. Solidification was modelled by the Carman-Kozeny equation for porous media morphology. The ac magnet was mounted on the root side of the weld specimen. The magnetic field was aligned perpendicular to the welding direction. The flow pattern in the melt and thus also the temperature distribution were significantly changed by the application of oscillating magnetic fields. It was shown that the application of an ac magnetic field to laser beam welding allows for a prevention of the gravity drop-out. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. Pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) used to treat full thickness defects in the rabbit model

    SciTech Connect

    Andino, R.V.; Feldman, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Skin ulcers have historically been treated by passive therapy. One active treatment, PEMF, has shown promise. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine the effects of a current induced by a PEMF on full thickness defects in white New Zealand rabbits. It was hypothesized that the induced current would increase neutrophil, macrophage, and fibroblast proliferation during the wound healing process. This in turn, would lead to an increase in collagen deposition in the wound and thus increase the healing rate. A device which produces a 2.8 mTesla magnetic field at a frequency of 75 Hz was donated by the EBI Corp. and modified so that a rabbit could be fit between its two induction coils. Two rabbits with four 3 x 3 cm wounds each were stimulated for 3.5 hours/day for 1 week and two rabbits with identical wounds were stimulated for the same time period daily but for 2 weeks. These wounds were compared to unstimulated controls. Preliminary results indicate that the healing rate in the PEMF animals increased by about 25-30% and the number of neutrophils is greater in the one week stimulated group. In the two week stimulated group, the collagen deposition is greater, denser and in alignment.

  13. Periostin modulates myofibroblast differentiation during full-thickness cutaneous wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Christopher G.; Wang, Jian; Guo, Xiaolei; Xu, Shi-wen; Eastwood, Mark; Guan, Jianjun; Leask, Andrew; Conway, Simon J.; Hamilton, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    The matricellular protein periostin is expressed in the skin. Although periostin has been hypothesized to contribute to dermal homeostasis and repair, this has not been directly tested. To assess the contribution of periostin to dermal healing, 6 mm full-thickness excisional wounds were created in the skin of periostin-knockout and wild-type, sex-matched control mice. In wild-type mice, periostin was potently induced 5–7 days after wounding. In the absence of periostin, day 7 wounds showed a significant reduction in myofibroblasts, as visualized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) within the granulation tissue. Delivery of recombinant human periostin by electrospun collagen scaffolds restored α-SMA expression. Isolated wild-type and knockout dermal fibroblasts did not differ in in vitro assays of adhesion or migration; however, in 3D culture, periostin-knockout fibroblasts showed a significantly reduced ability to contract a collagen matrix, and adopted a dendritic phenotype. Recombinant periostin restored the defects in cell morphology and matrix contraction displayed by periostin-deficient fibroblasts in a manner that was sensitive to a neutralizing anti-β1-integrin and to the FAK and Src inhibitor PP2. We propose that periostin promotes wound contraction by facilitating myofibroblast differentiation and contraction. PMID:22266908

  14. A porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin autografting

    PubMed Central

    Branski, Ludwik K.; Mittermayr, Rainer; Herndon, David N.; Norbury, William B.; Masters, Oscar E.; Hofmann, Martina; Traber, Daniel L.; Redl, Heinz; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2008-01-01

    Acute burn wounds often require early excision and adequate coverage to prevent further hypothermia, protein and fluid losses, and the risk of infection. Meshed autologous skin grafts are generally regarded as the standard treatment for extensive full-thickness burns. Graft take and rate of wound healing, however, depend on several endogenous factors. This paper describes a standardized reproducible porcine model of burn and skin grafting which can be used to study the effects of topical treatments on graft take and re-epithelialization. Procedures provide a protocol for successful porcine burn wound experiments with special focus on pre-operative care, anesthesia, burn allocation, excision and grafting, postoperative treatment, dressing application, and specimen collection. Selected outcome measurements include percent area of wound closure by planimetry, wound assessment using a clinical assessment scale, and histological scoring. The use of this standardized model provides burn researchers with a valuable tool for the comparison of different topical drug treatments and dressing materials in a setting that closely mimics clinical reality. PMID:18617332

  15. Fracture behavior of shallow cracks in full-thickness clad beams from an RPV wall section

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-04-01

    A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in weld material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from an RPV shell segment that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients and material inhomogeneities in welded regions. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for in-plane loss of constraint for uniaxially tested beams, but cannot predict the observed effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on shallow-crack fracture toughness. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation (based on plastic zone width) performed acceptably when applied to the uniaxial and biaxial shallow-crack fracture toughness data.

  16. Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the {eta}-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature.

  17. An overview of the HSST Full-Thickness Shallow-Crack Clad Beam Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Theiss, T.J.; McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.

    1994-09-01

    A testing program is described that will utilize full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow flaws in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow flaws in the beam specimen include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. Fracture toughness tests focusing on shallow flaws in plate and weld material will also provide data for evaluating the relative influence of absolute and normalized crack depth on constraint conditions. Pretest finite-element analyses are described that provide near-tip stress and strain fields for characterization of constraint in the shallow-crack specimens in terms of the Q-stress. Analysis results predict a constraint loss in the shallow-crack clad beam specimen similar to that determined for a previously tested shallow-crack single-edge notch homogeneous bend specimen with the same normalized crack depth.

  18. Comprehensive management of full-thickness luminal defects: The next frontier of gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Joshua S; Pauli, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Full thickness gastrointestinal defects such as perforations, leaks, and fistulae are a relatively common result of many of the endoscopic and surgical procedures performed in modern health care. As the number of these procedures increases, so too will the number of resultant defects. Historically, these were all treated by open surgical means with the associated morbidity and mortality. With the recent advent of advanced endoscopic techniques, these defects can be treated definitively while avoiding an open surgical procedure. Here we explore the various techniques and tools that are currently available for the treatment of gastrointestinal defects including through the scope clips, endoscopic suturing devices, over the scope clips, sealants, endoluminal stents, endoscopic suction devices, and fistula plugs. As fistulae represent the most recalcitrant of defects, we focus this editorial on a multimodal approach of treatment. This includes optimization of nutrition, treatment of infection, ablation of tracts, removal of foreign bodies, and treatment of distal obstructions. We believe that by addressing all of these factors at the time of attempted closure, the patient is optimized and has the best chance at long-term closure. However, even with all of these factors addressed, failure does occur and in those cases, endoscopic therapies may still play a role in that they allow the patient to avoid a definitive surgical therapy for a time while nutrition is optimized, and infections are addressed. PMID:26191340

  19. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-05-20

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 {mu}m measurements can be recorded with less than {+-}5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  20. Integrated Drive for Contact-Free Full Rotation and its Novel Positioning Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang Heon

    To expand an inevitably limited rotating range of the existing planar precision stage, we suggest a revolving stage driven by three-separate axial type of transverse flux induction motors spaced 120° apart. It is a non-contact integrated rotating system that uses three-axial vector forces such as normal and thrust force of each motor. In this paper, the primary principles capable of realizing such a contact-less revolving stage are reviewed and compared, with results that seem to confirm the main principles of the suggested system. And then, the positioning method with only the air-gap measurements covering full degree of freedom is presented, compared with that of existing stages.

  1. Preliminary assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material in full-thickness clad beams

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a testing program that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results form three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the yield strength of the base material. An irradiation-induced increase in yield strength of the weld material could result in a yield stress that exceeds the upper limit where code curves are valid. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may have implications for RPV structural integrity assessments. Analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Metallurgical conditions in the region of the cladding heat-affected zone are proposed as a possible explanation for the lower-bound fracture toughness measured with one of the shallow-crack clad beam specimens. Fracture toughness data from the three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack uniaxial beam and cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material.

  2. Endoscopic full thickness resection for gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Mahmood, Ejaz; Desai, Aakash; Singhal, Shashideep

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To do systematic review of current literature for endoscopic full thickness resection (EFTR) technique for gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria. METHODS: An extensive English literature search was done till December 2015; using PubMed and Google scholar to identify the peer reviewed original and review articles using keywords-EFTR, gastric tumor, muscularis propria. Human only studies were included. The references of pertinent studies were manually searched to identify additional relevant studies. The indications, procedural details, success rates, clinical outcomes, complications and limitations were considered. For the purpose of review, data from individual studies was combined to calculate mean. No other statistical test was applied. RESULTS: A total of 9 original articles were identified. Four articles were from same institute and the time frames of these studies were overlapping. To avoid duplication of data, only the study with patients over the longest time interval was included and other three were excluded. In total six studies were included in the final review. In our systematic review, the mean success rate for EFTR of gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria was 96.8%. The mean procedure time varied from a minimum of 37 min to a maximum of 105 min. There was no reported mortality from the technique itself. The most common histological diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyoma. Gastric wall defect closure by either metallic clips or over the scope clip (OTSC) had similar outcomes although experience with OTSC was limited to smaller lesions (< 3 cm). CONCLUSION: EFTR is a minimally invasive technique to resect gastric submucosal tumors originating from muscularis propria with a high success rate and low complication rate. PMID:27499831

  3. Topical naltrexone accelerates full-thickness wound closure in type 1 diabetic rats by stimulating angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Immonen, Jessica A; Zagon, Ian S

    2013-07-01

    Delays in wound healing often result in infection, chronic ulceration, and possible amputation of extremities. Impaired wound healing is a major complication of the 23 million people in the USA with diabetes, and financial and medical burdens are demanding new treatments for wound healing. Previous studies have demonstrated that topical application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) dissolved in moisturizing cream reverses delays in wound closure in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. A target of NTX's action is DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In this study, granulation tissue was evaluated to ascertain the specific cellular targets that were impaired in diabetic wounds, as well as those that were enhanced following NTX application. Mast cell number as well as the number of new blood vessels immunoreactive to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies were recorded at 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 20 days following creation of full-thickness dorsal cutaneous wounds in normal and type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats displayed delays in wound closure as well as a reduction in the number of mast cells responding to the injury, and delays in the spatial and temporal expression of FGF-2, VEGF, and α-SMA in capillaries. Topical NTX accelerated the rate of wound closure and stimulated expression of angiogenic factors within granulation tissue of diabetic rats relative to control animals receiving saline in moisturizing cream. These data support observations that a novel biological pathway is impaired under diabetic conditions and can be modulated by topical NTX to enhance proliferative events in wound healing. PMID:23788174

  4. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. Methods: We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Results: Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. Conclusions: There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury. PMID:27555888

  5. Dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with full circle rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yanbing; Wu, Nan; Zhong, Xueyong; Zhang, Biao

    2015-07-01

    Parallel robots are widely used in the academic and industrial fields. In spite of the numerous achievements in the design and dimensional synthesis of the low-mobility parallel robots, few research efforts are directed towards the asymmetric 3-DOF parallel robots whose end-effector can realize 2 translational and 1 rotational(2T1R) motion. In order to develop a manipulator with the capability of full circle rotation to enlarge the workspace, a new 2T1R parallel mechanism is proposed. The modeling approach and kinematic analysis of this proposed mechanism are investigated. Using the method of vector analysis, the inverse kinematic equations are established. This is followed by a vigorous proof that this mechanism attains an annular workspace through its circular rotation and 2 dimensional translations. Taking the first order perturbation of the kinematic equations, the error Jacobian matrix which represents the mapping relationship between the error sources of geometric parameters and the end-effector position errors is derived. With consideration of the constraint conditions of pressure angles and feasible workspace, the dimensional synthesis is conducted with a goal to minimize the global comprehensive performance index. The dimension parameters making the mechanism to have optimal error mapping and kinematic performance are obtained through the optimization algorithm. All these research achievements lay the foundation for the prototype building of such kind of parallel robots.

  6. Development of a Full-Thickness Human Gingiva Equivalent Constructed from Immortalized Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Buskermolen, Jeroen K.; Reijnders, Christianne M.A.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Steinberg, Thorsten; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Feilzer, Albert J.; Bakker, Astrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Organotypic models make it possible to investigate the unique properties of oral mucosa in vitro. For gingiva, the use of human primary keratinocytes (KC) and fibroblasts (Fib) is limited due to the availability and size of donor biopsies. The use of physiologically relevant immortalized cell lines would solve these problems. The aim of this study was to develop fully differentiated human gingiva equivalents (GE) constructed entirely from cell lines, to compare them with the primary cell counterpart (Prim), and to test relevance in an in vitro wound healing assay. Reconstructed gingiva epithelium on a gingiva fibroblast-populated collagen hydrogel was constructed from cell lines (keratinocytes: TERT or HPV immortalized; fibroblasts: TERT immortalized) and compared to GE-Prim and native gingiva. GE were characterized by immunohistochemical staining for proliferation (Ki67), epithelial differentiation (K10, K13), and basement membrane (collagen type IV and laminin 5). To test functionality of GE-TERT, full-thickness wounds were introduced. Reepithelialization, fibroblast repopulation of hydrogel, metabolic activity (MTT assay), and (pro-)inflammatory cytokine release (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed during wound closure over 7 days. Significant differences in basal KC cytokine secretion (IL-1α, IL-18, and CXCL8) were only observed between KC-Prim and KC-HPV. When Fib-Prim and Fib-TERT were stimulated with TNF-α, no differences were observed regarding cytokine secretion (IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL2). GE-TERT histology, keratin, and basement membrane protein expression very closely represented native gingiva and GE-Prim. In contrast, the epithelium of GE made with HPV-immortalized KC was disorganized, showing suprabasal proliferating cells, limited keratinocyte differentiation, and the absence of basement membrane proteins. When a wound was introduced into the more physiologically relevant GE-TERT model, an immediate inflammatory response (IL-6, CCL2, and

  7. Tetrodotoxin suppresses thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a rat full thickness thermal injury pain model.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margaux M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Petz, Lawrence N; Korz, Walter; Wong, Donald; Clifford, John L

    2015-10-21

    Burn injuries have been identified as the primary cause of injury in 5% of U.S. military personnel evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Severe burn-associated pain is typically treated with opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, and methadone. Side effects of opioids include respiratory depression, cardiac depression, decrease in motor and cognitive function, as well as the development of hyperalgesia, tolerance and dependence. These effects have led us to search for novel analgesics for the treatment of burn-associated pain in wounded combat service members. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical trials as an analgesic. A phase 3 clinical trial for cancer-related pain has been completed and phase 3 clinical trials on chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain are planned. It has also been shown in mice to inhibit the development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. TTX was originally identified as a neurotoxin in marine animals but has now been shown to be safe in humans at therapeutic doses. The antinociceptive effects of TTX are thought to be due to inhibition of Na(+) ion influx required for initiation and conduction of nociceptive impulses. One TTX sensitive sodium channel, Nav1.7, has been shown to be essential in lowering the heat pain threshold after burn injuries. To date, the analgesic effect of TTX has not been tested in burn-associated pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a full thickness thermal injury on the right hind paw. TTX (8 μg/kg) was administered once a day systemically by subcutaneous injection beginning 3 days post thermal injury and continued through 7 days post thermal injury. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were assessed 60 and 120 min post injection on each day of TTX treatment. TTX significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia at all days tested and had a less robust, but statistically significant suppressive effect on mechanical

  8. Topical silver treatment after escharectomy of infected full thickness burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi-Sing; McManus, Albert T; Mason, Arthur D; Pruitt, Basil A

    2005-05-01

    White male Sprague Dawley rats (200 g.) with 20% full thickness scald burns seeded with 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain 59-1244, were used as experimental animals. Studies including the following: (1). Control groups. (2). DC pretreatment groups. (3). Treatment groups. P. aeruginosa infected burn wounds were excised, and then treated with either autograft or silver-nylon dressings, with (SNDC) or without (SN) application direct current. Excision and treatment were initiated 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 days after burning and inoculation. (4). Groups for antimicrobial barrier function study. Mortality of each group was recorded at 21 days PB. With burns alone, there was no mortality. Without treatment 19 of 20 burn inoculated controls died. In the pretreatment study, the mortality of the group pretreated with SN was 95% while that of the group pretreated with SNDC was only 30%. With excision and autografting, PB mortality rose from 5/20 at day 2 PB to 19/20 at day 3 PB. In the excision and SN groups, mortality rose from 5/20 at day 3 PB to 18/20 at day 4 PB. In the excision and SNDC groups, mortality rose from 5/20 at day 3 PB to 18/20 at day 4 PB. In the antimicrobial barrier function study, the 10% mortality in the SN dressing group was significantly less than that of 95% in the plain nylon dressed group. Histologic examination revealed progressively deepening colonization of non-viable wound tissue, progressing to invasion of underlying viable tissue by PB day 4. With wound excision, SN, SNDC, and autografting were equally protective for the first two days, but only SN and SNDC extended this effect to the third PB day. In conclusion, SN and SNDC have a strong local anti-microbial effect on the burn wound when applied within 72 hours of the time of bacterial inoculation, but little effect if applied after the bacteria have invaded unburned vessels and viable tissue adjacent to the burn. PMID:15920422

  9. DS1 MICAS Full-Disk-Rotation Spectra of Mars (1.2-2.8 microns)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2000-10-01

    During November 1999 new global reflectance spectra of Mars for two full rotations were acquired with the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) channel of the MICAS (Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer) aboard DS1 (New Millennium Deep Space 1 S/C). Earlier spectra, acquired in May 1999, had shown very tentative new absorption features between 1.5-1.9 microns, possibly related to surface mineralogy (Soderblom, 2000, LPSC abstract). During the November 1999 sequence Mars was at a much closer range (55 versus 115 million km). The conditions for the November observations were as follows: phase angle 53 deg., heliocentric longitude (Ls) 240 deg. (northern Autumn), sub-S/C latitude 18.1 S, and sub-solar latitude 21.8 S. This is an opportune geometry because most of the surface contrast among surface materials likely to show mineralogical variance is in the belt from the equator to about 40 S (c.f. Viking global color mosaics). The south annual CO2 cap was near its full extent ( 60 S). MICAS acquired 48 spectra in with the SWIR keyhole (16 groups of three on 3-hour centers) covering roughly two full rotations of Mars. Because Mars' sidereal day is about 24h and 40m, the two rotations are shifted about 9 degrees relative to each other; all spectra that were within +/- 5 degrees of each other were averaged to provide longitude coverage every 45 degrees. The data were calibrated using a new MICAS SWIR spectral response file derived Arcturus observations. The new calibration allows extension of the useful spectral range out to 2.7 microns. The highest quality (highest SNR) spectral region is from 1.6 to 2.0 microns bounded on both sides by atmospheric CO2 bands. A series of spectral features are recognized in this band appear to be related to surface mineralogy because their strength is modulated by rotation of the planet. The features were tentatively identified at 1.74 and 1.87 microns in the May data (Soderblom, 2000) are far more clearly visible in the November data

  10. Mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty: a full traumatic rotation of 180°.

    PubMed

    Sudanese, Alessandra; Castiello, Emanuela; Affatato, Saverio

    2013-06-25

    From February 2008 to September 2012 we implanted 204 mobile-bearing knee prostheses in 192 patients. All the prostheses were cemented (both femoral and tibial components), and the patella was not replaced. Only one early complication of the implants (1/204 = 0.004%) occurred after a traumatic event as a full 180° rotation of the mobile-bearing polyethylene insert. A 78-year-old woman presented with swelling and severe pain at her right knee. This traumatic event was the only case among our mobile-bearing insert patients. 
The failed polyethylene inserts were retrieved and studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, ZEISS EVO 50 EP, Cambridge, UK) operating at 20 kV. 
Scratching and pitting were found on the UHMWPE insert perpendicular to the machining tracks for the concave surface. SEM micrographs of the insert showed burnishing on the concave surfaces and longitudinal scratches were clearly detectable and well-marked on the analyzed surfaces. 
A traumatic, fully rotating, polyethylene insert is rare and our case is the first report describing a traumatic event with a complete 180 degree rotation mobile-bearing in a total knee prosthesis. 
In the literature few reports discuss clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson's disease and they cite mixed results. However, some authors suggest that posterior-stabilized and cruciate-retaining TKA should work well while others prefer cruciate-retaining, condylar constrained kinetics, or hinged devices. Although we did not implant a posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis or a constrained prosthesis, we obtained good clinical and radiological results at the 2-year followup. PMID:23653296

  11. Full-thickness skin wound healing using autologous keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts with fibrin: bilayered versus single-layered substitute.

    PubMed

    Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Rameli, Mohd Adha bin P; Low, Kiat Cheong; Law, Jia Xian; Chua, Kien Hui; Latiff, Mazlyzam Bin Abdul; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2014-04-01

    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns. PMID:24637651

  12. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect. PMID:26566439

  13. Clast Rotation and Nature of Strain Localization in Thick Ultramylonites: the El Pichao Shear Zone (Sierra de Quilmes), NW Argentina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Hunter, Nicholas James; Weinberg, Roberto; Finch, Melanie

    2013-04-01

    Ultramylonite formation is integral to understanding the accommodation of high strain in ductile shear zones, mountain building and crustal movement. The El Pichao Shear Zone (PSZ) is 3-7km thick ductile thrust zone in the Sierra de Quilmes, NW Argentina. Sinistral thrusting along the PSZ has placed granulite facies migmatites of the Tolombón Complex on top of amphibolite metasedimentary rocks of the Agua del Sapo Complex, separated by a sheared granitic body intruded by pegmatites. The fabric varies from protomylonite to ultramylonite. Ultramylonites in the core of the shear zone reach ~1km in thickness. Ultramylonites of this thickness are extremely rare, and thus the El Pichao Shear Zone provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of such high strain rocks. We used microstructural and quantitative textural analysis, quartz crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), clast vorticity and geochemical data to investigate the origin of the thick ultramylonites, and variable strain accommodation associated with the mylonitization process. The mylonitic rocks have granitic composition and consist of a matrix of Bt+Qtz+Ms+Pl+Kfs, Qtz ribbons, mica bands and feldspar porphyroclasts. Feldspar clasts have been variably rotated and their deformation behaviour varies between brittle faulting and partial to complete dynamic recrystallisation. In the ultramylonite Qtz ribbons or strong S-C fabrics are lacking and the matrix tends to be homogeneous with only weak foliation defined by the preferred orientation of micas. There is also a systematic decrease in matrix grain size and mica connectivity towards ultramylonite. Quartz CPO suggests changes in deformation mechanisms associated with strain increase. The transition between mylonite and ultramylonite in the PSZ occurred due to a switch from dominant dislocation creep to dominant diffusion creep. Major and trace element data show no geochemical variation between samples, indicating that the mylonite

  14. Geography of the rotational resonances and their stability in the ellipsoidal full two body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Nadoushan, Mahdi; Assadian, Nima

    2016-02-01

    A fourth-order Hamiltonian describing the planar full two body problem is obtained, allowing for a mapping out of the geography of spin-spin-orbit resonances. The expansion of the mutual potential function up to the fourth-order results in the angles to come through one single harmonic and consequently the rotation of both bodies and mutual orbit are coupled. Having derived relative equilibria, stability analysis showed that the stability conditions are independent of physical and orbital characteristics. Simultaneously chaotic motion of bodies is investigated through the Chirikov diffusion utilizing geographic information of the complete resonances. The results show that simultaneous chaos among the binary asteroids is not expected to be prevalent due to the mass distribution of primary in compare with secondary. If mass distribution of bodies is of the same order, simultaneous chaos and global instability are achievable.

  15. Realizing the full potential of Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Chen, A.; Liu, L.; Parsekian, A.; Jafarov, E. E.; Panda, S. K.; Zebker, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) product uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to measure ground subsidence, active layer thickness (ALT), and thermokarst activity in permafrost regions. ReSALT supports research for the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign in Alaska and northwest Canada and is a precursor for a potential Nasa-Isro Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) product. ALT is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost and thermokarst activity is one of the key drivers of change in permafrost regions. The ReSALT product currently includes 1) long-term subsidence trends resulting from the melting and subsequent drainage of excess ground ice in permafrost-affected soils, 2) seasonal subsidence resulting from the expansion of soil water into ice as the active layer freezes and thaws, and 3) ALT estimated from the seasonal subsidence assuming a vertical profile of water within the soil column. ReSALT includes uncertainties for all parameters and is validated against in situ measurements from the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) network, Ground Penetrating Radar and mechanical probe measurements. We present high resolution ReSALT products on the North Slope of Alaska: Prudhoe Bay, Barrow, Toolik Lake, Happy Valley, and the Anaktuvuk fire zone. We believe that the ReSALT product could be expanded to include maps of individual thermokarst features identified as spatial anomalies in the subsidence trends, with quantified expansion rates. We illustrate the technique with multiple examples of thermokarst features on the North Slope of Alaska. Knowing the locations and expansion rates for individual features allows us to evaluate risks to human infrastructure. Our results highlight the untapped potential of the InSAR technique to remotely sense ALT and thermokarst dynamics over large areas of the Arctic.

  16. Immunoperoxidase detection of neuronal antigens in full-thickness whole mount preparations of hollow organs and thick sections of central nervous tissue.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J; Gnanamanickam, Greta J E

    2011-03-15

    Immunofluorescently stained whole mounts have proved useful for defining the innervation of the gut and large blood vessels. Nerves supplying other hollow organs are usually studied in sections, which provide much less information. Aiming to describe the entire innervation of rat uterus, we developed a method for immunoperoxidase staining of full-thickness whole mounts that allowed us to visualize all immunoreactive axons. Uterine horns were dissected out, slit open, stretched, pinned flat and fixed. Entire horns were treated with methanol/peroxide, buffered Triton X-100 and normal serum and then incubated in primary antibodies, biotinylated secondary antibodies and avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), each for at least 3 days. Peroxidase reactions revealed immunoreactivity. Immunostained horns were dehydrated, infiltrated with epoxy resin, mounted on slides under Aclar coverslips and polymerized. We treated bladders, gut, major pelvic ganglia and thick sections of perfused medulla oblongata similarly to assess the applicability of the method. Using this method, we could map the entire uterine innervation provided by axons immunoreactive for a variety of antigens. We could also assess the entire tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive innervation in all layers of bladder, gut and ganglia whole mounts and throughout 300 μm sections of medulla. These observations show that this method for immunoperoxidase staining reliably reveals the complete innervation of full-thickness whole mounts of hollow organs and thick sections of central nervous tissue. The method has several advantages. The resin-embedded tissue does not degrade; the immunostaining is non-fading and permanent and neurochemically defined features can be mapped at large scale without confocal microscopy. PMID:21167203

  17. Direct Visualisation of the Depth-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Szarko, Matthew; Xia, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The structural anisotropy of articular cartilage controls its deformation response. As proteoglycans and collagen vary with depth, simple uniaxial compression results in inhomogeneous deformation with distinct depth-dependent mechanical properties. Investigations into depth-dependent mechanical properties of articular cartilage have previously required tissue modification after specimen isolation. Such modifications include histological processes, freezing, subchondral bone removal, and fluorescent staining that may alter the tissue, limiting in vivo applicability. Design Using a custom tissue-sectioning device, 0.1 mm thick unfixed, unstained, osetochondral samples were obtained. A customized apparatus loaded samples to 12.5, 24, and 29% compression in under a microscope with 10× magnification. Equilibrium load was measured after stress relaxation. Intra-tissue displacement was measured by tracing groups of cells between the different compression levels using a digital imaging program. Cell distance from the subchondral bone was measured to identify intra-tissue displacement and calculate strain. Results The results reveal that stress levels and intra-tissue displacement increased with greater tissue compression (p <0.05). Intra-tissue displacement decreased as depth from the articular surface increased (p<0.01). This occurred for each level of tissue compression. Overall compressive resistance is seen to increase with depth from the articular surface. Conclusions The current study identifies a method directly visualising and assessing the depth-dependent structural response to compression. The ability to avoid tissue modification after specimen isolation, allows this procedure to more closely approximate in vivo conditions and may provide an important method for analyzing the coordinated changes in cartilage composition and function due to ageing and disease. PMID:24416657

  18. The full GHG balance over two crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo; Brümmer, Christian; Don, Catharina; Dechow, Rene; Fuß, Roland; Freibauer, Annette; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Kolle, Olaf; Ziegler, Waldemar

    2013-04-01

    Gebesee in Thuringia is the eldest cropland eddy covariance (EC) site in Europe. The site has been part of CarboEurope, NitroEurope and IMECC and has been selected to be one of the German Level 1 sites within the European research infrastructure ICOS. Continuous measurements of NEE by EC, NPP by regular harvesting, lateral in- and outputs of carbon and nitrogen as well as climatic parameters have been conducted since 2001. Automated chamber measurements of N2O and CH4 were conducted since 2007. Fluxes of these greenhouse gases (GHG) for the years 2001 - 2006 were calculated based on a Fuzzy Logic model calibrated by means of the chamber measurements. In this study we present NEE, NBP and full GHG balances of over two rotation periods (2001 - 2004 and 2005 - 2009, respectively) comprising four times winter wheat, two times potatoes and one cropping period of oil seed rape, sugar beet and barley each. The GHG balance is dominated by moderate losses of soil organic matter (~120 +/- 50 g C m-2 y-1) and by N2O emissions of about 0.17 g N2O-N m-2 y-1 (50 g C-eq m-2 y-1). The on-site emissions of GHG balance about 43 % of the harvested carbon.

  19. Net carbon balance of three full crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, M.; Brümmer, C.; Kolle, O.; Kutsch, W. L.; Moffat, A. M.; Mukwashi, K.; Truckenbrodt, S. C.; Herbst, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 and H2O exchange have been conducted since 2001 at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany, thus providing one of the longest EC time series of European croplands. During the experimental period, winter wheat and winter barley were alternately planted with potatoes, sugar beet, rape, and peppermint covering three full crop rotations (2001-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). In this study, data of 14 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (E) were re-calculated. Based on these data, we present the net carbon (C) balance (net biome production, NBP) accounting for any additional C input by fertilization and C output by harvest. Further emphasis was placed on the sensitivity of water use efficiency (WUE) and E to climate and crop type. The main aim was to investigate the interannual variability in both NBP and WUE, thus disentangling the impacts of climatic conditions and land management on the net C balance as well as on WUE and E.

  20. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  1. Columella Lengthening with a Full-Thickness Skin Graft for Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nose Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Seok; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Choi, Hyun Gon; Kim, Jee Nam; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Jo, Dong In

    2015-01-01

    Background Various techniques for lengthening short columellae have been used for bilateral cleft nose repair. However, previous methods have not yielded satisfactory results. We performed a full-thickness skin graft to lengthen short columellae during secondary cleft nose repair in adult patients. Methods Ten bilateral cleft lip and nose patients underwent secondary cheiloplasty with open rhinoplasty between July 2008 and August 2014. The patients underwent a full-thickness skin graft on the medial crura to elongate the columella. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 22.2 years. Nasal profiles were evaluated before and after the operation using the photogrammetric method. Results The nasal profiles were improved in all patients, and all skin grafts were well taken, with the exception of one patient. Columellar height, nostril height, and columella-lip angle increased, and nasal width decreased significantly. The ratios of columellar height to nasal height, columellar height to nasal width, and nasal height to nasal width increased to a statistically significant extent. Conclusions Columella lengthening with a full-thickness skin graft is a simple and effective method for the repair of severely short columellae in bilateral cleft nose patients. We had satisfactory outcomes, with good color matching and aesthetically pleasing contours. PMID:26618116

  2. Rapid creation of skin substitutes from human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers for acute full-thickness wound repair.

    PubMed

    Mahjour, Seyed Babak; Fu, Xiaoling; Yang, Xiaochuan; Fong, Jason; Sefat, Farshid; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-12-01

    Creation of functional skin substitutes within a clinically acceptable time window is essential for timely repair and management of large wounds such as extensive burns. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of fabricating skin substitutes via a bottom-up nanofiber-enabled cell assembly approach and using such substitutes for full-thickness wound repair in nude mice. Following a layer-by-layer (L-b-L) manner, human primary skin cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) were rapidly assembled together with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen (3:1, w/w; 8%, w/v) nanofibers into 3D constructs, in which fibroblasts and keratinocytes were located in the bottom and upper portion respectively. Following culture, the constructs developed into a skin-like structure with expression of basal keratinocyte markers and deposition of new matrix while exhibiting good mechanical strength (as high as 4.0 MPa by 14 days). Treatment of the full-thickness wounds created on the back of nude mice with various grafts (acellular nanofiber meshes, dermal substitutes, skin substitutes and autografts) revealed that 14-day-cultured skin substitutes facilitated a rapid wound closure with complete epithelialization comparable to autografts. Taken together, skin-like substitutes can be formed by L-b-L assembling human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers and they are effective to heal acute full-thickness wounds in nude mice. PMID:26187057

  3. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation. PMID:24324974

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells combined with an artificial dermal substitute improve repair in full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Dilmar; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Fernandes, Marilda C; Meurer, Rosalva T; Pereira-Filho, Gustavo A; Cruz, Paloma; Vargas, Marcelo; Chem, Roberto C; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance B

    2012-12-01

    Autografts represent the gold standard for the treatment of full thickness burns. Factors such as lack of suitable donor sites and poor skin quality, however, have led to the development of artificial dermal substitutes. The investigation of mechanisms leading to enhanced functionality of these skin substitutes has been attracting great attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of autologous stem cells on the integration and vascularization of a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin wounds, in a murine model. Two cell populations were compared, whole bone marrow cells and cultivated mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from mice transgenic for the enhanced green fluorescent protein, which allowed tracking of the transplanted cells. The number of cells colonizing the dermal substitute, as well as vascular density, were higher in mice receiving total bone marrow and particularly mesenchymal stem cells, than in control animals. The effect was more pronounced in animals treated with mesenchymal stem cells, which located primarily in the wound bed, suggesting a paracrine therapeutic mechanism. These results indicate that combining mesenchymal stem cells with artificial dermal substitutes may represent an important potential modality for treating full thickness burns, even in allogeneic combinations due to the immunoregulatory property of these cells. PMID:22998897

  5. Full-thickness gastroplication for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: short-term results of a feasibility clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kaindlstorfer, Adolf; Koch, Oliver O; Berger, Johannes; Uwe Asche, Kai; Pointner, Rudolph

    2012-12-01

    This was a prospective study that evaluates subjective and objective patient parameters 3 months after full-thickness gastroplication. Forty-one patients with documented gastroesophageal reflux disease and persistent symptoms despite medical treatment, without radiologic visible hiatal hernia, were enrolled in the study and underwent endoscopic full-thickness gastroplication with one or more plicator implants. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, symptoms typically related to reflux, gas bloat, and bowel dysfunction and esophageal manometry, and impedance-pH monitoring were performed at baseline and 3 months after the procedure. The mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index score, and general and reflux-specific scores improved significantly (P<0.01), and gas bloat-specific symptom scores and bowel dysfunction-specific symptom scores were reduced (P<0.05) on follow-up. The numbers of total, acid, proximal, upright, and recumbent reflux episodes were all reduced (P<0.01). Manometric data remained almost unchanged. DeMeester score reduced nonsignificantly (P<0.098). 21.6% of the patients were on proton-pump inhibitor medication on a daily basis after the procedure. There was only 1 postprocedure incident (bleeding) that required intervention. In conclusion, endoscopic full-thickness plication is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that significantly improves quality of life and eliminates gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the majority of patients, without side effects seen after laparoscopic fundoplication. PMID:23238376

  6. Use of Fish Scale-Derived BioCornea to Seal Full-Thickness Corneal Perforations in Pig Models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han-Tse; Huang, Min-Chang; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the use of BioCornea, a fish scale-derived collagen matrix for sealing full-thickness corneal perforations in mini-pigs. Two series of experiments were carried out in 8 Lan-Yu and 3 Göttingen mini-pigs, respectively. A 2mm central full thickness corneal perforation was made with surgical scissors and 2mm trephines. The perforations were sealed immediately by suturing BioCornea to the wounded cornea. The conditions of each patched cornea were followed-up daily for 3 or 4 days. Status of operated eyes was assessed with slit lamp examination or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Animals were sacrificed after the study period and the corneas operated were fixated for histological examination. Both OCT imaging and handheld slit lamp observations indicated that a stable ocular integrity of the perforated corneas was maintained, showing no leakage of aqueous humor, normal depth of anterior chamber and only mild swelling of the wounded cornea. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the patched cornea showed no epithelial ingrowths to the perforated wounds and no severe leucocyte infiltration of the stroma. The fish scale-derived BioCornea is capable to seal full-thickness corneal perforation and stabilize the integrity of ocular anterior chamber in pre-clinic mini-pig models. BioCornea seems to be a safe and effective alternative for emergency treatment of corneal perforations. PMID:26599018

  7. Effect of tenascin-C on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tenascin-C (TNC) on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in vivo. We used a gellan-gellan-sulfate sponge (Gellan-GS) to maintain a TNC-rich environment in the cartilage defects. We implanted Gellan-GS soaked in PBS only (Group 1), Gellan-GS soaked in 10 µg/ml of TNC (Group 2), and Gellan-GS soaked in 100 µg/ml of TNC (Group 3) into a full-thickness osteochondral defect of the patellar groove of rabbits. The defect area was examined grossly and histologically 4-12 weeks after surgery. Sections of synovium were also immunohistochemically investigated. Histologically as well as macroscopically, the defects in Group 2 showed better repair than the other groups at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Inflammation of the synovium tended to diminish over time in all groups, and the degree of synovitis was the same for all three groups at each time point. In conclusion, Gellan-GS soaked in TNC can be used as a novel scaffold for the repair of articular cartilage defects. This study also indicates that TNC promotes the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects in vivo. PMID:25428773

  8. Chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute contribute to accelerated full-thickness wound healing in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation. PMID:24324974

  9. Influence of high rotational speeds on heat transfer and oil film thickness in aero-engine bearing chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, S.; Glahn, A.; Himmelsbach, J.

    1994-04-01

    Increasing the thermal loading of bearing chambers in modern aero-engines requires advanced techniques for the determination of heat transfer characteristics. In the present study, film thickness and heat transfer measurements have been carried out for the complex two-phase oil/air flow in bearing chambers. In order to ensure real engine conditions, a new test facility has been built up, designed for rotational speeds up to n = 16,000 rpm and maximum flow temperatures of T(sub max) = 473 K. Sealing air and lubrication oil flow can be varied nearly in the whole range of aero-engine applications. Special interest is directed toward the development of an ultrasonic oil film thickness measuring technique, which can be used without any reaction on the flow inside the chamber. The determination of local heat transfer at the bearing chamber housing is based on a well-known temperature gradient method using surface temperature measurements and a finite element code to determine temperature distributions within the bearing chamber housing. The influence of high rotational speed on the local heat transfer and the oil film thickness is discussed.

  10. Full solar rotations observed by the SOLAR payload on the ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Since March 2008, an optical package measuring the sun spectral irradiance operates in space from the ESA COLUMBUS module of the International Space Station. Three instruments compose this package: a total solar irradiance instrument SOVIM, a UV-visible-infrared spectrometer: SOLSPEC and a far UV instrument: SOL-ACES. SOVIM stopped operations due to an electrical problem six months after launch but the two other instruments are still operating and ESA plans on supporting them until 2017. However, the life of the ISS has now been officially extended to 2020 and if the instruments stay in the current condition, a further extension would be possible. Due to the specificities of the ISS and mechanical limitation of the SOLAR moving platform, continuous operations are not possible and are made in intervals guaranteeing both solar visibility and minimum of contamination. This excludes arrivals of vehicles at the ISS and manoeuvres using chemical propulsion. In December 2012 and June 2013, NASA and the ISS partners approved a specific attitude, called the "SOLAR Attitude", allowing the bridging of two solar viewing opportunities and thus providing quasi-continuous observations during a full solar rotation. This process was repeated in December 2013 but the instruments had to be shut down after 25 days due to a temporary power reduction in the ISS. Normal operations are planned to resume in 2014 and would allow again the space agencies to approve new solar attitudes at the solstices. The completed operations and results already reviewed by the science teams will be presented with a special emphasis on the abnormal minimum of cycle 23. The continuation of these bridging operations and their meaning for space climate studies will also be discussed.

  11. Moist dressing coverage supports proliferation and migration of transplanted skin micrografts in full-thickness porcine wounds.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Florian; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Philip, Justin; Gerner, Philipp; Aflaki, Pejman; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy; Caterson, E J; Junker, Johan P E; Eriksson, Elof

    2014-03-01

    Transplantation of skin micrografts in a 1:100 ratio regenerate the epidermis of full-thickness wounds in pigs within 14 days in a wet environment. The aim of the current study was to combine micrografts and commercially available moist dressings. We hypothesized that micrografts regenerate the epidermis when covered with a moist dressing. 5cm×5cm and 10cm×10cm full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of pigs. Wounds were transplanted with 0.8mm×0.8mm micrografts created from a split-thickness skin graft in a 1:100 ratio. 5cm×5cm wounds were treated with wound chambers, moist dressings or dry gauze (non-transplanted control group). 10cm×10cm wounds were compared to non-transplanted wounds, both covered with moist dressings. Reepithelialization was assessed in biopsies from day 10, 14 and 18 post-transplantation. 5cm×5cm transplanted wounds covered with moist dressings showed 69.5±20.6% reepithelialization by day 14 and 90.5±10.4% by day 18, similar to wounds covered with a wound chamber (63.9±16.7 and 86.2±11.9%, respectively). 18 days post-transplantation, 10cm×10cm transplanted wounds covered with moist dressings showed 66.1±10.3% reepithelialization, whereas nontransplanted wounds covered with moist dressings were 40.6±6.6% reepithelialized. We conclude that micrografts combined with clinically available moist dressings regenerate the epidermis of full-thickness wounds. PMID:23838078

  12. Suppression of α Smooth Muscle Actin Accumulation by Bovine Fetal Dermal Collagen Matrix in Full Thickness Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Lineaweaver, William; Bush, Katie; James, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The suppression of elements associated with wound contracture and unfavorable scarring is a potentially important strategy in clinical wound management. In this study, the presence of α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a protein involved in wound contraction, was analyzed in a series of wounds in which bovine fetal collagen (BFC) acellular dermal matrix (PriMatrix) was used in staged split thickness skin graft procedures. The results obtained through histological and quantitative image analyses of incidental biopsies from these wounds demonstrated a suppression of αSMA in the wound regions occupied by assimilated BFC relative to increased levels of αSMA found in other areas of the wound. The αSMA levels found in assimilated BFC were similar to αSMA levels in uninjured human dermis. These findings suggest a mechanism by which application of BFC could decrease contraction of full thickness skin wounds. PMID:25695450

  13. ROTATION PERIODS OF 34,030 KEPLER MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: THE FULL AUTOCORRELATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; Aigrain, S.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed three years of data from the Kepler space mission to derive rotation periods of main-sequence stars below 6500 K. Our automated autocorrelation-based method detected rotation periods between 0.2 and 70 days for 34,030 (25.6%) of the 133,030 main-sequence Kepler targets (excluding known eclipsing binaries and Kepler Objects of Interest), making this the largest sample of stellar rotation periods to date. In this paper we consider the detailed features of the now well-populated period-temperature distribution and demonstrate that the period bimodality, first seen by McQuillan et al. in the M-dwarf sample, persists to higher masses, becoming less visible above 0.6 M {sub ☉}. We show that these results are globally consistent with the existing ground-based rotation-period data and find that the upper envelope of the period distribution is broadly consistent with a gyrochronological age of 4.5 Gyr, based on the isochrones of Barnes, Mamajek, and Hillenbrand and Meibom et al. We also performed a detailed comparison of our results to those of Reinhold et al. and Nielsen et al., who measured rotation periods of field stars observed by Kepler. We examined the amplitude of periodic variability for the stars with detection rotation periods, and found a typical range between ∼950 ppm (5th percentile) and ∼22,700 ppm (95th percentile), with a median of ∼5600 ppm. We found typically higher amplitudes for shorter periods and lower effective temperatures, with an excess of low-amplitude stars above ∼5400 K.

  14. A Gegenbauer-based Shallow Water solver for a thick "ocean" over a rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Ofer; Paldor, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Gegenbauer Harmonics which are the eigenfunctions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations in spherical coordinates for a thick layer of ocean are examined as alternative basis functions for global-scale spectral models. The performance of this basis is compared to that of the traditional Spherical Harmonics basis by testing the accuracy and stability with which the two bases simulate a single, analytic, wave mode of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations. For the linear equations our results show that for low initial wavenumbers the Spherical Harmonics are able to conserve the single wave mode with comparable accuracy to that of the proposed Gegenbauer Harmonics basis while at high initial wavenumbers the simulation with the Spherical Harmonics is significantly less accurate than the simulation with the Gegenbauer Harmonics. By considering a range of ocean thicknesses it is found that, for thin oceans, the Spherical Harmonics become numerically unstable after about 150 days, whereas the proposed Gegenbauer Harmonics remain stable even though they too are not the eigenfunctions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations in thin oceans. This numerical instability of the Spherical Harmonics is independent of the wave's period and was not observed in thick oceans where the simulation remained stable for at least 200 days. Our results suggest that the numerical instability of the Spherical Harmonics originates at the poles. For the non-linear equations our results show that the Spherical Harmonics solutions are less accurate than the Gegenbauer Harmonics even in a thick ocean.

  15. An evaluation of five different dressing materials on split-thickness skin graft donor site and full-thickness cutaneous wounds: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Uraloğlu, Muhammet; Livaoğlu, Murat; Agdoğan, Özgür; Mungan, Sevdegül; Alhan, Etem; Karaçal, Naci

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the healing effect of five different products on split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites and full-thickness cutaneous wounds (FTCWs) using an occlusive dressing model. Six groups were included: 1 control and 5 experimental groups, with a total of 24 rats, using an occlusive dressing model. STSG donor sites and FTCWs were established in two separate areas, to the right and left on the animals' backs. Wound sites were dressed with one of the following materials: fine mesh gauze, microporous polysaccharide hemosphere (MPH), clinoptilolite, alginate, hydrogel or biosynthetic wound dressing (Biobran(®) ). These materials were compared in terms of healing rate, healing quality and histopathological findings. Occlusive dressings were applied to each wound on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14. Area measurements were taken using images of each dressing. The alginate and clinoptilolite groups gave the best healing rate results for both STSG donor sites (P = 0·003) and FTCWs (P = 0·003). MPH came third in each group. The alginate group produced better results in terms of healing quality criteria, followed by hydrogel, MPH, clinoptilolite and Biobran(®) , in that order. Statistically significant results were obtained in all groups compared to the control group (P < 0·0007). Rapid and good healing quality for both the STSG donor sites and FTCWs were obtained with alginate. Healing with clinoptilolite and MPH was rapid, but poor quality, while slower but good healing quality was obtained with hydrogel. Slower and worse quality healing was obtained with Biobran(®) . PMID:22943661

  16. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. )

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  17. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (151). Acromioclavicular joint geyser sign with chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tendon (SST) tear.

    PubMed

    Khor, Andrew Yu Keat; Wong, Steven Bak Siew

    2014-02-01

    An 82-year-old man presented with neck pain, right upper limb radiculopathy and right shoulder pain. Physical examination revealed a soft lump over the right shoulder joint, as well as reduced range of shoulder movements. On magnetic resonance imaging, the soft lump was shown to be a cystic mass over the acromioclavicular joint and was related to a full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear. This is the classic geyser sign. The pathophysiology and clinical features of the geyser sign, and its imaging features with various imaging modalities, are discussed. PMID:24570312

  18. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (151). Acromioclavicular joint geyser sign with chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tendon (SST) tear.

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Andrew Yu Keat; Wong, Steven Bak Siew

    2014-01-01

    An 82-year-old man presented with neck pain, right upper limb radiculopathy and right shoulder pain. Physical examination revealed a soft lump over the right shoulder joint, as well as reduced range of shoulder movements. On magnetic resonance imaging, the soft lump was shown to be a cystic mass over the acromioclavicular joint and was related to a full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear. This is the classic geyser sign. The pathophysiology and clinical features of the geyser sign, and its imaging features with various imaging modalities, are discussed. PMID:24570312

  19. Full-field Deformation Measurement Techniques for a Rotating Composite Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Martin, Richard E.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roth, Don J.

    2012-01-01

    Test methods were developed to view global and local deformation in a composite tube during a test in which the tube is rotating at speeds and torques relevant to rotorcraft shafts. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to provide quantitative displacement measurements during the tests. High speed cameras were used for the DIC measurements in order to capture images at sufficient frame rates and with sufficient resolution while the tube was rotating at speeds up to 5,000 rpm. Surface displacement data was resolved into cylindrical coordinates in order to measure rigid body rotation and global deformation of the tube. Tests were performed on both undamaged and impact damaged tubes in order to evaluate the capability to detect local deformation near an impact damaged site. Measurement of radial displacement clearly indicated a local buckling deformation near the impacted site in both dynamic and static tests. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to investigate variations in fiber architecture within the composite tube and to detect impact damage. No growth in the impact damage area was observed by DIC during dynamic testing or by x-ray CT in post test inspection of the composite tube.

  20. The Healing Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Full-thickness Femoral Articular Cartilage Defects of Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, D.; Babazadeh, M.; Tanideh, N.; Zare, S.; Hoseinzadeh, S.; Torabinejad, S.; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage defect can lead to degradation of subchondral bone and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the healing effect of transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in full-thickness femoral articular cartilage defects in rabbit. Methods: 12 rabbits were equally divided into cell-treated and control groups. In cell-treated group, 2×106 cells of third passage suspended in 1 mL of DMEM was injected into articular defect. The control group just received 1 mL of DMEM. Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin and streptomycin and 2 mM L-glutamine were used for cell culture. To induce cartilage defect, 4 mm articular cartilage full-thickness defect was created in the knee. For histological evaluation in each group (H&E, safranin-O and toluidine blue), 3 rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks and 3 animals, 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: In cell therapy group post-transplantation, no abnormal gross findings were noticed. Neo-formed tissues in cell-treated groups were translucent with a smooth and intact surface and less irregularity. In cell-treated group after 8 weeks post-transplantation, the overall healing score of experimental knees were superior when compared to other groups. Conclusion: We showed that Ad-MSCs, as an available and non-invasive produced source of cells, could be safely administered in knee osteochondral defects. PMID:26576262

  1. Evaluations of bacterial contaminated full thickness burn wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats Treated with Tualang honey

    PubMed Central

    Sukur, Salmi Mohamed; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Singh, Kirnpal Kaur Banga

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The effect of Tualang honey on wound healing in bacterial contaminated full-thickness burn wounds was evaluated in 36 male Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group). Three full-thickness burn wounds were created on each rat. Each group of rats was inoculated with a different organism in the burn wounds: Group A was inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Group B was inoculated with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Group C was inoculated with Acinetobacter baumannii. One wound on each rat was dressed with either Tualang honey, Chitosan gel or Hydrofibre silver. Each wound size was measured on day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of the study. Results: The mean wound size of the Tualang honey-treated wounds was not statistically different than that of the Chitosan gel or Hydrofibre silver-treated wounds when the wounds were compared throughout the entire experiment (P > 0.05). However, comparing the mean wound size on day 21 alone revealed that the Tualang honey-treated wounds were smaller in comparison to that of the Chitosan gel and Hydrofibre silver-treated groups. Conclusions: This study shows that topical application of Tualang honey on burn wounds contaminated with P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii gave the fastest rate of healing compared with other treatments. PMID:21713196

  2. Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

  3. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Palmara, Vittorio Italo; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Sturlese, Emanuele; De Dominici, Rosanna; Alecci, Stefano; D'Amico, Paolo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma) abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes. PMID:27579309

  4. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Palmara, Vittorio Italo; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Granese, Roberta; Sturlese, Emanuele; De Dominici, Rosanna; Alecci, Stefano; Padula, Francesco; Chiofalo, Benito; Grasso, Roberta; Cignini, Pietro; D'Amico, Paolo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma) abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes. PMID:27579309

  5. Novel technique of endoscopic full-thickness resection for superficial nonampullary duodenal neoplasms to avoid intraperitoneal tumor dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Ken; Nonaka, Kouichi; Sakai, Eiji; Minato, Yohei; Satodate, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Recently, laparoscopic and/or endoscopic full-thickness resection (FTR) has been reported to be a useful technique for the treatment of superficial duodenal neoplasms (SDNs). In the current study, we evaluated clinical outcomes in 5 consecutive patients who underwent resection of nonampullary SDNs using laparoscopy-assisted endoscopic full-thickness resection with ligation Device (LAEFTR-L), which is an alternative FTR method developed to avoid peritoneal dissemination. Using a snare technique with a ligation band, the duodenal lesions were easily resected. The provisional and additional sutures for the resected site prevented delayed perforation and bleeding and they also protected the abdominal cavity from direct exposure to malignant cells. Complete resection could be achieved and FTR was histologically confirmed in all cases. The mean operation time was 173 minutes (range 138 – 217 minutes). Mean diameter of the resected specimen was 24 mm (range 18 – 32 mm). No adverse events (AEs) were observed. LAEFTR-L, which can achieve complete resection of nonampullary SDNs without severe AEs and peritoneal dissemination, could be a useful technique for the treatment of such lesions. PMID:27556096

  6. Evidence of healing of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears following arthroscopic augmentation with a collagen implant: a 2-year MRI follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bokor, Desmond John; Sonnabend, David; Deady, Luke; Cass, Ben; Young, Allan; Van Kampen, Craig; Arnoczky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background partial-thickness rotator cuff tears frequently enlarge due to increased local strain and often progress to full-thickness tears. Studies suggest the addition of new tendinous tissue to injured cuff tendons would significantly decrease peak strain, possibly protecting against tear progression. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a highly-porous collagen implant to induce new tissue formation and limit tear progression when placed on the bursal surface of partial-thickness cuff tears. Methods following arthroscopic subacromial decompression, the implant was attached to the bursal surface of the supraspinatus tendon in a prospective series of 13 consecutive patients with intermediate – (3–6 mm) to high-grade (>6 mm) partial – thickness cuff tears (5 articular, 3 bursal, 5 intra-substance). Tendon thickness, defect size, and tendon quality were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Society scores at the same preoperative and follow-up times. All 13 patients completed all follow-up exams (mean length of follow-up 27.0 months, range 23.3–32.0); no patients were lost to follow-up. Results the implant induced significant new tissue formation in all patients by 3 months (mean increase in tendon thickness 2.2 ± 0.26 mm). This tissue matured over time and became radiologically indistinguishable from the underlying tendon. The partial-thickness cuff tears showed consistent filling of the defects, with complete healing in 7 patients at 12 months, and a progressive improvement in tendon quality in the remaining patients. No tear progression was observed by MRI in any of the patients at 24 months. All clinical scores improved significantly over time. At 24 months, 12 of 13 patients (92%) had satisfactory or better results. Conclusions the results of this clinical study demonstrated

  7. Successful treatment of burn and visceral injury combined with full-thickness loss of the abdominal wall after blast injury.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Ozgür; Karaarslan, Pelin; Sakalloğlu, A Ebru; Kesik, Emine; Karakayalý, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted to our institution 10 days after he had undergone an urgent exploratory laparotomy at a local army hospital after a terrorist bombing attack. On admission, deep second-degree and third-degree burns involving 25% of the upper and lower extremities were present, together with a 25 x 10-cm abdominal full-thickness blast injury defect on the left side, an infected eviscerated midline incision, and a colostomy on the right side of the abdomen. The patient underwent a second laparotomy, at which time the intraabdominal abscess was drained, and the abdominal cavity was irrigated with saline. A jejunal perforation was found and sutured. The abdominal cavity was left open and covered with a Bogota bag for temporary closure. On postburn day 18, the patient underwent débridment and grafting of the third-degree burns to the left and right arm and right lower extremities. After several débridment sessions (postburn days 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24), an abdominal skin release and reapproximation were performed (postburn day 26). On postburn day 36, split-thickness skin grafts were placed directly on the granulated tissue of the intestines and on a defect in the left flank and iliac regions. Postoperatively, the patient did well. He was discharged on postburn day 78 with all wounds well healed. In our opinion, temporary closure followed by direct application of meshed split-thickness skin grafts to exposed abdominal viscera represents a simple method of reconstruction that can be safely performed, with minimal risk, on critically ill patients. PMID:16998411

  8. Critical stability of almost adiabatic convection in a rapidly rotating thick spherical shell

    SciTech Connect

    Starchenko, S. V.; Kotelnikova, M. S.

    2013-02-15

    In this work, the convection equations in the almost adiabatic approximation is studied for which the choice of physical parameters is primarily based on possible applications to the hydrodynamics of the deep interiors of the Earth and planets and moons of the terrestrial group. The initial system of partial differential equations (PDEs) was simplified to a single second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure or vertical velocity component to investigate the linear stability of convection. The critical frequencies, modified Rayleigh numbers, and distributions of convection are obtained at various possible Prandtl numbers and in different thick fluid shells. An analytical WKB-type solution was obtained for the case when the inner radius of the shell is much smaller than the outer radius and convective sources are concentrated along the inner boundary.

  9. Electrospun Tropoelastin for Delivery of Therapeutic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Full-Thickness Dermal Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Machula, Hans; Ensley, Burt; Kellar, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the physiological effects of electrospun tropoelastin scaffolds as therapeutic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) delivery vehicles for the treatment of full-thickness dermal wounds. Approach: Using the process of electrospinning, several prototype microfiber scaffolds were created with tropoelastin. Initial testing of scaffold biocompatibility was performed in vitro through ADSC culture, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for assessment of ADSC attachment, morphology, and new extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. The wound healing effects of ADSC-seeded scaffolds were then evaluated in a murine dermal excisional wound model. Results: For the in vitro study, SEM revealed exceptional biocompatibility of electrospun tropoelastin for ADSCs. In the wound-healing study, ADSC-treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced wound closure and epithelial thickness compared to controls. Innovation: This is the first report on the use of tropoelastin-based biomaterials as delivery vehicles for therapeutic ADSCs. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that tropoelastin-based ADSC delivery vehicles significantly accelerate wound healing compared to controls that represent the current clinical standard of care. Furthermore, the unique mechanical and biochemical characteristics of tropoelastin may favor its use over other biological or synthetic scaffolds for the treatment of certain pathologies due to its unique intrinsic mechanical properties. PMID:24804156

  10. Development of full-thickness human skin equivalents with blood and lymph-like capillary networks by cell coating technology.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Fujimoto, Kumiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer, and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 Ω cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25850823

  11. Management of a full-thickness burn to the foot following sciatic nerve palsy secondary to primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve palsy following total hip replacement is a rare but serious complication. The neurological sequelae that follow range from pure sensory loss to combined motor and sensory loss involving most of the lower limb. The loss of nociceptive feedback predisposes patients to accidental damage to the lower limb. We present the case of a lady with sciatic nerve palsy who sustained full-thickness burn injuries to her foot via a hot water bottle. The dilemma between debridement and grafting following a recent history of surgical trauma (ie, total hip replacement) versus secondary healing via dressings and regular review is discussed. Although grafting is the standard treatment in such burns, we recommend secondary healing over grafting provided the burns are not extensive. This enables potential recovery of sensation and reduces operative trauma to the limb which may retard resolution of the neuropraxia. PMID:23595171

  12. Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of Endophytic Gastric Submucosal Tumors Very Close to the Esophagogastric Junction

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) located very close to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) are a challenge for gastric surgeons. Therefore, this study reports on the experience of using endoscopic and laparoscopic full-thickness resection (ELFR) with laparoscopic two-layer suturing in such tumors. Materials and Methods Six patients with gastric SMTs very close to the EGJ underwent ELFR with laparoscopic two-layer suturing at Kyungpook National University Medical Center. With the patient under general anesthesia, the lesser curvature and posterior aspect adjacent to the EGJ were meticulously dissected and visualized using a laparoscopic approach. A partially circumferential full-thickness incision at the distal margin of the tumor was then made using an endoscopic approach under laparoscopic guidance. The SMT was resected using laparoscopic ultrasonic shears, and the gastric wall was closed using two-layer suturing. Thereafter, the patency and any leakage were checked through endoscopy. Results All the ELFR procedures with laparoscopic two-layer suturing were performed successfully without an open conversion. The mean operation time was 139.2±30.9 minutes and the blood loss was too minimal to be measured. The tumors from four patients were leiomyomas, while the tumors from the other two patients were gastrointestinal stromal tumors with clear resection margins. All the patients started oral intake on the third postoperative day. There was no morbidity or mortality. The mean hospital stay was 7.7±0.8 days. Conclusions ELFR with laparoscopic two-layer suturing is a safe treatment option for patients with an SMT close to the EGJ, as major resection of the stomach is avoided. PMID:26819807

  13. Assessment of platelet-derived growth factor using A splinted full thickness dermal wound model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Keller, Krista A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E P Scott; Kass, Philip H; Guzman, Sanchez-Migallon David; Park, Shin Ae; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Gustavsen, Kate A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Wounds in reptiles are a common reason for presentation to a veterinarian. At this time there is limited information on effective topical medications to aid in wound closure. The objectives of this study were to translate the splinted, full-thickness dermal wound model, validated in mice, to the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and to determine the effect of topical becaplermin (BP), a platelet-derived growth factor (0.01%), on the rate of wound closure. Ten bearded dragons were anesthetized and two full-thickness cutaneous wounds were made on the dorsum of each lizard. Encircling splints were applied surrounding each wound and subsequently covered by a semi-occlusive dressing. Five lizards had one wound treated with BP and the adjacent wound treated with a vehicle control. Five additional lizards had one wound treated with saline and the second wound treated with a vehicle control. Wounds were imaged daily, and the wound area was measured using digital image analysis. The change in percentage wound closure over 17 days and the time to 50% wound closure was compared among the four treatment groups. There was no significant difference in wound closure rates between BP-treated and saline-treated wounds or in the time to 50% wound closure between any treatments. Vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to saline-treated wounds closed significantly slower than did BP (P < 0.010), saline (P < 0.001), and vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to BP-treated wounds (P < 0.013). Our preliminary study indicates that the splinted wound model, with modifications, may be used to determine wound closure rates in bearded dragons. When compared with saline, BP did not have a significant effect on wound closure rates, while the vehicle alone delayed wound closure. Histologic analysis of experimentally created wounds throughout the wound healing process is needed to further evaluate the effects of these treatments on reptile dermal wound healing. PMID:25632675

  14. Thermoelastic Analysis of a Functionally Graded Rotating Thick-Walled Tube Subjected to Mechanical and Thermal Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Libiao; Yang, Shengyou; Ma, Baoyu; Dui, Guansuo

    2015-11-01

    A thermoelastic solution for the functionally graded rotating thick-walled tube subjected to axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads is given in terms of volume fractions of constituents. We assume that the tube consists of two linear elastic constituents and the volume fraction of one phase is a power function varied in the radial direction. By using the assumption of a uniform strain field within the representative volume element, the theoretical solutions of the displacement and the stresses are presented. Based on the relation of the volume average stresses of constituents and the macroscopic stresses of the composite material in micromechanics, the present method can avoid the assumption of the distribution regularities of unknown overall material parameters appeared in existing papers, such as Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and density. The effects of the angular velocity, the volume fraction, the ratio of two thermal expansion coefficients, the ratio of two thermal conductivities, and the ratio of two densities on the displacement and stresses are systematically studied, which should help structural engineers and material scientists optimally design thick-walled tube comprised inhomogeneous materials.

  15. In vivo assessment of printed microvasculature in a bilayer skin graft to treat full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Yanez, Maria; Rincon, Julio; Dones, Aracely; De Maria, Carmelo; Gonzales, Raoul; Boland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers are common problems in people suffering from type 2 diabetes. These can cause pain, and nerve damage, eventually leading to foot or leg amputation. These types of wounds are very difficult to treat and sometimes take months or even years to heal because of many possible complications during the process. Allogeneic skin grafting has been used to improve wound healing, but the majority of grafts do not survive several days after being implanted. We have been studying the behavior of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in engineered capillary-like endothelial networks. A dermo-epidermal graft has been implanted in an athymic nude mouse model to assess the integration with the host tissue as well as the wound healing process. To build these networks into a skin graft, a modified inkjet printer was used, which allowed the deposit of human microvascular endothelial cells. Neonatal human dermal fibroblast cells and neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes were manually mixed in the collagen matrix while endothelial cells printed. A full-thickness wound was created at the top of the back of athymic nude mice and the area was covered by the bilayered graft. Mice of the different groups were followed until completion of the specified experimental time line, at which time the animals were humanely euthanized and tissue samples were collected. Wound contraction improved by up to 10% when compared with the control groups. Histological analysis showed the neoskin having similar appearance to the normal skin. Both layers, dermis and epidermis, were present with thicknesses resembling normal skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed favorable results proving survival of the implanted cells, and confocal images showed the human cells' location in the samples that were collocated with the bilayer printed skin graft. PMID:25051339

  16. Axisymmetric collapse simulations of rotating massive stellar cores in full general relativity: Numerical study for prompt black hole formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Yu-ichirou; Shibata, Masaru

    2005-04-15

    We perform axisymmetric simulations for gravitational collapse of a massive iron core to a black hole in full general relativity. The iron cores are modeled by {gamma}=4/3 equilibrium polytrope for simplicity. The hydrodynamic equations are solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme with a parametric equation of state. The Cartoon method is adopted for solving the Einstein equations. Simulations are performed for a wide variety of initial conditions changing the mass ({approx_equal}2.0-3.0M{sub {center_dot}}), the angular momentum, the rotational velocity profile of the core, and the parameters of the equations of state which are chosen so that the maximum mass of the cold spherical polytrope is {approx_equal}1.6M{sub {center_dot}}. Then, the criterion for the prompt black hole formation is clarified in terms of the mass and the angular momentum for several rotational velocity profile of the core and equations of state. It is found that (i) with the increase of the thermal energy generated by shocks, the threshold mass for the prompt black hole formation is increased by 20-40%, (ii) the rotational centrifugal force increases the threshold mass by < or approx. 25%, (iii) with the increase of the degree of differential rotation, the threshold mass is also increased, and (iv) the amplification factors shown in the results (i)-(iii) depend sensitively on the equation of state. We also find that the collapse dynamics and the structure of the shock formed at the bounce depend strongly on the stiffness of the adopted equation of state. In particular, as a new feature, a strong bipolar explosion is observed for the collapse of rapidly rotating iron cores with an equation of state which is stiff in subnuclear density and soft in supranuclear density. Gravitational waves are computed in terms of a quadrupole formula. It is also found that the waveform depends sensitively on the equations of state.

  17. Experimental comparison of the rotating cylinder electrode and full pipe flow for evaluating flow induced CO{sub 2} corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, A.J.; Webster, S.; Paisley, D.; Moros, T.; Harrop, D.

    1995-10-01

    Corrosion of oil and gas pipelines by the internal fluids is complex and difficult to simulate in the laboratory. Here, the rotating cylinder electrode and full pipe flow in a recirculating flow loop give different results for nominally equivalent conditions. Pipe flow produces a higher mass transfer rate for the same nominal wall shear stress. Pipe flow also produces a higher CO{sub 2} corrosion rate for inhibited and uninhibited conditions at either the same shear stress or at the same mass transfer rate. Crucially, the rotating cylinder overestimates the performance of corrosion inhibitors. Therefore, while the cylinder is suitable for preliminary inhibitor screening it is not recommended for final selection of products.

  18. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  19. Full-thickness porcine burns infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be effectively treated with topical antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, David M; Tracy, Lauren E; Lee, Cameron C Y; Hackl, Florian; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Minasian, Raquel A; Onderdonk, Andrew; Junker, Johan P E; Eriksson, Elof; Caterson, E J

    2016-03-01

    Burn and blast injuries are frequently complicated by invasive infections, which lead to poor wound healing, delay in treatment, disability, or death. Traditional approach centers on early debridement, fluid resuscitation, and adjunct intravenous antibiotics. These modalities often prove inadequate in burns, where compromised local vasculature limits the tissue penetration of systemic antibiotics. Here, we demonstrate the treatment of infected burns with topical delivery of ultrahigh concentrations of antibiotics. Standardized burns were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After debridement, burns were treated with either gentamicin (2 mg/mL) or minocycline (1 mg/mL) at concentrations greater than 1,000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration. Amount of bacteria was quantified in tissue biopsies and wound fluid following treatment. After six days of gentamicin or minocycline treatment, S. aureus counts decreased from 4.2 to 0.31 and 0.72 log CFU/g in tissue, respectively. Similarly, P. aeruginosa counts decreased from 2.5 to 0.0 and 1.5 log CFU/g in tissue, respectively. Counts of both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa remained at a baseline of 0.0 log CFU/mL in wound fluid for both treatment groups. The findings here demonstrate that super-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered topically can rapidly reduce bacterial counts in infected full-thickness porcine burns. This treatment approach may aid wound bed preparation and accelerate time to grafting. PMID:26800421

  20. A novel method for endoscopic perforation management by using abdominal exploration and full-thickness sutured closure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perforation of the GI tract during endoscopy can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and immediate management of endoscopic perforation are essential to optimize outcome. Larger perforations, defects with complex geometry, and those complicated by leakage of luminal contents have traditionally required surgical management. Objective To assess the feasibility of a new method for managing complex perforations that incorporates abdominal exploration and endoscopic sutured closure. Design Case series. Setting Tertiary care center. Patients Two patients with large, complicated perforations and peritoneal contamination. Interventions Endoscopic exploration of abdomen with angiocatheter placement under direct visualization, management of leaked luminal contents, and full-thickness sutured defect closure. Results Endoscopic abdominal exploration through the perforation site allowed safe placement of an angiocatheter for management of pneumoperitoneum, inspection for injury that may warrant surgical management, and removal of leaked luminal contents. Endoscopic sutured closure allowed safe and robust perforation management. Repair of gastrojejunal anastomotic perforation required 2 sutures and 63 minutes. Repair of gastric perforation required 4 sutures and 48 minutes. Patients had successful endoscopic defect closure confirmed by an upper GI series and were discharged 1 day later. Limitations Report of a new method in 2 patients performed at tertiary care center. Conclusions We demonstrate successful management of complex perforations with peritoneal contamination by incorporating endoscopic exploration and sutured closure with standard treatment measures. Traditional practice would have directed these patients to surgical management, which introduces additional morbidity and cost. A means for safe and broad implementation of these techniques should be evaluated. PMID:24721517

  1. Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma Combined with Chitosan Biodegradable Film on Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Mehrtash, Moeid; Hassani, Nava; Hassanpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) with chitosan biodegradable film on full thickness wound healing in rat. Methods: This was an experimental study being performed in 2015 during a 4-month period. Twenty-four male white Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 12 rats each, randomly: Control group (SHAM) with creation of wounds and no treatment, PRP group with creation of wounds and application of one milliliter PRP, Chitosan group (CHIT) with dressing the wound with chitosan and CHIT/PRP group with application of one mL PRPand dressing the wound with chitosan. The wounds were created by cutting healthy skin.Wound size was measured on 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 post surgery and was compared between groups. Results: Reduction in wound area, hydroxyproline contents and biomechanical parametersindicated there was significant difference (p=0.001) between group CHIT/PRP and other groups. Biomechanical testing was performed on day 9 post surgery in incisional model. Quantitative histological studies and mean rank of the qualitative studies demonstrated that there was significant difference (p<0.001) between group CHIT/PRP and other groups. Conclusion: PRP with chitosan have beneficial effects on wounds repair and could be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals and human being. PMID:27162924

  2. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  3. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor against cutaneous scar formation in murine full-thickness wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Tark, Kwan Chul; Rah, Dong Kyun; Hong, Joon Pio

    2010-04-01

    A visible cutaneous scar develops from the excess formation of immature collagen in response to an inflammatory reaction. This study examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the formation of cutaneous scars. Twenty Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice were used and 2 full-thickness skin wounds were made on the dorsum of each mouse. One of the wounds was treated with recombinant human EGF by local application and the other was treated with saline for control until complete healing was achieved. The EGF-treated group's wounds healed faster than the control group's. The width of the scar was smaller by 30% and the area was smaller by 26% in the EGF-treated group. Inflammatory cell numbers were significantly lower in the EGF-treated group. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in the EGF-treated group was increased. It was observed that the amount of collagen in the EGF-treated group was larger than the control group. In the EGF-treated group, the visible external scars were less noticeable than that in the control group. These results suggest that EGF can reduce cutaneous scars by suppressing inflammatory reactions, decreasing expression of TGF-beta(1), and mediating the formation of collagen. PMID:20358003

  4. The Use of Composite Flaps in the Management of Large Full-Thickness Defects of the Lower Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shuo; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Yuntong; Xue, Chunyu; Bi, Hongda; Dai, Haiying; Xing, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe a modified surgical procedure that uses a combination of the tarsoconjunctival flap, orbicularis myocutaneous advancement flap, and paranasal-island flap to correct extensive full-thickness lower eyelid defects in functioning eyes. From May 2010 to December 2013, a total of 15 patients had reconstructive surgeries of large to giant lower eyelid defect, with an average 19-month follow-up. The musculocutaneous flaps were harvested from both orbicularis and paranasal regions and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. No major complications were observed in any of the patients. All the patients showed aesthetic eyelid contour, good color, and texture match as well as no obvious scar formation. The mean Marginal Reflex Distance-2 measured 4 months after surgery was 4.9 ± 0.4 mm. Reconstruction of a large defect in the lower eyelid with a tarsoconjunctival flap and the composite neighboring musculocutaneous flaps is a reliable and reproducible method. With proper design and well-executed precision, excellent functional and aesthetic results can be achieved by this elegant procedure without any major complications. PMID:26765467

  5. Effect of Welding Atmosphere at Bottom Surface on Welding Phenomenan in Full Penetration Laser Welding of Thick Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakane, Goro; Tsukamoto, Susumu; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Fukushima, Takeshi

    The keyhole behaviour and bubble formation were investigated in the full penetration laser welding of 11 and 15 mm thick plate with various kinds of atmosphere at the bottom side. Prevention of some defects was also attempted. Back surface atmosphere was controlled using a shielding box fixed on the sample back surface to avoid contamination from the air and also the effect of gas flow on the keyhole behaviour. A lot of bubbles were formed during welding with the back surface atmosphere of nitrogen and air. This was deduced to be caused by supersaturation of nitrogen, which was dissolved from the backside molten pool. The critical nitrogen concentration in the weld metal to form the porosity was independent of the back surface atmosphere. Oxygen enhanced the porosity formation, since the nitrogen concentration increased in the presence of oxygen. The keyhole was significantly perturbed and hot cracking occurred in the inert gas back shielding. It was shown that the keyhole stability determined by solubility of the shielding gas in the molten steel. Aluminum coating on the sample back surface was effective in preventing the porosity due to denitrification of the molten pool and hot cracking.

  6. Topical Nicotinamide Improves Tissue Regeneration in Excisional Full-Thickness Skin Wounds: A Stereological and Pathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashkani Esfahani, Soheil; Khoshneviszadeh, Mahsima; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Noorafshan, Ali; Geramizadeh, Bita; Nadimi, Elham; Razavipour, Seyedeh Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotinamide (NA), the active form of vitamin-B3, is hypothesized to have positive effects on the process of wound healing; it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as an epithelization inducing action. Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of topical administration of NA on skin wounds, based on histomorphometrical and pathological criteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats (220 ± 20 g each), with 1 cm2 circular full-thickness wounds on their backs were divided into three groups (n = 12): NA group, was treated daily with a Nicotinamide 2% gel , untreated group (control), and base group, which were treated with the vehicle (base) of the gel (carboxymethylcellulose). Skin biopsies were prepared for microscopic analyses. Inflammation, granulation tissue formation, ulceration, epithelization, wound closure rate, fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and vascularization were studied criteria. Results: The results revealed that besides improving the wound healing by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and epithelization inducing effects, NA also improved tissue regeneration through the increment of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and vascularization. Conclusions: In spite of the few reported side effects, NA can be introduced as an effective agent on the wound healing process, an adjuvant therapy and possibly a treatment by itself. However, its chemical characteristics, as well as possible adverse effects warrants further research. PMID:26839851

  7. Inflight source noise of an advanced full-scale single-rotation propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full scale SR-7L advanced turboprop which was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream II aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long distance propagation models to predict en route noise. Inflight data were taken for 7 test cases. The sideline directivities measured by the Learjet showed expected maximum levels near 105 degrees from the propeller upstream axis. However, azimuthal directivities based on the maximum observed sideline tone levels showed highest levels below the aircraft. An investigation of the effect of propeller tip speed showed that the tone level of reduction associated with reductions in propeller tip speed is more significant in the horizontal plane than below the aircraft.

  8. Phase and time-resolved measurements of unsteady heat transfer and pressure in a full-stage rotating turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents detailed phase-resolved heat-flux data obtained on rotor blades and a comparison of simultaneously obtained time-resolved heat-flux and static pressure data obtained on the stationary shroud of a Garrett TFE 731-2 HP full-stage rotating turbine. A shock tube is used to generate a short-duration source of heated and pressurized air and platinum thin-film gages are used to obtain heat-flux measurements. Blade results are presented at several selected blade locations. Shroud surface pressure and heat-flux time histories are presented for comparable locations relative to the blade position.

  9. Recurrent cystosarcoma phylloides of breast: extensive full-thickness excision of chest wall with immediate repair using steel mesh and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Mindikoğlu, A N; Aktan, K

    1983-10-01

    The case of a young woman with a massive recurrent cystosarcoma phylloides of the breast is presented in whom a full thickness excision of the chest wall was carried out en bloc together with four ribs. The large full-thickness defect of the chest wall was reconstructed with stainless steel mesh and covered by a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. The management of post-operative paradoxical movement is also described. PMID:6313105

  10. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Schultz, Matthew J; Mitchell, Elizabeth H; Bain, Jennifer L; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL) containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344) rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14%) over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold). Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration. Collectively these

  11. Radiologist Evaluation of an X-ray Tube Based Diffraction Enhanced Imaging Prototype Using Full Thickness Breast Specimens.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulconer, L.; Zhong, Z.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. M.; , Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Livasy, C.; Cole, E.; Kuzmiak, C.; Koomen, M.; Pavic, D.; Pisano, E.

    2009-05-21

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted, scattered, or refracted x-rays. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging because of monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism, and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. The authors laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) using a readily available tungsten x-ray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60 keV. Images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens were acquired on synchrotron-based DEI (DEI-SR), DEI-PR, and digital mammographic systems. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and correlation with pathology after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. For mammographic features (mass, calcification), no significant differences were detected between the DEI-SR and DEI-PR systems. Benign lesions were perceived as better seen by radiologists using the DEI-SR system than the DEI-PR system at the [111] reflectivity, with generalizations limited by small sample size. No significant differences between DEI-SR and DEI-PR were detected for any other lesion type (atypical, cancer) at either crystal reflectivity. Thus, except for benign lesion characterizations, the DEI-PR system's performance was roughly equivalent to that of the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  12. Inflammatory inert poly(ethylene glycol)--protein wound dressing improves healing responses in partial- and full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Shingel, Kirill I; Di Stabile, Liliana; Marty, Jean-Paul; Faure, Marie-Pierre

    2006-12-01

    In this study, a novel soft hydrogel system based on the poly(ethylene glycol)-protein conjugates was evaluated as an occlusive wound dressing material. The hydrogel material, referred by the name of BioAquacare, contains up to 96% of the liquid and is formulated with phosphate-buffered saline and safe preservative to control bacterial load in the open wounds. Performance of the BioAquacare as a wound dressing material was assessed in partial- and full-thickness wounds in pigs. Wound analysis comprised macroscopic determination of the wound size, histological examination of the healing tissues and biochemical characterisation of wound exudates. The wounds treated with BioAquacare healed without any signs of inflammation, skin irritation, oedema or erythema. Cellular composition of the reepithelialised wounds was very similar to that of the normal skin, with a well-developed stratum corneum and epithelial layer. It was observed that BioAquacare plays the role of a liquid compartment, which provides pronounced hydration effect and helps maintain a natural moist environment of the healing tissues. BioAquacare showed relatively low protein-absorbing activity, absorbing predominantly low-molecular-weight molecules, including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and products of haemoglobin degradation. It is concluded that application of the moist BioAquacare dressing promotes fast reepithelialisation by creating favourable environment for keratinocytes proliferation and it also reduces scarring. The results show that BioAquacare can be considered as a safe, biocompatible and inflammatory inert wound dressing material. PMID:17199768

  13. Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Keratin Hydrogels Prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Support Healing in a Porcine Full-Thickness Excisional Wound

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Daniel C.; Tomblyn, Seth; Burmeister, David M.; Wrice, Nicole L.; Becerra, Sandra C.; Burnett, Luke R.; Saul, Justin M.; Christy, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cutaneous wound infection can lead to impaired healing, multiple surgical procedures, and increased hospitalization time. We tested the effectiveness of keratin-based hydrogels (termed “keratose”) loaded with ciprofloxacin to inhibit infection and support healing when topically administered to porcine excision wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Approach: Using a porcine excisional wound model, 10 mm full-thickness wounds were inoculated with 106 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa and treated on days 1 and 3 postinoculation with ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels. Bacteria enumeration and wound healing were assessed on days 3, 7, and 11 postinjury. Results: Ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels reduced the amount of P. aeruginosa in the wound bed by 99.9% compared with untreated wounds on days 3, 7, and 11 postinjury. Ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels displayed decreased wound contraction and reepithelialization at day 7 postinjury. By day 11, wounds treated with ciprofloxacin-keratose hydrogels contained collagen-rich granulation tissue and myofibroblasts. Wounds treated with ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels exhibited a transient increase in macrophages in the wound bed at day 7 postinjury that subsided by day 11. Innovation: Current therapies for wound infection include systemic antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance, and topical antimicrobial treatments, which require multiple applications and can delay healing. Here, we show that ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels inhibit cutaneous wound infection without interfering with key aspects of the healing process including granulation tissue deposition and remodeling. Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin-loaded keratose hydrogels have the potential to serve as a point-of-injury antibiotic therapy that prevents infection and supports healing following cutaneous injury. PMID:26244102

  14. Microporous Dermal-Mimetic Electrospun Scaffolds Pre-Seeded with Fibroblasts Promote Tissue Regeneration in Full-Thickness Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Bonvallet, Paul P.; Schultz, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Bain, Jennifer L.; Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL) containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344) rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14%) over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold). Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration. Collectively these

  15. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

  16. Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results of Arthroscopic Repair of Intratendinous Partial-thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian; Cui, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are being diagnosed more often because of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with articular and bursal side tears, there have been few studies about evaluating the clinical and structural outcomes after intratendinous tear repair. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, 33 consecutive patients with intratendinous PTRCTs underwent arthroscopic repair. All of them were retrospectively evaluated. The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and constant scores were evaluated before operation and at the final follow-up. Postoperative cuff integrity was determined using MRI according to Sugaya's classification. Results: At the 2-year follow-up, the average UCLA score increased from 16.7 ± 1.9 to 32.5 ± 3.5, and the constant score increased from 66.2 ± 10.5 to 92.4 ± 6.9 (P < 0.001). Twenty seven patients received follow-up MRI examinations at an average of 15.2 months after surgery. Of these 27 patients, 22 (81.5%) had a healed tendon, and five patients had partial tears. There was no association between functional and anatomic results. Conclusions: For intratendinous PTRCT, clinical outcomes and tendon healing showed good results at a minimum 2-year after arthroscopic repair. PMID:26021507

  17. The Effect of Flapless and Full-thickness Flap Techniques on Implant Stability During the Healing Period

    PubMed Central

    AL-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim; AbdulRahaman, Shafluzan Bin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : When soft tissue flaps are reflected for implant placement, the blood supply from the periosteum to the bone is disrupted. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the flapless (FL) and full-thickness flap (FT) techniques on implant stability. Methods : Nine patients received 22 implants. The implants were placed using the FL technique on the contralateral side of the jaw; the FT technique was used as the control technique. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed at the time of implant placement and at 6 and 12 weeks after implant placement. RFA values were compared between the FL and FT groups and between time intervals in the same group. Results : The median (interquartile range [IQR]) RFA values at the time of implant placement were 75.00 (15.00) for the FL technique and 75.00 (9.00) for the FT technique. At 6 weeks, the median (IQR) values were 79 (3.30) for the FL technique and 80 (12.70) for the FT technique. At 12 weeks, the median (IQR) values were 82.3 (3.30) for the FL technique and 82.6 (8.00) for the FT technique. There were no significant differences between the 2 techniques at the time of implant placement, after 6 weeks or after 12 weeks, with p values of 0.994, 0.789, and 0.959, respectively. There were significant differences between the RFA values at the time of implant placement and after 6 weeks for the FL technique (p=0.028) but not for the FT technique (p=0.091). There were also significant differences between the RFA values at 6 weeks and the RFA values at 12 weeks for the FL technique (p=0.007) and for the FT technique (p=0.003). Conclusion : Periosteum preservation during the FL procedure will speed up bone remodeling and result in early secondary implant stability as well as early loading. PMID:26312095

  18. Full-dimensional quantum wave packet study of rotationally inelastic transitions in H2+H2 collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying Lin, Shi; Guo, Hua

    2002-09-01

    We report full-dimensional accurate quantum dynamical calculations of the rotationally inelastic collision: para-H2(ν1=0,j1)=0+para- H2(ν2=0,j2)=0→para- H2(ν1=0,j1)'+para- H2(ν2=0,j2)', using a wave packet approach based on the Chebyshev polynomial expansion of Green's operator. The six-dimensional Hamiltonian within the coupled-states approximation is discretized in a mixed grid/basis representation and its action is computed in appropriate representations facilitated by a series of one-dimensional pseudo-spectral transformations. Both the parity and diatomic exchange symmetry are adapted. The S-matrix elements for the rotational transitions are obtained at all energies by the Fourier transform of Chebyshev correlation functions and used to compute transition probabilities, differential and integral cross sections, and state-resolved thermal rate constants. Results are compared for two recently proposed ab initio based potential energy surfaces and with previous quantum results.

  19. Wound contraction effects and antibacterial properties of Tualang honey on full-thickness burn wounds in rats in comparison to hydrofibre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo. Methods Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time. Results There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 (p = 0.008) in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15 (p = 0.005). The wounds remained smaller by day 18 (p < 0.032). Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds (p = 0.005). However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii (p = 0.035). There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds. Conclusions Tualang honey has better results with regards to its control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its wound contraction effects on full-thickness burn wound in vivo

  20. Epidermal Stem Cells Cultured on Collagen-Modified Chitin Membrane Induce In Situ Tissue Regeneration of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

    2014-01-01

    A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

  1. Effect of keratin-gelatin and bFGF-gelatin composite film as a sandwich layer for full-thickness skin mesh graft in experimental dogs.

    PubMed

    Thilagar, S; Jothi, N Arul; Omar, A R Sheikh; Kamaruddin, M Y; Ganabadi, Shanthi

    2009-01-01

    Skin grafts are indicated when there is a major loss of skin. Full-thickness skin graft is an ideal choice to reconstruct defect of irregular surface that is difficult to immobilize. Full-thickness mesh grafts can be applied to patch large skin defect when there is less donor site in extensively traumatized and burned surgical patients. The concept of using natural biomaterials such as keratin, basic fibroblast growth factor is slowly gaining popularity in the field of medical research to achieve early healing. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of gelatin conjoined with keratin processed from the poultry feather and commercially available basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a sandwich layer in promoting the viability of full-thickness skin mesh grafts. The efficacy was assessed from the observation of clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological findings in three groups of experimental dogs. The clinical observations such as color, appearance and discharge, and hair growth were selected as criteria which indicated good and early acceptance of graft in keratin-gelatin (group II). On bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus was identified in few animals. Histopathological study of the patched graft revealed early presences of hair follicles; sebaceous gland, and normal thickness of the epidermis in keratin-gelatin in group II treated animals compared with other group (group I-control, group III-bFGF-gelatin). PMID:18161832

  2. The full GHG balance of croplands under seven-year rotation scheme and conventional tillage practices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Sakowska, Karolina; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Uzdzicka, Bogna; Strozecki, Marcin; Polmanska, Daria; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Augustin, Juergen; Necki, Jarek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gases fluxes were measured with chambers on the selected plots of the experimental arable station of Poznan University of Life Sciences in Brody (52o26'N, 16o18'E), Poland. This is a long term experiment, where the same crops are cultivated under the same fertilization treatment schemes (eleven combinations) since 1957. At the blocks of the full 7-year rotation, there are cultivated in permanent rotation: winter wheat ->winter rye -> potato ->spring barley -> triticale and alfalfa (till the second year). GHG fluxes have been measured on plots with the same fertilization level (Nmin-90kg, K2O-120 kg/ha, P2O5-60 kg/ha and Ca), which is very close to the average amount of mineral fertilization applied in western Poland. No catch crops were cultivated between the main crops. The soil was classified as Albic Luviosols according to FAO 2006 classification. CO2 fluxes have been measured monthly since March 2011, while N2O and CH4 fluxes since March 2012 (weekly) and measurements were continued till October 2013. CO2 fluxes were measured with dynamic chambers, while N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured with both static and dynamic chambers approaches (using LOSGATOS gas analyser). Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) have been modelled for the entire period based on the measured fluxes (different management treatments were included in the model), while N2O and CH4 fluxes were linearly interpolated between campaigns. Taking into account the accumulation periods between 15th of October and 14th of October of the next year the cumulated NEE was negative only in case of alfalfa, winter rye and winter wheat, reaching in average -3.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for alfalfa and winter rye fields and around -0.4 tCO2-C ha-1 for winter wheat in seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. While, cumulated NEE for spring crops (potato and spring barley) was positive for the same periods and reached in average 1.1 tCO2-C ha-1 and 2.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for spring barley and

  3. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  4. Soil hydraulic properties affected by topsoil thickness in cultivated switchgrass and corn-soybean rotation production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of productive topsoil by soil erosion over time can reduce the productive capacity of soil and can significantly affect soil hydraulic properties. This study evaluated the effects of reduced topsoil thickness and perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) versus corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Gly...

  5. Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Amy L.; Bennett, Danielle K.; Spreen, Elizabeth B.; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V.; Littleton, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, we describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:25494213

  6. Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Strong, Amy L; Bennett, Danielle K; Spreen, Elizabeth B; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V; Littleton, Jeffrey C; Mencer, Ernest J

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, we describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:25494213

  7. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jennifer E; Polat, Baris E; Lopez, Renata F V; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700microm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. PMID:20346994

  8. An analysis of thickness-shear vibrations of doubly-rotated quartz crystal plates with the corrected first-order Mindlin plate equations.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianke; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Guijia; Wu, Rongxing; Huang, Dejin; Ma, Tingfeng; Wang, Ji

    2013-11-01

    The Mindlin plate equations have been widely used in the analysis of high-frequency vibrations of quartz crystal resonators with accurate solutions, as demonstrated by the design procedure based on analytical results in terms of frequency, mode shapes, and optimal parameters for the AT-cut quartz crystal plate, which is the core element in a resonator structure. Earlier studies have been focused on the AT-cut (which is one type of rotated Y-cut) quartz crystal plates because it is widely produced and has relatively simple couplings of vibration modes at thickness-shear frequencies of the fundamental and overtone modes. The simplified equations through the truncation, correction, and modification of the Mindlin plate equations have been widely accepted for practical applications, and further efforts to expand their applications to similar problems of other material types, such as doubly-rotated quartz crystals, with the SC-cut being a typical and popular one, are also naturally expected. We have found out that the Mindlin plate theory can be truncated and corrected for the SC-cut quartz crystal plates in a manner similar to the AT-cut plates. The analytical results show that the corrected Mindlin plate equations are equally accurate and convenient for obtaining essential design parameters of resonators for the thickness-shear vibrations of SC-cut quartz crystal plates. PMID:24158292

  9. A novel mosaicking algorithm for in vivo full-field thickness mapping of the human tympanic membrane using low coherence interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) thickness can provide crucial information for diagnosing several middle ear pathologies. An imaging system integrating low coherence interferometry (LCI) with the standard video otoscope has been shown as a promising tool for quantitative assessment of in-vivo TM thickness. The small field-of-view (FOV) of TM surface images acquired by the combined LCI-otoscope system, however, makes the spatial registration of the LCI imaging sites and their location on the TM difficult to achieve. It is therefore desirable to have a tool that can map the imaged points on to an anatomically accurate full-field surface image of the TM. To this end, we propose a novel automated mosaicking algorithm for generating a full-field surface image of the TM with co-registered LCI imaging sites from a sequence of multiple small FOV images and corresponding LCI data. Traditional image mosaicking techniques reported in the biomedical literature, mostly for retinal imaging, are not directly applicable to TM image mosaicking because unlike retinal images, which have several distinctive features, TM images contain large homogeneous areas lacking in sharp features. The proposed algorithm overcomes these challenges of TM image mosaicking by following a two-step approach. In the first step, a coarse registration based on the correlation of gross image features is performed. Subsequently, in the second step, the coarsely registered images are used to perform a finer intensity-based co-registration. The proposed algorithm is used to generate, for the first time, full-field thickness distribution maps of in-vivo human TMs.

  10. Evaluation of an Amniotic Membrane-Collagen Dermal Substitute in the Management of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in a Pig

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunji; Choi, Tae Hyun; Jung, Samhyun; Kwon, Sunyoung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

    2013-01-01

    Background To minimize the inflammatory reaction and improve healing, a new modified dermal substitute composed of an atelocollagen, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and amniotic membrane (AM) was applied to full-thickness skin defects in a pig. Atelocollagen was extracted from bovine skin, and two modified dermal substitutes were generated according to the cross-linking type. Methods The AM-collagen dermal substitutes were characterized and compared with currently used dermal substitutes in a pig skin defect model. There were five experimental groups: dehydrothermal (DHT) cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT), DHT and chemical cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT/chemical), Terudermis, Integra, and AlloDerm. After 3×3 cm full-thickness skin defects on the back of a pig were created, each dermal substitutes dermal substitutes was randomly grafted on the defects. Two weeks after grafting, autologous partial-thickness skin was over-grafted on the neodermis. The take rate of the dermal substitutes, skin, and histological sections were all assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. Results More rapid healing and a higher take rate were evident in the AM-DHT and Terudermis groups. Histological examination revealed fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblast hyperplasia in these two groups. Four weeks after surgery, the amount of newly formed collagen was significantly more appropriate in the AM-DHT group. Conclusions These observations provide supporting evidence that a newly developed amniotic-collagen dermal substitute may inhibit inflammatory reactions and promote wound healing. PMID:23362475

  11. In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Oriented Scaffold-BMSC Construct for Enhancing Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weimin; Liu, Jian; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has been proven usefulness in cartilage defect repair. For effective cartilage repair, the structural orientation of the cartilage scaffold should mimic that of native articular cartilage, as this orientation is closely linked to cartilage mechanical functions. Using thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) technology, we have fabricated an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffold with a Young's modulus value 3 times higher than that of a random scaffold. In this study, we test the effectiveness of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-scaffold constructs (cell-oriented and random) in repairing full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. While histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed efficient cartilage regeneration and cartilaginous matrix secretion at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation in both groups, the biochemical properties (levels of DNA, GAG, and collagen) and biomechanical values in the oriented scaffold group were higher than that in random group at early time points after implantation. While these differences were not evident at 24 weeks, the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the regenerated cartilage in the oriented scaffold-BMSC construct group were similar to that of native cartilage. These results demonstrate that an oriented scaffold, in combination with differentiated BMSCs can successfully repair full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits, and produce cartilage enhanced biomechanical properties. PMID:26695629

  12. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni; Yue, Wang; Kaihong, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  13. Concentrated Hypoxia-Preconditioned Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Wounds Healing in Full-Thickness Skin Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Biao; Guo, Shilei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the bioactive factors were utilized in exercise and athletic skin injuries. In this research, the concentrated conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which is rich in bioactive factor, is applied in full-thickness skin defect model to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. The surface markers and the potential of differentiation were analyzed. The conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned stem cells was collected and freeze-dried and then applied on the rat full-thickness skin defect model, and the healing time of each group was recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin was assessed by microscope. The characteristics of adipose mesenchymal stem cells were similar to those of other mesenchymal stem cells. The concentration of protein in freeze-dried conditioned medium in 1 mL water was about 15 times higher than in the normal condition medium. In vivo, the concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned conditioned medium can reduce the wound size and accelerate the skin wound healing. The concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium has great effect on rat model of wound healing, and it would be an ideal agent for wound care in clinical application. PMID:27433483

  14. Promotion of full-thickness wound healing using epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) membrane as temporary wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lee; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Byeong Ju; Lee, Mi Hee; Han, Dong-Wook; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Park, Jong-Chul

    2014-05-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenolic compound in green tea. It has been known that EGCG regulates the secretion of cytokines and the activation of skin cells during wound healing. In this study, various concentrations of EGCG were added to the electrospun membranes composed of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and its healing effects on full-thickness wounds created in nude mice were investigated. The electrospun membranes containing 5 wt% EGCG (5EGCG/PLGA membrane) exhibited cytotoxicity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) as HDF morphologies were transformed on them. In the animal study, cell infiltration of mice treated with electrospun membranes containing 1 wt% EGCG (1EGCG/PLGA membrane) significantly increased after 2 weeks. The immunoreactivity of Ki-67 (re-epithelialization at the wound site) and CD 31 (formation of blood vessels) also increased in the mice treated with 1EGCG/PLGA membranes in comparison with the mice treated with PLGA membranes. These results suggest that 1EGCG/PLGA can enhance wound healing in full thickness by accelerating cell infiltration, re-epithelialization, and angiogenesis. PMID:24571533

  15. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  16. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  17. Novel technique for full-thickness resection of gastric malignancy: feasibility of nonexposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery (news) in porcine models.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takashi; Goto, Osamu; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hatao, Fumihiko; Wada, Ikuo; Niimi, Keiko; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Fujishiro, Mitsuihiro; Koike, Kazuhiko; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Full-thickness resection for gastric malignancy carries a risk of peritoneal dissemination due to opening of the gastric lumen. We evaluated the feasibility and safety a novel method of full-thickness resection without transmural communication, called nonexposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery in ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Six explanted porcine stomachs and 6 live pigs were used for this study. After marking and submucosal injection around 3 cm simulated lesions, the seromuscular layer was laparoscopically cut and sutured with the lesion inverted to the inside. Consecutively, a mucosubmucosal incision was made endoscopically. Three pigs used for the survival study were monitored for 7 days. All 12 lesions were successfully resected en bloc without perforation. The 3 pigs survived for 1 week without adverse events, and necropsy revealed neither leakage nor abscess formation related to the operation. We demonstrated nonexposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery to be technically feasible and safe in both ex vivo and in vivo porcine studies. PMID:24300935

  18. Concentrated Hypoxia-Preconditioned Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Wounds Healing in Full-Thickness Skin Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Biao; Guo, Shilei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the bioactive factors were utilized in exercise and athletic skin injuries. In this research, the concentrated conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which is rich in bioactive factor, is applied in full-thickness skin defect model to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. The surface markers and the potential of differentiation were analyzed. The conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned stem cells was collected and freeze-dried and then applied on the rat full-thickness skin defect model, and the healing time of each group was recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin was assessed by microscope. The characteristics of adipose mesenchymal stem cells were similar to those of other mesenchymal stem cells. The concentration of protein in freeze-dried conditioned medium in 1 mL water was about 15 times higher than in the normal condition medium. In vivo, the concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned conditioned medium can reduce the wound size and accelerate the skin wound healing. The concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium has great effect on rat model of wound healing, and it would be an ideal agent for wound care in clinical application. PMID:27433483

  19. Modelling meltwater delivery to the ice-bed interface through full thickness fractures on outlet glaciers of the western Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clason, C.; Mair, D.; Nienow, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic response to increased supraglacial meltwater generation and subsequent influx to the subglacial hydrological system is well documented in temperate glaciers. Meltwater-enhanced acceleration of ice surface velocities, or ‘spring events’, have also more recently been observed on polythermal glaciers and outlet glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These high velocity events may be a response to increased basal lubrication and basal water pressures when meltwater reaches the subglacial system directly through moulins. Supraglacial meltwater can provide hydrostatic stresses adequate to offset closure due to the lithostatic stress of the ice when streams intersect and enter surface crevasses. A crevasse will continue to propagate through the full ice thickness provided the meltwater head within the crevasse remains sufficient, thereby allowing this flux of meltwater to be delivered to the ice-bed interface. A spatially distributed model for prediction of full ice thickness water-driven fracture and quantification of meltwater delivered to the bed has been produced. The model consists of three major components: the first sub-routine calculates surface tensile stresses from measured ice surface velocities and identifies areas likely to contain crevassing following the Von Mises failure criteria; the second is a degree day melt model and flow routing model run using measured meteorological inputs; the third sub-routine calculates crevasse penetration depths using an established linear elastic fracture mechanics model for propagation of water-filled fractures. The daily outputs of melt modelling weight routing of meltwater across the ice surface, and in turn determine the discharge into crevasses. This allows the supraglacial meltwater head, and thus fracture propagation speed, to vary daily within crevasse depth modelling. The temporal resolution of the model also allows the evolution of moulin formation through the ablation season to be captured. We

  20. Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 μm; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ∼7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds. PMID:25890736

  1. Surgical Therapy by Sandwich Transplantation using a Dermal Collagen-Elastin Matrix and Full Thickness Split Grafts and Gait Rehabilitation with Individualized Orthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Painful callosities of the feet (PCOF) are a rare complaint in children with severe impairment of mobility and quality of life. There is no medical treatment available. We investigated the usefulness of a recently developed combined transplant technique-the sandwich transplantation with dermal collagen-elastin template in this rare condition. A 14-year-old boy suffered from PCOF for several years without any improvement by topical therapy, dermabrasion, and oral retinoids. He was unable to walk normally and suffered from severe pain. We performed a complete deep excision of the hyperkeratotic plantar tissue in general anaesthesia in combination with sandwich transplantation in the same setting. Dry sheets of collagen-elastin matrix (1 mm thickness) were placed on the soft tissue defects and covered by full-thickness mesh graft transplants from the upper leg. An individualized orthosis was produced for gait rehabilitation. Two weeks after surgery the gait-related pain was reduced remarkably. Using the orthosis, the boy was able to walk pain-free even on staircase. Surgery of PCOF with sandwich transplantation and gait rehabilitation appears to be a promising strategy for this rare condition. PMID:23378711

  2. Surgical Therapy by Sandwich Transplantation using a Dermal Collagen-Elastin Matrix and Full Thickness Split Grafts and Gait Rehabilitation with Individualized Orthesis.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit

    2012-10-01

    Painful callosities of the feet (PCOF) are a rare complaint in children with severe impairment of mobility and quality of life. There is no medical treatment available. We investigated the usefulness of a recently developed combined transplant technique-the sandwich transplantation with dermal collagen-elastin template in this rare condition. A 14-year-old boy suffered from PCOF for several years without any improvement by topical therapy, dermabrasion, and oral retinoids. He was unable to walk normally and suffered from severe pain. We performed a complete deep excision of the hyperkeratotic plantar tissue in general anaesthesia in combination with sandwich transplantation in the same setting. Dry sheets of collagen-elastin matrix (1 mm thickness) were placed on the soft tissue defects and covered by full-thickness mesh graft transplants from the upper leg. An individualized orthosis was produced for gait rehabilitation. Two weeks after surgery the gait-related pain was reduced remarkably. Using the orthosis, the boy was able to walk pain-free even on staircase. Surgery of PCOF with sandwich transplantation and gait rehabilitation appears to be a promising strategy for this rare condition. PMID:23378711

  3. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabe, N.; Yoshinao, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  4. Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

  5. High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Nicholas K; Nickel, Brian T; Grindel, Steven I

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the impact of tear location on functional outcomes in high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) after arthroscopic completion and repair. Retrospectively, we evaluated the preoperative and postoperative findings of 60 patients who underwent arthroscopic completion and repair of Ellman grade 3 partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus. The 60 patients were grouped by tear subtype (20 articular, 20 bursal, 20 intratendinous) as identified by preoperative imaging and confirmed at time of surgery. After surgery, the 3 subtypes showed similar significant (P < .001) improvements in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (articular, 46.9, 85.1; bursal, 44.3, 80.3; intratendinous, 43.6, 86.1), Constant scores (articular, 54.3, 79.4; bursal, 49.9, 75.0; intratendinous, 56.8, 80.9), and visual analog scale scores (articular, 5.1, 1.2; bursal, 5.8, 1.6; intratendinous, 6.0, 1.2). Our study findings validate use of the current algorithm for Ellman grade 3 PTRCTs of the supraspinatus and advocate their completion and repair, regardless of tear location. PMID:27552462

  6. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. Methods In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150–200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. Result The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. Conclusions To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196 PMID:23866960

  7. COHORT SAFETY AND EFFICACY STUDY OF SILURON2000 EMULSIFICATION-RESISTANT SILICONE OIL AND F4H5 IN THE TREATMENT OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLE

    PubMed Central

    Pinxten, Anne-Marie; Wong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of using Siluron2000 silicone oil in the treatment of full-thickness macular hole by comparing its propensity to emulsify with emulsification of the “gold standard” Siluron5000, and to assess safety and efficacy of F4H5 (perfluorobutylpentane) in removing emulsified oil droplets from the eye. Methods: A single-center, randomized controlled parallel group trial in 72 patients undergoing vitrectomy for treatment of full-thickness macular hole. The study comprises four treatment groups. First, the total patient group was divided into 2 study arms of 36 patients each, receiving either Siluron2000 or Siluron5000 after vitrectomy with a 3-month follow-up after vitrectomy. Second, F4H5 was used during oil removal in half of the patients in each study arm (18 patients within each study arm) with follow-up at 6 weeks after oil removal. Oil droplets were counted within the removed oil; residual emulsification bubbles were quantified using ultrasound imaging. Results: Safety and efficacy of the oils were comparable. Injection and removal time of Siluron2000 oil was significantly less than that of Siluron5000 oil. Patients treated with F4H5 had borderline significantly less emulsification droplets than those not treated with F4H5. Conclusion: Siluron2000 silicone oil seems to be equally safe and effective as Siluron5000 oil but allows for better handling with the potential of reducing procedure time. The application of F4H5 seems to be safe and effective in reducing residual emulsification. PMID:26066703

  8. Polyurethane membrane/knitted mesh-reinforced collagen-chitosan bilayer dermal substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin defects via a two-step procedure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Wu, Pan; Hu, Xiuyuan; You, Chuangang; Guo, Rui; Shi, Haifei; Guo, Songxue; Zhou, Hanlei; Chaoheng, Yu; Zhang, Yuanhai; Han, Chunmao

    2016-03-01

    The advent of dermal substitutes provides a revolutionary strategy for the repair and reconstruction of deep skin defects. Dermal substitutes form a regenerative template that provides the porous structure and mechanical support necessary to guide cell migration, deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and angiogenesis. Commercially available dermal substitutes, particularly collagen-based dermal scaffolds, are widely used in clinical practice. However, the poor mechanical properties of collagen-based dermal scaffolds compromise their biological effects, as well as the repair outcomes. Here, we describe a bilayer dermal substitute prepared by integrating a hybrid dermal scaffold with a polyurethane (PU) membrane to obtain a PU membrane/knitted mesh-reinforced collagen-chitosan bilayer dermal substitute (PU-PLGAm/CCS). The morphology of PU-PLGAm/CCS was investigated and, to characterize the effects of PU-PLGAm/CCS on tissue regeneration, dermal substitutes were transplanted to repair full-thickness skin wounds in Sprague-Dawley rats using a two-step surgical procedure. These results were then compared with those obtained using the PELNAC™ Artificial Dermis. In the weeks after the first operation, wound changes were analysed based on macroscopic observations, and tissue specimens were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blotting analysis. Following the second operation (i.e., transplantation of split-thickness skin grafts), the repair outcomes were investigated based on the mechanical strength and ECM expression. PU-PLGAm/CCS significantly inhibited wound contracture, promoted angiogenesis, and facilitated the ordered arrangement of neotissue, such that the repair outcomes were improved in the PU-PLGAm/CCS group compared with the PELNAC™ group. In conclusion, the favourable microstructure and structural stability of dermal substitutes facilitated tissue regeneration. PU-PLGAm/CCS achieved

  9. A non-contacting approach for full field dynamic strain monitoring of rotating structures using the photogrammetry, finite element, and modal expansion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or interior locations where failures may occur. Within this work, an unique expansion algorithm was extended and combined with finite element (FE) modeling and an optical measurement technique to identify the dynamic strain in rotating structures. The merit of the approach is shown by using the approach to predict the dynamic strain on a small non-rotating and rotating wind turbine. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-meter long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. A finite element model of the three wind turbine blades assembled to the hub was created and used to extract resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The FE model was validated and updated using experimental modal tests. For the non-rotating optical test, the turbine was excited using a sinusoidal excitation, a pluck test, arbitrary impacts on three blades, and random force excitations with a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure the displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the work show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for all of the three loading conditions. Similar to the non-rotating case, optical measurements were also preformed on a rotating wind turbine. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible

  10. Computer program for calculating full potential transonic, quasi-three-dimensional flow through a rotating turbomachinery blade row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A fast, reliable computer code is described for calculating the flow field about a cascade of arbitrary two dimensional airfoils. The method approximates the three dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for stream tube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. A fully conservative solution of the full potential equation is combined with the finite volume technique on a body-fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to insure stability and the capture of shock waves. The instructions required to set up and use the code are included. The name of the code is QSONIC. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the output of the program.

  11. Histological evaluation of the healing properties of Dead Sea black mud on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-al-Basal, Mariam A

    2012-04-01

    Dead Sea (DS) mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. Previous studies confirmed their efficacy in treating the more frequent skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing potential of natural and compounded skin-care product (facial mask) of DS black mud in BALB/c mice. Two full-thickness excision round wounds were created on the dorsum region of mouse. Each wound of mice test group were treated topically with 50 microL of 0.1% natural or compounded DS black mud or 50 microL of 0.2% nitrofurazone once a day for 2 consecutive days and the mice control group were left untreated. Healing was assessed by measuring the granulation tissue weight and percentage of wound contraction at day 3, 7, 14 and 21 after wounding. In addition to period of epithelialization and histological evaluation of the regenerated wound area at day 7 and 14 after wounding. Results revealed that DS black mud accelerate wound healing process by enhancing granulation, wound contraction, epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition. This may be due to high content of minerals and trace elements that possibly act as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with enhancement effect on cell proliferation, migration and fibroblast cellular activity. However, the healing property of DS black mud compounded in skin-care product was greater than that of natural black mud, when compared to reference drug, nitrofurazone. PMID:24163956

  12. The healing effect of unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in collagen-modified nanofibrous PHBV scaffold on full-thickness skin defects.

    PubMed

    Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Biazar, Esmaeil; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Rahmati Roodsari, Mohammad; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rad, Hadi; Sahebalzamani, Ali; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Afsordeh, Kobra

    2014-06-01

    Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous PHBV scaffold can be used for skin regeneration when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds were designed using electrospinning method and then, modified with the immobilized collagen via the plasma method. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, physical and mechanical assays. In this study; nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds loaded with and without USSCs were grafted into the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated at 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; all study groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative Day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells, showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of collagen-coated nanofibrous PHBV scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat model. PMID:23909504

  13. Implantation of rAAV5-IGF-I transduced autologous chondrocytes improves cartilage repair in full-thickness defects in the equine model.

    PubMed

    Ortved, Kyla F; Begum, Laila; Mohammed, Hussni O; Nixon, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    Cartilage injury often precipitates osteoarthritis which has driven research to bolster repair in cartilage impact damage. Autologous chondrocytes transduced with rAAV5-IGF-I were evaluated in chondral defects in a well-established large animal model. Cartilage was harvested from the talus of 24 horses; chondrocytes were isolated and stored frozen. Twenty million cells were cultured and transduced with 10(5) AAV vg/cell prior to implantation. Chondrocytes from eight horses were transduced with rAAV5-IGF-I, chondrocytes from eight horses with rAAV5-GFP, and chondrocytes from eight horses were not transduced. A 15 mm full-thickness chondral defect was created arthroscopically in the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur in both femoropatellar joints. Treated defects were filled with naive or gene-enhanced chondrocytes, in fibrin vehicle. Control defects in the opposite limb received fibrin alone. rAAV5-IGF-I transduced chondrocytes resulted in significantly better healing at 8 week arthroscopy and 8 month necropsy examination when compared to controls. At 8 months, defects implanted with cells expressing IGF-I had better histological scores compared to control defects and defects repaired with naive chondrocytes. This included increased chondrocyte predominance and collagen type II, both features of hyaline-like repair tissue. The equine model closely approximates human cartilage healing, indicating AAV-mediated genetic modification of chondrocytes may be clinically beneficial to humans. PMID:25311491

  14. Pharmacological mobilization of endogenous stem cells significantly promotes skin regeneration after full-thickness excision: the synergistic activity of AMD3100 and tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wesson, Russell N; Maeda, Hiromichi; Wang, Yongchun; Cui, Zhu; Liu, Jun O; Cameron, Andrew M; Gao, Bin; Montgomery, Robert A; Williams, George M; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell therapy has shown promise in treating a variety of pathologies including skin wounds, but practical applications remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous stem cell mobilization produced by AMD3100 and low-dose tacrolimus is able to reduce by 25% the time of complete healing of full-thickness wounds created by surgical excision. Equally important, healing was accompanied by reduced scar formation and regeneration of hair follicles. Searching for mechanisms, we found that AMD3100 combined with low-dose tacrolimus mobilized increased number of lineage-negative c-Kit+, CD34+, and CD133+ stem cells. Low-dose tacrolimus also increased the number of SDF-1-bearing macrophages in the wound sites amplifying the "pull" of mobilized stem cells into the wound. Lineage tracing demonstrated the critical role of CD133 stem cells in enhanced capillary and hair follicle neogenesis, contributing to more rapid and perfect healing. Our findings offer a significant therapeutic approach to wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:24682043

  15. Current Innovations in Endoscopic Therapy for the Management of Colorectal Cancer: From Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection to Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Morishita, Asahiro; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for colorectal cancer. However, due to technical difficulties and an increased rate of complications, ESD is not widely used in the colorectum. In some cases, endoscopic treatment alone is insufficient for disease control, and laparoscopic surgery is required. The combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection represents a new frontier in cancer treatment. Recent developments in advanced polypectomy and minimally invasive surgical techniques will enable surgeons and endoscopists to challenge current practice in colorectal cancer treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) of the colon offers the potential to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with segmental colectomy while enhancing the diagnostic yield compared to current endoscopic techniques. However, closure is necessary after EFTR and natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Innovative methods and new devices for EFTR and suturing are being developed and may potentially change traditional paradigms to achieve minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. The present paper aims to discuss the complementary role of ESD and the future development of EFTR. We focus on the possibility of achieving EFTR using the ESD method and closing devices. PMID:24877148

  16. Pharmacological Mobilization of Endogenous Stem Cells Significantly Promotes Skin Regeneration after Full Thickness Excision: The Synergistic Activity of AMD3100 and Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wesson, Russell N.; Maeda, Hiromichi; Wang, Yongchun; Cui, Zhu; Liu, Jun O.; Cameron, Andrew M; Gao, Bin; Montgomery, Robert A; Williams, George Melville; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has shown promise in treating a variety of pathologies including skin wounds, but practical applications remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that endogenous stem cell mobilization produced by AMD3100 and low-dose Tacrolimus is able to reduce by 25% the time of complete healing of full-thickness wounds created by surgical excision. Equally important, healing was accompanied by reduced scar and regeneration of hair follicles. Searching for mechanisms, we found that AMD3100 combined with low-dose Tacrolimus mobilized increased number of lineage-negative c-Kit+, CD34+ and CD133+ stem cells. Low-dose Tacrolimus also increased the number of SDF-1 bearing macrophages in the wounds sites amplifying the “pull” of mobilized stem cells into the wound. Lineage tracing demonstrated the critical role of CD133 stem cells in enhanced capillary and hair follicle neogenesis contributing to more rapid and perfect healing. Our findings offer a significant therapeutic approach to wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:24682043

  17. Enhancing repair of full-thickness excisional wounds in a murine model: Impact of tissue-engineered biological dressings featuring human differentiated adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Morissette Martin, Pascal; Maux, Amandine; Laterreur, Véronique; Mayrand, Dominique; L Gagné, Valérie; Moulin, Véronique J; Fradette, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Promotion of skin repair for acute or chronic wounds through the use of tissue-engineered products is an active field of research. This study evaluates the effects mediated by tissue-engineered biological dressings containing human in vitro-differentiated adipocytes and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and neovascularization of full-thickness cutaneous wounds were specifically assessed using a murine model featuring a fluorescent epidermis. In comparison with wounds that did not receive an adipocyte-containing biological dressing, treated wounds displayed a slight but significantly faster wound closure based on macroscopic observations over 18 days. Non-invasive imaging of GFP-expressing keratinocytes determined that the kinetics of re-epithelialization were similar for both groups. Treated wounds featured thicker granulation tissues (1.7-fold, P < 0.0001) enriched in collagens (1.3-fold, P < 0.0104). In addition, wound cryosections labeled for detection of CD31-expressing cells indicated a 2.2-fold (P < 0.0002) increased neovascularization for the treated wounds at the time of terminal biopsy. This is in accordance with the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors detected in media conditioned by the dressings. Taken together, these results establish that a new type of engineered substitutes featuring a mixture of adipocytes and ASCs can promote cutaneous healing when applied as temporary dressings, suggesting their potential relevance for chronic wound management studies. PMID:25934321

  18. Detection of lymphangiogenesis by near-infrared fluorescence imaging and responses to VEGF-C during healing in a mouse full-dermis thickness wound model.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary A; Robinson, Holly; Chan, Wenyaw; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive, longitudinal near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging was used to detect and quantify lymphangiogenesis following a full-dermis thickness incision in the presence and absence of locally administered vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a well-known regulator of lymphangiogenesis. Peripheral cytokines/chemokines were also measured in treated and sham-injected animals. Lymphangiogenesis was detected via NIRF imaging by day 7-8 and confirmed by intravital microscopy, while angiogenesis was observed by day 2-3 postincision (PI). All lymph vessel parameters quantified were significantly greater on wounded vs. nonwounded sides of mice. Lymph vessel parameters appeared larger on wounded sides of VEGF-C- relative to NaCl-treated mice, although differences were not significant. Interleukin-1α and interleukin-22 were significantly elevated at day 7 PI relative to respective preincision levels in VEGF-C-treated mice, and decreased by day 21 PI to levels nearing those measured preincision. For the majority of cytokines/chemokines measured, mean responses were significantly greater in VEGF-C- vs. NaCl-treated animals. Local VEGF-C administration may stimulate lymphangiogenesis during tissue repair and regeneration via mediating systemic cytokine/chemokine levels. NIRF imaging can be utilized to detect lymphangiogenesis during wound healing, and offers a promising platform to complement current methods for monitoring wound status and studying the effects of growth factors on healing. PMID:23758174

  19. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were −15.8 to 9.5 μm and −27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry. PMID:26697213

  20. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were -15.8 to 9.5 μm and -27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry. PMID:26697213

  1. Arthroscopic Repair of Articular Surface Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Transtendon Technique versus Repair after Completion of the Tear—A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woodmass, Jarret M.; Bois, Aaron J.; Boorman, Richard S.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    Articular surface partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are commonly repaired using two different surgical techniques: transtendon repair or repair after completion of the tear. Although a number of studies have demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes, it is unclear which technique may provide superior clinical outcomes and tendon healing. The purpose was to evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes following arthroscopic repair of articular surface PTRCT using a transtendon technique or completion of the tear. A systematic review of the literature was performed following PRISMA guidelines and checklist. The objective outcome measures evaluated in this study were the Constant Score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Visual Analogue Scale, physical examination, and complications. Three studies met our criteria. All were prospective randomized comparative studies with level II evidence and published from 2012 to 2013. A total of 182 shoulders (mean age 53.7 years; mean follow-up 40.5 months) were analyzed as part of this study. Both procedures provided excellent clinical outcomes with no significant difference in Constant Score and other measures between the procedures. Both procedures demonstrated improved clinical outcomes. However, there were no significant differences between each technique. Further studies are required to determine the long-term outcome of each technique.

  2. Full-duplex radio over fiber link with colorless source-free base station based on single sideband optical mm-wave signal with polarization rotated optical carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    A full-duplex radio-over fiber (RoF) link scheme based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with polarization-rotated optical carrier is proposed to realize the source-free colorless base station (BS), in which a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is used to abstract part of the optical carrier for conveying the uplink data. Since the optical carrier for the uplink does not bear the downlink signal, no cross-talk from the downlink contaminates the uplink signal. The simulation results demonstrate that both down- and up-links maintain good performance. The mm-wave signal distribution network based on the proposed full duplex fiber link scheme can use the uniform source-free colorless BSs, which makes the access system very simpler.

  3. Viability of full-thickness skin grafts used for correction of cicatricial ectropion of lower eyelid in previously irradiated field in the periocular region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joon; Hayek, Brent; Nasser, Qasiem; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the viability of skin grafts used for correction of cicatricial ectropion resulting from previous ablative surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and to report overall outcomes of cicatricial ectropion repair. Methods This is a retrospective, non-comparative case series of all consecutive head and neck cancer patients who had been exposed to high-dose radiation therapy in their periocular region and had surgical correction of their lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion through placement of a full-thickness skin graft and a lower eyelid tightening procedure by the same surgeon. The primary outcome measure was skin graft viability. Secondary outcome measures comprised of post-operative complications, the overall outcome of ectropion repair as judged by improvement in symptoms of exposure keratopathy and dependence on lubricating eye drops and ointments, as well as cosmetic improvement measured through a grading scale determined based on the degree of inferior scleral show and/or tarsal conjunctival eversion. Results 25 patients were eligible for the study. 19 men and 6 women had a median age of 63 years (range: 20–84 years). All 25 patients had high-dose radiation therapy for their head and neck cancer. All but 1 patient had major cancer ablative surgery performed prior to radiation therapy. Thirteen of 25 patients also received chemotherapy. There was 100% viability of the skin grafts used for the repair of lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion. There were a few post-operative complications including the need for revision surgery to correct residual ectropion in the lower eyelid in 2 patients and a third patient required a revision surgery due to upper lid retraction and lagophthalmos after harvest of skin graft from the upper eyelid. Improvement was noted in the subjective symptoms in 22 of 25 patients (88%) while 17 patients (68%) were noted to have improvement in their clinical findings on slit lamp examination. All 20 patients for whom

  4. Powdered Wound Dressing Materials Made from wild Silkworm Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin on Full-skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Keun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Jo, You-Young; Kweon, Hae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated powdered burn wound dressing materials from wild silkworm fibroin in an animal model. Methods: Fifteen rats were used in this experiment. Full-thickness 2×2 cm burn wounds were created on the back of rats under anesthesia. In the two experimental groups, the wounds were treated with two different dressing materials made from silkworm fibroin. In the Control Group, natural healing without any dressing material was set as control. The wound surface area was measured at five days, seven days and 14 days. Wound healing was evaluated by histologic analysis. Results: By gross observation, there were no infections or severe inflammations through 14 days post-injury. The differences among groups were statistically significant at seven days and 14 days, postoperatively (P <0.037 and 0.001, respectively). By post hoc test, the defect size was significantly smaller in experimental Group 1 compared with the Control Group and experimental Group 2 at seven days postoperatively (P =0.022 and 0.029, respectively). The difference between Group 1 and Group 2 was statistically significant at 14 days postoperatively (P <0.001). Group 1 and control also differed significantly (P =0.002). Group 1 showed a smaller residual scar than the Control Group and Group 2 at 14 days post-injury. Histologic analysis showed more re-epithelization in Groups 1 and 2 than in the Control Groups. Conclusion: Burn wound healing was accelerated with silk fibroin spun by wild silkworm Antheraea pernyi. There was no atypical inflammation with silk dressing materials. In conclusion, silk dressing materials can be used for treatment of burn wound. PMID:27489820

  5. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of a lateral spreading rectal tumor after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer (with video).

    PubMed

    Konuma, H; Fu, K I; Konuma, I; Ueyama, H; Takahashi, T; Ogura, K; Miyazaki, A; Watanabe, S

    2012-06-01

    A 74-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy for investigation of a liver tumor. A lateral spreading tumor of the non-granular type (LST-NG), 25 mm in diameter, was detected at the rectosigmoid junction. As magnifying image-enhanced colonoscopy suggested a tubulovillous adenoma, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was chosen for removal of the LST-NG. The lesion was effectively and evenly lifted after injection of 0.4% hyaluronic acid diluted with glycerol in the ratio of 1:1. A small amount of indigo-carmine dye was also added for coloration of the plane of resection. The lesion was completely removed en bloc. Although a blue-colored layer was identified in the resection defect, a small amount of a whitish layer was detected above the blue layer. The muscle layer was clearly located on the underside of the resected polyp. A total of 14 endoclips were used to close the defect completely. The patient was successfully treated conservatively without surgery. Histology of the resected specimen showed that it contained a tubulovillous adenoma with the submucosal layer and both layers of the muscularis propria. The surgical margin was free of neoplastic change horizontally and vertically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of full-thickness resection associated with EMR after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer rather than the intended submucosal layer. We describe how to promptly recognize this complication during colonoscopy, in order to achieve immediate closure of the defect, with the identification of a "mirror target sign" on the colonic wall. PMID:22350267

  6. Enhanced regenerative healing efficacy of a highly skin-permeable growth factor nanocomplex in a full-thickness excisional mouse wound model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous administration of growth factors has potential benefits in wound healing; however, limited percutaneous absorption, inconsistent efficacy, and the need for high doses have hampered successful clinical use. To overcome these restrictions, we focused on the development of a topical formulation composed of highly skin-permeable multimeric nanocomplex of growth factors. In the present study, we fused low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP) with epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and platelet-derived growth factor A ligand (PDGF-A) (producing recombinant [r]LMWP-EGF, rLMWP-IGF-I, and rLMWP-PDGF-A, respectively) via genetic modification. Then, we used in vitro cell proliferation studies to assess the biological activity and the benefits of the combination. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were complexed with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and formulated with Poloxamer 188 as a delivery vehicle. After confirming the enhanced skin permeability, in vivo studies were performed to assess whether the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex formulations accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in mice. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were biologically equivalent to their native forms, and their combination induced greater fibroblast proliferation. rLMWP-EGF showed significantly enhanced permeability and cumulative permeation, and the rates for rLMWP-IGF-I and rLMWP-PDGF-A, across excised mouse skin, were 124% and 164% higher, respectively, than for the native forms. The LMWP-fused growth factors resulted in formation of nanocomplexes (23.51±1.12 nm in diameter) in combination with LMWH. Topical delivery of growth factors fused with LMWP accelerated wound re-epithelialization significantly, accompanied by the formation of healthy granulation tissue within 9 days compared with a free–growth factor complex or vehicle. Thus, the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex can induce rapid, comprehensive healing and may

  7. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Ethanol Extract Enhancement of the Efficacy of the Collagen Scaffold in Wound Closure: A Study in a Full-Thickness-Wound Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Somchaichana, Jutamas; Bunaprasert, Tanom; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2012-01-01

    Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. is a Thai herb that is effective in wound healing. We sought to quantitatively determine whether or not the combined application of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. and a collagen scaffold will increase wound closure and angiogenesis. Balb/c mice (body weight: 22–25 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental. The dorsal skin incision measuring 1.5 × 1.5 cm was made and then deepened using scissors to produce a full-thickness incision down to the level of the panniculus carnosus. The size of the wound was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The collagen sheet was implanted onto the wound. Animals were divided into 4 major groups as follows: wound with normal saline (W-NSS), wound treated with 0.3 g/kg BW of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. extract (W-AE (0.3 g/kg.bw)), wound implanted with collagen scaffold (W-Coll), and wound implanted with collagen scaffold and treated with 0.3 g/kg BW of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. (W-Coll-AE combination). On day 14, the W-Coll-AE group showed decreased wound areas and increased capillary vascularity (CV) when compared to the other 3 groups, W-NSS, W-AE0.3, and W-Coll. In the present study, the combination of AE0.3 with collagen showed the best effect on skin angiogenesis and promoted wound closure with less neutrophil infiltration. PMID:23093862

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture suture device versus metal clip for gastric defect closure after endoscopic full-thickness resection: A randomized, comparative, porcine study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Beibei; Guo, Jintao; Ge, Nan; Sun, Siyu; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Guoxin; Feng, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The secure closure of the wall defect is a critical stage of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR). The aim of this study was to compare the closure of post-EFTR defects using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture suture device (PSD) with the metal clip (MC) technique in a randomized, comparative, porcine study. Methods: We performed a randomized comparative survival study that included 18 pigs. The circular EFTR defects with a diameter of approximately 20 mm were closed with either a PSD or MC. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined preoperatively and on a postoperative day (POD) 1, 3, and 7. Three animals from each group were sacrificed at the end of the 7th, 14th, and 30th POD. Tissue samples retrieved from the closure sites were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Results: Resection and closure were performed in 18 pigs (100%) without major perioperative complications. The mean closure time was significantly longer in the MC group than in the PSD group (25.00 ± 3.16 min vs. 1.56 ± 0.39 min; P < 0.05). Preoperative and POD 7 serum levels of IL-6 did not differ between the two groups. However, on POD 1, the IL-6 levels were observed to be significantly greater in the MC group than in the PSD group (P < 0.005). No significant differences between the PSD and MC groups were observed at necropsy. Conclusion: In this in vivo porcine model, PSD is a feasible device that achieves post-EFTR defect closure with a much shorter closure time and with less immunological responses than the MC technique. PMID:27503160

  9. Xenogeneic transplantation of articular chondrocytes into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in minipigs: fate of cells and the role of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Niemietz, Thomas; Zass, Gesa; Hagmann, Sébastien; Diederichs, Solvig; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Richter, Wiltrud

    2014-12-01

    Xenogeneic or allogeneic chondrocytes hold great potential to build up new cartilage in vivo. However, immune rejection is a major concern for the utility of universal donor-derived cells. In order to verify the reported immune privilege of chondrocytes in vivo, the aim of this study was to assess engraftment of human articular chondrocytes (HAC) in minipig knee cartilage defects and their contribution to cartilage regeneration. HAC were transplanted matrix-assisted within two hydrogels into full-thickness cartilage defects of minipigs or implanted ectopically into immune deficient mice to assess redifferentiation capacity. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, cell-persistence and host cell invasion were monitored by species-specific in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Early tissue regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry and a modified O'Driscoll score. HAC capable of successful in vivo chondrogenic redifferentiation persisted at ectopic sites for 4 weeks in both carrier materials. Early defect regeneration involved extensive host cell invasion and a decline of HAC to less than 5 % of initial cell numbers in 6/12 defects within 2 weeks. Few clusters of persisting HAC within collagen type II-rich tissue were surrounded by porcine macrophages. Four weeks after cell transplantation, most of the defects contained well-integrated cell-rich tissue free of human cells with no apparent difference between hydrogel carriers. In summary, HAC failed to engraft in porcine articular cartilage defects despite their ability for successful in vivo redifferentiation. The co-localization of macrophages to hydrogel-implanted HAC suggests active graft rejection without evidence for an immune-privileged status of xenogeneic chondrocytes in a large animal joint. PMID:25129109

  10. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4, 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.

  11. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4,more » 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.« less

  12. Evaluation of EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) as an in vitro model for skin irritation: Studies on aliphatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Mallampati, Ramya; Patlolla, Ram R.; Agarwal, Saurab; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Singh, Mandip S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9–C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5 µl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48 h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72 h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5 µl/tissue (≈4.1 µl/cm2) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48 h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24 h, but after 48 h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12–C16 HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of IL-1α in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48 h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24 h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9–C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9 ≤ C10 ≤ C11 ≤ C12 < C13 ≈ C14 ≈ C16 and that the tissue was an excellent in vitro model to predict in vivo irritation and to understand the structural activity

  13. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study

    PubMed Central

    El Sadik, Abir O.; El Ghamrawy, Tarek A.; Abd El-Galil, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques. Material and Methods Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies. Results Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair

  14. Use of Amniotic Microparticles Coated With Fibroblasts Overexpressing SDF-1α to Create an Environment Conducive to Neovascularization for Repair of Full-Thickness Skin Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-qing; Ji, Shi-zhao; Fang, He; Zheng, Yong-jun; Luo, Peng-fei; Wu, Hai-bin; Wu, Min-juan; Wang, Zhi-hong; Xiao, Shi-chu; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-01-01

    As angiogenesis and vasculogenesis involve the complex network structures of various types of cells, extracellular matrix components, and cytokines, it is still difficult to exactly mimic the microenvironment of vascularization in vivo. In our study, we constructed a complex containing highly proliferative fibroblasts that can secrete extracellular matrix components and growth factors to chemotaxize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in an attempt to create an ideal microenvironment for quick vascularization. Amniotic membrane microparticles (mAM) rich in type IV collagen (COL IV) and laminin (LN) were prepared, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were infected with lentivirus (LV) of overexpression of SDF-1α to construct SDF-1α(ov)HDF. Using the rotary cell culture system (RCCS), mAM was loaded with HDF or SDF-1α(ov)HDF to construct HDF-mAM and SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complexes. The complexes were able to secrete various types of active peptides (IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β, and bFGF) during in vitro culture. In addition, SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complex highly expressed SDF-1α. Transwell assay showed SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complex had an apparent chemotactic effect on EPCs. Transplantation of complexes onto full-thickness skin defects of C57BL mice further demonstrated that SDF-1α expression and the number of peripheral EPCs at days 3, 5, and 7 in the SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM group were significantly higher than that in other groups (p < 0.01). The local microvascular density at day 10 of transplantation showed that the microvascular density in the SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM group was significantly higher than that in HDF-mAM group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, HDF-mAM had a strong proliferative activity and could be used to create a sound microenvironment for quick vascularization by secreting multiple cytokines and extracellular matrix components. Overexpression of SDF-1α could chemotaxize EPCs to reach local wounds, thus further accelerating angiogenesis in the transplant site. The

  15. The Effect of Blade-Section Thickness Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Related Full-Scale Propellers at Mach Numbers up to 0.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour

    1953-01-01

    The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  16. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  17. Patient satisfaction following the use of a hair fiber filler product to temporarily increase the thickness and fullness of thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Pinski, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss can have a negative effect on self-image and self-esteem for both men and women. The results of a recent randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study demonstrated the ability of a new oral dietary supplement to increase hair growth in women with thinning hair after 90 days. A companion hair fiber filler product has been designed to be applied to areas of thinning hair to provide the temporary appearance of fuller-looking hair until their own hair is replenished. Forty men and women from a dermatology and cosmetic surgery clinic were asked to use the product and afterward complete quality-of-life, self-assessment, and product satisfaction questionnaires. Mean quality-of-life and self-assessment results were favorable. Hair qualities showing the greatest improvement were scalp coverage and hair fullness. The product satisfaction questionnaire indicated a high level of satisfaction and most patients (35 [88%]) were pleased with the way the product matched their natural hair color. Based on the results reported here, use of the product is likely to increase the quality of life of men and women with thinning hair. PMID:25632645

  18. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer. PMID:26254981

  19. Detection of subsurface defects and measurement of thickness of screen layers made of graphene and carbon nanotubes with application of full-field optical coherence tomography in Linnik configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynarska, Paulina; Tomczewski, Slawomir; Pakuła, Anna; Wróblewski, Grzegorz; Sloma, Marcin; Salbut, Leszek

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is noncontact and nondestructive interferometric method which allows visualization of internal structure of an investigated sample. Till now it has found many applications in measurements of biological tissues, technical materials and conservation of art. Optical coherence tomography in full-field configuration is a great technique for visualization of subsurface structures of measured sample with high resolution. In this technique, en-face data acquisition is applied, which allows application of microscope objectives with high numerical aperture while the depth of field is not a problem. These objectives allow obtaining ultra high transverse resolution like in traditional microscopy. Additionally, light sources with broad spectrum, like low cost incandescent lamps (i.e. halogen lamp), allow measurements with micrometer scaleaxial resolution. In this paper the authors present application of full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope for the thickness measurement of layers in flexible display with electrodes made of graphene and carbone nanotubes. Thicknesses of layer have a huge impact on the display parameters. There is a correlation between the thickness of the graphene layer and its electrical resistance. Graphene is a new and very promising material which is durable, flexible and has a good adhesion to diverse substrates. It gives a theoretical possibility to create flexible electronics, such as graphene bendable screens. Using OCT we can evaluate the quality of printed layers and detect subsurface defects.

  20. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. PMID:3389939

  1. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. Images Fig. 3A. Fig. 3C. Fig. 3D. Fig. 4A. Fig. 4C. Fig. 4D. Fig. 4E. Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 5D. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6C. Fig. 6D. Fig. 6E. Fig. 6F. Fig. 6G. Fig. 6H. PMID:3389939

  2. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for

  3. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement Using Ultrasonic Pachymetry, Rotating Scheimpflug Camera, and Scanning-slit Topography Exclusively in Thin Non-keratoconic Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Mohammad, Kazem; Karimi, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the agreement among Pentacam, Orbscan and ultrasound (US) pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in thin corneas with normal topographic pattern. Methods: We included 88 eyes of 44 refractive surgery candidates with thinnest pachymetric readings of 500 micrometers (μm) or less on Orbscan, a normal topographic pattern, no sign of keratoconus, and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20. Pentacam, Orbscan and US were performed in one session by the same examiner. Exclusion criteria were history of ocular surgery, topographic abnormalities suggesting forme fruste keratoconus or keratectasia, and recent contact lens wear. Results: The difference in CCT measurements by US pachymetry and Orbscan II [using an acoustic factor (AF) of 0.92] ranged from −34 to +34 μm. The difference between the thinnest point and central readings measured by US reached 16 μm with Orbscan II (AF: 0.92) and 2 μm with Pentacam. Mean differences between the employed devices were 0.2 μm for Pentacam versus US (P = 0.727), 30.1 μm for uncorrected Orbscan versus US (P < 0.001), 10.4 μm for Orbscan II (AF = 0.92) versus US (P < 0.001), and 0.2 μm for Orbscan II (AF = 0.94) versus US (P = 0.851). Conclusion: In normal thin corneas, Pentacam demonstrated better agreement with US pachymetry as compared to corrected Orbscan readings. Results achieved by Orbscan were better consistent with US pachymetry using an AF of 0.94. We speculate that a dynamically graded AF in reverse proportion to CCT constitutes a better approach for correcting Orbscan measurements. PMID:27621779

  4. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  5. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma-Loaded Poly(d,l-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(d,l-lactide) Hydrogel Dressing Promotes Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Manle; Chen, Daoyun; Shen, Chaoyong; Shen, Ji; Zhao, Huakun; He, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional therapeutic methods for skin wounds have many disadvantages, and new wound dressings that can facilitate the healing process are thus urgently needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple growth factors (GFs) and shows a significant capacity to heal soft tissue wounds. However, these GFs have a short half-life and deactivate rapidly; we therefore need a sustained delivery system to overcome this shortcoming. In this study, poly(d,l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA: PLEL) hydrogel was successfully created as delivery vehicle for PRP GFs and was evaluated systematically. PLEL hydrogel was injectable at room temperature and exhibited a smart thermosensitive in situ gel-formation behavior at body temperature. In vitro cell culture showed PRP-loaded PLEL hydrogel (PRP/PLEL) had little cytotoxicity, and promoted EaHy926 proliferation, migration and tube formation; the factor release assay additionally indicated that PLEL realized the controlled release of PRP GFs for as long as 14 days. When employed to treat rodents’ full-thickness skin defects, PRP/PLEL showed a significantly better ability to raise the number of both newly formed and mature blood vessels compared to the control, PLEL and PRP groups. Furthermore, the PRP/PLEL-treated group displayed faster wound closure, better reepithelialization and collagen formation. Taken together, PRP/PLEL provides a promising strategy for promoting angiogenesis and skin wound healing, which extends the potential of this dressing for clinical application. PMID:27347938

  7. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility. PMID:26597789

  8. Platelet-Rich Plasma-Loaded Poly(d,l-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(d,l-lactide) Hydrogel Dressing Promotes Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Manle; Chen, Daoyun; Shen, Chaoyong; Shen, Ji; Zhao, Huakun; He, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional therapeutic methods for skin wounds have many disadvantages, and new wound dressings that can facilitate the healing process are thus urgently needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple growth factors (GFs) and shows a significant capacity to heal soft tissue wounds. However, these GFs have a short half-life and deactivate rapidly; we therefore need a sustained delivery system to overcome this shortcoming. In this study, poly(d,l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA: PLEL) hydrogel was successfully created as delivery vehicle for PRP GFs and was evaluated systematically. PLEL hydrogel was injectable at room temperature and exhibited a smart thermosensitive in situ gel-formation behavior at body temperature. In vitro cell culture showed PRP-loaded PLEL hydrogel (PRP/PLEL) had little cytotoxicity, and promoted EaHy926 proliferation, migration and tube formation; the factor release assay additionally indicated that PLEL realized the controlled release of PRP GFs for as long as 14 days. When employed to treat rodents' full-thickness skin defects, PRP/PLEL showed a significantly better ability to raise the number of both newly formed and mature blood vessels compared to the control, PLEL and PRP groups. Furthermore, the PRP/PLEL-treated group displayed faster wound closure, better reepithelialization and collagen formation. Taken together, PRP/PLEL provides a promising strategy for promoting angiogenesis and skin wound healing, which extends the potential of this dressing for clinical application. PMID:27347938

  9. Maintenance of donor phenotype after full-thickness skin transplantation from mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm) to C57BL/Ka and nude mice and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, M J; HogenEsch, H; Bruijnzeel, P L; Elliott, G R; Zurcher, C

    1995-12-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm) and is characterized by epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To elucidate whether these pathologic features are the result of a local (skin) process or a consequence of a systemic disorder, transplantations were performed of full-thickness grafts of affected skin from cpdm/cpdm mice and normal skin from control (C57BL/Ka) mice on the back of cpdm/cpdm, C57BL/Ka and athymic nude mice. After 3 months, the grafts maintained the histologic phenotype of the donor animal. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 continued to be expressed by basal keratinocytes of the cpdm/cpdm grafts after transplantation. In contrast, the basal keratinocytes of the C57BL/Ka grafts onto cpdm/cpdm mice remained negative for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 3 months after transplantation. An increased number of proliferating keratinocytes was present in the cpdm/cpdm skin-graft transplanted to nudes or to C57BL/Ka mice based on short-term bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the keratinocytes of the control C57BL/Ka skin grafts transplanted to cpdm/cpdm, nude, or C57BL/Ka mice was the same as in the keratinocytes of normal C57BL/Ka mice. This study demonstrates that the pathologic features found in the cpdm/cpdm mice are the result of a disorder in the epidermis or dermis and not due to a systemic defect. PMID:7490470

  10. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of silver sulfadiazine 1%, mupirocin 2%, Acticoat and octenidine dihydrochloride in a full-thickness rat burn model contaminated with multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Durgun, Mustafa; Ozalp, Burhan; Tekin, Alicem; Tekin, Recep; Akçay, Cemal; Alabalık, Ulaş

    2012-12-01

    In this study, our aim is to compare the efficacy of different topical antibacterial agents in a rat model contaminated with a multi drug resistant (MDR) standard Acinetobacter baumannii strain. The study was carried out on 40 Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-300 g each. For the purposes of this study, the rats were divided into 5 groups, with 8 rats in each group: Group 1 control; Group 2 silver sulfadiazine; Group 3 mupirocin; Group 4 Acticoat group; and Group 5 octenidine dihydrochloride group. Following to the formation of the full-thickness burn areas in rats, the MDR A. baumannii standard strain was inoculated into the burned area. The rats in all the groups were sacrificed at the end of the 10th day and subjected to histopathological and microbiological evaluation. In the histopathological evaluation, the lowest inflammatory cell response and bacterial density in the eschar and muscle tissues were observed in the Acticoat group. While these results were found to be statistically significant compared to the silver sulfadiazine group, only the bacterial density in the muscle tissue was found as significant in comparison to the mupirocin and octenidine groups. In the microbiological evaluation, the lowest growth in the muscle tissue culture among all the groups was observed in the Acticoat group. The growth in the eschar tissue culture was significantly lower in the Acticoat and octenidine groups in comparison to the silver sulfadiazine group. At the end of the study, it has been observed that Acticoat was effective both in eschar and muscle, while octenidine was effective in eschar tissues in a rat burn model contaminated with MDR A. baumannii. PMID:22688192

  11. Healing Rates in a Multicenter Assessment of a Sterile, Room Temperature, Acellular Dermal Matrix Versus Conventional Care Wound Management and an Active Comparator in the Treatment of Full-Thickness Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Cazzell, Shawn; Pham, Hau; Vayser, Dean; Reyzelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this 16-week, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the healed ulcer rate of a human acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL, compared with conventional care and a second acellular dermal matrix, Graftjacket, in the treatment of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight patients were randomized into DermACELL, conventional care, and Graftjacket treatment arms in a 2:2:1 ratio. Patients in the acellular dermal matrix groups received either 1 or 2 applications of the graft at the discretion of the investigator. Weekly follow-up visits were conducted until the ulcer healed or the endpoint was reached. Results: At 16 weeks, the DermACELL arm had a significantly higher proportion of completely healed ulcers than the conventional care arm (67.9% vs 48.1%; P = .0385) and a nonsignificantly higher proportion than the Graftjacket arm (67.9% vs 47.8%; P = .1149). The DermACELL arm also exhibited a greater average percent reduction in wound area than the conventional care arm (91.4% vs 80.3%; P = .0791) and the Graftjacket arm (91.4% vs 73.5%; P = .0762). The proportion of severe adverse events and the proportion of overall early withdrawals were similar among the 3 groups based on relative population size (P ≥ .05). Conclusions: The results presented here indicate that DermACELL is an appropriate clinical option in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, with significant increases in healing rates and rate of percentage wound closure as compared with conventional care options. PMID:26933467

  12. Integrin-binding elastin-like polypeptide as an in situ gelling delivery matrix enhances the therapeutic efficacy of adipose stem cells in healing full-thickness cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Enjoo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Jeon, Won Bae

    2016-09-10

    One crucial issue in stem cell therapy used for tissue repair is often the lack of selective carriers to deliver stem cells to the site of injury where the native extracellular matrix is pathologically damaged or lost. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a biomaterial that is permissive to stem cells and is suitable to replace injured or missing matrix. The major aim of this study is to investigate the potential of an RGD-containing elastin-like polypeptide (REP) with the structure TGPG[VGRGD(VGVPG)6]20WPC to engraft adipose stem cells (ASC) to full-thickness excisional wounds in mice. We implanted REP into the wound defects via body temperature-induced in situ aggregation. Engrafted REP exhibited a half-life of 2.6days in the wounds and did not elicit any pathological immune responses. REP itself significantly accelerated wound closure and reepithelialization and upregulated the expression of dermal tissue components. A combined administration of REP and ASC formed a hydrogel-like ASC/REP composite, which provided better neovascularization than the use of ASCs alone and increased the viability of transplanted ASC, improving overall wound healing. In vitro and in vivo mechanistic investigations suggested that REP enhances ASC survival at least in part via the Fak/Src adhesion-induced upregulation of Mek/Erk and PI3K/Akt survival pathways. We conclude that REP is a promising therapeutic agent for the improvement of stem cell-based therapy for enhanced tissue regeneration and repair. PMID:27393655

  13. Rotator cuff injuries in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Arkader, Alexandre; Wells, Lawrence M; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    The cause of rotator cuff injuries in the young athlete has been described as an overuse injury related to internal impingement. Abduction coupled with external rotation is believed to impinge on the rotator cuff, specifically the supraspinatus, and lead to undersurface tears that can progress to full-thickness tears. This impingement is believed to be worsened with increased range of motion and instability in overhead athletes. A retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries was performed to better understand this shoulder injury pattern. The type of sport played, a history of trauma, diagnosis, treatment method, and outcome were noted. Six patients were male and one was a female. Baseball was the primary sport for four patients, basketball for one, gymnastics for one, and wrestling for one. The following injury patterns were observed: two patients tore their subscapularis tendon, two sustained avulsion fractures of their lesser tuberosity, one tore his rotator interval, one tore his supraspinatus, and one avulsed his greater tuberosity. Only four patients recalled a specific traumatic event. Three patients were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, three with miniopen repair, and one was treated with rehabilitation. Six of the seven patients returned to their preinjury level of sport after treatment. Rotator cuff tears are rare in the adolescent age group. The injury patterns suggest that acute trauma likely accounts for many rotator cuff tears and their equivalents in the young patient. Adolescents with rotator cuff tears reliably return to sports after treatment. The possibility of rotator cuff tears in skeletally immature athletes should be considered. The prognosis is very good once this injury is identified and treated. PMID:22668571

  14. Thick Toenails

    MedlinePlus

    ... be seen in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis, and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. and or or and or or, browse by ...

  15. Unleashing the Full Sustainable Potential of Thick Films of Lead-Free Potassium Sodium Niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3) by Aqueous Electrophoretic Deposition.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amit; Pinho, Rui; Dolhen, Morgane; Costa, M Elisabete; Vilarinho, Paula M

    2016-05-31

    A current challenge for the fabrication of functional oxide-based devices is related with the need of environmental and sustainable materials and processes. By considering both lead-free ferroelectrics of potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3, KNN) and aqueous-based electrophoretic deposition here we demonstrate that an eco-friendly aqueous solution-based process can be used to produce KNN thick coatings with improved electromechanical performance. KNN thick films on platinum substrates with thickness varying between 10 and 15 μm have a dielectric permittivity of 495, dielectric losses of 0.08 at 1 MHz, and a piezoelectric coefficient d33 of ∼70 pC/N. At TC these films display a relative permittivity of 2166 and loss tangent of 0.11 at 1 MHz. A comparison of the physical properties between these films and their bulk ceramics counterparts demonstrates the impact of the aqueous-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique for the preparation of lead-free ferroelectric thick films. This opens the door to the possible development of high-performance, lead-free piezoelectric thick films by a sustainable low-cost process, expanding the applicability of lead-free piezoelectrics. PMID:27136116

  16. Improved apparatus for predictive diagnosis of rotator cuff disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Anup; Hall, Brittany N.; Thigpen, Charles A.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease impacts over 50% of the population over 60, with reports of incidence being as high as 90% within this population, causing pain and possible loss of function. The rotator cuff is composed of muscles and tendons that work in tandem to support the shoulder. Heavy use of these muscles can lead to rotator cuff tear, with the most common causes is age-related degeneration or sport injuries, both being a function of overuse. Tears ranges in severity from partial thickness tear to total rupture. Diagnostic techniques are based on physical assessment, detailed patient history, and medical imaging; primarily X-ray, MRI and ultrasonography are the chosen modalities for assessment. The final treatment technique and imaging modality; however, is chosen by the clinician is at their discretion. Ultrasound has been shown to have good accuracy for identification and measurement of full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. In this study, we report on the progress and improvement of our method of transduction and analysis of in situ measurement of rotator cuff biomechanics. We have improved the ability of the clinician to apply a uniform force to the underlying musculotendentious tissues while simultaneously obtaining the ultrasound image. This measurement protocol combined with region of interest (ROI) based image processing will help in developing a predictive diagnostic model for treatment of rotator cuff disease and help the clinicians choose the best treatment technique.

  17. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

  18. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  19. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  20. Method of measuring the thickness of radioactive thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Steinberg, R.; Makinen, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Thickness monitor consists of proportional X-ray counter coupled to pulse counting system, copper filter over face of counter, rotatable collimator containing radioactive source, and rotatable shutter. Monitor can be used as integral part of neutron generator. It has been used to measure titanium tritide film thicknesses from 0.1 to 30 micrometers.

  1. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  2. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  3. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  5. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  6. Rotational aerophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2002-03-01

    Free rotational aerophones such as the bullroarer, which consists of a wooden slat whirled around on the end of a string, and which emits a loud pulsating roar, have been used in many ancient and traditional societies for ceremonial purposes. This article presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of this instrument. The aerodynamics of rotational behavior is elucidated, and relates slat rotation frequency to slat width and velocity through the air. Analysis shows that sound production is due to generation of an oscillating-rotating dipole across the slat, the role of the vortices shed by the slat being relatively minor. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior of a bullroarer slat and a slat mounted on an axle in a wind tunnel are shown to be due to viscous friction in the bearings of the wind-tunnel experiment.

  7. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is

  8. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  9. Rotation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In aircraft turbine engine research, certain investigations require extremely precise measurement of the position of a rotating part, such as the rotor, a disc-like part of the engine's compressor which revolves around a shaft at extremely high speeds. For example, in studies of airflow velocity within a compressor, researchers need to know-for data correlation the instantaneous position of a given spot on the rotor each time a velocity measurement is made. Earlier methods of measuring rotor shaft angle required a physical connection to the shaft, which limited the velocity of the rotating object.

  10. Rotator Cuff Tear Shape Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, David Steven; Kaplan, Daniel James; Fralinger, David; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Meislin, Robert J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proper surgical planning requires accurate and reliable pre-operative patient information. The more comprehensive the data, the more the surgeon can tailor a general surgical technique to an individual patient’s unique anatomy. A previous retrospective study demonstrated that three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging more accurately characterized rotator cuff tears compared to two-dimensional images when checked against intra-operative pictures. The purpose of this study was to determine if three-dimensional MRI imaging would continue to be more accurate than two-dimensional imaging in a prospective study. Methods: Patients were prospectively included if they had a full-thickness primary rotator cuff tear on pre-operative MRI. Intra-op videos were taken from the posterior and lateral portals, with a grasper fully mobilizing the torn tendon in each view. 7 surgeons then reviewed the videos and independently characterized the shape of the tears into crescent, U-shaped tears, L-shaped tears, or massive tears. This was considered the gold-standard. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the corresponding MRI studies independently and blind to the arthroscopic findings and characterized the shape on the basis of the tear’s retraction and size 2D MRI. The 3D reconstructions of each cuff tear were reviewed by each radiologist to characterize the shape. Statistical analysis included 95% confidence intervals and fleiss’s kappa. Results: 37 patients were enrolled in the study. Among the 7 surgeons, agreement on cuff tear was 93% ( =.87). The accuracy for differentiating between crescent-shaped, longitudinal, and massive tears using measurements on 2D MRI was 73.4% for reader 1 and 71.2% for reader 2. The accuracy for tear shape characterization into crescent and longitudinal U- or L-shaped using 3D MRI was 92% for reader 1 and 94% for reader 2. When further characterizing the longitudinal tears as massive or not using 3D MRI, both readers had an